Publications by authors named "Xi Li"

1,364 Publications

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Nobiletin mitigates hepatocytes death, liver inflammation, and fibrosis in a murine model of NASH through modulating hepatic oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction.

J Nutr Biochem 2021 Oct 22:108888. Epub 2021 Oct 22.

Department of Gastroenterology, Shanghai Fourth People's Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai, 200434, China. Electronic address:

This study aimed to investigate the therapeutic effects of nobiletin (NOB) on nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and liver fibrosis in mice and to elucidate its underlying molecular mechanisms. BALB/c mice were fed a normal chow diet or a choline-deficient, L-amino acid-defined, high-fat diet (CDAHFD) for 8 weeks and treated with NOB (50 mg/kg) or vehicle by daily intraperitoneally injection for the last 4 weeks. In vitro, we used palmitate (PA) stimulated AML12 cells as the model of hepatocyte lipotoxicity to dissect the effect and molecular mechanisms of NOB' action. Our results exhibited that NOB dramatically reduced hepatic steatosis, lipid accumulation and hepatocyte apoptosis, and inhibited the infiltration of F4/80 macrophages into the NASH livers. Furthermore, NOB limited liver fibrosis and hepatic stellate cells activation in NASH mice. In parallel, NOB alleviated hepatocytes apoptosis and lipid accumulation in PA-treated AML12 cells. Most importantly, these histological ameliorations in NASH and fibrosis in NOB-treated NASH mice were associated with improvement hepatic oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation product, mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes I and restored ATP production. Similarly, NOB attenuated PA-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and mitochondrial disfunction in cultured AML12 cells. Additionally, NOB diminished the expression of mitochondrial Ca uniporter (MCU) both in NASH livers and in PA-treated AML12. Taken together, our results indicate that NOB mitigated NASH development and fibrosis through modulating hepatic oxidative stress and attenuating mitochondrial dysfunction. Therefore, NOB might be a novel and promising agent for treatment of NASH and liver fibrosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jnutbio.2021.108888DOI Listing
October 2021

A High-Precision Implementation of the Sigmoid Activation Function for Computing-in-Memory Architecture.

Micromachines (Basel) 2021 Sep 29;12(10). Epub 2021 Sep 29.

The State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050, China.

Computing-In-Memory (CIM), based on non-von Neumann architecture, has lately received significant attention due to its lower overhead in delay and higher energy efficiency in convolutional and fully-connected neural network computing. Growing works have given the priority to researching the array of memory and peripheral circuits to achieve multiply-and-accumulate (MAC) operation, but not enough attention has been paid to the high-precision hardware implementation of non-linear layers up to now, which still causes time overhead and power consumption. Sigmoid is a widely used non-linear activation function and most of its studies provided an approximation of the function expression rather than totally matched, inevitably leading to considerable error. To address this issue, we propose a high-precision circuit implementation of the sigmoid, matching the expression exactly for the first time. The simulation results with the SMIC 40 nm process suggest that the proposed circuit implemented high-precision sigmoid perfectly achieves the properties of the ideal sigmoid, showing the maximum error and average error between the proposed simulated sigmoid and ideal sigmoid is 2.74% and 0.21%, respectively. In addition, a multi-layer convolutional neural network based on CIM architecture employing the simulated high-precision sigmoid activation function verifies the similar recognition accuracy on the test database of handwritten digits compared to utilize the ideal sigmoid in software, with online training achieving 97.06% and with offline training achieving 97.74%.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/mi12101183DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8540118PMC
September 2021

High Expression of PAMR1 Predicts Favorable Prognosis and Inhibits Proliferation, Invasion, and Migration in Cervical Cancer.

Front Oncol 2021 4;11:742017. Epub 2021 Oct 4.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Shanghai General Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Peptidase domain containing associated with muscle regeneration 1 (PAMR1) is frequently lost in breast cancer samples and is considered as a tumor suppressor. The roles and mechanisms of PAMR1 in other types of cancers are still unclear. In our present study, we identified PAMR1 as an invasion-related regulator in cervical cancer. Public database and immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis showed that the expression level of PAMR1 in cervical cancer tissues was lower than that in normal cervix tissues and was negatively related to clinicopathologic features. The high expression of PAMR1 also predicted a better prognosis of cervical cancer patients. CCK8, Transwell, and wound-healing assays demonstrated that knockdown of PAMR1 facilitated the proliferation, migration, and invasion of cervical cancer cells. Additionally, gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) showed a variety of cancer-related pathways potentially activated or suppressed by PAMR1. Moreover, we verified that PAMR1 inhibited MYC target and mTORC1 signaling pathways. In conclusion, our study revealed the suppressor role of PAMR1 in cervical cancer, providing a new insight into the molecular mechanism of cervical cancer progression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2021.742017DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8521121PMC
October 2021

Improving Sperm Cryopreservation With Type III Antifreeze Protein: Proteomic Profiling of Cynomolgus Macaque () Sperm.

Front Physiol 2021 4;12:719346. Epub 2021 Oct 4.

State Key Laboratory of Primate Biomedical Research, Institute of Primate Translational Medicine, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming, China.

Antifreeze protein III (AFP III) is used for the cryopreservation of germ cells in various animal species. However, the exact mechanism of its cryoprotection is largely unknown at the molecular level. In this study, we investigated the motility, acrosomal integrity, and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), as well as proteomic change, of cynomolgus macaque sperm after cryopreservation. Sperm motility, acrosomal integrity, and MMP were lower after cryopreservation ( < 0.001), but significant differences in sperm motility and MMP were observed between the AFP-treated sperm sample (Cryo+AFP) and the non-treated sample (Cryo-AFP) ( < 0.01). A total of 141 and 32 differentially expressed proteins were, respectively, identified in cynomolgus macaque sperm cryopreserved without and with 0.1 μg/ml AFP III compared with fresh sperm. These proteins were mainly involved in the mitochondrial production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), glutathione (GSH) synthesis, and cell apoptosis. The addition of AFP III in the sperm freezing medium resulted in significant stabilization of cellular molecular functions and/or biological processes in sperm, as illustrated by the extent of proteomic changes after freezing and thawing. According to the proteomic change of differentially expressed proteins, we hypothesized a novel molecular mechanism for cryoprotection that AFP III may reduce the release of cytochrome c and thereby reduce sperm apoptosis by modulating the production of ROS in mitochondria. The molecular mechanism that AFP III acts with sperm proteins for cellular protection against cryoinjuries needs further study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2021.719346DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8521148PMC
October 2021

Targeting microRNA for improved skin health.

Health Sci Rep 2021 Dec 12;4(4):e374. Epub 2021 Oct 12.

Oriflame Cosmetics AB; Skin Research Institute Stockholm Sweden.

Background: In human skin, miRNAs have important regulatory roles and are involved in the development, morphogenesis, and maintenance by influencing cell proliferation, differentiation, immune regulation, and wound healing. MiRNAs have been investigated for many years in various skin disorders such as atopic dermatitis, psoriasis, as well as malignant tumors. Only during recent times, cosmeceutical use of molecules/natural active ingredients to regulate miRNA expression for significant advances in skin health/care product development was recognized.

Aim: To review miRNAs with the potential to maintain and boost skin health and avoid premature aging by improving barrier function, preventing photoaging, hyperpigmentation, and chronological aging/senescence.

Methods: Most of the cited articles were found through literature search on PubMed. The main search criteria was a keyword "skin" in combination with the following words: miRNA, photoaging, UV, barrier, aging, exposome, acne, wound healing, pigmentation, pollution, and senescence. Most of the articles reviewed for relevancy were published during the past 10 years.

Results: All results are summarized in Figure 1, and they are based on cited references.

Conclusions: Thus, regulating miRNAs expression is a promising approach for novel therapy not only for targeting skin diseases but also for cosmeceutical interventions aiming to boost skin health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hsr2.374DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8506131PMC
December 2021

Potential utility of longitudinal somatic mutation and methylation profiling for predicting molecular residual disease in postoperative non-small cell lung cancer patients.

Cancer Med 2021 Oct 19. Epub 2021 Oct 19.

Department of Thoracic Surgery and State Key Laboratory of Genetic Engineering, Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center, Shanghai, China.

Purpose: Growing efforts are being invested in investigating various molecular approaches to detect minimal residual disease (MRD) and predict disease recurrence. In our study, we investigated the utility of parallel longitudinal analysis of mutation and DNA methylation profiles for predicting MRD in postoperative non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients.

Methods: Tumor tissues and longitudinal blood samples were obtained from 65 patients with resected stage IA-IIIB NSCLC. Somatic mutation and DNA methylation profiling were performed using ultra-deep targeted sequencing and targeted bisulfite sequencing, respectively. Dynamic changes in plasma-based mutation and tumor-informed methylation profiles, reflected as MRD score, were observed from before surgery (baseline) to postoperative followup, reflecting the decrease in tumor burden of the patients with resected NSCLC.

Results: Mutations were detected from plasma samples in 63% of the patients at baseline, which significantly reduced to 23-25% during post-operative follow-ups. MRD score positive rate was 95.7% at baseline, which reduced to 74% at the first and 70% at the second follow-up. Among the 5 relapsed patients with parallel longitudinal analysis of mutation and methylation profile, elevated MRD score was observed at follow-up between 0.5-7 months prior to radiologic recurrence for all 5 patients. Of them, 4 patients also had concomitant increase in allelic fraction of mutations in at least 1 follow-up time point, but one patient had no mutation detected throughout all follow-ups.

Conclusion: Our results demonstrate that longitudinal profiling of mutation and DNA methylation may have potential for detecting MRD and predicting recurrence in postoperative NSCLC patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cam4.4339DOI Listing
October 2021

Study on pollution characteristics of urban pavement runoff.

Water Sci Technol 2021 Oct;84(7):1745-1756

Fujian Academy of Building Research Co., LTD, Fuzhou, Fujian 350108 China.

Urban pavement runoff has become an important pollution source endangering the quality of urban water. This paper analyzed the characteristics of particle size distribution of road-deposited sediment (RDS). The variation of pollutants with RDS content is presented. Based on continuous sampling of runoff, the variation between pollutant concentration and rainfall characteristics is revealed. The results show that each particle group shares similar content except for the group smaller than 0.075 mm. However, the smaller particles have a stronger ability to adsorb heavy metals (Zn, Pb, Cu), and a weaker ability to adsorb chemical oxygen demand (COD). The concentrations of different pollutants have different relationships with rainfall and runoff time. The concentration of suspended solids (SS) decreases steadily with runoff time, while the concentration of heavy metals increases first and then decreases. The first 30 minutes of runoff is the best time to treat heavy metals and SS. The five-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs) concentration are mainly affected by rainfall intensity. The result presented in this paper may provide a useful reference for the treatment of pavement runoff pollution.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2166/wst.2021.371DOI Listing
October 2021

Topography-Guided Versus Wavefront-Optimized LASIK for Myopia With and Without Astigmatism: A Meta-analysis.

J Refract Surg 2021 Oct 1;37(10):707-714. Epub 2021 Oct 1.

Purpose: To evaluate the differences in efficacy, predictability, safety, and visual quality between topography-guided customized ablation treatment (TCAT) and wavefront-optimized (WFO) laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) for the treatment of myopia with and without astigmatism.

Methods: A comprehensive literature search of PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane library, Web of Science, and ClinicalTrials was used to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing TCAT-LASIK with WFO-LASIK for myopia with and without astigmatism up to September 2020. The references of all searched literature were checked as supplements. Literature was screened according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria and relative data were extracted. RevMan software version 5.3.0 (Cochrane Collaboration) was used for meta-analysis.

Results: A total of seven RCTs (1,168 eyes) were included. There were no statistically significant differences in the ratio of uncorrected distance visual acuity of 20/20 or better (relative risk [RR] = 1.01, 95% CI [0.97 to 1.06], = .64) and 20/16 or better (RR = 0.96, 95% CI [0.80 to 1.16], = .69). Compared with WFO-LASIK, TCAT-LASIK achieved a higher proportion of postoperative manifest refractive spherical equivalent within ±0.50 diopters of the target (RR = 1.06, 95% CI [1.02 to 1.11], = .003) and less surgically induced higher order aberrations (weighted mean difference [WMD] = -0.11, 95% CI [-0.15 to -0.0], < .00001), spherical aberrations (WMD = -0.04, 95% CI [-0.05 to -0.03], < .00001), and coma (WMD = -0.15, 95% CI [-0.28 to -0.01], = .03). No patient lost two or more lines of distance-corrected visual acuity postoperatively in the two groups.

Conclusions: This meta-analysis suggests that both TCATLASIK and WFO-LASIK show excellent efficacy, predictability, and safety for myopia. TCAT-LASIK exhibited more accurate postoperative refraction predictability and less surgically induced higher order aberrations, spherical aberrations, and coma. More randomized, prospective, and large sample-sized studies are needed to confirm these conclusions in the long term. .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3928/1081597X-20210709-01DOI Listing
October 2021

Quality-of-care comparison of stroke: The reliability and robustness of ranking by process or outcome measures.

Int J Stroke 2021 Oct 17:17474930211053139. Epub 2021 Oct 17.

Department of Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Harbin Medical University, Harbin, China.

Background And Aim: Discussion on the most rational types of performance measures for care quality comparisons has received increasing attention. The important consideration is to what extent will the measure detect a genuine difference in the underlying quality. In this study, we aimed to compare the ranking of hospitals on the performance of individual indicators, composite scores (CS, that were calculated by the method of opportunity-based score on patient-level), and in-hospital outcome of acute ischemic stroke across hospitals, and determined the reliability and robustness of the three types of ranking.

Methods: We analyzed data from 15,090 patients diagnosed with acute ischemic stroke who were treated at 184 large tertiary hospitals from January 2014 to May 2017. We ranked the hospital effects of recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) and CS and independence (modified Rankin Scale ≤2) at discharge based on fixed- and random-effects regression models before and after case-mix adjustment. We assessed the time-robustness of the hospital effects and calculated the rankability by relating the uncertainty within the hospital and the total hospital variation "beyond chance."

Results: After case-mix and reliability adjustment, we estimated that 84.03% of the variance in CS between hospitals was due to true quality differences. The uncertainty within hospitals caused a poor (49.51%) rankability in rt-PA and moderate rankability (63.34%) in independence at discharge. The hospital rankings of CS were more robust across years compared with rt-PA and independence.

Conclusions: Our data indicated that CS is the optimal measure to indicate the quality-of-care variation of acute ischemic stroke between hospitals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/17474930211053139DOI Listing
October 2021

Cannabinoid receptor GPR55 activation blocks nicotine use disorder by regulation of AMPAR phosphorylation.

Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2021 Oct 14. Epub 2021 Oct 14.

Precision Pharmacy & Drug Development Center, Department of Pharmacy, Tangdu Hospital, Air Force Medical University, Xi'an, 710038, China.

Rationale: Nicotine use disorder can alter synaptic plasticity correlated with learning and memory process. G protein-coupled receptor 55 (GPR55), a novel cannabinoid receptor, which is highly expressed in the central nervous system, plays a prominent role in learning and memory. However, the role of GPR55 in nicotine use disorder remains unclear.

Methods: In this study, we used the conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm, a standard and well-established model for evaluating the rewarding effect of drug abuse, to investigate nicotine use disorder behavior in mice. After behavioral tests, the effect of GPR55 on nicotine response was evaluated using Western blotting, immunofluorescence staining, whole-cell patch-clamp recordings, and ELISA.

Results: GPR55 activation significantly reduced nicotine-CPP behavior by decreasing the spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents frequency in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and the release of dopamine in serum. Furthermore, we found that the inhibition effects of nicotine response were mediated by phosphorylation of AMPAR. The PI3K-Akt signaling was involved in nicotine-CPP via GPR55 activation.

Conclusion: Our findings showed that GPR55 in the NAc plays a specific role in blocking nicotine-CPP behavior and might be a potential target for the treatment of nicotine use disorder.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00213-021-05949-xDOI Listing
October 2021

Effect of Volume Tie Ratio in the Engineered Cementitious Composites Plastic Hinges on the Seismic Performance of RC Composite Bridge Columns.

Materials (Basel) 2021 Oct 1;14(19). Epub 2021 Oct 1.

Guangzhou Branch, China Huaxi Engineering Design Construction Corporation, Guangzhou 510600, China.

The feasibility that the transverse reinforcements in steel-reinforced Engineered Cementitious Composites (ECC) columns could be reduced or even totally eliminated has been experimentally demonstrated. However, due to the effect of the tie volume ratio in ECC plastic hinges on the seismic performance of RC composite bridge columns not being fully clarified as of yet, a numerical study was carried out. In this study, the analytical models based on the fiber element method, by considering the superposition of different lateral confinements resulting from ties and the ECC cover, were used to correlate with a target hybrid-loading experiment. Load-displacement hysteresis, strains in extreme fibers and longitudinal bars in analytical results correlated well with the experiments, verifying the accuracy of the analytical models proposed in this study. Based on the analytical results, it was found that the volume tie ratio had little effect on the stress-strain hysteresis of the ECC cover, but a lower volume tie ratio resulted in more significant nonlinear behavior longitudinally. Finally, the pushover analysis was conducted to investigate the effect of volume tie ratios on the seismic design parameters, and the results showed that a higher volume tie ratio resulted in a limited increase in the maximum allowable displacement for design.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma14195739DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8510168PMC
October 2021

Flexural Behavior of T-Shaped UHPC Beams with Varying Longitudinal Reinforcement Ratios.

Materials (Basel) 2021 Sep 30;14(19). Epub 2021 Sep 30.

Department of Bridge and Tunnel Maintenance, Gansu Transportation Planning, Survey and Design Institute Co., LTD, Lanzhou 730030, China.

In order to investigate the transverse flexural behavior of the UHPC waffle deck, a total of six T-shaped UHPC beams, with varying longitudinal reinforcement ratios, were tested and analyzed. The experiments, including material tests of UHPC and beam tests, were conducted. The material tests of UHPC revealed that strain-hardening behavior in tension was exhibited, and the ratio of uniaxial compressive strength-to-cubic compressive strength was 0.85. The beam tests showed that all the T-shaped UHPC beams, even without longitudinal rebar, exhibited ductile behavior that was similar to that of properly reinforced concrete beams. As the longitudinal reinforcement ratio increased, more flexural cracks developed and a larger load-carrying capacity was provided. Furthermore, the sectional analysis for the ultimate flexural capacity of T-shaped UHPC beams was conducted. Simplified material models, under tension and compression, for UHPC were developed. Based on the reverse calculation from the experimental result, the relation between reduction factor to the ultimate tensile strength of UHPC, and longitudinal reinforcement ratios was formulated. As a result, the predictive equations for the ultimate flexural capacity of T-shaped UHPC beams were proposed, and agreed well with the experimental results in this study and existing studies, which indicates good validity of the proposed equations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma14195706DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8510101PMC
September 2021

Prognostic Role of Serum Albumin Level in Patients with Lymphoma Undergoing Autologous Stem Cell Transplantation.

Ann Transplant 2021 Oct 12;26:e933365. Epub 2021 Oct 12.

Center for Hematology, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, China (mainland).

BACKGROUND High-dose chemotherapy followed by autologous stem cell transplantation (HDT/ASCT) plays a crucial role in the therapy of patients with lymphoma. This retrospective study aimed to analyze prognostic factors in patients undergoing HDT/ASCT for lymphoma. MATERIAL AND METHODS We included patients with lymphoma who underwent HDT/ASCT at our center. Time-to-event outcomes, including progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS), were analyzed with the Kaplan-Meier method and log-rank test. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis and Cox proportional hazard regression analysis were performed to explore the prognostic value of different factors. RESULTS A total of 113 patients with lymphoma were included. Patients with low serum albumin levels (<37 g/L) before transplantation had significantly lower PFS and OS (P<0.01). Albumin levels before transplantation significantly predicted early progression (progressed within 1 year) after transplantation (AUC=0.706, P=0.003). Multivariate Cox analysis indicated that low albumin level (hazard ratio [HR] 3.19, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.54-6.63; P=0.002) and age >60 years (HR 2.92, 95% CI 1.27-6.71; P=0.012) were independent risk factors for PFS. Total protein <60 g/L was an independent risk factor for OS (HR 3.57, 95% CI 1.45-8.78; P=0.006). CONCLUSIONS Low albumin level before transplantation was an independent risk factor in patients with lymphoma undergoing HDT/ASCT. Intense care and effective maintenance therapy after transplantation are required for patients with low albumin levels.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12659/AOT.933365DOI Listing
October 2021

Exploring optimal heart team protocol to improve decision-making stability for complex coronary artery disease: a sequential explanatory mixed method study.

Eur Heart J Qual Care Clin Outcomes 2021 Oct 11. Epub 2021 Oct 11.

National Clinical Research Center of Cardiovascular Diseases, State Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Disease, Fuwai Hospital, National Center for Cardiovascular Diseases, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, People's Republic of China.

Aims: Current guidelines recommend a heart team in the decision making for patients with complex coronary artery disease (CAD). However, the decision-making stability of these teams has not been evaluated and the optimum protocol is unknown. We assessed inter-team agreement for revascularization decision-making and influencing factors to inform the development of a heart team protocol.

Methods And Results: This sequential, explanatory mixed methods study included (1) a cross-sectional quantitative study to assess inter-team agreement on treatment strategy for retrospectively enrolled complex CAD patients and (2) a qualitative study that used semi-structured interviews with heart team members to identify factors influencing decision-making discrepancy. We randomly selected 101 complex CAD patients. Sixteen specialists were randomly assigned to 4 heart teams to make decisions for these patients. The primary outcome kappa of inter-team decision-making agreement was moderate (kappa 0.58). Factors influencing decision-making were generated through inductive thematic analysis and were summarized by 3 themes (specialist quality, team composition, meeting process) and 10 subthemes. Recommendations of heart team implementation were generated based on qualitative and quantitative data at 5 levels: specialist selection, specialist training, team composition, team training, and meeting process. A detailed protocol on the integration of guidelines, previous experience and recommendations was generated to establish and deploy a qualified heart team.

Conclusions: Agreement between heart teams for revascularization decision-making in complex CAD patients was moderate. Potential factors associated with decision discrepancies were summarized and recommendations were generated. A detailed heart team protocol was designed and should be validated in future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ehjqcco/qcab074DOI Listing
October 2021

A systematic and meta-analysis of heterosexual behaviors and HIV prevalence among Chinese men who have sex with men.

AIDS Res Ther 2021 10 10;18(1):68. Epub 2021 Oct 10.

Yunyan District Health Bureau of Guiyang City, D12 in Weilaifangzhou, Yunyan District, Guiyang, 550000, Guizhou, People's Republic of China.

Men who have sex with men (MSM) are potentially at high risk for HIV infection, their HIV prevalence far exceeds the national prevalence rate. There are also a number of MSM who have sex with women, mostly unprotected, which can transmit HIV to their female sexual partners and even to the next generation. The purpose of this article is to evaluate the prevalence of heterosexual behaviors in Chinese men who have sex with men and the status of condom utilization as well as HIV infection among MSM with heterosexual behaviors, so as to further improve the investigation and prevention and control of AIDS in MSM population. We systematically searched China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang Data, VIP Database for Chinese Technical Calligraphy (VIP), Pubmed, and Embase following certain retrieval strategies to find relevant articles published from January 1, 2015 to November 18, 2019, The useful information extracted from qualified articles, Stata 15.1 and Review Manager 5.3 were employed for further meta analysis. The estimated prevalence of heterosexual behaviors among MSM in the past year was 19.0% (95% CI 17.0%, 22.0%). The estimated condom utilization rate of the last heterosexual behavior among MSM and condom adherence rate of heterosexual behaviors among MSM were 51.0% (95% CI 44.0%, 58.0%) and 31.0% (95% CI 25.0%, 38.0%), respectively. And the pooled HIV prevalence in MSM with heterosexual behaviors was 9% (95% CI 6%, 13%). The sensitivity analysis showed that the results were stable. No publication bias was found by Egger's test. There is a high proportion of MSM with heterosexual behaviors and low condom utilization in China. HIV prevalence in MSM with heterosexual behaviors is also high. Therefore, adequate attention should be given to this particular group and measures should be taken in order to reduce the risk of transmission of HIV from subpopulations to the general population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12981-021-00392-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8504059PMC
October 2021

Ischemic Microenvironment-Responsive Therapeutics for Cardiovascular Diseases.

Adv Mater 2021 Oct 8:e2105348. Epub 2021 Oct 8.

State Key Laboratory of High Performance Ceramics and Superfine Microstructures, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, 200050, P. R. China.

Cardiovascular diseases caused by ischemia are attracting considerable attention owing to its high morbidity and mortality worldwide. Although numerous agents with cardioprotective benefits have been identified, their clinical outcomes are hampered by their low bioavailability, poor drug solubility, and systemic adverse effects. Advances in nanoscience and nanotechnology provide a new opportunity to effectively deliver drugs for treating ischemia-related diseases. In particular, cardiac ischemia leads to a characteristic pathological environment called an ischemic microenvironment (IME), significantly different from typical cardiac regions. These remarkable differences between ischemic sites and normal tissues have inspired the development of stimuli-responsive systems for the targeted delivery of therapeutic drugs to damaged cardiomyocytes. Recently, many biomaterials with intelligent properties have been developed to enhance the therapeutic benefits of drugs for the treatment of myocardial ischemia. Strategies for stimuli-responsive drug delivery and release based on IME include reactive oxygen species, pH-, hypoxia-, matrix metalloproteinase-, and platelet-inspired targeting strategies. In this review, state-of-the-art IME-responsive biomaterials for the treatment of myocardial ischemia are summarized. Perspectives, limitations, and challenges are also discussed for the further development of innovative and effective approaches to treat ischemic diseases with high effectiveness and biocompatibility.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adma.202105348DOI Listing
October 2021

Case Report: Minimally Invasive Therapy by Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement and Percutaneous Intramyocardial Septal Radiofrequency Ablation for a Patient With Aortic Stenosis Combined With Hypertrophic Obstructive Cardiomyopathy: Two-Year Follow-Up Results.

Front Cardiovasc Med 2021 20;8:735219. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Department of Cardiology, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.

With the development of minimally invasive technologies in the medical field, more and more technologies can replace surgical thoracotomy and relieve the pain of disease via minimally invasive methods. We reported a case of aortic valve stenosis combined with left ventricular outflow track obstruction treated by two minimally invasive techniques, transcatheter aortic valve replacement and transthoracic echocardiography-guided percutaneous intramyocardial septal radiofrequency ablation, and followed up for 2 years.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcvm.2021.735219DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8488101PMC
September 2021

Writing Practices Associated With Electronic Progress Notes and the Preferences of Those Who Read Them: Descriptive Study.

J Med Internet Res 2021 Oct 6;23(10):e30165. Epub 2021 Oct 6.

Department of Medicine, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA, United States.

Background: Hospital progress notes can serve as an important communication tool. However, they are criticized for their length, preserved content, and for the time physicians spend writing them.

Objective: We aimed to describe hospital progress note content, writing and reading practices, and the preferences of those who create and read them prior to the implementation of a new electronic health record system.

Methods: Using a sample of hospital progress notes from 1000 randomly selected admissions, we measured note length, similarity of content in successive daily notes for the same patient, the time notes were signed and read, and who read them. We conducted focus group sessions with note writers, readers, and clinical leaders to understand their preferences.

Results: We analyzed 4938 inpatient progress notes from 418 authors. The average length was 886 words, and most were in the Assessment & Plan note section. A total of 29% of notes (n=1432) were signed after 4 PM. Notes signed later in the day were read less often. Notes were highly similar from one day to the next, and 26% (23/88) had clinical risk associated with the preserved content. Note content of the highest value varied according to the reader's professional role.

Conclusions: Progress note length varied widely. Notes were often signed late in the day when they were read less often and were highly similar to the note from the previous day. Measuring note length, signing time, when and by whom notes are read, and the amount and safety of preserved content will be useful metrics for measuring how the new electronic health record system is used, and can aid improvements.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2196/30165DOI Listing
October 2021

Down-regulation of VCAM-1 in bone mesenchymal stem cells reduces inflammatory responses and apoptosis to improve cardiac function in rat with myocardial infarction.

Int Immunopharmacol 2021 Oct 1;101(Pt A):108180. Epub 2021 Oct 1.

Department of Cardiac Surgery, Sichuan Provincial People's Hospital, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu, China; Chinese Academy of Sciences Sichuan Translational Medicine Research Hospital, Chengdu 610072, China. Electronic address:

Background: Bone mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) has been well known to exert therapeutic potential for patients with myocardial infarction (MI). VCAM-1 can promote the migration of lymphocytes to the inflammatory zone. In the present study, we tried to explore whether VCAM-1 silenced-BMSCs have better therapeutic effects on MI.

Methods: BMSCs were isolated and cultured followed by treatment of a lentivirus silencing VCAM-1 and NF-κB activator (PMA). Besides, MI rat models were also established and injected with treated BMSCs to detect the effect of VCAM-1 silenced-BMSCs in MI, as evidenced by detection of cardiac function, survival of rats within 72 h, infarct size and myocardial cell apoptosis. Moreover, the expression of NF-κB-regulated gene products was also determined.

Results: The implantation of sh-VCAM-1 BMSCs into MI rats resulted in more reductions in myocardial infarct size as well as myocardial cell apoptosis, improved cardiac function, the number of survived rats within 72 h, and survival time within 72 h compared with the individual treatments of either BMSCs or control. In addition, transplanted BMSCs down-regulated the expression of NF-κB-p65, MMP-9, TNF-α, and Bax, and up-regulated VEGF and Bcl-2 in myocardial tissue, which could be further enhanced by sh-VCAM-1 and rescued by PMA.

Conclusion: Our study demonstrated that silencing VCAM-1 in BMSCs could inhibit inflammation and apoptosis, thus improving cardiac function in MI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.intimp.2021.108180DOI Listing
October 2021

Forensic examination and application of areca nuts as material evidence.

J Forensic Sci 2021 Oct 4. Epub 2021 Oct 4.

Department of Forensic Science, School of Basic Medical Science, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, China.

In this study, we aimed to explore the possibility of DNA analysis of areca nut as material evidence and the value of short tandem repeat (STR) typing of areca nut as material evidence under the condition of simulating external environment. In this study, water soaking, soil burial, sun exposure, and wet environment were used to treat areca nut residues. Chelex 100 was used to extract DNA, the PowerPlex21 kit to amplify, and the ABI PRISM 310 Genetic Analyzer to analyze the DNA of areca nut residues. DNA and STR typing were performed to analyze the residue after chewing. The results showed that the number of residual sites decreased with time under the conditions of water soaking, soil burial, sun exposure, and wet environment. Thus, areca nut can be used as forensic material evidence for DNA analysis and individual identification.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1556-4029.14900DOI Listing
October 2021

Changes in ST segment elevation myocardial infarzzction hospitalisations in China from 2011 to 2015.

Open Heart 2021 09;8(2)

National Clinical Research Center for Cardiovascular Diseases, State Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Disease, Fuwai Hospital, National Center for Cardiovascular Diseases, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, Beijing, People's Republic of China

Objective: Access to acute cardiovascular care has improved and health services capacity has increased over the past decades. We assessed national changes in (1) patient characteristics, (2) in-hospital management and (3) patient outcomes among patients presenting with ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) in 2011-2015 in China.

Methods: In a nationally representative sample of hospitals in China, we created two random cohorts of patients in 2011 and 2015 separately. We weighted our findings to estimate nationally representative numbers and assessed changes from 2011 to 2015. Data were abstracted from medical charts centrally using standardised definitions.

Results: While the proportion of patients with STEMI among all patients with acute myocardial infarction decreased over time from 82.5% (95% CI 81.7 to 83.3) in 2011 to 68.5% (95% CI 67.7 to 69.3) in 2015 (p<0.0001), the weighted national estimate of patients with STEMI increased from 210 000 to 380 000. The rate of reperfusion eligibility among patients with STEMI decreased from 49.3% (95% CI 48.1 to 50.5) to 42.2% (95% CI 41.1 to 43.4) in 2015 (p<0.0001); ineligibility was principally driven by larger proportions with prehospital delay exceeding 12 hours (67.4%-76.7%, p<0.0001). Among eligible patients, the proportion receiving reperfusion therapies increased from 54% (95% CI 52.3 to 55.7) to 59.7% (95% CI 57.9 to 61.4) (p<0.0001). Crude and risk-adjusted rates of in-hospital death did not differ significantly between 2011 and 2015.

Conclusions: In this most recent nationally representative study of STEMI in China, the use of acute reperfusion increased, but no significant improvement occurred in outcomes. There is a need to continue efforts to prevent cardiovascular diseases, to monitor changes in in-hospital treatments and outcomes, and to reduce prehospital delay.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/openhrt-2021-001666DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8488733PMC
September 2021

A novel fusion gene in a patient with metastatic lung adenocarcinoma and its response to crizotinib: a case report.

J Int Med Res 2021 Sep;49(9):3000605211044652

Department of Respiratory, the Second Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu, China.

Anaplastic lymphoma kinase () rearrangement occurs in approximately 5% of non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCS), and is the most commonly observed ALK fusion variant in NSCLC. However, growth hormone receptor () as the fusion partner for and the clinical response to ALK tyrosine kinase inhibitors in patients with metastatic lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) who carry the variant have not been documented. This case describes a 63-year-old woman diagnosed with metastatic LUAD. Immunohistochemistry revealed positive expression, and the patient was treated with crizotinib. After 3 weeks of treatment, the patient had a partial response. Because of treatment-related adverse events, the dose of crizotinib was reduced. After 3.7 months, computed tomography uncovered disease progression. Next-generation sequencing identified a novel fusion in the plasma of the patient. The patient was treated again with crizotinib, but the disease progressed again 2 months later. Then, the patient received chemotherapy. She succumbed to her disease 11 months after the initial diagnosis. Our work provides evidence supporting the use of crizotinib in patients with metastatic LUAD harboring .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/03000605211044652DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8489775PMC
September 2021

Enhancing the Data Reliability of Multilevel Storage in Phase Change Memory with 2T2R Cell Structure.

Micromachines (Basel) 2021 Sep 9;12(9). Epub 2021 Sep 9.

State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, Laboratory of Nanotechnology, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050, China.

Multilevel storage and the continuing scaling down of technology have significantly improved the storage density of phase change memory, but have also brought about a challenge, in that data reliability can degrade due to the resistance drift. To ensure data reliability, many read and write operation technologies have been proposed. However, they only mitigate the influence on data through read and write operations after resistance drift occurs. In this paper, we consider the working principle of multilevel storage for PCM and present a novel 2T2R structure circuit to increase the storage density and reduce the influence of resistance drift fundamentally. To realize 3-bit per cell storage, a wide range of resistances were selected as different states of phase change memory. Then, we proposed a 4:3 compressing encoding scheme to transform the output data into binary data states. Therefore, the designed 2T2R was proven to have optimized storage density and data reliability by monitoring the conductance distribution at four time points (1 ms, 1 s, 6 h, 12 h) in 4000 devices. Simulation results showed that the resistance drift of our proposed 2T2R structure can significantly improve the storage density of multilevel storage and increase the data reliability of phase change memory.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/mi12091085DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8467895PMC
September 2021

A sandwich-type photoelectrochemical aptasensor using Au/BiVO and CdS quantum dots for carcinoembryonic antigen assay.

Analyst 2021 Sep 27;146(19):5904-5912. Epub 2021 Sep 27.

School of Materials Science and Engineering, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070, PR China.

A novel sandwich-type photoelectrochemical (PEC) aptasensor for the carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) assay was fabricated using the CEA aptamer, Au/BiVO and CdS quantum dots (CdS QDs). In virtue of the localized surface plasmon resonance effect of Au nanoparticles, Au/BiVO showed an effective utilization of visible light and excellent photoactivity, and was employed as the photoanode. After CdS QDs were conjugated to Au/BiVO through the sandwich structure based on the hybridization of the CEA aptamer with two partially complementary single-stranded DNA molecules, the photocurrents were further enhanced by a resonance energy transfer between CdS QDs and Au nanoparticles. Meanwhile, the consumption of the photo-induced holes by ascorbic acid could also retard the combination of the electron-hole pairs and cause an increase of the photocurrents. However, the specific recognition of CEA by the CEA aptamer could destroy the sandwich structure and remarkably weaken the photocurrent response. Thus, the quantitative detection of CEA was connected with the decrease of the photocurrent. Benefitting from the above methods for signal enhancement, the PEC aptasensor showed a wide sensing range of 0.0001-10 ng mL and a low detection limit of 0.047 pg mL for CEA detection. The specificity, stability and recoveries of the PEC aptasensor were also excellent. Therefore, the construction of the present PEC aptasensor provides a universal and practical method for sensing other substances.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1an01053kDOI Listing
September 2021

F³A-GAN: Facial Flow for Face Animation With Generative Adversarial Networks.

IEEE Trans Image Process 2021 21;30:8658-8670. Epub 2021 Oct 21.

Formulated as a conditional generation problem, face animation aims at synthesizing continuous face images from a single source image driven by a set of conditional face motion. Previous works mainly model the face motion as conditions with 1D or 2D representation (e.g., action units, emotion codes, landmark), which often leads to low-quality results in some complicated scenarios such as continuous generation and large-pose transformation. To tackle this problem, the conditions are supposed to meet two requirements, i.e., motion information preserving and geometric continuity. To this end, we propose a novel representation based on a 3D geometric flow, termed facial flow, to represent the natural motion of the human face at any pose. Compared with other previous conditions, the proposed facial flow well controls the continuous changes to the face. After that, in order to utilize the facial flow for face editing, we build a synthesis framework generating continuous images with conditional facial flows. To fully take advantage of the motion information of facial flows, a hierarchical conditional framework is designed to combine the extracted multi-scale appearance features from images and motion features from flows in a hierarchical manner. The framework then decodes multiple fused features back to images progressively. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of our method compared to other state-of-the-art methods.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TIP.2021.3112059DOI Listing
October 2021

Elastic Knowledge Distillation by Learning From Recollection.

IEEE Trans Neural Netw Learn Syst 2021 Sep 22;PP. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Model performance can be further improved with the extra guidance apart from the one-hot ground truth. To achieve it, recently proposed recollection-based methods utilize the valuable information contained in the past training history and derive a ``recollection'' from it to provide data-driven prior to guide the training. In this article, we focus on two fundamental aspects of this method, i.e., recollection construction and recollection utilization. Specifically, to meet the various demands of models with different capacities and at different training periods, we propose to construct a set of recollections with diverse distributions from the same training history. After that, all the recollections collaborate together to provide guidance, which is adaptive to different model capacities, as well as different training periods, according to our similarity-based elastic knowledge distillation (KD) algorithm. Without any external prior to guide the training, our method achieves a significant performance gain and outperforms the methods of the same category, even as well as KD with well-trained teacher. Extensive experiments and further analysis are conducted to demonstrate the effectiveness of our method.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TNNLS.2021.3107317DOI Listing
September 2021

A Single-Chain Variable Fragment Antibody/Chemokine Fusion Protein Targeting Human Endoglin to Enhance the Anti-Tumor Activity of Cytokine-Induced Killer Cells.

J Biomed Nanotechnol 2021 Aug;17(8):1574-1583

College of Stomatology, Guangxi Medical University, Nanning, 530021, China.

Cytokine-induced killer cell immunotherapy is an ideal candidate for adoptive cell transfer therapy. However, therapeutic approaches to enhance the anti-tumor activity of cytokine-induced killer cells remain to be explored. Here, we described the successful development of a novel antibody-chemokine fusion protein containing the anti-human Endoglin antibody in the single-chain variable fragment format and human interferon-gamma-induced protein 10 (hENG scFv/hIP-10). Its anti-Endoglin immunoreactivity and chemotactic activity against the cytokine-induced killer cells were characterized . To evaluate the anti-tumor effect , cytokine-induced killer cells were intravenously injected into human hepatocellular carcinoma-bearing nude mice, together with intratumoral administration of the fusion protein hENG scFv/hIP-10 as an enhancer. The tumor volume and survival time of the mice were monitored, whilst the tumor-infiltrating cytokine-induced killer cells, serum levels of interferon-gamma, tumor cell proliferation, apoptosis, and angiogenesis were measured. The results demonstrated that hENG scFv/hIP-10 and cytokine-induced killer cells synergistically inhibited tumor growth and prolonged survival of tumor-bearing mice. Moreover, the number of tumor-infiltrating cytokine-induced killer cells, serum levels of interferon-gamma, and tumor cell apoptosis were increased, accompanied with decreased tumor proliferation and angiogenesis. Thus, our study suggests that hENG scFv/hIP-10 could enhance the anti-tumor activity of cytokine-induced killer cells against human hepatocellular carcinoma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1166/jbn.2021.3140DOI Listing
August 2021

Development of a Novel Immune Infiltration-Based Gene Signature to Predict Prognosis and Immunotherapy Response of Patients With Cervical Cancer.

Front Immunol 2021 3;12:709493. Epub 2021 Sep 3.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Shanghai General Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China.

Predictive models could indicate the clinical outcome of patients with carcinoma. Cervical cancer is one of the most frequently diagnosed female malignancies. Herein, we proposed an immune infiltration-related gene signature that predicts prognosis of patients with cervical cancer and depicts the immune landscape as well. We utilized the transcriptome data of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and estimated the infiltration level of 28 immune cell types. We screened out four immune cell types conducive to patient survival and recognized their shared differentially expressed genes (DEGs). Four core genes (CHIT1, GTSF1L, PLA2G2D, and GNG8) that composed the ultimate signature were identified univariate and multivariate Cox regression. The optimal model we built up could distinguish patients with cervical cancer into high-score and low-score subgroups. These two subgroups showed disparity in aspects of patient survival, immune infiltration landscape, and response to immune checkpoint inhibitors. Additionally, we found that GTSF1L was decreased gradually along with the severity of cervical lesions, and its potential role in immune contexture and clinical practice were also demonstrated. Our results suggested that the Immunoscore based on four immune-related genes could serve as a supplementary criterion to effectively foresee the survival outcome, tumor infiltration status, and immunotherapy efficacy of cervical cancer patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2021.709493DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8446628PMC
September 2021

Comprehensive Analysis to Identify Enhancer-Regulated Inflammation-Associated Genes in Lung Adenocarcinoma.

Cancer Manag Res 2021 11;13:7115-7129. Epub 2021 Sep 11.

Key Laboratory of Henan Province for Drug Quality and Evaluation, Ministry of Education of China, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan, 450001, People's Republic of China.

Objective: The purpose of this study was to identify prognostic inflammatory markers regulated by enhancers in lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD).

Methods: Inflammatory indices of 490 LUAD patients in TCGA database were calculated using genomic variation analysis (GSVA). Patients were divided into high- and low-inflammatory index groups. Fraction of 22 infiltrating immune cells was estimated using the Cell type Identification By Estimating Relative Subsets Of RNA Transcripts (CIBERSORT). Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) was used to analyze gene enrichment. Differentially expressed genes were screened based on TCGA database. The H3K27ac ChIP-seq of A549 cells in GEO database (GSE42374) was analyzed to identify super enhancers. Kaplan-Meier method and multivariate Cox proportional hazards models were used for survival analysis. CCK8 and RT-qPCR were used for cellular level verification.

Results: Inflammation was associated with better outcome in LUAD patients. Anti-cancer immune cell fractions were upregulated in high-inflammatory index group. Genes enriched in inflammation-related signaling pathways were positively correlated with high-inflammatory index group. A total of 146 upregulated genes regulated by enhancers were screened, of which five genes including GDF10, HPGDS, ABCA8, SLIT3 and ADAMTS8 had significant influence on prognosis. ChIP-seq analysis showed that TGFβ+TNFα treatment promoted the enhancer activation of the five genes. Cellular experiments revealed that there was no significant effect of TGFβ treatment on the five genes expression. TNFα treatment upregulated the five genes expression, while the BET-bromodomain inhibitor JQ1 restored the effect of TNFα. Overexpression of the five genes significantly inhibited the proliferation of A549 and H1299 cells.

Conclusion: GDF10, HPGDS, ABCA8, SLIT3 and ADAMTS8 were identified as enhancer-regulated prognostic inflammation-related biomarkers, and the expression of these genes inhibited proliferation of LUAD cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/CMAR.S317922DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8445607PMC
September 2021

Neutrophil mediated postoperative photoimmunotherapy against melanoma skin cancer.

Nanoscale 2021 Sep 17;13(35):14825-14836. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Laboratory of Chemical Biology, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Science, Changchun, 130022, China.

Surgery is the primary treatment option for most melanoma; however, high tumor recurrence rate after surgical resection becomes the main cause of death in cancer patients. The development of efficient drug delivery nanosystems to inhibit postoperative tumor recurrence becomes very necessary. In the present study, IR780 molecules and TRP-2 peptide were encapsulated in the hydrophobic shell and hydrophilic interior of TAT peptide functionalized liposomes to form LipIT NPs, which were further internalized into neutrophils (NEs) to achieve LipIT/NEs. After being intravenously injected into postoperative B16F10-bearing mice, LipIT/NEs could actively migrate toward the inflamed residual tumor and release LipIT through neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). Under NIR laser irradiation, the LipIT exhibited both photothermal and photodynamic effects to induce immunogenic cell death for maturation of DCs, and simultaneously, to release TRP-2 peptide as a melanoma associated antigen to further strengthen the maturation of DCs, both of which prompts the activation of T cells and induces potent immune responses. LipIT/NEs hold great potential for the inhibition of postoperative tumor recurrence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1nr04002bDOI Listing
September 2021
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