Publications by authors named "Xi Huang"

605 Publications

Gender minority stress and access to health care services among transgender women and transfeminine people: results from a cross-sectional study in China.

BMC Infect Dis 2021 Oct 14;21(1):1065. Epub 2021 Oct 14.

University of North Carolina Project - China, 7 Lujing Road, Guangzhou, 510091, Guangdong, China.

Background: Transgender and gender diverse individuals often face structural barriers to health care because of their gender minority status. The aim of this study was to examine the association between gender minority stress and access to specific health care services among transgender women and transfeminine people in China.

Methods: This multicenter cross-sectional study recruited participants between January 1st and June 30th 2020. Eligible participants were 18 years or older, assigned male at birth, not currently identifying as male, and living in China. Gender minority stress was measured using 45 items adapted from validated subscales. We examined access to health care services and interventions relevant to transgender and gender diverse people, including gender affirming interventions (hormones, surgeries), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) testing, pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP). Multivariable regression was used to measure correlations between gender minority stress and access to health care service.

Results: Three hundred and twenty-four people completed a survey and data from 277 (85.5%) people were analyzed. The mean age was 29 years old (standard deviation [SD] = 8). Participants used hormones (118/277, 42.6%), gender affirming surgery (26/277, 9.4%), HIV testing (220/277, 79.4%), STI testing (132/277, 47.7%), PrEP (24/276, 8.7%), and PEP (29/267, 10.9%). Using gender affirming hormones was associated with higher levels of discrimination (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.41, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.17-1.70) and internalized transphobia (aOR 1.06, 95%CI 1.00-1.12). STI testing was associated with lower levels of internalized transphobia (aOR 0.91, 95%CI 0.84-0.98).

Conclusions: Our data suggest that gender minority stress is closely related to using health services. Stigma reduction interventions and gender-affirming medical support are needed to improve transgender health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-021-06782-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8514805PMC
October 2021

TREM-2 promotes Th1 responses by interacting with the CD3ζ-ZAP70 complex following Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection.

J Clin Invest 2021 Sep;131(17)

Center for Infection and Immunity, The Fifth Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Zhuhai, Guangdong Province, China.

Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (TREM-2) is a modulator of pattern recognition receptors on innate immune cells that regulates the inflammatory response. However, the role of TREM-2 in in vivo models of infection and inflammation remains controversial. Here, we demonstrated that TREM-2 expression on CD4+ T cells was induced by Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in both humans and mice and positively associated with T cell activation and an effector memory phenotype. Activation of TREM-2 in CD4+ T cells was dependent on interaction with the putative TREM-2 ligand expressed on DCs. Unlike the observation in myeloid cells that TREM-2 signals through DAP12, in CD4+ T cells, TREM-2 interacted with the CD3ζ-ZAP70 complex as well as with the IFN-γ receptor, leading to STAT1/-4 activation and T-bet transcription. In addition, an infection model using reconstituted Rag2-/- mice (with TREM-2-KO vs. WT cells or TREM-2+ vs. TREM-2-CD4+ T cells) or CD4+ T cell-specific TREM-2 conditional KO mice demonstrated that TREM-2 promoted a Th1-mediated host defense against M. tuberculosis infection. Taken together, these findings reveal a critical role of TREM-2 in evoking proinflammatory Th1 responses that may provide potential therapeutic targets for infectious and inflammatory diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/JCI137407DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8409584PMC
September 2021

Peripherally inserted central catheter placement in neonates with persistent left superior vena cava: Report of eight cases.

World J Clin Cases 2021 Sep;9(26):7944-7953

Department of Neonatal Nursing, West China Second University Hospital, Sichuan University/West China School of Nursing, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, Sichuan Province, China.

Background: Reports on peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC) placement in neonates with persistent left superior vena cava (PLSVC) are rare. The majority of PLSVC patients have no clinical symptoms or hemodynamic changes, which are usually detected during cardiac catheterization, cardiac pacemaker implantation, or PICC placement. However, in neonates with PLSVC, PICC placement can be challenging. Here, we report PICC placement in eight neonates with PLSVC.

Case Summary: This article introduces the concept of the "TIMB" bundle. After PICC implantation, we found PLSVC in all eight patients. The key points of care regarding PICC placement in neonates with PLSVC included "TIMB", where "T" indicates a reasonable choice of the catheterization time, "I" refers to a retrospective analysis of imaging data before catheterization, "M" refers to correct measurement of the body surface length, and "B" indicates that the tip of the PICC is placed in the middle and lower 1/3 of the left superior vena cava under the guidance of B-ultrasound.

Conclusion: "TIMB" is a bundle for PICC placement in neonates, especially for those with PLSVC. Using this new approach can improve the first-attempt success rate of PICC placement, reveal cardiovascular abnormalities in advance, allow the selection of different measurement methods reasonably according to the puncture site, and finally, improve the accuracy of catheter positioning through the use of B-ultrasound guidance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12998/wjcc.v9.i26.7944DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8462248PMC
September 2021

Genomic diversity of Areca Palm Velarivirus 1 (APV1) in Areca palm (Areca catechu) plantations in Hainan, China.

BMC Genomics 2021 Oct 7;22(1):725. Epub 2021 Oct 7.

Hainan Key Laboratory for Sustainable Utilization of Tropical Bioresources, College of Tropical Crops, Hainan University, Haikou, 570228, Hainan, People's Republic of China.

Background: Areca palm (Areca catechu L.) is an important commercial crop in southeast Asia, but its cultivation is threatened by yellowing leaf disease (YLD). Areca palm velarivirus 1 (APV1) was recently associated with YLD, but little is known regarding its population and genetic diversity. To assess the diversity of YLD, the APV1 genome was sequenced in YLD samples collected from different sites in Hainan.

Results: Twenty new and complete APV1 genomes were identified. The APV1 isolates had highly conserved sequences in seven open reading frames (ORFs; > 95% nucleotide [nt] identity) at the 3' terminal, but there was diversity (81-87% nt identity) in three ORFs at the 5' terminal. Phylogenetic analysis divided the APV1 isolates into three phylogroups, with 16 isolates (> 70%) in phylogroup A. Mixed infections with different genotypes in the same tree were identified; this was closely correlated with higher levels of genetic recombination.

Conclusions: Phylogroup A is the most prevalent APV1 genotype in areca palm plantations in Hainan, China. Mixed infection with different genotypes can lead to genomic recombination of APV1. Our data provide a foundation for accurate diagnostics, characterization of etiology, and elucidation of the evolutionary relationships of APV1 populations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12864-021-07976-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8499421PMC
October 2021

Melatonin ameliorates cognitive deficits through improving mitophagy in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

J Pineal Res 2021 Oct 7:e12774. Epub 2021 Oct 7.

Department of Pathophysiology, School of Basic Medicine and the Collaborative Innovation Center for Brain Science, Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education of China and Hubei Province for Neurological Disorders, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.

While melatonin is known to have protective effects in mitochondria-related diseases, aging, and neurodegenerative disorders, there is poor understanding of the effects of melatonin treatment on mitophagy in Alzheimer's disease (AD). We used proteomic analysis to investigate the effects and underlying molecular mechanisms of oral melatonin treatment on mitophagy in the hippocampus of 4-month-old wild-type mice versus age-matched 5 × FAD mice, an animal model of AD. 5 × FAD mice showed disordered mitophagy and mitochondrial dysfunction as revealed by increased mtDNA, mitochondrial marker proteins and MDA production, decreased electron transport chain proteins and ATP levels, and co-localization of Lamp1 and Tomm20. Melatonin treatment reversed the abnormal expression of proteins in the signaling pathway of lysosomes, pathologic phagocytosis of microglia, and mitochondrial energy metabolism. Moreover, melatonin restored mitophagy by improving mitophagosome-lysosome fusion via Mcoln1, and thus, ameliorated mitochondrial functions, attenuated Aβ pathology, and improved cognition. Concurrent treatment with chloroquine and melatonin blocked the positive behavioral and biochemical effects of administration with melatonin alone. Taken in concert, these results suggest that melatonin reduces AD-related deficits in mitophagy such that the drug should be considered as a therapeutic candidate for the treatment of AD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jpi.12774DOI Listing
October 2021

Melatonin ameliorates cognitive deficits through improving mitophagy in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

J Pineal Res 2021 Oct 7:e12774. Epub 2021 Oct 7.

Department of Pathophysiology, School of Basic Medicine and the Collaborative Innovation Center for Brain Science, Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education of China and Hubei Province for Neurological Disorders, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.

While melatonin is known to have protective effects in mitochondria-related diseases, aging, and neurodegenerative disorders, there is poor understanding of the effects of melatonin treatment on mitophagy in Alzheimer's disease (AD). We used proteomic analysis to investigate the effects and underlying molecular mechanisms of oral melatonin treatment on mitophagy in the hippocampus of 4-month-old wild-type mice versus age-matched 5 × FAD mice, an animal model of AD. 5 × FAD mice showed disordered mitophagy and mitochondrial dysfunction as revealed by increased mtDNA, mitochondrial marker proteins and MDA production, decreased electron transport chain proteins and ATP levels, and co-localization of Lamp1 and Tomm20. Melatonin treatment reversed the abnormal expression of proteins in the signaling pathway of lysosomes, pathologic phagocytosis of microglia, and mitochondrial energy metabolism. Moreover, melatonin restored mitophagy by improving mitophagosome-lysosome fusion via Mcoln1, and thus, ameliorated mitochondrial functions, attenuated Aβ pathology, and improved cognition. Concurrent treatment with chloroquine and melatonin blocked the positive behavioral and biochemical effects of administration with melatonin alone. Taken in concert, these results suggest that melatonin reduces AD-related deficits in mitophagy such that the drug should be considered as a therapeutic candidate for the treatment of AD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jpi.12774DOI Listing
October 2021

Association between tooth loss rate and risk of mild cognitive impairment in older adults: a population-based longitudinal study.

Aging (Albany NY) 2021 09 7;13(17):21599-21609. Epub 2021 Sep 7.

Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.

Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a symptomatic predementia phase of the trajectory of cognitive decline, and its prevalence increases with age. Although the relationship between oral health and MCI have been explored previously, it is uncertain whether individuals with different tooth loss rates have altered MCI risks. We hereby conducted a longitudinal study by using data from the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey to investigate the association. Tooth loss rate was defined as the difference of teeth between two interview waves divided by years of interval; participants were then grouped into four categories: stable, no tooth loss; mild, 0-1 tooth loss; middle, 1-2 tooth loss; and severe, more than 2 tooth loss per year. Cognitive function was assessed by the Chinese version of Mini-Mental State Examination. We used the generalized estimating equation model to estimate the odds ratio (OR) and the 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and applied the restricted cubic spline function to explore the dose-response association. Among 11,862 participants, 3,966 developed MCI in a median follow-up time of 5.93 years. Higher tooth loss rate was associated with an increased risk of MCI in elderly subjects. Compared with subjects with stable tooth, the corresponding ORs (95% CIs) were 0.94 (0.85-1.03), 1.16 (1.04-1.29) and 1.28 (1.17-1.40) for subjects with the mild, middle and severe rate of tooth loss. A nonlinear dose-response relationship was detected ( = 0.0165). Similar results were observed in the subgroup analyses stratified by sex, age at baseline, and number of teeth at baseline. The positive association was only observed among denture nonwearers (OR : 1.19; 1.06-1.35; OR : 1.35; 1.22-1.50), but not among denture wearers. In conclusion, among elderly population in China, higher rate of tooth loss may be associated with an increased risk of MCI, while denture wearers may be less likely to develop MCI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/aging.203504DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8457613PMC
September 2021

Transmission of areca palm velarivirus 1 (APV1) by mealybugs causes yellow leaf disease (YLD) in betel palm (Areca catechu).

Phytopathology 2021 Sep 7. Epub 2021 Sep 7.

Hainan University, Hainan Key Laboratory for Sustainable Utilization of Tropical Bioresources, Renmin RD 58, Haikou, Hainan, China, 570288.

Yellow leaf disease (YLD) is the most destructive disease of betel palm (Areca catechu). A strong association between YLD and areca palm velarivirus 1 (APV1) has been observed. However, the causal relationship between APV1 and disease, and the transmission mode, require further investigation. This work showed that APV1 was transmitted by both Ferrisia virgata and Pseudococcus cryptus mealybugs, and caused YLD symptoms in betel palm seedlings; therefore, we demonstrate that APV1 is a causal agent of YLD. APV1 was detected in the stylets, foreguts, midguts, and hindguts of the vectors via both immunocapture RT-PCR and immunofluorescence assays. APV1 was not transmitted transovarially from viruliferous female F. virgata to their progeny. In summary, the transmission of APV1 by F. virgata may occur in a non-circulative, semi-persistent manner. This study fills important gaps in our knowledge of velarivirus transmission, which is critical for developing YLD management practices.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/PHYTO-06-21-0261-RDOI Listing
September 2021

Neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis caused by umbilical arterial catheter-associated abdominal aortic embolism: A case report.

World J Clin Cases 2021 Aug;9(22):6557-6565

Department of Neonatal Nursing, West China Second University Hospital, Sichuan University/West China School of Nursing, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, Sichuan Province, China.

Background: Reports of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) caused by umbilical arterial catheter (UAC)-associated abdominal aortic embolism in neonates are rare. Herein, we report the case of an extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infant with NEC caused by UAC-associated abdominal aortic embolism.

Case Summary: A female infant, aged 21 min and weighing 830 g at 28 wk of gestational age, was referred to our hospital because of premature birth and shallow breathing. The patient was diagnosed with ELBW, neonatal respiratory distress syndrome, neonatal intrauterine infection, and neonatal asphyxia. Umbilical arterial and venous catheters were inserted on the day after birth and were removed 9 d later, according to the doctor's plan. Within 48 h after extubation, the patient's manifestations included poor responsiveness, heart rate range of 175-185/min, and currant jelly stool. Therefore, we considered a diagnosis of NEC. To determine the cause, we used B-mode ultrasound, which revealed a partial abdominal aortic embolism (2 cm × 0.3 cm) and abdominal effusion. The patient was treated with nil per os, gastrointestinal decompression, anti-infective therapy, blood transfusion, and low-molecular-weight heparin sodium q12h for anticoagulant therapy (from May 20 to June 1, the dosage of low-molecular-weight heparin sodium was adjusted according to the anti-Xa activity during treatment). On the 67 day after admission, the patient fully recovered and was discharged.

Conclusion: The abdominal aortic thrombosis in this patient was considered to be catheter related, which requires immediate treatment once diagnosed. The choice of treatment should be determined according to the location of the thrombus and the patient's condition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12998/wjcc.v9.i22.6557DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8362557PMC
August 2021

A review on recent advances of egg byproducts: Preparation, functional properties, biological activities and food applications.

Food Res Int 2021 09 28;147:110563. Epub 2021 Jun 28.

Jiangxi Key Laboratory of Natural Products and Functional Food, Jiangxi Agricultural University, Nanchang 330045, China. Electronic address:

The rapid development of egg industries produced vast byproducts that have not been effectively used. In this paper, the comprehensive utilization of egg byproducts was reviewed. Protein extraction and enzymatic hydrolysis were the main used ways for recycle of egg byproducts. The fact that eggshell membrane could accelerate would healing and improve facial skin of healthy people for 12 weeks was found. However, salted egg white had poor functional properties owing to high salt and ultrafiltration was an effective technology to remove 92.93% of salt. Moreover, Defatted yolk protein had the great potential to be used as food additives and functional foods. Other egg byproducts such as egg inhibitor and eggshells also were discussed. The novel applications of egg byproducts in the food field included food additives, feeds, food packaging materials and nutraceuticals based on current knowledge, but the proportion needed to be improved. This paper would provide a new insight for comprehensive utilization of egg byproducts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2021.110563DOI Listing
September 2021

Distinct mitochondria-mediated T cells apoptosis responses in children and adults with COVID-19.

J Infect Dis 2021 Aug 10. Epub 2021 Aug 10.

Center for Infection and Immunity and Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Biomedical Imaging, the Fifth Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Zhuhai, Guangdong Province, 519000, China.

Background: Lymphopenia is a key feature for adult patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), while it is rarely observed in children. The underlying mechanism remains unclear.

Methods: Immunohistochemical and flow cytometric analyses were used to compare the apoptotic rate of T cells from COVID-19 adults and children and apoptotic responses of adult and child T cells to COVID-19 pooled plasma. Biological properties of caspases and reactive oxygen species were assessed in T cells treated by COVID-19 pooled plasma.

Results: Mitochondria apoptosis of peripheral T cells were identified in COVID-19 adult patient samples, but not in the children. Furthermore, increased TNF-α and IL-6 in COVID-19 plasma induced mitochondria apoptosis and caused DNA damage by elevating reactive oxygen species levels of the adult T cells. However, the child T cells showed tolerance to mitochondrial apoptosis due to mitochondria autophagy. Activation of autophagy could decrease apoptotic sensitivity of the adult T cells to plasma from COVID-19 patients.

Conclusions: Our results indicated that the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway was activated in T cells of COVID-19 adult patients specifically, which may shed light on the pathophysiological difference between adults and children infected with SARS-CoV-2.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jiab400DOI Listing
August 2021

Whole-Genome Sequence Analysis of Pseudorabies Virus Clinical Isolates from Pigs in China between 2012 and 2017 in China.

Viruses 2021 07 8;13(7). Epub 2021 Jul 8.

State Key Laboratory of Agricultural Microbiology, The Cooperative Innovation Center for Sustainable Pig Production, College of Veterinary Medicine, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China.

Pseudorabies virus (PRV) is an economically significant swine infectious agent. A PRV outbreak took place in China in 2011 with novel virulent variants. Although the association of viral genomic variability with pathogenicity is not fully confirmed, the knowledge concerning PRV genomic diversity and evolution is still limited. Here, we sequenced 54 genomes of novel PRV variants isolated in China from 2012 to 2017. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that China strains and US/Europe strains were classified into two separate genotypes. PRV strains isolated from 2012 to 2017 in China are highly related to each other and genetically close to classic China strains such as Ea, Fa, and SC. RDP analysis revealed 23 recombination events within novel PRV variants, indicating that recombination contributes significantly to the viral evolution. The selection pressure analysis indicated that most ORFs were under evolutionary constraint, and 19 amino acid residue sites in 15 ORFs were identified under positive selection. Additionally, 37 unique mutations were identified in 19 ORFs, which distinguish the novel variants from classic strains. Overall, our study suggested that novel PRV variants might evolve from classical PRV strains through point mutation and recombination mechanisms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v13071322DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8310123PMC
July 2021

Assessment of Associations between Malaria Parasites and Avian Hosts-A Combination of Classic System and Modern Molecular Approach.

Authors:
Xi Huang

Biology (Basel) 2021 Jul 9;10(7). Epub 2021 Jul 9.

MOE Key Laboratory for Biodiversity Science and Ecological Engineering, College of Life Sciences, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China.

Avian malaria and related haemosporidian parasites are responsible for fitness loss and mortality in susceptible bird species. This group of globally distributed parasites has long been used as a classical system for investigating host-parasite associations. The association between a parasite and its hosts can be assessed by the prevalence in the host population and infection intensity in a host individual, which, respectively, reflect the ability of the parasite to infect the host and reproduce within the host. However, the latter has long been poorly investigated due to numerous challenges, such as lack of general molecular markers and limited sensitivity of traditional methods, especially when analysing naturally infected birds. The recent development of genetic databases, together with novel molecular methodologies, has shed light on this long-standing problem. Real-time quantitative PCR has enabled more accurate quantification of avian haemosporidian parasites, and digital droplet PCR further improved experimental sensitivity and repeatability of quantification. In recent decades, parallel studies have been carried out all over the world, providing great opportunities for exploring the adaptation of haemosporidian parasites to different hosts and the variations across time and space, and further investigating the coevolutionary history between parasites and their hosts. I hereby review the most important milestones in diagnosis techniques of avian haemosporidian parasites and illustrate how they provide new insights for understanding host-parasite associations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biology10070636DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8301060PMC
July 2021

Fabrics Attached with Highly Efficient Aggregation-Induced Emission Photosensitizer: Toward Self-Antiviral Personal Protective Equipment.

ACS Nano 2021 Jul 27. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Center for Infection and Immunity, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Biomedical Imaging, The Fifth Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Zhuhai 519000, Guangdong, China.

Personal protective equipment (PPE) is vital for the prevention and control of SARS-CoV-2. However, conventional PPEs lack virucidal capabilities and arbitrarily discarding used PPEs may cause a high risk for cross-contamination and environmental pollution. Recently reported photothermal or photodynamic-mediated self-sterilizing masks show bactericidal-virucidal abilities but have some inherent disadvantages, such as generating unbearable heat during the photothermal process or requiring additional ultraviolet light irradiation to inactivate pathogens, which limit their practical applications. Here, we report the fabrication of a series of fabrics (derived from various PPEs) with real-time self-antiviral capabilities, on the basis of a highly efficient aggregation-induced emission photosensitizer (namely, ASCP-TPA). ASCP-TPA possesses facile synthesis, excellent biocompatibility, and extremely high reactive oxygen species generation capacity, which significantly outperforms the traditional photosensitizers. Meanwhile, the ASCP-TPA-attached fabrics (ATaFs) show tremendous photodynamic inactivation effects against MHV-A59, a surrogate coronavirus of SARS-CoV-2. Upon ultralow-power white light irradiation (3.0 mW cm), >99.999% virions (5 log) on the ATaFs are eliminated within 10 min. Such ultralow-power requirement and rapid virus-killing ability enable ATaFs-based PPEs to provide real-time protection for the wearers under indoor light irradiation. ATaFs' virucidal abilities are retained after 100 washings or continuous exposure to office light for 2 weeks, which offers the benefits of reusability and long-term usability. Furthermore, ATaFs show no toxicity to normal skin, even upon continuous high-power light illumination. This self-antiviral ATaFs-based strategy may also be applied to fight against other airborne pathogens and holds huge potential to alleviate global PPE supply shortages.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsnano.1c06071DOI Listing
July 2021

Altered oral and gut microbiota and its association with SARS-CoV-2 viral load in COVID-19 patients during hospitalization.

NPJ Biofilms Microbiomes 2021 07 22;7(1):61. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Center for Infection and Immunity, The Fifth Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Zhuhai, Guangdong, China.

The human oral and gut commensal microbes play vital roles in the development and maintenance of immune homeostasis, while its association with susceptibility and severity of SARS-CoV-2 infection is barely understood. In this study, we investigated the dynamics of the oral and intestinal flora before and after the clearance of SARS-CoV-2 in 53 COVID-19 patients, and then examined their microbiome alterations in comparison to 76 healthy individuals. A total of 140 throat swab samples and 81 fecal samples from these COVID-19 patients during hospitalization, and 44 throat swab samples and 32 fecal samples from sex and age-matched healthy individuals were collected and then subjected to 16S rRNA sequencing and viral load inspection. We found that SARS-CoV-2 infection was associated with alterations of the microbiome community in patients as indicated by both alpha and beta diversity indexes. Several bacterial taxa were identified related to SARS-CoV-2 infection, wherein elevated Granulicatella and Rothia mucilaginosa were found in both oral and gut microbiome. The SARS-CoV-2 viral load in those samples was also calculated to identify potential dynamics between COVID-19 and the microbiome. These findings provide a meaningful baseline for microbes in the digestive tract of COVID-19 patients and will shed light on new dimensions for disease pathophysiology, potential microbial biomarkers, and treatment strategies for COVID-19.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41522-021-00232-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8298611PMC
July 2021

Investigation on the expression regulation of RIPK1/RIPK3 in the retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) cultured in high glucose.

Bioengineered 2021 12;12(1):3947-3956

Department of Ophthalmology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.

Diabetic retinopathy (DR) represents the most typical complication of type 2 diabetes mellitus and one of the most primary oculopathy causing blindness. However, the mechanism of DR remains unknown. RIPK1/RIPK3, as homologous serine/threonine kinases, are key elements in mediating necroptosis and may have functions in DR development. To clarify the relationship between DR and RIPK1/RIPK3, this study established a model of apoptosis using high-glucose induced RGCs, which were treated with 7.5, 19.5, and 35 mM D-glucose for 12, 24, and 48 h, respectively. Subsequently, the expression of RIPK1/RIPK3 was determined and the protective effect of necrostatin-1 on RGCs injury induced by high glucose was explored. The results demonstrated that the expression of RIPK1 and RIPK3 in the cells was increased markedly following 12 h treatment with 19.5 mM D-glucose. Additionally, following an addition of 100 μM necrostatin-1 in 19.5 mM D-glucose medium for RGCs treatment 12 h, the protein expression of RIPK1 and RIPK3 was decreased markedly, and the number of Nissl bodies in cells was increased substantially. The findings of the present study indicated that high glucose could induce the expression of RIPK1/RIPK3, and necrostatin-1 could effectively protect RGCs from D-glucose-induced cell necrosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21655979.2021.1944456DOI Listing
December 2021

Quantitative selection of single human sperm with high DNA integrity for intracytoplasmic sperm injection.

Fertil Steril 2021 Jul 13. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; Institute of Biomedical Engineering, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; Department of Computer Science, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Electronic address:

Objective: To study at the single-cell level whether a sperm's motility and morphology parameters reflect its DNA integrity, and to establish a set of quantitative criteria for selecting single sperm with high DNA integrity.

Design: Prospective study.

Setting: In vitro fertilization center and university laboratories.

Patient(s): Male patients undergoing infertility treatments.

Intervention(s): None.

Main Outcome Measure(s): The motility and morphology parameters of each sperm were measured with the use of computer vision algorithms. The sperm was then aspirated and transferred for DNA fragmentation measurement by single-cell gel electrophoresis (comet assay).

Result(s): We adapted the World Health Organization criteria, which were originally defined for semen analysis, and established a set of quantitative criteria for single-sperm selection in intracytoplasmic sperm injection. Sperm satisfying the criteria had significantly lower DNA fragmentation levels than the sample population. Both normal motility and normal morphology were required for a sperm to have low DNA fragmentation. The quantitative criteria were integrated into a software program for sperm selection. In blind tests in which our software and three embryologists selected sperm from the same patient samples, our software outperformed the embryologists and selected sperm with the highest DNA integrity.

Conclusion(s): At the single-cell level, a sperm's motility and morphology parameters reflect its DNA integrity. The developed technique and criteria hold the potential to mitigate the risk factor of sperm DNA fragmentation in intracytoplasmic sperm injection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fertnstert.2021.06.016DOI Listing
July 2021

Ex vivo to in vivo extrapolation of syringic acid and ferulic acid as grape juice proxies for endothelium-dependent vasodilation: Redefining vasoprotective resveratrol of the French paradox.

Food Chem 2021 Nov 9;363:130323. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Institute of TCM-Related Comorbid Depression, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing 210023, China. Electronic address:

Resveratrol, in wines, has been implicated to be primarily responsible for the French paradox, remaining controversial. Herein, we elucidated the representative vasodilation-increasing polyphenols from concord grape juice (CGJ) using ex vivo-to-in vivo extrapolation (EVIVE). We verified the interference-free antioxidant response of CGJ post-dose supernatant of deproteinated serum (CPSDS, as ex vivo proxy) in isolated aortic rings, and in healthy, and HO-treated endothelial cells (H-ECs). Syringic acid and ferulic acid (SF) were detected in CGJ and post-dose rat serum (PRS). In isolated aortic rings and H-ECs, polyphenols alone, or in combination, at doses equivalent to those detected in PRS, quantitatively reflected endothelium-dependent vasodilation of CPSDS, as evidenced by nitric oxide (NO) formation-mediated antioxidation-sensitive activation of Src kinase with subsequent PI3/Akt-dependent phosphorylation of endothelial NO synthase. Using EVIVE, SF closely reflected CGJ in coronary flow-mediated vasodilation. Hence, SF application in precision ethnomedicine may redefine antioxidant-sensitive vasoprotective resveratrol of the French paradox.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2021.130323DOI Listing
November 2021

The Supraethmoidal Roof Cell: An Unreported Sinus Anatomic Variation.

OTO Open 2021 Apr-Jun;5(2):2473974X211022318. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, the First Affiliated Hospital, Hunan Normal University (Hunan Provincial People's Hospital), Changsha, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2473974X211022318DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8188968PMC
June 2021

RUNX1-mediated alphaherpesvirus-host trans-species chromatin interaction promotes viral transcription.

Sci Adv 2021 Jun 23;7(26). Epub 2021 Jun 23.

State Key Laboratory of Agricultural Microbiology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China.

Like most DNA viruses, herpesviruses precisely deliver their genomes into the sophisticatedly organized nuclei of the infected host cells to initiate subsequent transcription and replication. However, it remains elusive how the viral genome specifically interacts with the host genome and hijacks host transcription machinery. Using pseudorabies virus (PRV) as model virus, we performed chromosome conformation capture assays to demonstrate a genome-wide specific trans-species chromatin interaction between the virus and host. Our data show that the PRV genome is delivered by the host DNA binding protein RUNX1 into the open chromatin and active transcription zone. This facilitates virus hijacking host RNAPII to efficiently transcribe viral genes, which is significantly inhibited by either a RUNX1 inhibitor or RNA interference. Together, these findings provide insights into the chromatin interaction between viral and host genomes and identify new areas of research to advance the understanding of herpesvirus genome transcription.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.abf8962DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8221632PMC
June 2021

Point-of-Care Test Paper for Exhaled Breath Aldehyde Analysis via Mass Spectrometry.

Anal Chem 2021 07 24;93(26):9158-9165. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences, Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Living Biosystems, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, China.

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from exhaled breath (EB) are considered to be promising biomarkers for lung diseases. A convenient and sensitive point-of-care (POC) testing method for EB VOCs is essential. Here, we developed a POC test paper for the analysis of EB aldehydes, which are potential biomarkers for lung cancer. A probe molecule, 4-aminothiophenol (4-ATP), was anchored on a paper substrate to specifically capture gas-phase aldehydes through the Schiff base reaction. Meanwhile, thin-film reaction acceleration was utilized to increase capture efficiency. By directly coupling the test paper to a mass spectrometer through paper spray, high sensitivity (0.1 ppt) and a wide quantification linear range (from 10 ppt to 1 ppm) were obtained. Analysis of EB from lung cancer patients with the test paper showed a significant increase in several reported aldehyde markers compared to EB from healthy volunteers, indicating the potential of this method for sensitive, low-cost, and convenient lung cancer screening and diagnosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.analchem.1c01011DOI Listing
July 2021

"AFGP" bundles for an extremely preterm infant who underwent difficult removal of a peripherally inserted central catheter: A case report.

World J Clin Cases 2021 Jun;9(17):4253-4261

Department of Neonatal Nursing, West China Second University Hospital, Sichuan University/West China School of Nursing, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, Sichuan Province, China.

Background: There have been few reports on level 3 difficult removal of peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC) in neonates. Here, we reported a case of an extremely preterm infant who underwent level 3 difficult removal of a PICC.

Case Summary: Female baby A, weighing 1070 g at 27 wk of gestational age, was diagnosed with extremely preterm infant and neonatal respiratory distress syndrome. She underwent PICC insertion twice. The first PICC insertion went well; the second PICC was inserted in the right lower extremity, however, phlebitis occurred on the second day after the placement. On the third day of catheterization, phlebitis was aggravated, while the right leg circumference increased by 2.5 cm. On the fourth day of catheterization, more red swelling was found in the popliteal part, covering an area of about 1.5 cm × 4 cm, which was diagnosed as phlebitis level 3; thus, we decided to remove the PICC. During tube removal, the catheter rebounded and could not be pulled out (several conventional methods were performed). Finally, we successfully removed the PICC using a new approach termed "AFGP". On the 36 day of admission, the baby fully recovered and was discharged.

Conclusion: The "AFGP" bundle approach was effective for an extremely preterm infant, who underwent level 3 difficult removal of a PICC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12998/wjcc.v9.i17.4253DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8173425PMC
June 2021

Neglected parasite reservoirs in wetlands: Prevalence and diversity of avian haemosporidians in waterbird communities in Northeast China.

Int J Parasitol Parasites Wildl 2021 Aug 29;15:177-183. Epub 2021 May 29.

MOE Key Laboratory for Biodiversity Science and Ecological Engineering, College of Life Sciences, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, 100875, China.

The diversity of waterbirds is threatened, and haemosporidian parasite infection is considered one of the most important causative factors. However, to date, only a few studies focusing on specific parasite species have been carried out, which cannot reflect the general patterns at the community level. To test whether the reported haemosporidian diversity in waterbirds is underestimated, we estimated the prevalence and lineage diversity of avian haemosporidian parasites in 353 waterbirds from 26 species in the Tumuji National Nature Reserve, Northeast China, as well as the host-parasite associations. According to the molecular analysis of cytochrome () barcode sequences, 28.3% of the birds were infected by 49 distinct parasite lineages, including 11 , 12 , and 26 lineages, of which 39 were novel. The highest prevalence was contributed by (13.31%), followed by (13.03%) and (4.25%), which suggested that waterbirds were infected to a lesser extent by than by the other two genera. Among the most sampled birds, species belonging to Anatidae appeared to be susceptible to but resistant to , while Rallidae presented the opposite pattern. On the phylogenetic tree, most of the lineages detected in Anatidae clustered together and formed two well-supported clades, while lineages restricted to Gruidae were distantly related to other parasites in all three genera. SW5 was the most abundant lineage and therefore might be a major threat to waterbirds; among the hosts, the common coot harboured the highest diversity of parasite lineages and thus could act as a reservoir for potential transmission. This is the first study of avian haemosporidian infections in a wild waterbird community in Asia. Our findings have doubled the number of lineages recorded in waterbirds, broadened our understanding of host-parasite associations, and addressed the importance of studying haemosporidian infections in wild waterbird conservation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijppaw.2021.04.013DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8182418PMC
August 2021

Low MSP-1 haplotype diversity in the West Palearctic population of the avian malaria parasite Plasmodium relictum.

Malar J 2021 Jun 12;20(1):265. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

US Geological Survey, Eastern Ecological Research Center at Patuxent Research Refuge, Beltsville, MD, 20705, USA.

Background: Although avian Plasmodium species are widespread and common across the globe, limited data exist on how genetically variable their populations are. Here, the hypothesis that the avian blood parasite Plasmodium relictum exhibits very low genetic diversity in its Western Palearctic transmission area (from Morocco to Sweden in the north and Transcaucasia in the east) was tested.

Methods: The genetic diversity of Plasmodium relictum was investigated by sequencing a portion (block 14) of the fast-evolving merozoite surface protein 1 (MSP1) gene in 75 different P. relictum infections from 36 host species. Furthermore, the full-length MSP1 sequences representing the common block 14 allele was sequenced in order to investigate if additional variation could be found outside block 14.

Results: The majority (72 of 75) of the sequenced infections shared the same MSP1 allele. This common allele has previously been found to be the dominant allele transmitted in Europe.

Conclusion: The results corroborate earlier findings derived from a limited dataset that the globally transmitted malaria parasite P. relictum exhibits very low genetic diversity in its Western Palearctic transmission area. This is likely the result of a recent introduction event or a selective sweep.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12936-021-03799-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8199812PMC
June 2021

Macrophage biomimetic nanocarriers for anti-inflammation and targeted antiviral treatment in COVID-19.

J Nanobiotechnology 2021 Jun 10;19(1):173. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Center for Infection and Immunity, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Biomedical Imaging, The Fifth Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University, Zhuhai, 519000, Guangdong, China.

Background: The worldwide pandemic of COVID-19 remains a serious public health menace as the lack of efficacious treatments. Cytokine storm syndrome (CSS) characterized with elevated inflammation and multi-organs failure is closely correlated with the bad outcome of COVID-19. Hence, inhibit the process of CSS by controlling excessive inflammation is considered one of the most promising ways for COVID-19 treatment.

Results: Here, we developed a biomimetic nanocarrier based drug delivery system against COVID-19 via anti-inflammation and antiviral treatment simultaneously. Firstly, lopinavir (LPV) as model antiviral drug was loaded in the polymeric nanoparticles (PLGA-LPV NPs). Afterwards, macrophage membranes were coated on the PLGA-LPV NPs to constitute drugs loaded macrophage biomimetic nanocarriers ([email protected]). In the study, [email protected] could neutralize multiple proinflammatory cytokines and effectively suppress the activation of macrophages and neutrophils. Furthermore, the formation of NETs induced by COVID-19 patients serum could be reduced by [email protected] as well. In a mouse model of coronavirus infection, [email protected] exhibited significant targeted ability to inflammation sites, and superior therapeutic efficacy in inflammation alleviation and tissues viral loads reduction.

Conclusion: Collectively, such macrophage biomimetic nanocarriers based drug delivery system showed favorable anti-inflammation and targeted antiviral effects, which may possess a comprehensive therapeutic value in COVID-19 treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12951-021-00926-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8190731PMC
June 2021

Weill-Marchesani-like syndrome caused by an FBN1 mutation with low-penetrance.

Chin Med J (Engl) 2021 Mar 23;134(11):1359-1361. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Department of Ophthalmology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610041, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CM9.0000000000001406DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8183799PMC
March 2021

Reparative effect of super active platelet combined with allogeneic bone for large bone defects.

Artif Organs 2021 Oct 11;45(10):1219-1228. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Orthopedics, the First Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin, China.

In clinical practice, autologous bone transplantation is usually used to treat large-scale bone defects. However, autologous bone can cause complications such as secondary injury to patients, the scarcity of autografts. In this study, the study of using super active platelet lysate (sPL) and allogeneic bone to treat the 15 mm long bone defect in right radius of rabbits, and provide an experimental basis for the next step of clinical bone defect treatment. The critical-size defect of New Zealand white rabbits was made and divided into three groups: autologous bone group, allogeneic bone group, and sPL group. They were euthanized 1, 2, and 3 months after the operation, perform imaging and histological observation on the repair of bone defect area. The results showed that there were varying degrees of new bone in the bone defect. CT data showed that the bone defect repair rate and new bone mass in each group increased month by month (P <.05). Bone tissue (BV) and bone tissue to the total volume (BV/TV, %) in the sPL group > allogeneic bone group, autologous bone group > allogeneic bone group, with statistical significance (P < .05). Compared with the allogeneic bone group, the sPL group can significantly promote the healing of bone defects, enhance the bone density after fracture healing. The repair effect after 3 months was similar to that of the autogenous bone group. The use of allogeneic bone and sPL therapy may become part of a comprehensive strategy for tissue engineering to treat bone defects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/aor.14002DOI Listing
October 2021

A SARS-CoV-2 antibody curbs viral nucleocapsid protein-induced complement hyperactivation.

Nat Commun 2021 05 11;12(1):2697. Epub 2021 May 11.

Molecular Imaging Center, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Biomedical Imaging, The Fifth Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Zhuhai, China.

Although human antibodies elicited by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) nucleocapsid (N) protein are profoundly boosted upon infection, little is known about the function of N-reactive antibodies. Herein, we isolate and profile a panel of 32 N protein-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) from a quick recovery coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) convalescent patient who has dominant antibody responses to the SARS-CoV-2 N protein rather than to the SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) protein. The complex structure of the N protein RNA binding domain with the highest binding affinity mAb (nCoV396) reveals changes in the epitopes and antigen's allosteric regulation. Functionally, a virus-free complement hyperactivation analysis demonstrates that nCoV396 specifically compromises the N protein-induced complement hyperactivation, which is a risk factor for the morbidity and mortality of COVID-19 patients, thus laying the foundation for the identification of functional anti-N protein mAbs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-23036-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8113585PMC
May 2021

Glycyrrhizic Acid Nanoparticles as Antiviral and Anti-inflammatory Agents for COVID-19 Treatment.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 May 30;13(18):20995-21006. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Center for Infection and Immunity, The Fifth Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Zhuhai 519000, China.

COVID-19 has been diffusely pandemic around the world, characterized by massive morbidity and mortality. One of the remarkable threats associated with mortality may be the uncontrolled inflammatory processes, which were induced by SARS-CoV-2 in infected patients. As there are no specific drugs, exploiting safe and effective treatment strategies is an instant requirement to dwindle viral damage and relieve extreme inflammation simultaneously. Here, highly biocompatible glycyrrhizic acid (GA) nanoparticles (GANPs) were synthesized based on GA. investigations revealed that GANPs inhibit the proliferation of the murine coronavirus MHV-A59 and reduce proinflammatory cytokine production caused by MHV-A59 or the N protein of SARS-CoV-2. In an MHV-A59-induced surrogate mouse model of COVID-19, GANPs specifically target areas with severe inflammation, such as the lungs, which appeared to improve the accumulation of GANPs and enhance the effectiveness of the treatment. Further, GANPs also exert antiviral and anti-inflammatory effects, relieving organ damage and conferring a significant survival advantage to infected mice. Such a novel therapeutic agent can be readily manufactured into feasible treatment for COVID-19.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.1c02755DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8117399PMC
May 2021

PPE31 Contributes to Host Cell Death.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2021 13;11:629836. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Center for Infection and Immunity, The Fifth Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Zhongshan School of Medicine, Sun Yat-sen University, Zhuhai, China.

Genome scale mutagenesis identifies many genes required for mycobacterial infectivity and survival, but their contributions and mechanisms of action within the host are poorly understood. Using CRISPR interference, we created a knockdown of gene in (), which reduced the resistance to acid medium. To further explore the function of PPE31, the mutant strain was generated in and (), respectively. Macrophages infected with the mutant strain caused a reduced inflammatory mediator expressions. In addition, macrophages infected with Δ had decreased host cell death dependent on JNK signaling. Consistent with these results, deletion of from increased the sensitivity to acid medium and reduced cell death in macrophages. Furthermore, we demonstrate that both mutants from and resulted in reduced survival in macrophages, and the survivability of was deceased in zebrafish due to loss of . Our findings confirm that PPE31 as a virulence associated factor that modulates innate immune responses to mycobacterial infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcimb.2021.629836DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8078103PMC
July 2021
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