Publications by authors named "Xavier Crispin"

47 Publications

High Thermoelectric Performance in n-Type Perylene Bisimide Induced by the Soret Effect.

Adv Mater 2020 Nov 13;32(45):e2002752. Epub 2020 Sep 13.

Institute of Polymer Optoelectronic Materials and Devices, State Key Laboratory of Luminescent Materials and Devices, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, 510640, China.

Low-cost, non-toxic, abundant organic thermoelectric materials are currently under investigation for use as potential alternatives for the production of electricity from waste heat. While organic conductors reach electrical conductivities as high as their inorganic counterparts, they suffer from an overall low thermoelectric figure of merit (ZT) due to their small Seebeck coefficient. Moreover, the lack of efficient n-type organic materials still represents a major challenge when trying to fabricate efficient organic thermoelectric modules. Here, a novel strategy is proposed both to increase the Seebeck coefficient and achieve the highest thermoelectric efficiency for n-type organic thermoelectrics to date. An organic mixed ion-electron n-type conductor based on highly crystalline and reduced perylene bisimide is developed. Quasi-frozen ionic carriers yield a large ionic Seebeck coefficient of -3021 μV K , while the electronic carriers dominate the electrical conductivity which is as high as 0.18 S cm at 60% relative humidity. The overall power factor is remarkably high (165 μW m K ), with a ZT = 0.23 at room temperature. The resulting single leg thermoelectric generators display a high quasi-constant power output. This work paves the way for the design and development of efficient organic thermoelectrics by the rational control of the mobility of the electronic and ionic carriers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adma.202002752DOI Listing
November 2020

Elastic conducting polymer composites in thermoelectric modules.

Nat Commun 2020 Mar 18;11(1):1424. Epub 2020 Mar 18.

Laboratory of Organic Electronics, Department of Science and Technology, Linköping University, 601 74, Norrköping, Sweden.

The rapid growth of wearables has created a demand for lightweight, elastic and conformal energy harvesting and storage devices. The conducting polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) has shown great promise for thermoelectric generators, however, the thick layers of pristine poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) required for effective energy harvesting are too hard and brittle for seamless integration into wearables. Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-elastomer composites have been developed to improve its mechanical properties, although so far without simultaneously achieving softness, high electrical conductivity, and stretchability. Here we report an aqueously processed poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-polyurethane-ionic liquid composite, which combines high conductivity (>140 S cm) with superior stretchability (>600%), elasticity, and low Young's modulus (<7 MPa). The outstanding performance of this organic nanocomposite is the result of favorable percolation networks on the nano- and micro-scale and the plasticizing effect of the ionic liquid. The elastic thermoelectric material is implemented in the first reported intrinsically stretchable organic thermoelectric module.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-15135-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7080746PMC
March 2020

Can Hybrid Na-Air Batteries Outperform Nonaqueous Na-O Batteries?

Adv Sci (Weinh) 2020 Mar 19;7(5):1902866. Epub 2020 Jan 19.

Laboratory of Organic Electronics Department of Science and Technology Linköping University SE60174 Norrköping Sweden.

In recent years, there has been an upsurge in the study of novel and alternative energy storage devices beyond lithium-based systems due to the exponential increase in price of lithium. Sodium (Na) metal-based batteries can be a possible alternative to lithium-based batteries due to the similar electrochemical voltage of Na and Li together with the thousand times higher natural abundance of Na compared to Li. Though two different kinds of Na-O batteries have been studied specifically based on electrolytes until now, very recently, a hybrid Na-air cell has shown distinctive advantage over nonaqueous cell systems. Hybrid Na-air batteries provide a fundamental advantage due to the formation of highly soluble discharge product (sodium hydroxide) which leads to low overpotentials for charge and discharge processes, high electrical energy efficiency, and good cyclic stability. Herein, the current status and challenges associated with hybrid Na-air batteries are reported. Also, a brief description of nonaqueous Na-O batteries and its close competition with hybrid Na-air batteries are provided.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/advs.201902866DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7055569PMC
March 2020

A Multiparameter Pressure-Temperature-Humidity Sensor Based on Mixed Ionic-Electronic Cellulose Aerogels.

Adv Sci (Weinh) 2019 Apr 7;6(8):1802128. Epub 2019 Feb 7.

Laboratory of Organic Electronics Department of Science and Technology Linköping University S-60174 Sweden.

Pressure (), temperature (), and humidity () are physical key parameters of great relevance for various applications such as in distributed diagnostics, robotics, electronic skins, functional clothing, and many other Internet-of-Things (IoT) solutions. Previous studies on monitoring and recording these three parameters have focused on the integration of three individual single-parameter sensors into an electronic circuit, also comprising dedicated sense amplifiers, signal processing, and communication interfaces. To limit complexity in, e.g., multifunctional IoT systems, and thus reducing the manufacturing costs of such sensing/communication outposts, it is desirable to achieve one single-sensor device that simultaneously or consecutively measures -- without cross-talks in the sensing functionality. Herein, a novel organic mixed ion-electron conducting aerogel is reported, which can sense -- with minimal cross-talk between the measured parameters. The exclusive read-out of the three individual parameters is performed electronically in one single device configuration and is enabled by the use of a novel strategy that combines electronic and ionic Seebeck effect along with mixed ion-electron conduction in an elastic aerogel. The findings promise for multipurpose IoT technology with reduced complexity and production costs, features that are highly anticipated in distributed diagnostics, monitoring, safety, and security applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/advs.201802128DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6468975PMC
April 2019

Thermoelectric materials and applications for energy harvesting power generation.

Sci Technol Adv Mater 2018 14;19(1):836-862. Epub 2018 Nov 14.

Center for Functional Sensor & Actuator (CFSN) and International Center for Materials Nanoarchitectonics (WPI-MANA), National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), Tsukuba, Japan.

Thermoelectrics, in particular solid-state conversion of heat to electricity, is expected to be a key energy harvesting technology to power ubiquitous sensors and wearable devices in the future. A comprehensive review is given on the principles and advances in the development of thermoelectric materials suitable for energy harvesting power generation, ranging from organic and hybrid organic-inorganic to inorganic materials. Examples of design and applications are also presented.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14686996.2018.1530938DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6454408PMC
November 2018

Greyscale and Paper Electrochromic Polymer Displays by UV Patterning.

Polymers (Basel) 2019 Feb 5;11(2). Epub 2019 Feb 5.

Laboratory of Organic Electronics, Department of Science and Technology, Linkoping University, SE-601 74 Norrkoping, Sweden.

Electrochromic devices have important implications as smart windows for energy efficient buildings, internet of things devices, and in low-cost advertising applications. While inorganics have so far dominated the market, organic conductive polymers possess certain advantages such as high throughput and low temperature processing, faster switching, and superior optical memory. Here, we present organic electrochromic devices that can switch between two high-resolution images, based on UV-patterning and vapor phase polymerization of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) films. We demonstrate that this technique can provide switchable greyscale images through the spatial control of a UV-light dose. The color space was able to be further altered via optimization of the oxidant concentration. Finally, we utilized a UV-patterning technique to produce functional paper with electrochromic patterns deposited on porous paper, allowing for environmentally friendly electrochromic displays.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/polym11020267DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6419265PMC
February 2019

Polymer gels with tunable ionic Seebeck coefficient for ultra-sensitive printed thermopiles.

Nat Commun 2019 03 6;10(1):1093. Epub 2019 Mar 6.

Laboratory of Organic Electronics, Department of Science and Technology, Linköping University, Norrköping, SE-60174, Sweden.

Measuring temperature and heat flux is important for regulating any physical, chemical, and biological processes. Traditional thermopiles can provide accurate and stable temperature reading but they are based on brittle inorganic materials with low Seebeck coefficient, and are difficult to manufacture over large areas. Recently, polymer electrolytes have been proposed for thermoelectric applications because of their giant ionic Seebeck coefficient, high flexibility and ease of manufacturing. However, the materials reported to date have positive Seebeck coefficients, hampering the design of ultra-sensitive ionic thermopiles. Here we report an "ambipolar" ionic polymer gel with giant negative ionic Seebeck coefficient. The latter can be tuned from negative to positive by adjusting the gel composition. We show that the ion-polymer matrix interaction is crucial to control the sign and magnitude of the ionic Seebeck coefficient. The ambipolar gel can be easily screen printed, enabling large-area device manufacturing at low cost.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-019-08930-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6403253PMC
March 2019

Ion Electron-Coupled Functionality in Materials and Devices Based on Conjugated Polymers.

Adv Mater 2019 May 8;31(22):e1805813. Epub 2019 Jan 8.

Laboratory of Organic Electronics, Department of Science and Technology, Linköping University, SE-601 74, Norrköping, Sweden.

The coupling between charge accumulation in a conjugated polymer and the ionic charge compensation, provided from an electrolyte, defines the mode of operation in a vast array of different organic electrochemical devices. The most explored mixed organic ion-electron conductor, serving as the active electrode in these devices, is poly(3,4-ethyelenedioxythiophene) doped with polystyrelensulfonate (PEDOT:PSS). In this progress report, scientists of the Laboratory of Organic Electronics at Linköping University review some of the achievements derived over the last two decades in the field of organic electrochemical devices, in particular including PEDOT:PSS as the active material. The recently established understanding of the volumetric capacitance and the mixed ion-electron charge transport properties of PEDOT are described along with examples of various devices and phenomena utilizing this ion-electron coupling, such as the organic electrochemical transistor, ionic-electronic thermodiffusion, electrochromic devices, surface switches, and more. One of the pioneers in this exciting research field is Prof. Olle Inganäs and the authors of this progress report wish to celebrate and acknowledge all the fantastic achievements and inspiration accomplished by Prof. Inganäs all since 1981.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adma.201805813DOI Listing
May 2019

Bulk electronic transport impacts on electron transfer at conducting polymer electrode-electrolyte interfaces.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2018 11 5;115(47):11899-11904. Epub 2018 Nov 5.

Department of Science and Technology, Linköping University, 60174 Norrköping, Sweden;

Electrochemistry is an old but still flourishing field of research due to the importance of the efficiency and kinetics of electrochemical reactions in industrial processes and (bio-)electrochemical devices. The heterogeneous electron transfer from an electrode to a reactant in the solution has been well studied for metal, semiconductor, metal oxide, and carbon electrodes. For those electrode materials, there is little correlation between the electronic transport within the electrode material and the electron transfer occurring at the interface between the electrode and the solution. Here, we investigate the heterogeneous electron transfer between a conducting polymer electrode and a redox couple in an electrolyte. As a benchmark system, we use poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) and the Ferro/ferricyanide redox couple in an aqueous electrolyte. We discovered a strong correlation between the electronic transport within the PEDOT electrode and the rate of electron transfer to the organometallic molecules in solution. We attribute this to a percolation-based charge transport within the polymer electrode directly involved in the electron transfer. We show the impact of this finding by optimizing an electrochemical thermogalvanic cell that transforms a heat flux into electrical power. The power generated by the cell increased by four orders of magnitude on changing the morphology and conductivity of the polymer electrode. As all conducting polymers are recognized to have percolation transport, we believe that this is a general phenomenon for this family of conductors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1806087115DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6255154PMC
November 2018

Gelatin Hydrogel-Based Organic Electrochemical Transistors and Their Integrated Logic Circuits.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2018 Nov 25;10(45):39083-39090. Epub 2018 Oct 25.

Laboratory of Organic Electronics, Department of Science and Technology , Linköping University , S-60174 Norrköping , Sweden.

We suggest gelatin hydrogel as an electrolyte and demonstrate organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs) based on a sheet of gelatin. We also modulate electrical characteristics of the OECT with respect to pH condition of the gelatin hydrogel from acid to base and analyze its characteristics based on the electrochemical theory. Moreover, we extend the gelatin-based OECT to electrochemical logic circuits, for example, NOT, NOR, and NAND gates.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.8b11362DOI Listing
November 2018

A Chemically Doped Naphthalenediimide-Bithiazole Polymer for n-Type Organic Thermoelectrics.

Adv Mater 2018 Aug 6;30(31):e1801898. Epub 2018 Jun 6.

Flexterra Corporation, 8025 Lamon Avenue, Skokie, IL, 60077, USA.

The synthesis of a novel naphthalenediimide (NDI)-bithiazole (Tz2)-based polymer [P(NDI2OD-Tz2)] is reported, and structural, thin-film morphological, as well as charge transport and thermoelectric properties are compared to the parent and widely investigated NDI-bithiophene (T2) polymer [P(NDI2OD-T2)]. Since the steric repulsions in Tz2 are far lower than in T2, P(NDI2OD-Tz2) exhibits a more planar and rigid backbone, enhancing π-π chain stacking and intermolecular interactions. In addition, the electron-deficient nature of Tz2 enhances the polymer electron affinity, thus reducing the polymer donor-acceptor character. When n-doped with amines, P(NDI2OD-Tz2) achieves electrical conductivity (≈0.1 S cm ) and a power factor (1.5 µW m K ) far greater than those of P(NDI2OD-T2) (0.003 S cm and 0.012 µW m K , respectively). These results demonstrate that planarized NDI-based polymers with reduced donor-acceptor character can achieve substantial electrical conductivity and thermoelectric response.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adma.201801898DOI Listing
August 2018

Complementary Logic Circuits Based on High-Performance n-Type Organic Electrochemical Transistors.

Adv Mater 2018 Mar 10;30(9). Epub 2018 Jan 10.

Laboratory of Organic Electronics, Department of Science and Technology, Linköping University, SE-601 74, Norrköping, Sweden.

Organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs) have been the subject of intense research in recent years. To date, however, most of the reported OECTs rely entirely on p-type (hole transport) operation, while electron transporting (n-type) OECTs are rare. The combination of efficient and stable p-type and n-type OECTs would allow for the development of complementary circuits, dramatically advancing the sophistication of OECT-based technologies. Poor stability in air and aqueous electrolyte media, low electron mobility, and/or a lack of electrochemical reversibility, of available high-electron affinity conjugated polymers, has made the development of n-type OECTs troublesome. Here, it is shown that ladder-type polymers such as poly(benzimidazobenzophenanthroline) (BBL) can successfully work as stable and efficient n-channel material for OECTs. These devices can be easily fabricated by means of facile spray-coating techniques. BBL-based OECTs show high transconductance (up to 9.7 mS) and excellent stability in ambient and aqueous media. It is demonstrated that BBL-based n-type OECTs can be successfully integrated with p-type OECTs to form electrochemical complementary inverters. The latter show high gains and large worst-case noise margin at a supply voltage below 0.6 V.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adma.201704916DOI Listing
March 2018

Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-tosylate (PEDOT-Tos) electrodes in thermogalvanic cells.

J Mater Chem A Mater 2017 Oct 6;5(37):19619-19625. Epub 2017 Sep 6.

Department of Science and Technology , Linköping University , Campus Norrköping , S-60174 , Norrköping , Sweden . Email:

The interest in thermogalvanic cells (TGCs) has grown because it is a candidate technology for harvesting electricity from natural and waste heat. However, the cost of TGCs has a major component due to the use of the platinum electrode. Here, we investigate new alternative electrode material based on conducting polymers, more especially poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-tosylate (PEDOT-Tos) together with the ferro/ferricyanide redox electrolyte. The power generated by the PEDOT-Tos based TGCs increases with the conducting polymer thickness/multilayer and reaches values similar to the flat platinum electrode based TGCs. The physics and chemistry behind this exciting result as well as the identification of the limiting phenomena are investigated by various electrochemical techniques. Furthermore, a preliminary study is provided for the stability of the PEDOT-Tos based TGCs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c7ta04891bDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5735355PMC
October 2017

Charge transport and structure in semimetallic polymers.

J Polym Sci B Polym Phys 2018 01 16;56(1):97-104. Epub 2017 Oct 16.

Thin Film Coatings Group, Future Industries Institute, University of South Australia Mawson Lakes South Australia 5095 Australia.

Owing to changes in their chemistry and structure, polymers can be fabricated to demonstrate vastly different electrical conductivities over many orders of magnitude. At the high end of conductivity is the class of conducting polymers, which are ideal candidates for many applications in low-cost electronics. Here, we report the influence of the nature of the doping anion at high doping levels within the semi-metallic conducting polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) on its electronic transport properties. Hall effect measurements on a variety of PEDOT samples show that the choice of doping anion can lead to an order of magnitude enhancement in the charge carrier mobility > 3 cm/Vs at conductivities approaching 3000 S/cm under ambient conditions. Grazing Incidence Wide Angle X-ray Scattering, Density Functional Theory calculations, and Molecular Dynamics simulations indicate that the chosen doping anion modifies the way PEDOT chains stack together. This link between structure and specific anion doping at high doping levels has ramifications for the fabrication of conducting polymer-based devices. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Polymer Science Part B: Polymer Physics Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J. Polym. Sci., Part B: Polym. Phys. , , 97-104.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/polb.24530DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5725714PMC
January 2018

Understanding the Impact of Film Disorder and Local Surface Potential in Ultraviolet Photoelectron Spectroscopy of PEDOT.

Macromol Rapid Commun 2018 Feb 6;39(4). Epub 2017 Dec 6.

Laboratory of Organic Electronics, Department of Science and Technology, Linköping University, SE-601 74, Norrköping, Sweden.

The spectra of conducting polymers obtained using ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS) exhibit a typical broadening of the tail σ ≈ 1 eV, which by an order of magnitude exceeds a commonly accepted value of the broadening of the tail of the density of states σ ≈ 0.1 eV obtained using transport measurements. In this work, an origin of this anomalous broadening of the tail of the UPS spectra in a doped conducting polymer, PEDOT (poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)), is discussed. Based on the semiempirical approach and using a realistic morphological model, the density of valence states in PEDOT doped with molecular counterions is computed. It is shown that due to a disordered character of the material with randomly distributed counterions, the localized charge carriers in PEDOT crystallites experience spatially varying electrostatic potential. This leads to spatially varying local vacuum levels and binding energies. Taking this variation into account the UPS spectrum is obtained with the broadening of the tail comparable to the experimentally observed one. The results imply that the observed broadening of the tail of the UPS spectra in PEDOT provides information about a disordered spatially varying potential in the material rather than the broadening of the DOS itself.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/marc.201700533DOI Listing
February 2018

Ferroelectric polarization induces electronic nonlinearity in ion-doped conducting polymers.

Sci Adv 2017 06 30;3(6):e1700345. Epub 2017 Jun 30.

Laboratory of Organic Electronics, Department of Science and Technology, Linköping University, SE-601 74 Norrköping, Sweden.

Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) is an organic mixed ion-electron conducting polymer. The PEDOT phase transports holes and is redox-active, whereas the PSS phase transports ions. When PEDOT is redox-switched between its semiconducting and conducting state, the electronic and optical properties of its bulk are controlled. Therefore, it is appealing to use this transition in electrochemical devices and to integrate those into large-scale circuits, such as display or memory matrices. Addressability and memory functionality of individual devices, within these matrices, are typically achieved by nonlinear current-voltage characteristics and bistability-functions that can potentially be offered by the semiconductor-conductor transition of redox polymers. However, low conductivity of the semiconducting state and poor bistability, due to self-discharge, make fast operation and memory retention impossible. We report that a ferroelectric polymer layer, coated along the counter electrode, can control the redox state of PEDOT. The polarization switching characteristics of the ferroelectric polymer, which take place as the coercive field is overcome, introduce desired nonlinearity and bistability in devices that maintain PEDOT in its highly conducting and fast-operating regime. Memory functionality and addressability are demonstrated in ferro-electrochromic display pixels and ferro-electrochemical transistors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.1700345DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5493413PMC
June 2017

Semiconducting polymers: Probing the solid-liquid interface.

Nat Mater 2017 07 19;16(7):704-705. Epub 2017 Jun 19.

Institute for Functional Imaging of Materials at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nmat4921DOI Listing
July 2017

Thermoplasmonic Semitransparent Nanohole Electrodes.

Nano Lett 2017 05 28;17(5):3145-3151. Epub 2017 Apr 28.

Laboratory of Organic Electronics, Linköping University , SE-601 74 Norrköping, Sweden.

Nonradiative decay of plasmons in metallic nanostructures offers unique means for light-to-heat conversion at the nanoscale. Typical thermoplasmonic systems utilize discrete particles, while metal nanohole arrays were instead considered suitable as heat sinks to reduce heating effects. By contrast, we show for the first time that under uniform broadband illumination (e.g., the sun) ultrathin plasmonic nanohole arrays can be highly competitive plasmonic heaters and provide significantly higher temperatures than analogous nanodisk arrays. Our plasmonic nanohole arrays also heat significantly more than nonstructured metal films, while simultaneously providing superior light transmission. Besides being efficient light-driven heat sources, these thin perforated gold films can simultaneously be used as electrodes. We used this feature to develop "plasmonic thermistors" for electrical monitoring of plasmon-induced temperature changes. The nanohole arrays provided temperature changes up to 7.5 K by simulated sunlight, which is very high compared to previously reported plasmonic systems under similar conditions (solar illumination and ambient conditions). Both temperatures and heating profiles quantitatively agree with combined optical and thermal simulations. Finally, we demonstrate the use of a thermoplasmonic nanohole electrode to power the first hybrid plasmonic ionic thermoelectric device, resulting in strong solar-induced heat gradients and corresponding thermoelectric voltages.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.nanolett.7b00574DOI Listing
May 2017

Ionic thermoelectric gating organic transistors.

Nat Commun 2017 01 31;8:14214. Epub 2017 Jan 31.

Laboratory of Organic Electronics, Department of Science and Technology, Linköping University, Norrköping SE-60174, Sweden.

Temperature is one of the most important environmental stimuli to record and amplify. While traditional thermoelectric materials are attractive for temperature/heat flow sensing applications, their sensitivity is limited by their low Seebeck coefficient (∼100 μV K). Here we take advantage of the large ionic thermoelectric Seebeck coefficient found in polymer electrolytes (∼10,000 μV K) to introduce the concept of ionic thermoelectric gating a low-voltage organic transistor. The temperature sensing amplification of such ionic thermoelectric-gated devices is thousands of times superior to that of a single thermoelectric leg in traditional thermopiles. This suggests that ionic thermoelectric sensors offer a way to go beyond the limitations of traditional thermopiles and pyroelectric detectors. These findings pave the way for new infrared-gated electronic circuits with potential applications in photonics, thermography and electronic-skins.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ncomms14214DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5290323PMC
January 2017

Thermoelectric Properties of Solution-Processed n-Doped Ladder-Type Conducting Polymers.

Adv Mater 2016 Dec 27;28(48):10764-10771. Epub 2016 Oct 27.

Laboratory of Organic Electronics, Department of Science and Technology, Linköping University, SE-60174, Norrköping, Sweden.

Ladder-type "torsion-free" conducting polymers (e.g., polybenzimidazobenzophenanthroline (BBL)) can outperform "structurally distorted" donor-acceptor polymers (e.g., P(NDI2OD-T2)), in terms of conductivity and thermoelectric power factor. The polaron delocalization length is larger in BBL than in P(NDI2OD-T2), resulting in a higher measured polaron mobility. Structure-function relationships are drawn, setting material-design guidelines for the next generation of conducting thermoelectric polymers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adma.201603731DOI Listing
December 2016

An Organic Mixed Ion-Electron Conductor for Power Electronics.

Adv Sci (Weinh) 2016 Feb 2;3(2):1500305. Epub 2015 Dec 2.

Laboratory of Organic Electronics Department of Science and Technology Linköping University SE-601 74 Norrköping Sweden.

composited with poly(3,4-ethylene-dioxythio-phene):-poly(styrene-sulfonate) along with high boiling point solvents is demonstrated in bulky electrochemical devices. The high electronic and ionic conductivities of the resulting nanopaper are exploited in devices which exhibit record values for the charge storage capacitance (1F) in supercapacitors and transconductance (1S) in electrochemical transistors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/advs.201500305DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5063141PMC
February 2016

Flexible Lamination-Fabricated Ultra-High Frequency Diodes Based on Self-Supporting Semiconducting Composite Film of Silicon Micro-Particles and Nano-Fibrillated Cellulose.

Sci Rep 2016 06 30;6:28921. Epub 2016 Jun 30.

Department of Science and Technology, Linköping University, SE-601 74 Norrköping, Sweden.

Low cost and flexible devices such as wearable electronics, e-labels and distributed sensors will make the future "internet of things" viable. To power and communicate with such systems, high frequency rectifiers are crucial components. We present a simple method to manufacture flexible diodes, operating at GHz frequencies, based on self-adhesive composite films of silicon micro-particles (Si-μPs) and glycerol dispersed in nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC). NFC, Si-μPs and glycerol are mixed in a water suspension, forming a self-supporting nanocellulose-silicon composite film after drying. This film is cut and laminated between a flexible pre-patterned Al bottom electrode and a conductive Ni-coated carbon tape top contact. A Schottky junction is established between the Al electrode and the Si-μPs. The resulting flexible diodes show current levels on the order of mA for an area of 2 mm(2), a current rectification ratio up to 4 × 10(3) between 1 and 2 V bias and a cut-off frequency of 1.8 GHz. Energy harvesting experiments have been demonstrated using resistors as the load at 900 MHz and 1.8 GHz. The diode stack can be delaminated away from the Al electrode and then later on be transferred and reconfigured to another substrate. This provides us with reconfigurable GHz-operating diode circuits.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/srep28921DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4928109PMC
June 2016

Acido-basic control of the thermoelectric properties of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)tosylate (PEDOT-Tos) thin films.

J Mater Chem C Mater 2015 Oct 9;3(40):10616-10623. Epub 2015 Sep 9.

Department of Science and Technology , Linköping University , Campus Norrköping , S-60174 Norrköping , Sweden . Email:

PEDOT-Tos is one of the conducting polymers that displays the most promising thermoelectric properties. Until now, it has been utterly difficult to control all the synthesis parameters and the morphology governing the thermoelectric properties. To improve our understanding of this material, we study the variation in the thermoelectric properties by a simple acido-basic treatment. The emphasis of this study is to elucidate the chemical changes induced by acid (HCl) or base (NaOH) treatment in PEDOT-Tos thin films using various spectroscopic and structural techniques. We could identify changes in the nanoscale morphology due to anion exchange between tosylate and Cl or OH. But, we identified that changing the pH leads to a tuning of the oxidation level of the polymer, which can explain the changes in thermoelectric properties. Hence, a simple acid-base treatment allows finding the optimum for the power factor in PEDOT-Tos thin films.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c5tc01952dDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4786950PMC
October 2015

Thermoelectric Polymers and their Elastic Aerogels.

Adv Mater 2016 Jun 2;28(22):4556-62. Epub 2016 Feb 2.

Department of Science and Technology, Campus Norrköping, Linköping University, S-60174, Norrköping, Sweden.

Electronically conducting polymers constitute an emerging class of materials for novel electronics, such as printed electronics and flexible electronics. Their properties have been further diversified to introduce elasticity, which has opened new possibility for "stretchable" electronics. Recent discoveries demonstrate that conducting polymers have thermoelectric properties with a low thermal conductivity, as well as tunable Seebeck coefficients - which is achieved by modulating their electrical conductivity via simple redox reactions. Using these thermoelectric properties, all-organic flexible thermoelectric devices, such as temperature sensors, heat flux sensors, and thermoelectric generators, are being developed. In this article we discuss the combination of the two emerging fields: stretchable electronics and polymer thermoelectrics. The combination of elastic and thermoelectric properties seems to be unique for conducting polymers, and difficult to achieve with inorganic thermoelectric materials. We introduce the basic concepts, and state of the art knowledge, about the thermoelectric properties of conducting polymers, and illustrate the use of elastic thermoelectric conducting polymer aerogels that could be employed as temperature and pressure sensors in an electronic-skin.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adma.201505364DOI Listing
June 2016

Electronic plants.

Sci Adv 2015 Nov 20;1(10):e1501136. Epub 2015 Nov 20.

Laboratory of Organic Electronics, Department of Science and Technology, Linköping University, SE-601 74 Norrköping, Sweden.

The roots, stems, leaves, and vascular circuitry of higher plants are responsible for conveying the chemical signals that regulate growth and functions. From a certain perspective, these features are analogous to the contacts, interconnections, devices, and wires of discrete and integrated electronic circuits. Although many attempts have been made to augment plant function with electroactive materials, plants' "circuitry" has never been directly merged with electronics. We report analog and digital organic electronic circuits and devices manufactured in living plants. The four key components of a circuit have been achieved using the xylem, leaves, veins, and signals of the plant as the template and integral part of the circuit elements and functions. With integrated and distributed electronics in plants, one can envisage a range of applications including precision recording and regulation of physiology, energy harvesting from photosynthesis, and alternatives to genetic modification for plant optimization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.1501136DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4681328PMC
November 2015

Experimental evidence that short-range intermolecular aggregation is sufficient for efficient charge transport in conjugated polymers.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2015 Aug 10;112(34):10599-604. Epub 2015 Aug 10.

Laboratory of Organic Electronics, Department of Science and Technology, Linköping University, SE-60174, Norrköping, Sweden;

Efficiency, current throughput, and speed of electronic devices are to a great extent dictated by charge carrier mobility. The classic approach to impart high carrier mobility to polymeric semiconductors has often relied on the assumption that extensive order and crystallinity are needed. Recently, however, this assumption has been challenged, because high mobility has been reported for semiconducting polymers that exhibit a surprisingly low degree of order. Here, we show that semiconducting polymers can be confined into weakly ordered fibers within an inert polymer matrix without affecting their charge transport properties. In these conditions, the semiconducting polymer chains are inhibited from attaining long-range order in the π-stacking or alkyl-stacking directions, as demonstrated from the absence of significant X-ray diffraction intensity corresponding to these crystallographic directions, yet still remain extended along the backbone direction and aggregate on a local length scale. As a result, the polymer films maintain high mobility even at very low concentrations. Our findings provide a simple picture that clarifies the role of local order and connectivity of domains.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1501381112DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4553794PMC
August 2015

An Electrochromic Bipolar Membrane Diode.

Adv Mater 2015 Jul 27;27(26):3909-14. Epub 2015 May 27.

Laboratory of Organic Electronics, ITN, Linköping University, SE-601 74, Norrköping, Sweden.

Conducting polymers with bipolar membranes (a complementary stack of selective membranes) may be used to rectify current. Integrating a bipolar membrane into a polymer electrochromic display obviates the need for an addressing backplane while increasing the device's bistability. Such devices can be made from solution-processable materials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adma.201500891DOI Listing
July 2015

Significant electronic thermal transport in the conducting polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene).

Adv Mater 2015 Mar 16;27(12):2101-6. Epub 2015 Feb 16.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, 78712, USA.

Suspended microdevices are employed to measure the in-plane electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, and Seebeck coefficient of suspended poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) thin films. The measured thermal conductivity is higher than previously reported for PEDOT and generally increases with the electrical conductivity. The increase exceeds that predicted by the Wiedemann-Franz law for metals and can be explained by significant electronic thermal transport in PEDOT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adma.201404738DOI Listing
March 2015

Selective remanent ambipolar charge transport in polymeric field-effect transistors for high-performance logic circuits fabricated in ambient.

Adv Mater 2014 Nov 6;26(44):7438-43. Epub 2014 Oct 6.

Laboratory of Organic Electronics, Department of Science and Technology, Linköping University, SE-601 74, Norrköping, Sweden.

Ambipolar polymeric field-effect transistors can be programmed into a p- or n-type mode by using the remanent polarization of a ferroelectric gate insulator. Due to the remanent polarity, the device architecture is suited as a building block in complementary logic circuits and in CMOS-compatible memory cells for non-destructive read-out operations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adma.201403070DOI Listing
November 2014