Publications by authors named "Xana Kim-Howard"

22 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Genotype-Phenotype Study of the Middle Gangetic Plain in India Shows Association of rs2470102 with Skin Pigmentation.

J Invest Dermatol 2017 03 17;137(3):670-677. Epub 2016 Nov 17.

CSIR-Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology, Hyderabad, India. Electronic address:

Our understanding of the genetics of skin pigmentation has been largely skewed towards populations of European ancestry, imparting less attention to South Asian populations, who behold huge pigmentation diversity. Here, we investigate skin pigmentation variation in a cohort of 1,167 individuals in the Middle Gangetic Plain of the Indian subcontinent. Our data confirm the association of rs1426654 with skin pigmentation among South Asians, consistent with previous studies, and also show association for rs2470102 single nucleotide polymorphism. Our haplotype analyses further help us delineate the haplotype distribution across social categories and skin color. Taken together, our findings suggest that the social structure defined by the caste system in India has a profound influence on the skin pigmentation patterns of the subcontinent. In particular, social category and associated single nucleotide polymorphisms explain about 32% and 6.4%, respectively, of the total phenotypic variance. Phylogeography of the associated single nucleotide polymorphisms studied across 52 diverse populations of the Indian subcontinent shows wide presence of the derived alleles, although their frequencies vary across populations. Our results show that both polymorphisms (rs1426654 and rs2470102) play an important role in the skin pigmentation diversity of South Asians.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jid.2016.10.043DOI Listing
March 2017

High-density genotyping of immune-related loci identifies new SLE risk variants in individuals with Asian ancestry.

Nat Genet 2016 Mar 25;48(3):323-30. Epub 2016 Jan 25.

Department of Biostatistics, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia, USA.

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) has a strong but incompletely understood genetic architecture. We conducted an association study with replication in 4,478 SLE cases and 12,656 controls from six East Asian cohorts to identify new SLE susceptibility loci and better localize known loci. We identified ten new loci and confirmed 20 known loci with genome-wide significance. Among the new loci, the most significant locus was GTF2IRD1-GTF2I at 7q11.23 (rs73366469, Pmeta = 3.75 × 10(-117), odds ratio (OR) = 2.38), followed by DEF6, IL12B, TCF7, TERT, CD226, PCNXL3, RASGRP1, SYNGR1 and SIGLEC6. We identified the most likely functional variants at each locus by analyzing epigenetic marks and gene expression data. Ten candidate variants are known to alter gene expression in cis or in trans. Enrichment analysis highlights the importance of these loci in B cell and T cell biology. The new loci, together with previously known loci, increase the explained heritability of SLE to 24%. The new loci share functional and ontological characteristics with previously reported loci and are possible drug targets for SLE therapeutics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ng.3496DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4767573PMC
March 2016

Two functional lupus-associated BLK promoter variants control cell-type- and developmental-stage-specific transcription.

Am J Hum Genet 2014 Apr;94(4):586-98

Rosalind Russell Medical Research Center for Arthritis, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA.

Efforts to identify lupus-associated causal variants in the FAM167A/BLK locus on 8p21 are hampered by highly associated noncausal variants. In this report, we used a trans-population mapping and sequencing strategy to identify a common variant (rs922483) in the proximal BLK promoter and a tri-allelic variant (rs1382568) in the upstream alternative BLK promoter as putative causal variants for association with systemic lupus erythematosus. The risk allele (T) at rs922483 reduced proximal promoter activity and modulated alternative promoter usage. Allelic differences at rs1382568 resulted in altered promoter activity in B progenitor cell lines. Thus, our results demonstrated that both lupus-associated functional variants contribute to the autoimmune disease association by modulating transcription of BLK in B cells and thus potentially altering immune responses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2014.03.008DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3980411PMC
April 2014

Evaluation of SLE Susceptibility Genes in Malaysians.

Autoimmune Dis 2014 18;2014:305436. Epub 2014 Feb 18.

Arthritis and Clinical Immunology Research Program, Oklahoma Medical Research Foundation, 1025 NE 13th Street, Oklahoma City, OK 73104, USA.

Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) is a clinically heterogeneous autoimmune disease with strong genetic and environmental components. Our objective was to replicate 25 recently identified SLE susceptibility genes in two distinct populations (Chinese (CH) and Malays (MA)) from Malaysia. We genotyped 347 SLE cases and 356 controls (CH and MA) using the ImmunoChip array and performed an admixture corrected case-control association analysis. Associated genes were grouped into five immune-related pathways. While CH were largely homogenous, MA had three ancestry components (average 82.3% Asian, 14.5% European, and 3.2% African). Ancestry proportions were significantly different between cases and controls in MA. We identified 22 genes with at least one associated SNP (P < 0.05). The strongest signal was at HLA-DRA (P Meta = 9.96 × 10(-9); P CH = 6.57 × 10(-8), P MA = 6.73 × 10(-3)); the strongest non-HLA signal occurred at STAT4 (P Meta = 1.67 × 10(-7); P CH = 2.88 × 10(-6), P MA = 2.99 × 10(-3)). Most of these genes were associated with B- and T-cell function and signaling pathways. Our exploratory study using high-density fine-mapping suggests that most of the established SLE genes are also associated in the major ethnicities of Malaysia. However, these novel SNPs showed stronger association in these Asian populations than with the SNPs reported in previous studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/305436DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3948475PMC
April 2014

Combined protein- and nucleic acid-level effects of rs1143679 (R77H), a lupus-predisposing variant within ITGAM.

Hum Mol Genet 2014 Aug 7;23(15):4161-76. Epub 2014 Mar 7.

Arthritis and Clinical Immunology Research Program, Oklahoma Medical Research Foundation, Oklahoma City, OK, USA

Integrin alpha M (ITGAM; CD11b) is a component of the macrophage-1 antigen complex, which mediates leukocyte adhesion, migration and phagocytosis as part of the immune system. We previously identified a missense polymorphism, rs1143679 (R77H), strongly associated with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). However, the molecular mechanisms of this variant are incompletely understood. A meta-analysis of published and novel data on 28 439 individuals with European, African, Hispanic and Asian ancestries reinforces genetic association between rs1143679 and SLE [Pmeta = 3.60 × 10(-90), odds ratio (OR) = 1.76]. Since rs1143679 is in the most active region of chromatin regulation and transcription factor binding in ITGAM, we quantitated ITGAM RNA and surface protein levels in monocytes from patients with each rs1143679 genotype. We observed that transcript levels significantly decreased for the risk allele ('A') relative to the non-risk allele ('G'), in a dose-dependent fashion: ('AA' < 'AG' < 'GG'). CD11b protein levels in patients' monocytes were directly correlated with RNA levels. Strikingly, heterozygous individuals express much lower (average 10- to 15-fold reduction) amounts of the 'A' transcript than 'G' transcript. We found that the non-risk sequence surrounding rs1143679 exhibits transcriptional enhancer activity in vivo and binds to Ku70/80, NFKB1 and EBF1 in vitro, functions that are significantly reduced with the risk allele. Mutant CD11b protein shows significantly reduced binding to fibrinogen and vitronectin, relative to non-risk, both in purified protein and in cellular models. This two-pronged contribution (nucleic acid- and protein-level) of the rs1143679 risk allele to decreasing ITGAM activity provides insight into the molecular mechanisms of its potent association with SLE.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/hmg/ddu106DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4082363PMC
August 2014

Allelic heterogeneity in NCF2 associated with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) susceptibility across four ethnic populations.

Hum Mol Genet 2014 Mar 26;23(6):1656-68. Epub 2013 Oct 26.

Arthritis and Clinical Immunology Research Program, Oklahoma Medical Research Foundation, Oklahoma City, OK, USA.

Recent reports have associated NCF2, encoding a core component of the multi-protein NADPH oxidase (NADPHO), with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) susceptibility in individuals of European ancestry. To identify ethnicity-specific and -robust variants within NCF2, we assessed 145 SNPs in and around the NCF2 gene in 5325 cases and 21 866 controls of European-American (EA), African-American (AA), Hispanic (HS) and Korean (KR) ancestry. Subsequent imputation, conditional, haplotype and bioinformatic analyses identified seven potentially functional SLE-predisposing variants. Association with non-synonymous rs17849502, previously reported in EA, was detected in EA, HS and AA (P(EA) = 1.01 × 10(-54), PHS = 3.68 × 10(-10), P(AA) = 0.03); synonymous rs17849501 was similarly significant. These SNPs were monomorphic in KR. Novel associations were detected with coding variants at rs35937854 in AA (PAA = 1.49 × 10(-9)), and rs13306575 in HS and KR (P(HS) = 7.04 × 10(-7), P(KR) = 3.30 × 10(-3)). In KR, a 3-SNP haplotype was significantly associated (P = 4.20 × 10(-7)), implying that SLE predisposing variants were tagged. Significant SNP-SNP interaction (P = 0.02) was detected between rs13306575 and rs17849502 in HS, and a dramatically increased risk (OR = 6.55) with a risk allele at each locus. Molecular modeling predicts that these non-synonymous mutations could disrupt NADPHO complex assembly. The risk allele of rs17849501, located in a conserved transcriptional regulatory region, increased reporter gene activity, suggesting in vivo enhancer function. Our results not only establish allelic heterogeneity within NCF2 associated with SLE, but also emphasize the utility of multi-ethnic cohorts to identify predisposing variants explaining additional phenotypic variance ('missing heritability') of complex diseases like SLE.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/hmg/ddt532DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3929085PMC
March 2014

PTPN22 association in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) with respect to individual ancestry and clinical sub-phenotypes.

PLoS One 2013 7;8(8):e69404. Epub 2013 Aug 7.

Arthritis and Clinical Immunology Research Program, Oklahoma Medical Research Foundation, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, United States of America.

Protein tyrosine phosphatase non-receptor type 22 (PTPN22) is a negative regulator of T-cell activation associated with several autoimmune diseases, including systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Missense rs2476601 is associated with SLE in individuals with European ancestry. Since the rs2476601 risk allele frequency differs dramatically across ethnicities, we assessed robustness of PTPN22 association with SLE and its clinical sub-phenotypes across four ethnically diverse populations. Ten SNPs were genotyped in 8220 SLE cases and 7369 controls from in European-Americans (EA), African-Americans (AA), Asians (AS), and Hispanics (HS). We performed imputation-based association followed by conditional analysis to identify independent associations. Significantly associated SNPs were tested for association with SLE clinical sub-phenotypes, including autoantibody profiles. Multiple testing was accounted for by using false discovery rate. We successfully imputed and tested allelic association for 107 SNPs within the PTPN22 region and detected evidence of ethnic-specific associations from EA and HS. In EA, the strongest association was at rs2476601 (P = 4.7 × 10(-9), OR = 1.40 (95% CI = 1.25-1.56)). Independent association with rs1217414 was also observed in EA, and both SNPs are correlated with increased European ancestry. For HS imputed intronic SNP, rs3765598, predicted to be a cis-eQTL, was associated (P = 0.007, OR = 0.79 and 95% CI = 0.67-0.94). No significant associations were observed in AA or AS. Case-only analysis using lupus-related clinical criteria revealed differences between EA SLE patients positive for moderate to high titers of IgG anti-cardiolipin (aCL IgG >20) versus negative aCL IgG at rs2476601 (P = 0.012, OR = 1.65). Association was reinforced when these cases were compared to controls (P = 2.7 × 10(-5), OR = 2.11). Our results validate that rs2476601 is the most significantly associated SNP in individuals with European ancestry. Additionally, rs1217414 and rs3765598 may be associated with SLE. Further studies are required to confirm the involvement of rs2476601 with aCL IgG.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0069404PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3737240PMC
August 2014

Admixture mapping in lupus identifies multiple functional variants within IFIH1 associated with apoptosis, inflammation, and autoantibody production.

PLoS Genet 2013 18;9(2):e1003222. Epub 2013 Feb 18.

Arthritis and Clinical Immunology Research Program, Oklahoma Medical Research Foundation, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, United States of America.

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an inflammatory autoimmune disease with a strong genetic component. African-Americans (AA) are at increased risk of SLE, but the genetic basis of this risk is largely unknown. To identify causal variants in SLE loci in AA, we performed admixture mapping followed by fine mapping in AA and European-Americans (EA). Through genome-wide admixture mapping in AA, we identified a strong SLE susceptibility locus at 2q22-24 (LOD=6.28), and the admixture signal is associated with the European ancestry (ancestry risk ratio ~1.5). Large-scale genotypic analysis on 19,726 individuals of African and European ancestry revealed three independently associated variants in the IFIH1 gene: an intronic variant, rs13023380 [P(meta) = 5.20×10(-14); odds ratio, 95% confidence interval = 0.82 (0.78-0.87)], and two missense variants, rs1990760 (Ala946Thr) [P(meta) = 3.08×10(-7); 0.88 (0.84-0.93)] and rs10930046 (Arg460His) [P(dom) = 1.16×10(-8); 0.70 (0.62-0.79)]. Both missense variants produced dramatic phenotypic changes in apoptosis and inflammation-related gene expression. We experimentally validated function of the intronic SNP by DNA electrophoresis, protein identification, and in vitro protein binding assays. DNA carrying the intronic risk allele rs13023380 showed reduced binding efficiency to a cellular protein complex including nucleolin and lupus autoantigen Ku70/80, and showed reduced transcriptional activity in vivo. Thus, in SLE patients, genetic susceptibility could create a biochemical imbalance that dysregulates nucleolin, Ku70/80, or other nucleic acid regulatory proteins. This could promote antibody hypermutation and auto-antibody generation, further destabilizing the cellular network. Together with molecular modeling, our results establish a distinct role for IFIH1 in apoptosis, inflammation, and autoantibody production, and explain the molecular basis of these three risk alleles for SLE pathogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1003222DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3575474PMC
June 2013

Evaluation of genetic association between an ITGAM non-synonymous SNP (rs1143679) and multiple autoimmune diseases.

Autoimmun Rev 2012 Feb 5;11(4):276-80. Epub 2011 Aug 5.

Center for Autoimmune Diseases Research (CREA), Universidad del Rosario, Bogotá, Colombia.

Many autoimmune diseases (ADs) share similar underlying pathology and have a tendency to cluster within families, supporting the involvement of shared susceptibility genes. To date, most of the genetic variants associated with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) susceptibility also show association with others ADs. ITGAM and its associated 'predisposing' variant (rs1143679, Arg77His), predicted to alter the tertiary structures of the ligand-binding domain of ITGAM, may play a key role for SLE pathogenesis. The aim of this study is to examine whether the ITGAM variant is also associated with other ADs. We evaluated case-control association between rs1143679 and ADs (N=18,457) including primary Sjögren's syndrome, systemic sclerosis, multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, juvenile idiopathic arthritis, celiac disease, and type-1 diabetes. We also performed meta-analyses using our data in addition to available published data. Although the risk allele 'A' is relatively more frequent among cases for each disease, it was not significantly associated with any other ADs tested in this study. However, the meta-analysis for systemic sclerosis was associated with rs1143679 (p(meta)=0.008). In summary, this study explored the role of ITGAM in general autoimmunity in seven non-lupus ADs, and only found association for systemic sclerosis when our results were combined with published results. Thus ITGAM may not be a general autoimmunity gene but this variant may be specifically associated with SLE and systemic sclerosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.autrev.2011.07.007DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3224188PMC
February 2012

Evaluation of 19 autoimmune disease-associated loci with rheumatoid arthritis in a Colombian population: evidence for replication and gene-gene interaction.

J Rheumatol 2011 Sep 15;38(9):1866-70. Epub 2011 Jul 15.

Genetic Epidemiology Unit, Arthritis and Immunology Research Program, Oklahoma Medical Research Foundation, 825 NE 13th Street, Oklahoma City, OK 73104, USA.

Objective: Recent studies have identified several common genes associated with multiple autoimmune diseases that support the hypothesis of the presence of shared or general autoimmunity genes. However, most of this work has been performed in populations of white origin. The main objectives of this study are to replicate the genotype-phenotype correlation between 19 such variants and rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and to evaluate gene-gene interactions between these genes in individuals from an ethnically homogenous nonwhite Colombian population.

Methods: Nineteen single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) from 16 genes/loci were genotyped in 353 RA cases and 368 controls. For each SNP, allelic and genotype-based association tests were applied to evaluate genotype-phenotype correlation. Permutation-based tests were used to validate the statistical significance. Gene-gene interactions were assessed by logistic regression.

Results: We replicated the genetic association with rs13277113 (p = 0.0009, OR 1.46) and rs2736340 (p = 0.0001, OR 1.63) from C8orf13-BLK (8p23.1, associated with RA and systemic lupus erythematosus), and rs763361 (p = 0.03) from CD226 (18q22.3, associated with multiple sclerosis and type 1 diabetes) in the Colombian population. The population-attributable risks were estimated as 27%, 34%, and 16% for rs13277113, rs2736340, and rs763361, respectively. We also detected evidence for gene-gene interaction between SNP in MMEL1 (rs3890745) and C80rf13-BLK (rs13277113; p = 0.0002).

Conclusion: Our results demonstrate that the IL2/IL21 region, C8orf13-BLK, and CD226 influence RA in Colombians, and RA shares some of the pathogenic mechanisms associated with other autoimmune diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3899/jrheum.110199DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3170719PMC
September 2011

Fine-mapping and transethnic genotyping establish IL2/IL21 genetic association with lupus and localize this genetic effect to IL21.

Arthritis Rheum 2011 Jun;63(6):1689-97

Oklahoma Medical Research Foundation, Oklahoma City, OK 73104, USA.

Objective: Genetic association of the IL2/IL21 region at chromosome 4q27 has previously been reported in lupus and a number of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. This study was undertaken to determine whether this genetic effect could be localized, using a very large cohort of lupus patients and controls.

Methods: We genotyped 45 tag single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) across the IL2/IL21 locus in 2 large independent lupus sample sets. We studied a set of subjects of European descent consisting of 4,248 lupus patients and 3,818 healthy controls, and an African American set of 1,569 patients and 1,893 healthy controls. Imputation in 3,004 additional controls from the Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium was also performed. Genetic association between the genotyped markers was determined, and pairwise conditional analysis was performed to localize the independent genetic effect in the IL2/IL21 locus in lupus.

Results: We established and confirmed the genetic association between IL2/IL21 and lupus. Using conditional analysis and transethnic mapping, we localized the genetic effect in this locus to 2 SNPs in high linkage disequilibrium: rs907715 located within IL21 (odds ratio 1.16 [95% confidence interval 1.10-1.22], P=2.17×10(-8)) and rs6835457 located in the 3'-untranslated flanking region of IL21 (odds ratio 1.11 [95% confidence interval 1.05-1.17], P=9.35×10(-5)).

Conclusion: Our findings establish the genetic association between lupus and IL2/IL21 with a genome-wide level of significance. Further, our findings indicate that this genetic association within the IL2/IL21 linkage disequilibrium block is localized to IL21. If other autoimmune IL2/IL21 genetic associations are similarly localized, then the IL21 risk alleles would be predicted to operate by a fundamental mechanism that influences the course of a number of autoimmune disease processes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/art.30320DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3106139PMC
June 2011

Non-synonymous variant (Gly307Ser) in CD226 is associated with susceptibility to multiple autoimmune diseases.

Rheumatology (Oxford) 2010 Jul 24;49(7):1239-44. Epub 2010 Mar 24.

Genetic Epidemiology Unit, Arthritis and Immunology Research Program, Oklahoma Medical Research Foundation, Oklahoma City, OK 73104, USA.

Objectives: Recently, a non-synonymous (Gly307Ser) variant, rs763361, in the CD226 gene was shown to be associated with multiple autoimmune diseases (ADs) in European Caucasian populations. However, shared autoimmunity with CD226 has not been evaluated in non-European populations. The aim of the present study is to assess the association of this single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) with ADs in non-European populations.

Methods: To replicate this association in non-European populations, we evaluated case-control association between rs763361 and coeliac disease (CED) samples from Argentina; SLE, RA, type-1 diabetes (T1D) and primary SS (pSS) from Colombia; and SLE samples from China and Japan. We genotyped rs763361 and evaluated its genetic association with multiple ADs, using chi(2)-test. For each association, odds ratio (OR) and 95% CI were calculated.

Results: We show that rs763361 is significantly associated with Argentinean CED (P = 0.0009, OR = 1.60). We also observed a trend of possible association with Chinese SLE (P = 0.01, OR = 1.19), RA (P = 0.047, OR = 1.25), SLE (P = 0.0899, OR = 1.24) and pSS (P = 0.09, OR = 1.33) in Colombians. Meta-analyses for SLE (using our three populations) and T1D (our population and three published populations) yielded significant association with rs763361, P = 0.009 (OR = 1.16) and P = 1.1.46 x 10(-9) (OR = 1.14), respectively.

Conclusions: Our results demonstrate that the coding variant rs763361 in CD226 gene is associated with multiple ADs in non-European populations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/rheumatology/kep470DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2909799PMC
July 2010

Confirmation of an association between rs6822844 at the Il2-Il21 region and multiple autoimmune diseases: evidence of a general susceptibility locus.

Arthritis Rheum 2010 Feb;62(2):323-9

Oklahoma Medical Research Foundation, Oklahoma City, OK73104, USA.

Objective: Autoimmune diseases often have susceptibility genes in common, indicating similar molecular mechanisms. Increasing evidence suggests that rs6822844 at the IL2-IL21 region is strongly associated with multiple autoimmune diseases in individuals of European descent. This study was undertaken to attempt to replicate the association between rs6822844 and 6 different immune-mediated diseases in non-European populations, and to perform disease-specific and overall meta-analyses using data from previously published studies.

Methods: We evaluated case-control associations between rs6822844 and celiac disease (CD) in subjects from Argentina; rheumatoid arthritis (RA), type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM), primary Sjögren's syndrome (SS), and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in subjects from Colombia; and Behçet's disease (BD) in subjects from Turkey. Allele and gene distributions were compared between cases and controls. Meta-analyses were performed using data from the present study and previous studies.

Results: We detected significant associations of rs6822844 with SLE (P = 0.008), type 1 DM (P = 0.014), RA (P = 0.019), and primary SS (P = 0.033) but not with BD (P = 0.34) or CD (P = 0.98). We identified little evidence of population differentiation (F(ST) = 0.01) within cases and controls from Argentina and Colombia, suggesting that association was not influenced by population substructure. Disease-specific meta-analysis indicated significant association for RA (P(meta) = 3.61 x 10(-6)), inflammatory bowel disease (IBD; Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis) (P(meta) = 3.48 x 10(-12)), type 1 DM (P(meta) = 5.33 x 10(-5)), and CD (P(meta) = 5.30 x 10(-3)). Overall meta-analysis across all autoimmune diseases reinforced association with rs6822844 (23 data sets; P(meta) = 2.61 x 10(-25), odds ratio 0.73 [95% confidence interval 0.69-0.78]).

Conclusion: Our results indicate that there is an association between rs6822844 and multiple autoimmune diseases in non-European populations. Meta-analysis results strongly reinforce this robust association across multiple autoimmune diseases in both European-derived and non-European populations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/art.27222DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3028384PMC
February 2010

Replication of recently identified associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms from six autoimmune diseases in Genetic Analysis Workshop 16 rheumatoid arthritis data.

BMC Proc 2009 Dec 15;3 Suppl 7:S31. Epub 2009 Dec 15.

Genetic Epidemiology Unit, Arthritis and Immunology Research Program, Oklahoma Medical Research Foundation, 825 Northeast 13th Street, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma 73104 USA.

Many autoimmune diseases share similar underlying pathology and have a tendency to cluster within families, giving rise to the concept of shared susceptibility genes among them. In the Genetic Analysis Workshop 16 rheumatoid arthritis (RA) data we sought to replicate the genetic association between single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identified in recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) on RA and five other autoimmune diseases. We identified 164 significantly associated non-HLA SNPs (p < 10-5) from 16 GWAS and 13 candidate gene studies on six different autoimmune diseases, including RA, systemic lupus erythematosus, type 1 diabetes, Crohn disease, multiple sclerosis, and celiac disease. Using both direct and imputation-based association test, we replicated 16 shared susceptibility regions involving RA and at least one of the other autoimmune diseases. We also identified hidden population structure within cases and controls in Genetic Analysis Workshop 16 RA data and assessed the effect of population structure on the shared autoimmunity regions. Because multiple autoimmune diseases share common genetic origin, these could be areas of immense interest for further genetic and clinical association studies.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2795929PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1753-6561-3-s7-s31DOI Listing
December 2009

ITGAM coding variant (rs1143679) influences the risk of renal disease, discoid rash and immunological manifestations in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus with European ancestry.

Ann Rheum Dis 2010 Jul 25;69(7):1329-32. Epub 2009 Nov 25.

Genetic Epidemiology Unit, Arthritis and Immunology Research Program, Oklahoma Medical Research Foundation, 825 NE 13th Street, Oklahoma City, OK 73104, USA.

Purpose: It was hypothesised that the coding variant (R77H), rs1143679, within ITGAM could predict specific clinical manifestations associated with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).

Method: To assess genetic association, 2366 patients with SLE and 2931 unaffected controls with European ancestry were analysed. The patients with SLE were coded by the presence or absence of individual American College of Rheumatology criteria. Logistic regression and Pearson chi(2) tests were used to assess statistical significance.

Results: For overall case-control analysis, a highly significant association was detected (p=2.22x10-21, OR 1.73). Using case-only analysis, a significant association was detected with renal criteria (p=0.0003), discoid rash (p=0.02) and immunological criteria (p=0.04). When patients with SLE were compared with healthy controls, the association became stronger for renal (p=4.69x10-22, OR 2.15), discoid (p=1.77x10-14, OR 2.03) and immunological (p=3.49x10-22, OR 1.86) criteria. Risk allele frequency increased from 10.6% (controls) to 17.0% (SLE), 20.4% (renal), 18.1% (immunological) and 19.5% (discoid).

Conclusion: These results show a strong association between the risk allele (A) at rs1143679 and renal disease, discoid rash and immunological manifestations of SLE.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/ard.2009.120543DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2891778PMC
July 2010

Evaluation of imputation-based association in and around the integrin-alpha-M (ITGAM) gene and replication of robust association between a non-synonymous functional variant within ITGAM and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).

Hum Mol Genet 2009 Mar 6;18(6):1171-80. Epub 2009 Jan 6.

Genetic Epidemiology Unit, Oklahoma Medical Research Foundation, Oklahoma City, OK 73104, USA.

We recently identified a novel non-synonymous variant, rs1143679, at exon 3 of the ITGAM gene associated with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) susceptibility in European-Americans (EAs) and African-Americans. Using genome-wide association approach, three other studies also independently reported an association between SLE susceptibility and ITGAM or ITGAM-ITGAX region. The primary objectives of this study are to assess whether single or multiple causal variants from the same gene or any nearby gene(s) are involved in SLE susceptibility and to confirm a robust ITGAM association across nine independent data sets (n = 8211). First, we confirmed our previously reported association of rs1143679 (risk allele 'A') with SLE in EAs (P = 1.0 x 10(-8)) and Hispanic-Americans (P = 2.9 x 10(-5)). Secondly, using a comprehensive imputation-based association test, we found that ITGAM is one of the major non-human leukocyte antigen susceptibility genes for SLE, and the strongest association for EA is the same coding variant rs1143679 (log(10)Bayes factor=20, P = 6.17 x 10(-24)). Thirdly, we determined the robustness of rs1143679 association with SLE across three additional case-control samples, including UK (P = 6.2 x 10(-8)), Colombian (P = 3.6 x 10(-7)), Mexican (P = 0.002), as well as two independent sets of trios from UK (P(TDT) = 1.4 x 10(-5)) and Mexico (P(TDT) = 0.015). A meta-analysis combing all independent data sets greatly reinforces the association (P(meta) = 7.1 x 10(-50), odds ratio = 1.83, 95% confidence interval = 1.69-1.98, n = 10 046). However, this ITGAM association was not observed in the Korean or Japanese samples, in which rs1143679 is monomorphic for the non-risk allele (G). Taken together along with our earlier findings, these results demonstrate that the coding variant, rs1143679, best explains the ITGAM-SLE association, especially in European- and African-derived populations, but not in Asian populations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/hmg/ddp007DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2649018PMC
March 2009

A genome-wide ordered-subset linkage analysis for rheumatoid arthritis.

BMC Proc 2007 18;1 Suppl 1:S101. Epub 2007 Dec 18.

Genetic Epidemiology Unit, Arthritis and Immunology Research Program, Oklahoma Medical Research Foundation, 825 Northeast 13th Street, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma 73104, USA.

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic, complex autoimmune inflammatory disorder with poorly known etiology. Approximately 1% of the adult population is afflicted with RA. Linkage analysis of RA can be complicated by the presence of phenotypic and genetic heterogeneity. It is shown that the ordered-subset analysis (OSA) technique reduces heterogeneity, increases statistical power for detecting linkage and helps to define the most informative data set for follow-up analysis. We applied OSA to the family data from the North American Rheumatoid Arthritis Consortium study as part of the Genetic Analysis Workshop 15 (GAW15). We have incorporated two continuous covariates, 'age of onset' and 'anti-CCP level' (anti-cyclic citrinullated peptide), into our genome-wide ordered-subset linkage analysis using 809 Illumina SNP markers in 5713 individuals from 606 Caucasian RA families. A statistically significant increase in nonparametric linkage (NPL) scores was observed with covariate 'age of onset' in chromosomes 4 (p = 0.000003) and 9 (p = 0.002). With the covariate 'anti-CCP level', statistically significant increases in NPL scores were observed in chromosomes 2 (p = 0.0001), 18 (p = 0.00007), and 19 (p = 0.0003). Once we identified the linked genomic region, we then attempted to identify the best plausible parametric model at that linked locus. Our results show significant improvement in evidence for linkage and demonstrate that OSA is a useful technique to detect linkage under heterogeneity.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2367502PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1753-6561-1-s1-s101DOI Listing
December 2009

Osteopontin and systemic lupus erythematosus association: a probable gene-gender interaction.

PLoS One 2008 Mar 12;3(3):e0001757. Epub 2008 Mar 12.

Oklahoma Medical Research Foundation, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, United States of America.

Osteopontin (SPP1) is an important bone matrix mediator found to have key roles in inflammation and immunity. SPP1 genetic polymorphisms and increased osteopontin protein levels have been reported to be associated with SLE in small patient collections. The present study evaluates association between SPP1 polymorphisms and SLE in a large cohort of 1141 unrelated SLE patients [707 European-American (EA) and 434 African-American (AA)], and 2009 unrelated controls (1309 EA and 700 AA). Population-based case-control association analyses were performed. To control for potential population stratification, admixture adjusted logistic regression, genomic control (GC), structured association (STRAT), and principal components analysis (PCA) were applied. Combined analysis of 2 ethnic groups, showed the minor allele of 2 SNPs (rs1126616T and rs9138C) significantly associated with higher risk of SLE in males (P = 0.0005, OR = 1.73, 95% CI = 1.28-2.33), but not in females. Indeed, significant gene-gender interactions in the 2 SNPs, rs1126772 and rs9138, were detected (P = 0.001 and P = 0.0006, respectively). Further, haplotype analysis identified rs1126616T-rs1126772A-rs9138C which demonstrated significant association with SLE in general (P = 0.02, OR = 1.30, 95%CI 1.08-1.57), especially in males (P = 0.0003, OR = 2.42, 95%CI 1.51-3.89). Subgroup analysis with single SNPs and haplotypes also identified a similar pattern of gender-specific association in AA and EA. GC, STRAT, and PCA results within each group showed consistent associations. Our data suggest SPP1 is associated with SLE, and this association is especially stronger in males. To our knowledge, this report serves as the first association of a specific autosomal gene with human male lupus.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0001757PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2258418PMC
March 2008

A nonsynonymous functional variant in integrin-alpha(M) (encoded by ITGAM) is associated with systemic lupus erythematosus.

Nat Genet 2008 Feb 20;40(2):152-4. Epub 2008 Jan 20.

Genetic Epidemiology Unit, Oklahoma Medical Research Foundation, 825 NE 13th St., Oklahoma City, Oklahoma 73104, USA.

We identified and replicated an association between ITGAM (CD11b) at 16p11.2 and risk of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in 3,818 individuals of European descent. The strongest association was at a nonsynonymous SNP, rs1143679 (P = 1.7 x 10(-17), odds ratio = 1.78). We further replicated this association in two independent samples of individuals of African descent (P = 0.0002 and 0.003; overall meta-analysis P = 6.9 x 10(-22)). The genetic association between ITGAM and SLE implicates the alpha(M)beta2-integrin adhesion pathway in disease development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ng.71DOI Listing
February 2008

Proteinuria of nonautoimmune origin in wild-type FVB/NJ mice.

Comp Med 2007 Jun;57(3):255-66

Arthritis and Immunology Program, Department of Pathology, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK, USA.

FVB/NJ mice frequently are used as transgenic hosts, but the suitability of this genetic background for transgenic and congenic models of systemic autoimmunity have not been reported. In this study, FVB/NJ mice were evaluated for the presence of serum autoantibodies and autoimmune kidney pathology. Previously unreported albuminuria was observed in aged female FVB/NJ mice; however, serum autoantibody testing, light microscopic evaluation of differentially stained renal sections, and evaluation of renal sections for immunoglobulin deposits revealed that the albuminuria was not of autoimmune etiology. Anecdotally, multiple characteristics of the FVB/NJ strain, including albuminuria, cholesterolemia, mild podocyte foot process effacement in aged female FVB/NJ kidneys and predisposition to enhanced Th2 immune responses, is reminiscent of human minimal change nephrotic syndrome (MCNS). We propose that mapping of genetic polymorphisms that are responsible for these traits in FVB/NJ mice may lead to increased understanding of mild nephrotic syndromes including MCNS and other proteinurias.
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June 2007

Cutting edge: Transitional T3 B cells do not give rise to mature B cells, have undergone selection, and are reduced in murine lupus.

J Immunol 2007 Jun;178(12):7511-5

Arthritis and Immunology Research Program, Oklahoma Medical Research Foundation, 815 North East 13th Street, Oklahoma City, OK 73104, USA.

As the immediate precursors to mature follicular B cells in splenic development, immature transitional cells are an essential component for understanding late B cell differentiation. It has been shown that T2 cells can give rise to mature B cells; however, whether T3 B cells represent a normal stage of B cell development, which has been widely assumed, has not been fully resolved. In this study, we demonstrate both in vitro and in vivo that T3 B cells do not give rise to mature B cells and are instead selected away from the T1-->T2-->mature B cell developmental pathway and are hyporesponsive to stimulation through the BCR. Significantly reduced numbers of T3 B cells in young lupus-prone mice further suggest that the specificity of this subset holds clues to understanding autoimmunity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.178.12.7511DOI Listing
June 2007

Update in rheumatoid arthritis therapy.

J Okla State Med Assoc 2005 Feb;98(2):53-62

Arthritis and Immunology Program, Oklahoma Medical Research Foundation, 825 NE 13th Street, Okla. City, OK 73104, USA.

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic autoimmune disease characterized by polyarticular symmetrical arthritis. Inflammatory mediators targeting joint structures produce joint inflammation with pain, functional loss, joint destruction and permanent deformity. Currently, no cure for RA exists but the increasing use of combination therapy and immunomodulatory agents has led to improved quality of life and long-term outlook for many of these patients. While traditionally employed therapies have provided limited disease suppression, advances in our understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of RA have resulted in new therapies targeting very specific components of the inflammatory process. These new treatments have shown very promising results with improved efficacy and an overall decreased toxicity profile. This review provides an overview for practicing clinicians of the current immunosuppressive therapies in RA with an emphasis on newer biological agents regarding their mechanisms of action, efficacy, side effects and monitoring recommendations. Developing therapeutics will be briefly discussed.
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February 2005