Publications by authors named "Xanthi Michail"

11 Publications

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Supporting government policies to embed and expand rehabilitation in health systems in Europe: A framework for action.

Health Policy 2021 Jul 4. Epub 2021 Jul 4.

Swiss Paraplegic Research, Nottwil, Switzerland; Center for Rehabilitation in Global Health Systems, Department of Health Sciences and Medicine, University of Lucerne, Switzerland. Electronic address:

Investment in action is vital to confront the challenges associated with chronic diseases and disability facing European health systems. Although relevant policy responses are being increasingly developed, most of them fail to recognize the role of rehabilitation services in achieving public health and social goals. Comprehensive guidance is thus urgently needed to support rehabilitation policy development and expand access to rehabilitation care to meet population needs effectively. This paper describes a framework to guide policy action for rehabilitation in Europe. The framework was developed in collaboration with the European Academy of Rehabilitation Medicine based on a focused literature review and expert consultations. A review in PubMed and grey literature sources identified 458 references and resulted in 135 relevant documents published between 2006 and 2019. Thematic analysis of extracted information helped summarize the findings and develop the draft policy action framework. This was circulated to a wider group of experts and discussed in three workshops in 2018-2019. The framework was revised according to their feedback. The proposed framework contains 48 options for policy action organized in six domains and twelve subdomains that address several areas of health programming. The proposed framework provides a structure to understand the policy terrain related to rehabilitation in Europe and the measures required for translating aspirational political pronouncements into targeted programmatic action and tangible health and social outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.healthpol.2021.06.014DOI Listing
July 2021

Diagnosing sarcopenia: Functional perspectives and a new algorithm from the ISarcoPRM.

J Rehabil Med 2021 Jun 21;53(6):jrm00209. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine, Hacettepe University Medical School, Ankara, Turkey. E-mail:

Sarcopenia is an important public health problem, characterized by age-related loss of muscle mass and muscle function. It is a precursor of physical frailty, mobility limitation, and premature death. Muscle loss is mainly due to the loss of type II muscle fibres, and progressive loss of motor neurones is thought to be the primary underlying factor. Anterior thigh muscles undergo atrophy earlier, and the loss of anterior thigh muscle function may therefore be an antecedent finding. The aim of this review is to provide an in-depth (and holistic) neuromusculoskeletal approach to sarcopenia. In addition, under the umbrella of the International Society of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (ISPRM), a novel diagnostic algorithm is proposed, developed with the consensus of experts in the special interest group on sarcopenia (ISarcoPRM). The advantages of this algorithm over the others are: special caution concerning disorders related to the renin-angiotensin system at the case finding stage; emphasis on anterior thigh muscle mass and function loss; incorporation of ultrasound for the first time to measure the anterior thigh muscle; and addition of a chair stand test as a power/performance test to assess anterior thigh muscle function. Refining and testing the algorithm remains a priority for future research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2340/16501977-2851DOI Listing
June 2021

The need for an integrative musculoskeletal approach in sarcopenia: the ISarcoPRM Kickstart.

Eur J Phys Rehabil Med 2020 Aug 15;56(4):535-536. Epub 2020 Apr 15.

Department of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine, Hacettepe University Medical School, Ankara, Turkey.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.23736/S1973-9087.20.06255-3DOI Listing
August 2020

Fostering the highest educational standards in Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine: The European PRM board strategy for ensuring overall quality of rehabilitation education and care.

J Rehabil Med 2019 Dec;51(11):828-833

Rehabilitation department, Patras University Hospital, , Rion, Greece.

The harmonization of staff education is a key element for ensuring the highest standard of rehabilitation care across Europe. With this aim, the European Union of Medical Specialists (UEMS) has created a Common Training Framework, which consists of a common set of knowledge, skills and competencies for postgraduate medical training. As a body linked to the Physical and Rehabilitation (PRM) Section of the UEMS, the European PRM Board is committed to promoting the harmonization of PRM physicians qualifications. The European PRM Board accomplishes this mission, not only by determining the theoretical knowledge necessary for the practice of the PRM specialty, and the core competencies (training outcomes) to be achieved at the end of training, but also by ascertaining that a standard level of education is achieved and maintained by PRM physicians, through a medically driven system of certification. This paper provides an overview of the methodology and outcomes of the European PRM Board examination, while showing how the approach to PRM education should be considered as a reference point by scientific societies, higher education institutions, health policymakers, patients associations, and all the other bodies caring for high-quality rehabilitation provision to disabled people, at the national and European level.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2340/16501977-2620DOI Listing
December 2019

The approach of physiatrists to low back pain across Europe.

J Back Musculoskelet Rehabil 2019 ;32(1):131-139

University of Brescia, IRCCS Don Gnocchi Milan, Clinical and Experimental Sciences, Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine, Milan, Italy.

Background: Low back pain (LBP) is the most common type of musculoskeletal pain, thus it is one of the most commonly encountered conditions in Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine. The physicians who are primarily responsible for the nonsurgical management of LBP are physiatrists.

Objective: The present study aimed to investigate the approaches of physiatrists to low back pain across Europe. Preferences, tendencies, and priorities in the diagnosis, management, and treatment of LBP, as well as the epidemiological data pertaining to LBP in PRM practice were evaluated in this Europe-wide study.

Methods: The study was conducted under the control of the European Society of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (ESPRM) Musculoskeletal Disorders Research Committee. A total of 576 physiatrists from most European countries participated in the survey.

Results: The results show that physiatrists frequently deal with patients with LBP in their daily practice. Most patients are not referred to other departments and are treated with various conservative methods. Less than one-fifth of patients are primarily referred for surgery. The physiatrists believe that a clear diagnosis to account for cases of low back pain is rarely established. The most common diagnosis is discopathy. History and physical examination remain the most valuable clinical evaluation tools for low back pain according to physiatrists. Less than half the patients require a magnetic resonance imaging. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are the most commonly prescribed drugs for low back pain. Exercise, back care information, and physical therapy are the preferred conservative treatments. More than half of the physiatrists offer interventional treatments to patients with low back pain.

Conclusion: The present study is a preliminary report that presents the attitudes of European physiatrists in the management of low back pain. Further researches are warranted to standardize the conservative management of LBP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/BMR-171001DOI Listing
March 2019

Bone and joint pain: is there a neuropathic component? Implications for rehabilitation.

Eur J Phys Rehabil Med 2018 Dec 14;54(6):980-981. Epub 2018 Jun 14.

Airforce General Hospital, Hellenic Airforce, Athens, Greece.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.23736/S1973-9087.18.05194-8DOI Listing
December 2018

A 'musculoskeletal look' to sarcopenia: Where do/should the physical and rehabilitation medicine physicians (physiatrists) stand?

Int J Rehabil Res 2018 06;41(2):95-96

ESPRM Special Interest Scientific Committee in Aging Persons President, European Academy of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine, Athens, Greece.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MRR.0000000000000279DOI Listing
June 2018

Evidence based position paper on Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (PRM) professional practice for ageing people with disabilities. The European PRM position (UEMS PRM Section).

Eur J Phys Rehabil Med 2017 Oct;53(5):802-811

Medical School, European University Cyprus, Nicosia, Cyprus.

Ageing people with disabilities (APwDs) are faced with challenges of ageing which is straightforwardly related to disability that adds to the burden related to their early-onset disability. The aim of the paper is to improve Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (PRM) physicians' professional practice for APwDs (as a distinct group from those who are disabled due to the ageing process) in order to promote their functioning properties and to reduce activity limitations and/or participation restrictions. A systematic review of the literature and a Consensus procedure by means of a Delphi process have been performed involving the delegates of all European countries represented in the UEMS PRM Section. The systematic literature review is reported together with the 30 recommendations resulting from the Delphi procedure. The professional role of PRM physicians in relation to APwDs is extending, expanding and/or improving health-related rehabilitation services worldwide in various settings (getting beyond the rehabilitation facilities) emphasizing the concept of integrated care with collaboration across other sectors to meet the specific needs of APwDs. This evidence based position paper (EBPP) represents the official position of the European Union through the UEMS PRM Section and designates the professional role of PRM physicians in APwDs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.23736/S1973-9087.17.04864-XDOI Listing
October 2017

Debates in Rehabilitation Medicine: A Collaborative Initiative of the European Academy of Rehabilitation Medicine and the Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine & Dear readers and authors of the Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine.

J Rehabil Med 2016 Jun;48(6):485-0

Department of Health Sciences and Health Policy, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, University of Lucerne, Switzerland, Frohburgstrasse 3, P.O. Box 4466, CH-6002 Lucerne, Switzerland.

No abstract is available.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2340/16501977-2112DOI Listing
June 2016

Prognostic value of time-related Glasgow coma scale components in severe traumatic brain injury: a prospective evaluation with respect to 1-year survival and functional outcome.

Int J Rehabil Res 2013 Sep;36(3):260-7

Department of Neurosurgery, Attikon University Hospital, University of Athens Medical School, Greece.

The severity of traumatic brain injury (TBI) is determined by many variables, the complexity of which has made prediction of functional outcome an elusive target. To evaluate whether the three components of the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) and their alterations over time can serve as predictors of functional outcome after a severe TBI at 12 months after the TBI insult, we carried out a prospective study of patients with severe TBI. Seventy patients were initially enrolled. Data were retrieved from the emergency department records and the patients' intensive care unit, neurosurgical, and rehabilitation unit records. All patients underwent follow-up at 3, 6, and 12 months after injury. GCS components were evaluated on the day of injury and 2 weeks after injury. Functional outcome was estimated using the Glasgow Outcome Scale and the Functional Independence Measure motor scale. It was evaluated during rehabilitation and at 12 months after injury. Fifty-one patients were alive and followed up until 12 months. Logistic regression and receiver-operator characteristic curve analyses were carried out. In terms of functional outcome at 12 months, only GCS on day 15 was found to be a prognostic factor, with all its subscales being related to outcome 12 months later, whereas a higher GCS score on day 15 was also related to survival. A higher motor and verbal response on day 15 was strongly associated with a patient's functional independence, whereby the motor response was a better predictor. The GCS motor score 2 weeks after injury was statistically significantly associated with the 12-month functional outcome in TBI survivors. Motor response was the most useful predictor among the GCS components with respect to the long-term functional outcome in patients with severe TBI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MRR.0b013e32835fd99aDOI Listing
September 2013
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