Publications by authors named "Xavier Lemaire"

15 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Trajectories of Hospitalization in COVID-19 Patients: An Observational Study in France.

J Clin Med 2020 Sep 29;9(10). Epub 2020 Sep 29.

Sorbonne Université, Institut Pierre Louis d'Epidémiologie et de Santé Publique, INSERM, Assistance Publique - Hôpitaux de Paris, 75012 Paris, France.

Describing the characteristics of COVID-19 patients in the hospital is of importance to assist in the management of hospital capacity in the future. Here, we analyze the trajectories of 1321 patients admitted to hospitals in northern and eastern France. We found that the time from onset to hospitalization decreased with age, from 7.3 days in the 20-65 year-olds to 4.5 in the >80 year-olds ( < 0.0001). Overall, the length of stay in the hospital was 15.9 days, and the death rate was 20%. One patient out of four was admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) for approximately one month. The characteristics of trajectories changed with age: fewer older patients were admitted to the ICU and the death rate was larger in the elderly. Admission shortly after onset was associated with increased mortality (odds-ratio (OR) = 1.8, Confidence Interval (CI) 95% [1.3, 2.6]) as well as male sex (OR = 2.1, CI 95% [1.5, 2.9]). Time from admission within the hospital to the transfer to ICU was short. The age- and sex-adjusted mortality rate decreased over the course of the epidemic, suggesting improvement in care over time. In the SARS-CoV-2 epidemic, the urgent need for ICU at admission and the prolonged length of stay in ICU are a challenge for bed management and organization of care.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm9103148DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7600846PMC
September 2020

First case of herpetic meningoencephalitis treated with ganciclovir.

J Chemother 2017 Oct 7;29(5):308-309. Epub 2016 Jun 7.

a Infectious Disease Unit Douai Hospital, Route de Cambrai , Douai , France.

Consensus treatment for herpetic meningoencephalitis is intravenous aciclovir but no guidelines are available for alternative treatment in case of renal failure induced by aciclovir. We report to the best of our knowledge, the first case of herpetic meningoencephalitis treated with success by ganciclovir.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/1120009X.2016.1195070DOI Listing
October 2017

[Distribution of antimicrobial guidelines: useful but not enough for an antibiotic stewardship].

Presse Med 2014 Nov 4;43(11):e365-8. Epub 2014 Sep 4.

Centre hospitalier Douai, Infectious Diseases Department, 59500 Douai, France.

Purpose: Evaluate the impact of distribution of antimicrobial guidelines (AG) on anti-infectious prescriptions (AIP) in patients presenting a bacteraemia. Cost evaluation of AIP with and without intervention of an infectious disease specialist.

Methods: The first evaluation of AIP was performed from January to May 2008 in Douai hospital, France, at day 4 after the initial blood sample using French guidelines (FG). An AG based on FG was distributed in June 2008 to all Medical Doctors. A second evaluation of AIP was performed from July 2009 to October 2010 after AG distribution. In May 2009, an infectious disease specialist arrived. He re-evaluated at day 4 the initial AIP and modified it if necessary based on the bacteriologic results and the AG. In the second period of the study, we evaluated the cost of the AIP after day 4.

Results: Anti-infectious at day 1 was suitable in 37/50 (74%) cases before vs. 148/206 (72%) cases after distribution of the AG (P = 0.76). At day 4, anti-infectious was suitable in 26/50 (52%) before vs. 103/206 (50%) cases after distribution of the AG (P = 0.80). In the second period, the overall cost of AIP was estimated at 44,000 Euros with the infectious disease specialist intervention and at 51,000 Euros without.

Conclusion: Distribution of AG did not significantly improve AIP in patients with bacteraemia. Re-evaluation by an infectious disease specialist could lead to a better anti-infectious usage and potential reduction in costs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lpm.2014.03.033DOI Listing
November 2014

Clinical features and viral diagnosis of two cases of infection with Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus: a report of nosocomial transmission.

Lancet 2013 Jun 30;381(9885):2265-72. Epub 2013 May 30.

Service de Gestion du Risque Infectieux, Vigilances et Infectiologie, Hopital Huriez, Pavillon Fourrier, Centre Hospitalier Régional et Universitaire de Lille, Université de Lille 2, Lille Cedex, France.

Background: Human infection with a novel coronavirus named Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) was first identified in Saudi Arabia and the Middle East in September, 2012, with 44 laboratory-confirmed cases as of May 23, 2013. We report detailed clinical and virological data for two related cases of MERS-CoV disease, after nosocomial transmission of the virus from one patient to another in a French hospital.

Methods: Patient 1 visited Dubai in April, 2013; patient 2 lives in France and did not travel abroad. Both patients had underlying immunosuppressive disorders. We tested specimens from the upper (nasopharyngeal swabs) or the lower (bronchoalveolar lavage, sputum) respiratory tract and whole blood, plasma, and serum specimens for MERS-CoV by real-time RT-PCR targeting the upE and Orf1A genes of MERS-CoV.

Findings: Initial clinical presentation included fever, chills, and myalgia in both patients, and for patient 1, diarrhoea. Respiratory symptoms rapidly became predominant with acute respiratory failure leading to mechanical ventilation and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). Both patients developed acute renal failure. MERS-CoV was detected in lower respiratory tract specimens with high viral load (eg, cycle threshold [Ct] values of 22·9 for upE and 24 for Orf1a for a bronchoalveolar lavage sample from patient 1; Ct values of 22·5 for upE and 23·9 for Orf1a for an induced sputum sample from patient 2), whereas nasopharyngeal specimens were weakly positive or inconclusive. The two patients shared the same room for 3 days. The incubation period was estimated at 9-12 days for the second case. No secondary transmission was documented in hospital staff despite the absence of specific protective measures before the diagnosis of MERS-CoV was suspected. Patient 1 died on May 28, due to refractory multiple organ failure.

Interpretation: Patients with respiratory symptoms returning from the Middle East or exposed to a confirmed case should be isolated and investigated for MERS-CoV with lower respiratory tract sample analysis and an assumed incubation period of 12 days. Immunosuppression should also be taken into account as a risk factor.

Funding: French Institute for Public Health Surveillance, ANR grant Labex Integrative Biology of Emerging Infectious Diseases, and the European Community's Seventh Framework Programme projects EMPERIE and PREDEMICS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(13)60982-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7159298PMC
June 2013

Comparison of vancomycin and teicoplanin trough serum levels in patients with infected orthopedic devices: new data for old therapies.

J Infect Chemother 2011 Jun 5;17(3):370-4. Epub 2010 Nov 5.

Infectious Diseases Department, Dron Hospital, 135 Rue du Président Coty, 59200 Tourcoing, France.

We compared retrospectively vancomycin and teicoplanin trough serum levels after loading doses and, subsequently, after high daily doses, in 52 patients (26 in each group) who had developed infections after implantation of an orthopedic device. The target trough serum level was > 25 mg/l. Trough levels were significantly higher at 2 days (±1) and 5 days (±1) in patients who received teicoplanin compared with patients who received a continuous perfusion of vancomycin (26.1 vs. 16 mg/l at day 2 ± 1, P = 0.01; 27.8 vs. 19.9 mg/l at day 5 ± 1, P = 0.01). One of the 26 patients taking vancomycin reached the target trough serum level by day 2 (±1), whereas 10 of the 26 patients taking teicoplanin reached the target by that time (P = 0.002). At day 5 (±1), 6/26 patients taking vancomycin reached the target, versus 13/26 patients taking teicoplanin (P = 0.04). However, physicians should remain cautious when administering teicoplanin empirically because of the higher MIC₉₀ values observed for coagulase-negative staphylococci compared with vancomycin.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10156-010-0176-zDOI Listing
June 2011

Brain abscesses during Proteus vulgaris bacteremia.

Neurol Sci 2011 Aug 2;32(4):661-3. Epub 2010 Oct 2.

Service Universitaire des Maladies Infectieuses et du Voyageur, Tourcoing, France.

Proteus vulgaris is only rarely the cause of multiple septic metastases. We describe multiple brain abscesses due to P. vulgaris in an immunocompetent patient successfully treated by antibiotic therapy and colonectomy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10072-010-0408-0DOI Listing
August 2011

Tolerability of prolonged linezolid therapy in bone and joint infection: protective effect of rifampicin on the occurrence of anaemia?

J Antimicrob Chemother 2010 Oct 29;65(10):2224-30. Epub 2010 Jul 29.

Infectious Diseases Department, Dron Hospital of Tourcoing, Tourcoing, France.

Background: Linezolid therapy has shown high rates of clinical success in patients with osteomyelitis and prosthetic joint infections caused by Gram-positive cocci. Recent studies have demonstrated that linezolid/rifampicin combination therapy prevents the emergence of rifampicin-resistant mutations in vitro. However, linezolid/rifampicin combination-related haematological and neurological toxicities have not been evaluated.

Objectives: To assess the tolerability of prolonged linezolid/rifampicin combination therapy compared with other linezolid-containing regimens in patients with bone and joint infections.

Methods: We reviewed the medical records of 94 patients who had received linezolid for >4 weeks after bone and joint infections. Anaemia was defined as a ≥2 g/dL reduction in haemoglobin, leucopenia as a total leucocyte count <4 × 10(9)/L, and thrombocytopenia as a reduction in platelet count to <75% of baseline.

Results: Anaemia was less frequent among patients on linezolid/rifampicin combination therapy than among patients on linezolid alone or in combination with other drugs (9.3%, 44% and 52%, respectively; P<0.01). In multivariate analysis, age and treatment group were independently associated with anaemia. Thrombocytopenia was reported in 44% of patients on linezolid/rifampicin combination therapy, in 48% of patients on linezolid alone and in 57.7% of patients on other linezolid-containing regimens. Age was the only variable associated with thrombocytopenia (P=0.019) in univariate analysis.

Conclusions: Linezolid/rifampicin combination therapy was associated with a significantly reduced incidence of anaemia among patients with bone and joint infections, but it did not have an effect on thrombocytopenia and peripheral neuropathy rates. Linezolid/rifampicin combination therapy was not associated with poor clinical outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jac/dkq281DOI Listing
October 2010

Spondylodiscitis and an aortic aneurysm due to Campylobacter coli.

Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob 2010 Feb 5;9. Epub 2010 Feb 5.

Department of Infectious Diseases, CH Dron Tourcoing, France.

Campylobacter coli is a rare cause of bacteremia. We report here the first case of C.coli spondylodiscitis complicated by an aortic aneurysm. Outcome was favourable with surgery and antibiotic therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1476-0711-9-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2828987PMC
February 2010

Targeted vs. systematic early antiviral treatment against A(H1N1)v influenza with neuraminidase inhibitors in patients with influenza-like symptoms: clinical and economic impact.

PLoS Curr 2009 Oct 26;1:RRN1121. Epub 2009 Oct 26.

INSERM U795 and EA2694, Faculté de Médecine de Lille, Lille, France.

Capitalizing on available data, we used a decision model to estimate the clinical and economic outcomes associated with early initiation of treatment with neuraminidase inhibitors in all patients with influenza-like illnesses ( ILI ) (systematic strategy) vs. only those at high risk of complications (targeted strategy). Systematic treatment of ILI during an A(H1N1)v influenza epidemic wave is both effective and cost-effective. Patients who present to care with ILI during an A(H1N1)v influenza epidemic wave should initiate treatment with neuraminidase inhibitors, regardless of risk status. Administering neuraminidase inhibitors between epidemic waves, when the probability of influenza is low, is less effective and cost-effective.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2768144PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/currents.rrn1121DOI Listing
October 2009

Analysis of risk factors for catheter-related bacteremia in 2000 permanent dual catheters for hemodialysis.

Blood Purif 2009 27;28(1):21-8. Epub 2009 Mar 27.

Service de Néphrologie, Hémodialyse et Soins Intensifs, CHU Lapeyronie, Montpellier, France.

Background: Infection constitutes a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in hemodialysis (HD) patients. The type of vascular access is an important determinant of the risk of infection. Therefore, identification of risk factors leading to catheter-related bacteremia (CRB) is strongly required. The aim of this prospective large cohort study of HD patients using only catheters as vascular access was to isolate risk factors for CRB.

Methods: 2,230 permanent silicone dual catheters implanted in 1,749 patients between November 1982 and November 2005 were studied. The following data were collected at the time of catheter implantation: presence of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, obesity, atherosclerosis, immunodepression, Wright-Khan index, site and side of catheter insertion, and history of bacteremia.

Results: The site of catheter insertion was internal jugular (n = 2,133), subclavian (n = 79) and femoral (n = 17). Duration of catheter use was as follows: 30-90 days (n = 1,607) and >90 days (n = 1,054); 226 episodes of bacteremia occurred in 197 catheters. Microorganisms responsible were mainly Staphylococcus aureus, coagulase-negative staphylococci, Enterobacter spp. and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The overall incidence of bacteremic episodes was 0.514/1,000 catheter days. Hypertension, atherosclerosis, diabetes mellitus, site of catheter implantation, duration of catheter use, Wright-Khan comorbidity index and previous history of CRB were significant risk factors associated with bacteremia in univariate analysis. Multivariate analysis revealed that a previous history of a bacteremic episode (odds ratio, OR = 2.70, 95% confidence interval, CI = 1.56-4.68), diabetes mellitus (OR = 2.37, 95% CI = 1.65-3.39), duration of catheter use >90 days (OR = 1.85, 95% CI = 1.35-2.55) and hypertension (OR = 1.49, 95% CI = 1.08-2.04) were still significant factors associated with bacteremia.

Conclusion: Reducing CRB is still a challenge for nephrologists to reduce patient morbidity and mortality. Our study could demonstrate that diabetes, previous history of CRB, site of catheter implantation and duration of catheter use were the most important risk factors for bacteremia. Therefore, to prevent CRB, particular attention should be paid to patients with diabetes and a previous history of bacteremia following strict hygienic and aseptic rules for catheter handling associated with the regular use of antiseptic lock solutions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000210034DOI Listing
September 2009

Needle puncture and transcutaneous bone biopsy cultures are inconsistent in patients with diabetes and suspected osteomyelitis of the foot.

Clin Infect Dis 2009 Apr;48(7):888-93

Diabetic Foot Clinic, Gustave Dron Hospital, Tourcoing, France.

Background: Needle puncture has been suggested as a method for identifying bacteria in the bones in patients with diabetes with osteomyelitis of the foot. However, no studies have compared needle puncture with concomitant transcutaneous bone biopsy, which is the current standard recommended in international guidelines.

Methods: We conducted a prospective study in 2 French diabetes foot clinics. Transcutaneous bone biopsy specimens, needle puncture specimens, and swab samples were collected on the same day for each patient.

Results: Overall, 31 patients were included in the study from July 2006 through February 2008. Twenty-one bone biopsy specimens (67.7%), 18 needle puncture specimens (58%), and 30 swab samples (96.7%) had positive culture results. Staphylococcus aureus was the most common type of bacteria that grew from bone samples, followed by Proteus mirabilis and Morganella morganii. The mean number of bacteria types per positive sample were 1.35, 1.32, and 2.51 for bone biopsy specimens, needle puncture specimens, and swab samples, respectively. Among the 20 patients with positive bone biopsy specimens (69%), 13 had positive needle puncture samples. Overall, the correlation between microbiological results was 23.9%, with S. aureus showing the strongest correlation (46.7%). Results of cultures of bone biopsy and needle puncture specimens were identical for 10 (32.3%) of 31 patients. Bone bacteria were isolated from the needle punctures in 7 (33.3%) of the 21 patients who had positive bone biopsy specimen culture results. If the results of cultures of needle puncture specimens alone had been considered, 5 patients (16.1%) would have received unnecessary treatment, and 8 patients (38.1%) who had positive bone culture results would not have been treated at all.

Conclusions: Our results suggest that needle punctures, compared with transcutaneous bone biopsies, do not identify bone bacteria reliably in patients with diabetes who have low-grade infection of the foot and suspected osteomyelitis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/597263DOI Listing
April 2009

First case of intrafamily transmission of a new MRSA clone with toxic shock syndrome toxin-1.

Scand J Infect Dis 2008 ;40(8):675-6

Service Régional Universitaire des Maladies Infectieuses et du Voyageur, Tourcoing, France.

We report the first case of intrafamily transmission of a C-MRSA clone harbouring toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1). Because of the risk of this clone to spread in the community, family members of these patients should be screened to detect and prevent the diffusion of recurrent or new infections.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00365540701827499DOI Listing
December 2008