Publications by authors named "Xavier Leleu"

251 Publications

Health-related quality of life outcomes from the CANDOR study in patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma.

Leuk Lymphoma 2021 Jun 26:1-9. Epub 2021 Jun 26.

CHU de Poitiers - La Miletrie, Poitiers, France.

CANDOR (NCT03158688) compared carfilzomib, dexamethasone, and daratumumab (KdD) to carfilzomib and dexamethasone (Kd) in patients with relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma (RRMM). A secondary objective of CANDOR was to evaluate health-related quality of life (HRQoL) scores using the Global Health Status (GHS)/Quality of Life (QoL) domain of the EORTC QLQ-C30. Scores were compared between KdD and Kd using a restricted maximum likelihood-based mixed effects model for repeated measures. GHS/QoL completion rates were >81% for both arms. Higher GHS/QoL scores were observed with KdD versus Kd from Cycle 7-26. The overall least squares mean estimate (95% CI) of the difference between treatment arms was 0.06 (-2.39 to 2.50;  = 0.96). In an exploratory analysis, 55.5% in the KdD arm and 43.0% in the Kd arm improved ≥10 points in GHS/QoL score from baseline. HRQoL was maintained with KdD, consistent with superior clinical benefit observed with KdD versus Kd in patients with RRMM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10428194.2021.1941927DOI Listing
June 2021

Isatuximab, carfilzomib, and dexamethasone in relapsed multiple myeloma (IKEMA): a multicentre, open-label, randomised phase 3 trial.

Lancet 2021 Jun 4;397(10292):2361-2371. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Department of Hematology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA.

Background: Isatuximab is an anti-CD38 monoclonal antibody approved in combination with pomalidomide-dexamethasone and carfilzomib-dexamethasone for relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma. This phase 3, open-label study compared the efficacy of isatuximab plus carfilzomib-dexamethasone versus carfilzomib-dexamethasone in patients with relapsed multiple myeloma.

Methods: This was a prospective, randomised, open-label, parallel-group, phase 3 study done at 69 study centres in 16 countries across North America, South America, Europe, and the Asia-Pacific region. Patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma aged at least 18 years who had received one to three previous lines of therapy and had measurable serum or urine M-protein were eligible. Patients were randomly assigned (3:2) to isatuximab plus carfilzomib-dexamethasone (isatuximab group) or carfilzomib-dexamethasone (control group). Patients in the isatuximab group received isatuximab 10 mg/kg intravenously weekly for the first 4 weeks, then every 2 weeks. Both groups received the approved schedule of intravenous carfilzomib and oral or intravenous dexamethasone. Treatment continued until progression or unacceptable toxicity. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival and was assessed in the intention-to-treat population according to assigned treatment. Safety was assessed in all patients who received at least one dose according to treatment received. The study is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03275285.

Findings: Between Nov 15, 2017, and March 21, 2019, 302 patients with a median of two previous lines of therapy were enrolled. 179 were randomly assigned to the isatuximab group and 123 to the control group. Median progression-free survival was not reached in the isatuximab group compared with 19·15 months (95% CI 15·77-not reached) in the control group, with a hazard ratio of 0·53 (99% CI 0·32-0·89; one-sided p=0·0007). Treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) of grade 3 or worse occurred in 136 (77%) of 177 patients in the isatuximab group versus 82 (67%) of 122 in the control group, serious TEAEs occurred in 105 (59%) versus 70 (57%) patients, and TEAEs led to discontinuation in 15 (8%) versus 17 (14%) patients. Fatal TEAEs during study treatment occurred in six (3%) versus four (3%) patients.

Interpretation: The addition of isatuximab to carfilzomib-dexamethasone significantly improves progression-free survival and depth of response in patients with relapsed multiple myeloma, representing a new standard of care for this patient population.

Funding: Sanofi. VIDEO ABSTRACT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(21)00592-4DOI Listing
June 2021

Waldenström macroglobulinemia and relationship to immune deficiency.

Leuk Lymphoma 2021 Jun 4:1-6. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Service d'Hématologie et Thérapie Cellulaire, CHU and Inserm, Poitiers, France.

Primary or secondary immune deficiency (ID) is a risk factor, although rare, to develop Waldenström macroglobulinemia (WM). We aimed to better understand the incidence of this occurrence in the real-life and the outcome of either entity. We conducted a review of 194 WM in the Poitou-Charentes registry and identified 7 (3.6%) with a prior history of ID. Across the 7 WM with ID, 4 progressed to active WM disease and required treatment for WM with a median time between WM diagnosis and the first treatment of 1.5 years (range 0-3). The median time from ID to WM occurrence was 8 years (1-18). WM could develop from ID, although a rare event. Our first action was to systematically decrease immunosuppression with long-term control of ID. Half of indolent WM remained indolent despite ID and for remaining WM none appeared of poor risk WM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10428194.2021.1907379DOI Listing
June 2021

Selinexor, bortezomib, and dexamethasone versus bortezomib and dexamethasone in previously treated multiple myeloma: Outcomes by cytogenetic risk.

Am J Hematol 2021 Jun 1. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Karyopharm Therapeutics Inc., Newton, Massachusetts, USA.

In the phase 3 BOSTON study, patients with multiple myeloma (MM) after 1-3 prior regimens were randomized to once-weekly selinexor (an oral inhibitor of exportin 1 [XPO1]) plus bortezomib-dexamethasone (XVd) or twice-weekly bortezomib-dexamethasone (Vd). Compared with Vd, XVd was associated with significant improvements in median progression-free survival (PFS), overall response rate (ORR), and lower rates of peripheral neuropathy, with trends in overall survival (OS) favoring XVd. In BOSTON, 141 (35.1%) patients had MM with high-risk (presence of del[17p], t[4;14], t[14;16], or ≥4 copies of amp1q21) cytogenetics (XVd, n = 70; Vd, n = 71), and 261 (64.9%) exhibited standard-risk cytogenetics (XVd, n = 125; Vd, n = 136). Among patients with high-risk MM, median PFS was 12.91 months for XVd and 8.61 months for Vd (HR, 0.73 [95% CI, (0.4673, 1.1406)], p = 0.082), and ORRs were 78.6% and 57.7%, respectively (OR 2.68; p = 0.004). In the standard-risk subgroup, median PFS was 16.62 months for XVd and 9.46 months for Vd (HR 0.61; p = 0.004), and ORRs were 75.2% and 64.7%, respectively (OR 1.65; p = 0.033). The safety profiles of XVd and Vd in both subgroups were consistent with the overall population. These data suggest that selinexor can confer benefits to patients with MM regardless of cytogenetic risk. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT03110562.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajh.26261DOI Listing
June 2021

Real-world comparative effectiveness of triplets containing bortezomib (B), carfilzomib (C), daratumumab (D), or ixazomib (I) in relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma (RRMM) in the US.

Ann Hematol 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA.

Multiple available combinations of proteasome inhibitors, immunomodulators (IMIDs), and monoclonal antibodies are shifting the relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma (RRMM) treatment landscape. Lack of head-to-head trials of triplet regimens highlights the need for real-world (RW) evidence. We conducted an RW comparative effectiveness analysis of bortezomib (V), carfilzomib (K), ixazomib (I), and daratumumab (D) combined with either lenalidomide or pomalidomide plus dexamethasone (Rd or Pd) in RRMM. A retrospective cohort of patients initiating triplet regimens in line of therapy (LOT) ≥ 2 on/after 1/1/2014 was followed between 1/2007 and 3/2018 in Optum's deidentified US electronic health records database. Time to next treatment (TTNT) was estimated using Kaplan-Meier methods; regimens were compared using covariate-adjusted Cox proportional hazard models. Seven hundred forty-one patients (820 patient LOTs) with an Rd backbone (VRd, n = 349; KRd, n = 218; DRd, n = 99; IRd, n = 154) and 348 patients (392 patient LOTs) with a Pd backbone (VPd, n = 52; KPd, n = 146; DPd, n = 149; IPd, n = 45) in LOTs ≥2 were identified. More patients ≥75 years received IRd (39.6%), IPd (37.8%), and VRd (36.7%) than other triplets. More patients receiving VRd/VPd were in LOT2 vs other triplets. Unadjusted median TTNT in LOT ≥ 2: VRd, 13.9; KRd, 8.7; IRd, 11.4; DRd, not estimable (NE); and VPd, 12.0; KPd, 6.7; IPd, 9.5 months; DPd, NE. In covariate-adjusted analysis, only KRd vs DRd was associated with a significantly higher risk of next LOT initiation/death (HR 1.72; P = 0.0142); no Pd triplet was significantly different vs DPd in LOT ≥ 2. Our data highlight important efficacy/effectiveness gaps between results observed in phase 3 clinical trials and those realized in the RW.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00277-021-04534-8DOI Listing
May 2021

Effect of prior treatments on selinexor, bortezomib, and dexamethasone in previously treated multiple myeloma.

J Hematol Oncol 2021 Apr 13;14(1):59. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Karyopharm Therapeutics Inc, Newton, MA, USA.

Therapeutic regimens for previously treated multiple myeloma (MM) may not provide prolonged disease control and are often complicated by significant adverse events, including peripheral neuropathy. In patients with previously treated MM in the Phase 3 BOSTON study, once weekly selinexor, once weekly bortezomib, and 40 mg dexamethasone (XVd) demonstrated a significantly longer median progression-free survival (PFS), higher response rates, deeper responses, a trend to improved survival, and reduced incidence and severity of bortezomib-induced peripheral neuropathy when compared with standard twice weekly bortezomib and 80 mg dexamethasone (Vd). The pre-specified analyses described here evaluated the influence of the number of prior lines of therapy, prior treatment with lenalidomide, prior proteasome inhibitor (PI) therapy, prior immunomodulatory drug therapy, and prior autologous stem cell transplant (ASCT) on the efficacy and safety of XVd compared with Vd. In this 1:1 randomized study, enrolled patients were assigned to receive once weekly oral selinexor (100 mg) with once weekly subcutaneous bortezomib (1.3 mg/m) and 40 mg per week dexamethasone (XVd) versus standard twice weekly bortezomib and 80 mg per week dexamethasone (Vd). XVd significantly improved PFS, overall response rate, time-to-next-treatment, and showed reduced all grade and grade ≥ 2 peripheral neuropathy compared with Vd regardless of prior treatments, but the benefits of XVd over Vd were more pronounced in patients treated earlier in their disease course who had either received only one prior therapy, had never been treated with a PI, or had prior ASCT. Treatment with XVd improved outcomes as compared to Vd regardless of prior therapies as well as manageable and generally reversible adverse events. XVd was associated with clinical benefit and reduced peripheral neuropathy compared to standard Vd in previously treated MM. These results suggest that the once weekly XVd regimen may be optimally administered to patients earlier in their course of disease, as their first bortezomib-containing regimen, and in those relapsing after ASCT.Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT03110562). Registered 12 April 2017. https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03110562 .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13045-021-01071-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8045319PMC
April 2021

Up-front carfilzomib, lenalidomide, and dexamethasone with transplant for patients with multiple myeloma: the IFM KRd final results.

Blood 2021 07;138(2):113-121

Hématologie, Institut Universitaire du Cancer (IUC) Oncopole, Toulouse, France.

Bortezomib, lenalidomide, and dexamethasone plus transplant is a standard of care for eligible patients with multiple myeloma. Because responses can deepen with time, regimens with longer and more potent induction/consolidation phases are needed. In this phase 2 study, patients received eight 28-day cycles of carfilzomib (K) 20/36 mg/m2 (days 1-2, 8-9, 15-16), lenalidomide (R) 25 mg (days 1-21), and dexamethasone (d) 20 mg (days 1-2, 8-9, 15-16, 22-23). All patients proceeded to transplant after 4 cycles and received 1 year of lenalidomide maintenance (10 mg, days 1-21). The primary objective was stringent complete response at the completion of consolidation. Overall, 48 patients were screened and 46 enrolled; 21% had adverse cytogenetics. Among 42 evaluable patients after consolidation, 26 were in stringent complete response (CR; 61.9%), 27 were at least in CR (64.3%): 92.6% had undetectable minimal residual disease according to flow cytometry (≥2.5 × 10-5) and 63.0% according to next-generation sequencing (10-6). Median time to CR was 10.6 months. According to multiparametric flow cytometry and next-generation sequencing, 69.0% and 66.7% of patients, respectively, had undetectable minimal residual disease at some point. With a median follow-up of 60.5 months, 21 patients progressed, and 10 died (7 of multiple myeloma). Median progression-free survival was 56.4 months. There were no KRd-related deaths. Four patients discontinued the program due to toxicities; 56 serious adverse events were reported in 31 patients, including 8 cardiovascular events (2 heart failures, 5 pulmonary embolisms or deep vein thrombosis). Common grade 3/4 adverse events were hematologic (74%) and infectious (22%). In summary, 8 cycles of KRd produce fast and deep responses in transplant-eligible patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma. The safety profile is acceptable, but cardiovascular adverse events should be closely monitored. This clinical trial is registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT02405364.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood.2021010744DOI Listing
July 2021

Ixazomib-lenalidomide-dexamethasone in routine clinical practice: effectiveness in relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma.

Future Oncol 2021 Jul 26;17(19):2499-2512. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Institute of Biostatistics & Analyses, Ltd, Brno, 602 00, Czech Republic.

To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of ixazomib-lenalidomide-dexamethasone (IRd) in relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma in routine clinical practice. Patient-level data from the global, observational INSIGHT MM and the Czech Registry of Monoclonal Gammopathies were integrated and analyzed. At data cut-off, 263 patients from 13 countries were included. Median time from diagnosis to start of IRd was 35.8 months; median duration of follow-up was 14.8 months. Overall response rate was 73%, median progression-free survival, 21.2 months and time-to-next therapy, 33.0 months. Ixazomib/lenalidomide dose reductions were required in 17%/36% of patients; 32%/30% of patients discontinued ixazomib/lenalidomide due to adverse events. The effectiveness and safety of IRd in routine clinical practice are comparable to those reported in TOURMALINE-MM1. NCT02761187 (ClinicalTrials.gov).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2217/fon-2020-1225DOI Listing
July 2021

Effect of age and frailty on the efficacy and tolerability of once-weekly selinexor, bortezomib, and dexamethasone in previously treated multiple myeloma.

Am J Hematol 2021 06 3;96(6):708-718. Epub 2021 May 3.

Karyopharm Therapeutics Inc., Newton, Massachusetts, USA.

Elderly and frail patients with multiple myeloma (MM) are more vulnerable to the toxicity of combination therapies, often resulting in treatment modifications and suboptimal outcomes. The phase 3 BOSTON study showed that once-weekly selinexor and bortezomib with low-dose dexamethasone (XVd) improved PFS and ORR compared with standard twice-weekly bortezomib and moderate-dose dexamethasone (Vd) in patients with previously treated MM. This is a retrospective subgroup analysis of the multicenter, prospective, randomized BOSTON trial. Post hoc analyses were performed to compare XVd versus Vd safety and efficacy according to age and frailty status (<65 and ≥65 years, nonfrail and frail). Patients ≥65 years with XVd had higher ORR (OR 1.77, p = .024), ≥VGPR (OR, 1.68, p = .027), PFS (HR 0.55, p = .002), and improved OS (HR 0.63, p = .030), compared with Vd. In frail patients, XVd was associated with a trend towards better PFS (HR 0.69, p = .08) and OS (HR 0.62, p = .062). Significant improvements were also observed in patients <65 (ORR and TTNT) and nonfrail patients (PFS, ORR, ≥VGPR, and TTNT). Patients treated with XVd had a lower incidence of grade ≥ 2 peripheral neuropathy in ≥65 year-old (22% vs. 37%; p = .0060) and frail patients (15% vs. 44%; p = .0002). Grade ≥3 TEAEs were not observed more often in older compared to younger patients, nor in frail compared to nonfrail patients. XVd is safe and effective in patients <65 and ≥65 and in nonfrail and frail patients with previously treated MM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajh.26172DOI Listing
June 2021

Expert review on soft-tissue plasmacytomas in multiple myeloma: definition, disease assessment and treatment considerations.

Br J Haematol 2021 Mar 16. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Berlín, Germany.

In this review, two types of soft-tissue involvement in multiple myeloma are defined: (i) extramedullary (EMD) with haematogenous spread involving only soft tissues and (ii) paraskeletal (PS) with tumour masses arising from skeletal lesions. The incidence of EMD and PS plasmacytomas at diagnosis ranges from 1·7% to 4·5% and 7% to 34·4% respectively. EMD disease is often associated with high-risk cytogenetics, resistance to therapy and worse prognosis than in PS involvement. In patients with PS involvement a proteasome inhibitor-based regimen may be the best option followed by autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) in transplant eligible patients. In patients with EMD disease who are not eligible for ASCT, a proteasome inhibitor-based regimen such as lenalidomide-bortezomib-dexamethasone (RVD) may be the best option, while for those eligible for high-dose therapy a myeloma/lymphoma-like regimen such as bortezomib, thalidomide and dexamethasone (VTD)-RVD/cisplatin, doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide and etoposide (PACE) followed by SCT should be considered. In both EMD and PS disease at relapse many strategies have been tried, but this remains a high-unmet need population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjh.17338DOI Listing
March 2021

Treatment of relapsed and refractory multiple myeloma: recommendations from the International Myeloma Working Group.

Lancet Oncol 2021 03;22(3):e105-e118

Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen University, Copenhagen, Denmark.

This Policy Review presents the International Myeloma Working Group's clinical practice recommendations for the treatment of relapsed and refractory multiple myeloma. Based on the results of phase 2 and phase 3 trials, these recommendations are proposed for the treatment of patients with relapsed and refractory disease who have received one previous line of therapy, and for patients with relapsed and refractory multiple myeloma who have received two or more previous lines of therapy. These recommendations integrate the issue of drug access in both low-income and middle-income countries and in high-income countries to help guide real-world practice and thus improve patient outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1470-2045(20)30756-7DOI Listing
March 2021

Denosumab compared with zoledronic acid on PFS in multiple myeloma: exploratory results of an international phase 3 study.

Blood Adv 2021 02;5(3):725-736

The Institute of Cancer Research and The Royal Marsden Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, London, United Kingdom.

An exploratory end point from a recent trial in patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma showed that median progression-free survival (PFS) was increased by 10.7 months with denosumab vs zoledronic acid. We performed additional analyses to identify factors that may have contributed to the favorable PFS with denosumab. Ad hoc analyses were performed for patients intending to undergo autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT; ASCT intent), not intending to undergo ASCT (ASCT no intent), and intent-to-treat according to age (<70 or ≥70 years) and baseline renal function (≤60 mL/min or >60 mL/min creatinine clearance [CrCl]). Of 1718 patients, 930 (54.1%) were in the ASCT-intent subgroup, and 788 (45.9%) were in the ASCT-no-intent subgroup. In the ASCT-intent subgroup, frontline triplet (median PFS, not estimable vs 35.7 months; hazard ratio [HR] [95% confidence interval (CI)], 0.65 [0.47-0.90]; descriptive P = .009) or bortezomib-only (median PFS, not estimable vs not estimable; HR [95% CI], 0.61 [0.39-0.95]; descriptive P = .029) induction regimens demonstrated the strongest PFS benefit favoring denosumab vs zoledronic acid. In the ASCT-no-intent subgroup, no benefit with denosumab vs zoledronic acid was observed. PFS favored denosumab vs zoledronic acid in patients with CrCl >60 mL/min and in patients <70 years old, but no difference was observed in patients with CrCl ≤60 mL/min or patients ≥70 years old. The PFS difference observed with denosumab is one of the notable benefits reported in newly diagnosed multiple myeloma and was most pronounced in patients intending to undergo ASCT and those who received proteasome inhibitor (PI)-based triplet regimens. This study was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT01345019.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2020002378DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7876889PMC
February 2021

Melflufen and Dexamethasone in Heavily Pretreated Relapsed and Refractory Multiple Myeloma.

J Clin Oncol 2021 Mar 9;39(7):757-767. Epub 2020 Dec 9.

Hospital Clínico Universitario de Salamanca/IBSAL/CIC, Salamanca, Spain.

Purpose: Melphalan flufenamide (melflufen) is a first-in-class peptide-drug conjugate that targets aminopeptidases and rapidly and selectively releases alkylating agents into tumor cells. The phase II HORIZON trial evaluated the efficacy of melflufen plus dexamethasone in relapsed and refractory multiple myeloma (RRMM), a population with an important unmet medical need.

Patients And Methods: Patients with RRMM refractory to pomalidomide and/or an anti-CD38 monoclonal antibody received melflufen 40 mg intravenously on day 1 of each 28-day cycle plus once weekly oral dexamethasone at a dose of 40 mg (20 mg in patients older than 75 years). The primary end point was overall response rate (partial response or better) assessed by the investigator and confirmed by independent review. Secondary end points included duration of response, progression-free survival, overall survival, and safety. The primary analysis is complete with long-term follow-up ongoing.

Results: Of 157 patients (median age 65 years; median five prior lines of therapy) enrolled and treated, 119 patients (76%) had triple-class-refractory disease, 55 (35%) had extramedullary disease, and 92 (59%) were refractory to previous alkylator therapy. The overall response rate was 29% in the all-treated population, with 26% in the triple-class-refractory population. In the all-treated population, median duration of response was 5.5 months, median progression-free survival was 4.2 months, and median overall survival was 11.6 months at a median follow-up of 14 months. Grade ≥ 3 treatment-emergent adverse events occurred in 96% of patients, most commonly neutropenia (79%), thrombocytopenia (76%), and anemia (43%). Pneumonia (10%) was the most common grade 3/4 nonhematologic event. Thrombocytopenia and bleeding (both grade 3/4 but fully reversible) occurred concomitantly in four patients. GI events, reported in 97 patients (62%), were predominantly grade 1/2 (93%); none were grade 4.

Conclusion: Melflufen plus dexamethasone showed clinically meaningful efficacy and a manageable safety profile in patients with heavily pretreated RRMM, including those with triple-class-refractory and extramedullary disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.20.02259DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8078327PMC
March 2021

Front-line daratumumab-VTd versus standard-of-care in ASCT-eligible multiple myeloma: matching-adjusted indirect comparison.

Immunotherapy 2021 Feb 24;13(2):143-154. Epub 2020 Nov 24.

Erasmus University Medical Center Cancer Institute, Rotterdam 3015 GD, The Netherlands.

To compare daratumumab plus standard-of-care (SoC; bortezomib/thalidomide/dexamethasone [VTd]) and VTd alone with other SoC for transplant-eligible newly diagnosed multiple myeloma. We conducted an unanchored matching-adjusted indirect comparison of progression-free and overall survival (PFS/OS) with D-VTd/VTd versus bortezomib/lenalidomide/dexamethasone (VRd), bortezomib/cyclophosphamide/dexamethasone (VCd) and bortezomib/dexamethasone (Vd). After matching adjustment, significant improvements in PFS were estimated for D-VTd versus VRd (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.47 [95% CI: 0.33-0.69]), VCd (HR: 0.35 [95% CI: 0.21-0.58]) and Vd (HR: 0.42 [95% CI: 0.28-0.63]). OS was significantly longer with D-VTd versus VRd (HR: 0.31 [95% CI: 0.16-0.57]), VCd (HR: 0.35 [95% CI: 0.14-0.86]) and Vd (HR: 0.38 [95% CI: 0.18-0.77]). No significant PFS/OS differences were seen for VTd versus other SoC. This analysis supports front-line daratumumab for transplant-eligible newly diagnosed multiple myeloma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2217/imt-2020-0266DOI Listing
February 2021

Once-per-week selinexor, bortezomib, and dexamethasone versus twice-per-week bortezomib and dexamethasone in patients with multiple myeloma (BOSTON): a randomised, open-label, phase 3 trial.

Lancet 2020 11;396(10262):1563-1573

University Hospital "Sv Georgi" EAD, Clinic of Clinical Hematology, Medical University of Plovdiv, Plovdiv, Bulgaria.

Background: Selinexor combined with dexamethasone has shown activity in patients with heavily pre-treated multiple myeloma. In a phase 1b/2 study, the combination of oral selinexor with bortezomib (a proteasome inhibitor) and dexamethasone induced high response rates with low rates of peripheral neuropathy, the main dose-limiting toxicity of bortezomib. We aimed to evaluate the clinical benefit of weekly selinexor, bortezomib, and dexamethasone versus standard bortezomib and dexamethasone in patients with previously treated multiple myeloma.

Methods: This phase 3, randomised, open-label trial was done at 123 sites in 21 countries. Patients aged 18 years or older, who had multiple myeloma, and who had previously been treated with one to three lines of therapy, including proteasome inhibitors, were randomly allocated (1:1) to receive selinexor (100 mg once per week), bortezomib (1·3 mg/m once per week), and dexamethasone (20 mg twice per week), or bortezomib (1·3 mg/m twice per week for the first 24 weeks and once per week thereafter) and dexamethasone (20 mg four times per week for the first 24 weeks and twice per week thereafter). Randomisation was done using interactive response technology and stratified by previous proteasome inhibitor therapy, lines of treatment, and multiple myeloma stage. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival in the intention-to-treat population. Patients who received at least one dose of study treatment were included in the safety population. This trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03110562. The trial is ongoing, with 55 patients remaining on randomised therapy as of Feb 20, 2020.

Findings: Of 457 patients screened for eligibility, 402 were randomly allocated-195 (49%) to the selinexor, bortezomib, and dexamethasone group and 207 (51%) to the bortezomib and dexamethasone group-and the first dose of study medication was given between June 6, 2017, and Feb 5, 2019. Median follow-up durations were 13·2 months [IQR 6·2-19·8] for the selinexor, bortezomib, and dexamethasone group and 16·5 months [9·4-19·8] for the bortezomib and dexamethasone group. Median progression-free survival was 13·93 months (95% CI 11·73-not evaluable) with selinexor, bortezomib, and dexamethasone and 9·46 months (8·11-10·78) with bortezomib and dexamethasone (hazard ratio 0·70 [95% CI 0·53-0·93], p=0·0075). The most frequent grade 3-4 adverse events were thrombocytopenia (77 [39%] of 195 patients in the selinexor, bortezomib, and dexamethasone group vs 35 [17%] of 204 in the bortezomib and dexamethasone group), fatigue (26 [13%] vs two [1%]), anaemia (31 [16%] vs 20 [10%]), and pneumonia (22 [11%] vs 22 [11%]). Peripheral neuropathy of grade 2 or above was less frequent with selinexor, bortezomib, and dexamethasone (41 [21%] patients) than with bortezomib and dexamethasone (70 [34%] patients; odds ratio 0·50 [95% CI 0·32-0·79], p=0·0013). 47 (24%) patients in the selinexor, bortezomib, and dexamethasone group and 62 (30%) in the bortezomib and dexamethasone group died.

Interpretation: A once-per-week regimen of selinexor, bortezomib, and dexamethasone is a novel, effective, and convenient treatment option for patients with multiple myeloma who have received one to three previous lines of therapy.

Funding: Karyopharm Therapeutics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)32292-3DOI Listing
November 2020

Three Drug Combinations in the Treatment of Fit Elderly Multiple Myeloma Patients.

J Clin Med 2020 Nov 4;9(11). Epub 2020 Nov 4.

Service d'Hematologie et Therapie Cellulaire, and Inserm CIC U1402, 86000 Poitiers, France.

The multiple myeloma (MM) non transplant eligible (NTE) population is growing in line with the aging of the population in Western countries. Historically, this population has been known for having a greater risk of treatment related toxicity, and therefore drug development was slow and rather oriented towards the improvement of safety profile than the optimization of disease control. However, NTE MM patients, at least for the fit/non frail patients in recent years, seemed to have benefited more from a less palliative care to improve the depth of response and then prolong survival. NTE MM being a quite heterogeneous population, there are still a number of groups of patients that are in need of more efficient therapy, avoiding unnecessary toxicity, particularly for the frail patients. The use of triplet regimen with a melphalan-prednisone (MP) backbone has long been the standard of care for NTE MM, often dedicated to non-frail patients. New standards of care, triplet, and even quadruplet combinations, are emerging on the basis of the MP backbone but also on the more recently approved lenalidomide-dexamethasone (Rd) backbone. These developments were largely possible in line with the development of antibody-based immunotherapies (IT) in MM. The objective to improve outcomes with an acceptable safety profile will see other key therapeutic developments such as the dropping of dexamethasone early in the disease course or various attempts to allow permanent treatment discontinuation with a prolonged disease control. In that context, it is possible that immunomonitoring, minimal residual disease (MRD), and genomic risk-adaptation will become key elements of the treatment decisions on triplet-based regimens.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm9113554DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7694236PMC
November 2020

Efficacy and safety of weekly carfilzomib (70 mg/m), dexamethasone, and daratumumab (KdD70) is comparable to twice-weekly KdD56 while being a more convenient dosing option: a cross-study comparison of the CANDOR and EQUULEUS studies.

Leuk Lymphoma 2021 02 28;62(2):358-367. Epub 2020 Oct 28.

John Theurer Cancer Center, Hackensack University Medical Center, Hackensack, NJ, USA.

The regimen of carfilzomib, daratumumab, and dexamethasone (KdD) shows activity in patients with relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma. KdD at the twice-weekly 56 mg/m carfilzomib dose (KdD56) was used in the randomized phase 3 CANDOR study (NCT03158688), whereas KdD at the once-weekly 70 mg/m carfilzomib dose (KdD70) was used in the phase 1 b EQUULEUS study (NCT01998971). We analyzed efficacy data from comparable CANDOR and EQUULEUS patients using inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW)-adjusted models. These weights were calculated from propensity scores derived to balance prespecified baseline covariates. The side-by-side and adjusted comparisons showed similar efficacy for overall response rates and progression-free survival in the two groups, with a series of sensitivity analyses showing consistent findings. Safety data were generally consistent with the known safety profiles of each individual drug. Once-weekly KdD70 is comparable to twice-weekly KdD56 in terms of efficacy and safety while being a more convenient dosing option.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10428194.2020.1832672DOI Listing
February 2021

del(17p) without TP53 mutation confers a poor prognosis in intensively treated newly diagnosed patients with multiple myeloma.

Blood 2021 03;137(9):1192-1195

Unit for Genomics in Myeloma, Institut Universitaire du Cancer de Toulouse-Oncopole, University Hospital, Toulouse, France.

Despite tremendous improvements in the outcome of patients with multiple myeloma in the past decade, high-risk patients have not benefited from the approval of novel drugs. The most important prognostic factor is the loss of parts of the short arm of chromosome 17, known as deletion 17p (del(17p)). A recent publication (on a small number of patients) suggested that these patients are at very high-risk only if del(17p) is associated with TP53 mutations, the so-called "double-hit" population. To validate this finding, we designed a much larger study on 121 patients presenting del(17p) in > 55% of their plasma cells, and homogeneously treated by an intensive approach. For these 121 patients, we performed deep next generation sequencing targeted on TP53. The outcome was then compared with a large control population (2505 patients lacking del(17p)). Our results confirmed that the "double hit" situation is the worst (median survival = 36 months), but that del(17p) alone also confers a poor outcome compared with the control cohort (median survival = 52.8 months vs 152.2 months, respectively). In conclusion, our study clearly confirms the extremely poor outcome of patients displaying "double hit," but also that del(17p) alone is still a very high-risk feature, confirming its value as a prognostic indicator for poor outcome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood.2020008346DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7933766PMC
March 2021

International Myeloma Working Group risk stratification model for smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM).

Blood Cancer J 2020 10 16;10(10):102. Epub 2020 Oct 16.

Clinica Universidad de Navarra, CIMA, CIBERONC, IDISNA, Pamplona, Spain.

Smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM) is an asymptomatic precursor state of multiple myeloma (MM). Recently, MM was redefined to include biomarkers predicting a high risk of progression from SMM, thus necessitating a redefinition of SMM and its risk stratification. We assembled a large cohort of SMM patients meeting the revised IMWG criteria to develop a new risk stratification system. We included 1996 patients, and using stepwise selection and multivariable analysis, we identified three independent factors predicting progression risk at 2 years: serum M-protein >2 g/dL (HR: 2.1), involved to uninvolved free light-chain ratio >20 (HR: 2.7), and marrow plasma cell infiltration >20% (HR: 2.4). This translates into 3 categories with increasing 2-year progression risk: 6% for low risk (38%; no risk factors, HR: 1); 18% for intermediate risk (33%; 1 factor; HR: 3.0), and 44% for high risk (29%; 2-3 factors). Addition of cytogenetic abnormalities (t(4;14), t(14;16), +1q, and/or del13q) allowed separation into 4 groups (low risk with 0, low intermediate risk with 1, intermediate risk with 2, and high risk with ≥3 risk factors) with 6, 23, 46, and 63% risk of progression in 2 years, respectively. The 2/20/20 risk stratification model can be easily implemented to identify high-risk SMM for clinical research and routine practice and will be widely applicable.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41408-020-00366-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7567803PMC
October 2020

Multiple Myeloma: An Overview of the Current and Novel Therapeutic Approaches in 2020.

Cancers (Basel) 2020 Oct 8;12(10). Epub 2020 Oct 8.

Department of Internal Medicine, and CIC1402 INSERM unit, Poitiers University Hospital, 2 Rue de la Milétrie, 86021 Poitiers, France.

The survival rate of multiple myeloma (MM) patients has drastically increased recently as a result of the wide treatment options now available. Younger patients truly benefit from these innovations as they can support more intensive treatment, such as autologous stem cell transplant or multiple drug association (triplet, quadruplet). The emergence of immunotherapy allowed new combinations principally based on monoclonal anti-CD38 antibodies for these patients. Still, the optimal induction treatment has not been found yet. While consolidation is still debated, maintenance treatment is now well acknowledged to prolong survival. Lenalidomide monotherapy is the only drug approved in that setting, but many innovations are expected. Older patients, now logically named not transplant-eligible, also took advantage of these breakthrough innovations as most of the recent drugs have a more acceptable safety profile than previous cytotoxic agents. For this heterogenous subgroup, geriatric assessment has become an essential tool to identify frail patients and provide tailored strategies. At relapse, options are now numerous, especially for patients who were not treated with lenalidomide, or not refractory at least. Concerning lenalidomide refractory patients, approved combinations are lacking, but many trials are ongoing to fill that space. Moreover, innovative therapeutics are increasingly being developed with modern immunotherapy, such as chimeric antigen receptor T-cells (CAR-T cells), bispecific antibodies, or antibody-drug conjugates. For now, these treatments are usually reserved to heavily pre-treated patients with a poor outcome. MM drug classes have tremendously extended from historical alkylating agents to current dominant associations with proteasome inhibitors, immunomodulatory agents, and monoclonal anti-CD38/anti SLAMF7 antibodies. Plus, in only a couple of years, several new classes will enter the MM armamentarium, such as cereblon E3 ligase modulators (CELMoDs), selective inhibitors of nuclear export, and peptide-drug conjugates. Among the questions that will need to be answered in the years to come is the position of these new treatments in the therapeutic strategy, as well as the role of minimal residual disease-driven strategies which will be a key issue to elucidate. Through this review, we chose to enumerate and comment on the most recent advances in MM therapeutics which have undergone major transformations over the past decade.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers12102885DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7600346PMC
October 2020

Ixazomib as Postinduction Maintenance for Patients With Newly Diagnosed Multiple Myeloma Not Undergoing Autologous Stem Cell Transplantation: The Phase III TOURMALINE-MM4 Trial.

J Clin Oncol 2020 12 6;38(34):4030-4041. Epub 2020 Oct 6.

Department of Hematology and Medical Oncology, Winship Cancer Institute of Emory University, Atlanta, GA.

Purpose: Maintenance therapy prolongs progression-free survival (PFS) in patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (NDMM) not undergoing autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) but has generally been limited to immunomodulatory agents. Other options that complement the induction regimen with favorable toxicity are needed.

Patients And Methods: The phase III, double-blind, placebo-controlled TOURMALINE-MM4 study randomly assigned (3:2) patients with NDMM not undergoing ASCT who achieved better than or equal to partial response after 6-12 months of standard induction therapy to receive the oral proteasome inhibitor (PI) ixazomib or placebo on days 1, 8, and 15 of 28-day cycles as maintenance for 24 months. The primary endpoint was PFS since time of randomization.

Results: Patients were randomly assigned to receive ixazomib (n = 425) or placebo (n = 281). TOURMALINE-MM4 met its primary endpoint with a 34.1% reduction in risk of progression or death with ixazomib versus placebo (median PFS since randomization, 17.4 9.4 months; hazard ratio [HR], 0.659; 95% CI, 0.542 to 0.801; < .001; median follow-up, 21.1 months). Ixazomib significantly benefitted patients who achieved complete or very good partial response postinduction (median PFS, 25.6 12.9 months; HR, 0.586; < .001). With ixazomib versus placebo, 36.6% versus 23.2% of patients had grade ≥ 3 treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs); 12.9% versus 8.0% discontinued treatment because of TEAEs. Common any-grade TEAEs included nausea (26.8% 8.0%), vomiting (24.2% 4.3%), and diarrhea (23.2% 12.3%). There was no increase in new primary malignancies (5.2% 6.2%); rates of on-study deaths were 2.6% versus 2.2%.

Conclusion: Ixazomib maintenance prolongs PFS with no unexpected toxicity in patients with NDMM not undergoing ASCT. To our knowledge, this is the first PI demonstrated in a randomized clinical trial to have single-agent efficacy for maintenance and is the first oral PI option in this patient population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.20.02060DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7768338PMC
December 2020

Melflufen for relapsed and refractory multiple myeloma.

Expert Opin Investig Drugs 2020 Oct 29;29(10):1069-1078. Epub 2020 Sep 29.

Jerome Lipper Multiple Myeloma Center, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School , Boston, MA, USA.

Introduction: The overall survival of patients with multiple myeloma has improved with the advent of novel agents; however, multiple myeloma remains incurable. Combinations of standard-of-care agents such as immunomodulators, proteasome inhibitors, and anti-CD38 monoclonal antibodies are increasingly used in earlier lines of therapy. Patients with disease that is refractory to multiple novel agents represent a population with high unmet medical need and for whom therapies with new mechanisms of action could be beneficial. Melphalan flufenamide (melflufen) has demonstrated encouraging activity in patients with relapsed and refractory multiple myeloma.

Areas Covered: This review provides an overview of the mechanism of action of melflufen, a first-in-class peptide-drug conjugate that targets aminopeptidases and rapidly delivers alkylating agents into tumor cells. It reviews key Phase I and II clinical trial data for melflufen in combination with dexamethasone as well as in triplet combinations with daratumumab or bortezomib. The safety profile of melflufen, which is characterized primarily by clinically manageable hematologic adverse events, is described.

Expert Opinion: Melflufen has potential to fill a gap in the myeloma treatment landscape by providing a new mechanism of action with clinically meaningful efficacy and a favorable safety profile in patients refractory to multiple novel agents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13543784.2020.1808884DOI Listing
October 2020

Recommendations for vaccination in multiple myeloma: a consensus of the European Myeloma Network.

Leukemia 2021 01 19;35(1):31-44. Epub 2020 Aug 19.

Department of Hematology, Odense University Hospital, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark.

Vaccination is one of the most successful medical interventions that has saved the life of millions of people. Vaccination is particularly important in patients with multiple myeloma, who have an increased risk of infections due to the disease-inherent immune suppression, and because of the immune suppressive effects of therapy. Hence, all appropriate measures should be exploited, to elicit an effective immune response to common pathogens like influenza, pneumococci, varicella zoster virus, and to those bacteria and viruses (haemophilus influenzae, meningococci, and hepatitis) that frequently may pose a significant risk to patients with multiple myeloma. Patients after autologous, and specifically after allogeneic transplantation have severely reduced antibody titers, and therefore require a broader spectrum of vaccinations. Response to vaccination in myeloma often is less vigorous than in the general population, mandating either measurement of the postvaccination antibody titers and/or repeating the vaccination. Here, we compile the existing data on vaccination in multiple myeloma and provide recommendations for clinical practice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41375-020-01016-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7787974PMC
January 2021

Bortezomib, Melphalan, and Dexamethasone for Light-Chain Amyloidosis.

J Clin Oncol 2020 10 30;38(28):3252-3260. Epub 2020 Jul 30.

Amyloidosis Research and Treatment Center "Fondazione Istituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico Policlinico San Matteo," Pavia, Italy.

Purpose: Oral melphalan and dexamethasone (MDex) were considered a standard of care in light-chain (AL) amyloidosis. In the past decade, bortezomib has been increasingly used in combination with alkylating agents and dexamethasone. We prospectively compared the efficacy and safety of MDex and MDex with the addition of bortezomib (BMDex).

Methods: This was a phase III, multicenter, randomized, open-label trial. Patients were stratified according to cardiac stage. Patients with advanced cardiac stage (stage IIIb) amyloidosis were not eligible. The primary end point was hematologic response rate at 3 months. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT01277016.

Results: A total of 109 patients, 53 in the BMDex and 56 in the MDex group, received ≥ 1 dose of therapy (from January 2011 to February 2016). Hematologic response rate at 3 months was higher in the BMDex arm (79% 52%; = .002). Higher rates of very good partial or complete response rates (64% 39%; hazard ratio [HR], 2.47; 95% CI, 1.30 to 4.71) and improved overall survival, with a 2-fold decrease in mortality rate (HR, 0.50; 95% CI, 0.27 to 0.90), were observed in the BMDex arm. Grade 3 and 4 adverse events (the most common being cytopenia, peripheral neuropathy, and heart failure) were more common in the BMDex arm, occurring in 20% versus 10% of cycles performed.

Conclusion: BMDex improved hematologic response rate and overall survival. To our knowledge, this is the first time a controlled study has demonstrated a survival advantage in AL amyloidosis. BMDex should be considered a new standard of care for AL amyloidosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.20.01285DOI Listing
October 2020
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