Publications by authors named "Wyatt B David"

28 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Independent Association of Obesity and Nonroutine Discharge Disposition After Elective Anterior Cervical Discectomy and Fusion for Cervical Spondylotic Myelopathy.

World Neurosurg 2021 May 18. Epub 2021 May 18.

Department of Neurosurgery, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, USA.

Objective: The prevalence of obesity continues to rise in the United States at a disparaging rate. Although previous studies have attempted to identify the influence obesity has on short-term outcomes following elective spine surgery, few studies have assessed the impact on discharge disposition following anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) for cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM). The aim of this study was to determine whether obesity impacts the hospital management, cost, and discharge disposition after elective ACDF for adult CSM.

Methods: The National Inpatient Sample database was queried using the International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision, Clinical Modification, coding system to identify all (≥18 years) patients with a primary diagnosis of CSM undergoing an elective ACDF for the years 2016 and 2017. Discharge weights were used to estimate national demographics, Elixhauser comorbidities, complications, length of stay, total cost of admission, and discharge disposition.

Results: There were 17,385 patients included in the study, of whom 3035 (17.4%) had obesity (no obesity: 14,350; obesity: 3035). The cohort with obesity had a significantly greater proportion of patients with 3 or more comorbidities compared with the cohort with no obesity (no obesity: 28.1% vs. obesity: 43.5%, P < 0.001). The overall complication rates were greater in the cohort with obesity (no obesity: 10.3% vs. obesity: 14.3%, P = 0.003). On average, the cohort with obesity incurred a total cost of admission $1154 greater than the cost of the cohort with no obesity (no obesity: $19,732 ± 11,605 vs. obesity: $20,886 ± 10,883, P = 0.034) and a significantly greater proportion of nonroutine discharges (no obesity: 16.6% vs. obesity: 24.2%, P < 0.001). In multivariate regression analysis, obesity, age, race, health care coverage, hospital bed size, region, comorbidity, and complication rates all were independently associated with nonroutine discharge disposition.

Conclusions: Our study demonstrates that obesity is an independent predictor for nonroutine discharge disposition following elective anterior cervical discectomy and fusion for cervical spondylotic myelopathy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wneu.2021.05.022DOI Listing
May 2021

Modified-Frailty Index Does Not Independently Predict Complications, Hospital Length of Stay or 30-Day Readmission Rates Following Posterior Lumbar Decompression and Fusion for Spondylolisthesis.

Spine J 2021 May 16. Epub 2021 May 16.

Department of Neurosurgery, John Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD.

Background Context: Frailty has been associated with inferior surgical outcomes in various fields of spinal surgery. With increasing healthcare costs, hospital length of stay (LOS) and unplanned readmissions have emerged as clinical proxies reflecting overall value of care. However, there is a paucity of data assessing the impact that baseline frailty has on quality of care in patients with spondylolisthesis.

Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the impact that frailty has on LOS, complication rate, and unplanned readmission after posterior lumbar spinal fusion for spondylolisthesis.

Study Design: A retrospective cohort study was performed using the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) database from 2010 through 2016.

Patient Sample: All adult (≥28 years old) patients who underwent lumbar spinal decompression and fusion for spondylolisthesis were identified using ICD-9-CM diagnosis and procedural coding systems. We calculated the modified frailty index (mFI) for each patient using 5 dichotomous comorbidities - diabetes mellitus, congestive heart failure, hypertension requiring medication, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and dependent functional status. Each comorbidity is assigned 1 point and the points are summed to give a score between 0 and 5. As in previous literature, we defined a score of 0 as "not frail", 1 as "mild" frailty, and 2 or greater as "moderate to severe" frailty.

Outcome Measures: Patient demographics, comorbidities, complications, LOS, readmission, and reoperation were assessed.

Methods: A multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify independent predictors of adverse events (AEs), extended LOS, complications, and unplanned readmission.

Results: There were a total of 5,296 patients identified, of which 2,030 (38.3%) were mFI=0, 2,319 (43.8%) patients mFI=1, and 947 (17.9%) were mFI ≥2. The mFI≥2 cohort was older (p≤0.001) and had a greater average BMI (p≤0.001). The mFI≥2 cohort had a slightly longer hospital stay (3.7 ± 2.3 days vs. mFI=1: 3.5 ± 2.8 days and mFI=0: 3.2 ± 2.1 days, p≤0.001). Both surgical AEs and medical AEs were significantly greater in the mFI≥2 cohort than the other cohorts, (2.6% vs. mFI=1: 1.8% and mFI=0: 1.2%, p=0.022) and (6.3% vs. mFI=1: 4.8% and mFI=0: 2.6%, p≤0.001), respectively. While there was no significant difference in reoperation rates, the mFI≥2 cohort had greater unplanned 30-day readmission rates (8;4% vs. mFI=5.6: 4.8% and mFI=0: 3.4%, p≤0.001). However, on multivariate regression analysis, mFI≥2 was not a significant independent predictor of LOS (p=0.285), complications (p=0.667), or 30-day unplanned readmission (p=0.378).

Conclusions: Our study indicates that frailty, as measured by the mFI, does not significantly predict LOS, 30-day adverse events, or 30-day unplanned readmission in patients undergoing lumbar spinal decompression and fusion for spondylolisthesis. Further work is needed to better define variable inputs that make up frailty to optimize surgical outcome prediction tools that impact the value of care.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.spinee.2021.05.011DOI Listing
May 2021

Impact of race on outcomes and healthcare utilization following spinal fusion for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

Clin Neurol Neurosurg 2021 May 4;206:106634. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Neurosurgery, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA. Electronic address:

Objectives: Racial disparities in spine surgery have been shown to impact surgical management and postoperative complications. However, for adolescent patients with idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) treated by posterior spinal fusion (PSF), the influence of race on postoperative outcomes remains unclear. The aim of the study was to investigate the differences in baseline patient demographics, inpatient management, and postoperative complications for adolescents with AIS undergoing elective, posterior spinal surgery (≥ 4 levels).

Patients And Methods: The Kids' Inpatient Database year 2012 was queried. Adolescent patients (age 10-17 years old) with AIS undergoing elective, PSF (≥ 4 levels) were selected using the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification coding system. Patients were divided into 4 cohorts: Black, White, Hispanic, and Other. Patient demographics, comorbidities, complications, length of hospital stay (LOS), discharge disposition and total cost were recorded. The primary outcome was the rate of intraoperative and postoperative complications and resource utilization after elective PSF intervention.

Results: Patient demographics significantly differed between the four cohorts. While age was similar (p = 0.288), the White cohort had a greater proportion of female patients (White: 79.0%; Black: 72.1%; Hispanic: 78.2%; Other: 75.9%, p = 0.006), and the Black cohort had the largest proportion of patients in the 0-25th income quartile (White: 16.1%; Black: 43.3%; Hispanic: 28.0%; Other: 15.3%, p < 0.001). There were significant differences in hospital region (p < 0.001) and bed size (p < 0.001) between the cohorts, with more Hispanic adolescents being treated in the West (White: 21.9%; Black: 8.9%; Hispanic: 40.3%; Other: 29.3%) at small hospitals (White: 14.0%; Black: 13.9%; Hispanic: 16.2%; Other: 7.1%). Baseline comorbidities were similar between the cohorts. The use of blood transfusions was significantly greater in the Black cohort compared to the other racial groups (White: 16.7%; Black: 25.0%; Hispanic: 24.5%; Other: 22.7%, p < 0.001). The number of vertebral levels involved differed significantly between the cohorts (p < 0.001), with the majority of patients having 9-levels or greater involved (White: 80.9%; Black: 81.7%; Hispanic: 84.3%; Other: 67.3%). The rate of complications encountered during admission was greatest in the Other cohort (White: 21.9%; Black: 23.6%; Hispanic: 22.2%; Other: 34.9%, p < 0.001). While LOS was similar between the cohorts (p = 0.702), median total cost of admission was highest for Hispanic patients (White: $49,340 [37,908-65,078]; Black: $47,787 [37,718-64,670]; Hispanic: $54,718 [40,689-69,266]; Other: $54,110 [41,292-71,540], p < 0.001).

Conclusions: Our study suggests that race may not have a significant impact on surgical outcomes after elective posterior spine surgery for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Further studies are necessary to corroborate our findings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clineuro.2021.106634DOI Listing
May 2021

Race Is an Independent Predictor for Nonroutine Discharges After Spine Surgery for Spinal Intradural/Cord Tumors.

World Neurosurg 2021 Apr 30. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Department of Neurosurgery, John Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.

Objective: The aim of this study was to determine if race was an independent predictor of extended length of stay (LOS), nonroutine discharge, and increased health care costs after surgery for spinal intradural/cord tumors.

Methods: A retrospective cohort study was performed using the National Inpatient Sample database from 2016 to 2017. All adult (>18 years old) inpatients who underwent surgical intervention for a benign or malignant spinal intradural/cord tumor were identified using International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision, Clinical Modification diagnosis and procedural coding systems. Patients were then categorized based on race: White, African American (AA), Hispanic, and other. Postoperative complications, LOS, discharge disposition, and total cost of hospitalization were assessed. A backward stepwise multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to identify independent predictors of extended LOS and nonroutine discharge disposition.

Results: Of 3595 patients identified, there were 2620 (72.9%) whites (W), 310 (8.6%) AAs/blacks, 275 (7.6%) Hispanic (H), and 390 (10.8%) other (O). Postoperative complication rates were similar among the cohorts (P = 0.887). AAs had longer mean (W, 5.4 ± 4.2 days vs. AA, 8.9 ± 9.5 days vs. H, 5.9 ± 3.9 days vs. O, 6.1 ± 3.9 days; P = 0.014) length of hospitalizations than the other cohorts. The overall incidence of nonroutine discharge was 55% (n = 1979), with AA race having the highest rate of nonroutine discharges (W, 53.8% vs. AA, 74.2% vs. H, 45.5% vs. O, 43.6%; P = 0.016). On multivariate regression analysis, AA race was the only significant racial independent predictor of nonroutine discharge disposition (odds ratio, 3.32; confidence interval, 1.67-6.60; P < 0.001), but not extended LOS (P = 0.209).

Conclusions: Our study indicates that AA race is an independent predictor of nonroutine discharge disposition in patients undergoing surgical intervention for a spinal intradural/cord tumor.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wneu.2021.04.085DOI Listing
April 2021

Cost and Health Care Resource Utilization Differences After Spine Surgery for Bony Spine versus Primary Intradural Spine Tumors.

World Neurosurg 2021 Apr 15. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Neurosurgery, John Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.

Objective: The aim of this study was to compare complication rates, length of stay (LOS), and hospital costs after spine surgery for bony spine tumors and intradural spinal neoplasms.

Methods: A retrospective cohort study was performed using the National Inpatient Sample database from 2016 to 2017. All adult inpatients who underwent surgical intervention for a primary intradural spinal tumor or primary/metastatic bony spine tumor were identified using International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision, Clinical Modification diagnosis/procedural coding systems. Patient demographics, comorbidities, intraoperative variables, complications, LOS, discharge disposition, and total cost of hospitalization were assessed. Backward stepwise multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to identify independent predictors of perioperative complication, extended LOS (≥75th percentile), and increased cost (≥75th percentile).

Results: A total of 9855 adult patients were included in the study; 3850 (39.1%) were identified as having a primary intradural spinal tumor and 6005 (60.9%) had a primary or metastatic bony spine tumor. Those treated for bony tumors had more comorbidities (≥3, 67.8% vs. 29.2%) and more commonly experienced ≥1 complications (29.9% vs. 7.9%). Multivariate analyses also showed those in the bony spine cohort had a higher odds of experiencing ≥1 complications (odds ratio [OR], 4.26; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.04-5.97; P < 0.001), extended LOS (OR, 2.44; 95% CI, 1.75-3.38; P < 0.001), and increased cost (OR, 5.32; 95% CI, 3.67-7.71; P < 0.001).

Conclusions: Relative to patients being treated for primary intradural tumors, those undergoing spine surgery for bony spine tumors experience significantly higher risk for perioperative complications, extended LOS, and increased cost of hospital admission. Further identification of patient and treatment characteristics that may optimize management of spine oncology may reduce adverse outcomes, improve patient care, and reduce health care resources.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wneu.2021.04.015DOI Listing
April 2021

Patient Risk Factors Associated with 30- and 90- Day Readmission after Ventriculoperitoneal Shunt Placement for Idiopathic Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus in Elderly Patients: A Nationwide Readmission Study.

World Neurosurg 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Neurosurgery, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT; Department of Radiology & Biomedical Imaging, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT. Electronic address:

Objective: For idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH), risk stratifying patients and identifying those who are likely to fare well after ventriculoperitoneal shunt (VP) surgery may help improve quality of care and reduce unplanned readmissions. The aim of this study was to investigate the drivers of 30- and 90-day readmissions following VP shunt surgery for iNPH in elderly patients.

Methods: The Nationwide Readmission Database years 2013 - 2015 was queried. Elderly patients (≥ 65 years old) undergoing VP shunt surgery were identified using the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification coding system. Unique patient linkage numbers were used to follow patients and identify 30- and 31 to 90-day readmission rates. Patients were grouped by no readmission (Non-R), readmission within 30 days (30-R), and readmission within 31 to 90 days (90-R).

Results: We identified 7,199 elderly patients undergoing VP shunt surgery for iNPH. 1,413 (19.6%) patients were readmitted (30-R: n = 812 [11.3%] vs. 90-R: n = 601 [8.3%] vs. Non-R: n = 5,786). The most prevalent 30- and 90-day complications seen among the readmitted cohort were mechanical complication of nervous system device implant (30-R: 16.1%, 90-R: 12.4%), extracranial postoperative infection (30-R: 10.4%, 90-R: 7.0%), and subdural hemorrhage (30-R: 6.0%, 90-R: 16.4%). On multivariate regression analysis, age, diabetes, and renal failure were independently associated with 30-day readmission; female sex and 26-50 household income percentile were independently associated with reduced likelihood of 90-day readmission. Having any complication during the index admission independently associated with both 30- and 90-day readmission.

Conclusions: In this study, we identify the most common drivers for readmission for elderly patients with iNPH undergoing VP shunt surgery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wneu.2021.04.010DOI Listing
April 2021

Cement Augmentation of Vertebral Compression Fractures May Be Safely Considered in the Very Elderly.

Neurospine 2021 Mar 31;18(1):226-233. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Department of Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA.

Objective: The objective of the current study was to perform a retrospective review of a national database to assess the safety of cement augmentation for vertebral compression fractures in geriatric populations in varying age categories.

Methods: The 2005-2016 National Surgical Quality Improvement Program databases were queried to identify patients undergoing kyphoplasty or vertebroplasty in the following age categories: 60-69, 70-79, 80-89, and 90+ years old. Demographic variables, comorbidity status, procedure type, provider specialty, inpatient/outpatient status, number of procedure levels, and periprocedure complications were compared between age categories using chi-square analysis. Multivariate logistic regressions controlling for patient and procedural variables were then performed to assess the relative periprocedure risks of adverse outcomes of patients in the different age categories relative to those who were 60-69 years old.

Results: For the 60-69, 70-79, 80-89, and 90+ years old cohorts, 486, 822, 937, and 215 patients were identified, respectively. After controlling for patient and procedural variables, 30-day any adverse events, serious adverse events, reoperation, readmission, and mortality were not different for the respective age categories. Cases in the 80- to 89-year-old cohort were at increased risk of minor adverse events compared to cases in the 60- to 69-year-old cohort.

Conclusion: As the population ages, cement augmentation is being considered as a treatment for vertebral compression fractures in increasingly older patients. These results suggest that even the very elderly may be appropriately considered for these procedures (level of evidence: 3).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.14245/ns.2040620.310DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8021820PMC
March 2021

Post-traumatic seizures following pediatric traumatic brain injury.

Clin Neurol Neurosurg 2021 Apr 10;203:106556. Epub 2021 Feb 10.

Department of Neurosurgery, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, 06520, CT, United States. Electronic address:

Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the national impact of demographic, hospital, and inpatient risk factors on post-traumatic seizure (PTS) development in pediatric patients who presented to the ED following a traumatic brain injury (TBI).

Patients And Methods: The Nationwide Emergency Department Sample database years 2010-2014 was queried. Patients (<21 years old) with a primary diagnosis of TBI and subsequent secondary diagnosis of PTS were identified using the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification coding system. We identified demographic variables, hospital characteristics, pre-existing medical comorbidities, etiology of injuries, and type of injury. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to identify the factors associated with post-traumatic seizures.

Results: We identified 1,244,087 patients who sustained TBI, of which 10,340 (0.83%) developed PTS. Of the patients who had seizures, the youngest cohort aged 0-5 years had the greatest proportion of seizure development (p < 0.001). Compared to those TBI patients with loss of consciousness (LOC), patients encountering no LOC after TBI had the smallest proportion of seizures while Prolonged LOC with baseline return had the greatest proportion. On univariate analysis of the effect of in-hospital complication on rate of seizures, respiratory, renal and urinary, hematoma, septicemia, and other neurological complications were all significantly associated with seizure development. On multivariate regression, age 6-10 years (OR: 0.48, p < 0.001) 11-15 years (OR: 0.41, p < 0.001), and 16-20 years (OR: 0.51, p < 0.001) were independently associated with decreased risk of developing seizures. Extended LOC with baseline return (OR: 6.33, p < 0.001), extended LOC without baseline return (OR: 1.95, p = 0.009), and Other LOC (OR: 3.02, p < 0.001) were independently associated with increased risk of developing seizures. Subarachnoid hemorrhage (OR: 4.14, p < 0.001), subdural hemorrhage [OR: 7.72, p < 0.001), and extradural hemorrhage (OR: 3.13, p < 0.001) were all independently associated with increased risk of developing seizures.

Conclusion: Out study demonstrates that various demographic, hospital, and clinical risk factors are associated with the development of seizures following traumatic brain injury. Enhancing awareness of these drivers may help provide greater awareness of patients likely to develop post-traumatic seizures such that this complication can be decreased in incidence so as to improve quality of care and decrease healthcare costs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clineuro.2021.106556DOI Listing
April 2021

The Effects of Pulmonary Risk Factors on Hospital Resource Use After Posterior Spinal Fusion for Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis Correction.

World Neurosurg 2021 May 3;149:e737-e747. Epub 2021 Feb 3.

Department of Neurosurgery, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, USA. Electronic address:

Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the impact of preoperative pulmonary risk factors (PRFS) on surgical outcomes after posterior spinal fusion (PSF) for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS).

Methods: A retrospective cohort study was performed using the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program-Pediatric database from 2016 to 2018. All pediatric patients with AIS undergoing PSF were identified. Patients were then categorized by whether they had recorded baseline PRF or no-PRF. Patient demographics, comorbidities, intraoperative variables, complications, length of stay, discharge disposition, and readmission rate were assessed.

Results: A total of 4929 patients were identified, of whom 280 (5.7%) had baseline PRF. Compared with the no-PRF cohort, the PRF cohort had higher rates of complications (PRF, 4.3% vs. no-PRF, 2.2%; P = 0.03) and longer hospital stays (PRF, 4.6 ± 4.3 days vs. no-PRF, 3.8 ± 2.3 days; P < 0.001), yet, discharge disposition was similar between cohorts (P = 0.70). Rates of 30-day unplanned readmission were significantly higher in the PRF cohort (PRF, 6.3% vs. no-PRF, 2.7%; P = 0.009), yet, days to readmission (P = 0.76) and rates of 30-day reoperation (P = 0.16) were similar between cohorts. On multivariate analysis, PRF was found to be a significant independent risk factor for longer hospital stays (risk ratio, 0.74; 95% confidence interval, 0.44-1.04; P < 0.001) but not postoperative complication or 30-day unplanned readmission.

Conclusions: Our study showed that PRF may be a risk factor for slightly longer hospital stays without higher rates of complication or unplanned readmission for patients with AIS undergoing PSF and thus should not preclude surgical management.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wneu.2021.01.109DOI Listing
May 2021

Octogenarians Are Independently Associated With Extended LOS and Non-Routine Discharge After Elective ACDF for CSM.

Global Spine J 2021 Jan 29:2192568221989293. Epub 2021 Jan 29.

Department of Neurosurgery, 1500John Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Study Design: Retrospective cohort study.

Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the impact age has on LOS and discharge disposition following elective ACDF for cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM).

Methods: A retrospective cohort study was performed using the National Inpatient Sample (NIS) database from 2016 and 2017. All adult patients >50 years old undergoing ACDF for CSM were identified using the ICD-10-CM diagnosis and procedural coding system. Patients were then stratified by age: 50 to 64 years-old, 65 to 79 years-old, and greater than or equal to 80 years-old. Weighted patient demographics, comorbidities, perioperative complications, LOS, discharge disposition, and total cost of admission were assessed.

Results: A total of 14 865 patients were identified. Compared to the 50-64 and 65-79 year-old cohorts, the 80+ years cohort had a significantly higher rate of postoperative complication (50-64 yo:10.2% vs. 65-79 yo:12.6% vs. 80+ yo:18.9%, = 0.048). The 80+ years cohort experienced significantly longer hospital stays (50-64 yo: 2.0 ± 2.4 days vs. 65-79 yo: 2.2 ± 2.8 days vs. 80+ yo: 2.3 ± 2.1 days, = 0.028), higher proportion of patients with extended LOS (50-64 yo:18.3% vs. 65-79 yo:21.9% vs. 80+ yo:28.4%, = 0.009), and increased rates of non-routine discharges (50-64 yo:15.1% vs. 65-79 yo:23.0% vs. 80+ yo:35.8%, < 0.001). On multivariate analysis, age 80+ years was found to be a significant independent predictor of extended LOS [OR:1.97, 95% CI:(1.10,3.55), = 0.023] and non-routine discharge [OR:2.46, 95% CI:(1.44,4.21), = 0.001].

Conclusions: Our study demonstrates that octogenarian age status is a significant independent risk factor for extended LOS and non-routine discharge after elective ACDF for CSM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2192568221989293DOI Listing
January 2021

Thirty- and 90-day Readmissions After Spinal Surgery for Spine Metastases: A National Trend Analysis of 4423 Patients.

Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 2021 Jun;46(12):828-835

Department of Neurosurgery, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT.

Study Design: Retrospective cohort study.

Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate differences in 30- and 90-day readmissions for spine metastases treated with decompression and/or fusion spine surgery in a nationwide readmission database.

Summary Of Background Data: Patients with metastases to the spine represent a particularly vulnerable patient group that may encounter frequent readmissions. However, the 30- and 90-day rates for readmission following surgery for spine metastases have not been well described.

Methods: The Nationwide Readmission Database years 2013 to 2015 was queried. Patients were grouped by no readmission (non-R), readmission within 30 days (30-R), and readmission within 31 to 90 days (90-R). Weighted multivariate analysis assessed impact of treatment approach and clinical factors associated with 30- and 90-day readmissions.

Results: There were a total of 4423 patients with a diagnosis of spine metastases identified who underwent spine surgery, of which 1657 (37.5%) encountered either a 30-or 90-day unplanned readmission (30-R: n = 1068 [24-.1%]; 90-R: n = 589 [13.3%]; non-R: n = 2766). The most prevalent inpatient complications observed were postoperative infection (30-R: 16.3%, 90-R: 14.3%, non-R: 11.5%), acute post-hemorrhagic anemia (30-R: 13.4%, 90-R: 14.2%, non-R: 14.5%), and genitourinary complication (30-R: 5.7%, 90-R: 2.9%, non-R: 6.2%). The most prevalent 30-day and 90-day reasons for admission were sepsis (30-R: 10.2%, 90-R: 10.8%), postoperative infection (30-R: 13.7%, 90-R: 6.5%), and genitourinary complication (30-R: 3.9%, 90-R: 4.1%). On multivariate regression analysis, surgery type, age, hypertension, and renal failure were independently associated with 30-day readmission; rheumatoid arthritis/collagen vascular diseases, and coagulopathy were independently associated with 90-day readmission.

Conclusion: In this study, we demonstrate several patient-level factors independently associated with unplanned hospital readmissions after surgical treatment intervention for spine metastases. Furthermore, we find that the most common reasons for readmission are sepsis, postoperative infection, and genitourinary complications.Level of Evidence: 3.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/BRS.0000000000003907DOI Listing
June 2021

Impact of Preoperative Anemia on Outcomes After Posterior Spinal Fusion for Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis.

World Neurosurg 2021 Feb 19;146:e214-e224. Epub 2020 Oct 19.

Department of Neurosurgery, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, USA. Electronic address:

Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship of preoperative anemia and outcomes after posterior spinal fusion (PSF) for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS).

Methods: A retrospective cohort study was performed using the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program-Pediatric database from 2016 to 2018. All pediatric patients (age 10-18 years) with AIS undergoing PSF were identified. Two cohorts were categorized into anemic and nonanemic cohorts based on age-based and sex-based criteria for anemia. Thirty-day outcomes and readmission rates were evaluated.

Results: A total of 4929 patients were identified, of whom 592 (12.0%) were found to have preoperative anemia. The anemic cohort had a greater prevalence of comorbidities and longer operative times. Compared with the nonanemic cohort, the anemic cohort experienced significantly higher rates of perioperative bleed/transfusion (nonanemic, 67.4% vs. anemic, 73.5%; P = 0.004) and required a greater total amount of blood transfused (nonanemic, 283.2 ± 265.5 mL vs. anemic, 386.7 ± 342.6 mL; P < 0.001). The anemic cohort experienced significantly longer hospital stays (nonanemic, 3.8 ± 2.2 days vs. anemic, 4.2 ± 3.9 days; P = 0.001), yet discharge disposition (P = 0.58), 30-day complication rates (P = 0.79) and unplanned reoperation rates (P = 0.90) were similar between cohorts. On multivariate analysis, anemia was found to be an independent predictor of perioperative bleed/transfusion (odds ratio, 1.36; 95% confidence interval, 1.12-1.66; P = 0.002) as well as a longer length of hospital stay (relative risk, 0.46; 95% confidence interval, 0.25-0.67; P < 0.001) but was not an independent predictor for postoperative complications (P = 0.85).

Conclusions: Our study suggests that preoperative anemia may be a risk factor for a greater perioperative bleed/transfusion event and slightly longer length of stay; however, it was not associated with greater 30-day complication and readmission rates in patients with AIS undergoing PSF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wneu.2020.10.074DOI Listing
February 2021

Predictors of Extended Length of Stay Following Treatment of Unruptured Adult Cerebral Aneurysms: A Study of The National Inpatient Sample.

J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 2020 Nov 19;29(11):105230. Epub 2020 Aug 19.

Department of Neurosurgery, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT; Department of Radiology & Biomedical Imaging, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT. Electronic address:

Background: In an unprecedented era of soaring healthcare costs, payers and providers alike have started to place increased importance on measuring the quality of surgical procedures as a surrogate for operative success. One metric used is the length of hospital stay (LOS) during index admission. For the treatment of unruptured cerebral aneurysms, the determinants of extended length of stay are relatively unknown. The aim of this study was to identify the patient- and hospital-level factors associated with extended LOS following treatment for unruptured cerebral aneurysms.

Methods: The National Inpatient Sample years 2010 - 2014 was queried. Adults (≥18 years) with unruptured aneurysms undergoing either clipping or coiling were selected using the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification coding system. Extended LOS was defined as greater than 75 percentile for the entire cohort (>5 days). Weighted patient demographics, comorbidities, complications, LOS, disposition and total cost were recorded. Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine the odds ratio for risk-adjusted extended LOS. The primary outcome was the degree which patient comorbidities or postoperative complications correlated with extended LOS.

Results: A total of 46,880 patients were identified for which 9,774 (20.8%) patients had extended LOS (Normal LOS: 37,106; Extended LOS: 9,774). Patients in the extended LOS cohort presented with a greater number of comorbidities compared to the normal LOS cohort. A greater proportion of the normal LOS cohort was coiled (Normal LOS: 63.0% vs. Extended LOS: 33.5%, P<0.001), while more patients in the extended LOS cohort were clipped (Normal LOS: 37.0% vs. Extended LOS: 66.5%, P<0.001). The overall complication rate was higher in the extended LOS cohort (Normal LOS: 7.3% vs. Extended LOS: 43.8%, P<0.001). On average, the extended LOS cohort incurred a total cost nearly twice as large (Normal LOS: $26,050 ± 13,430 vs. Extended LOS: $52,195 ± 37,252, P<0.001) and had more patients encounter non-routine discharges (Normal LOS: 8.5% vs. Extended LOS: 52.5%, P<0.001) compared to the normal LOS cohort. On weighted multivariate logistic regression, multiple patient-specific factors were associated with extended LOS. These included demographics, preadmission comorbidities, choice of procedure, and inpatient complications. The odds ratio for extended LOS was 5.14 (95% CI, 4.30 - 6.14) for patients with 1 complication and 19.58 (95% CI, 15.75 - 24.34) for patients with > 1 complication.

Conclusions: Our study demonstrates that extended LOS after treatment of unruptured aneurysms is influenced by a number of patient-level factors including demographics, preadmission comorbidities, type of aneurysm treatment (open surgical versus endovascular), and, importantly, inpatient complications. A better understanding of these independent predictors of prolonged length of hospital stay may help to improve patient outcomes and decrease overall healthcare costs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jstrokecerebrovasdis.2020.105230DOI Listing
November 2020

Characteristics of Reported Industry Payments to Neurosurgeons: A 5-Year Open Payments Database Study.

World Neurosurg 2021 01 1;145:e90-e99. Epub 2020 Oct 1.

Department of Neurosurgery, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut.

Objective: The aim of this study was to characterize the payments made by medical industry to neurosurgeons from 2014 to 2018.

Methods: A retrospective study was performed from January 1, 2014 to December 31, 2018 of the Open Payments Database. Collected data included the total number of industry payments, the aggregate value of industry payments, and the mean value of each industry payment made to neurosurgeons per year over the 5-year period.

Results: A total of 105,150 unique surgeons, with 13,668 (12.99%) unique neurosurgeons, were identified to have received an industry payment during 2014-2018. Neurosurgeons were the second highest industry-paid surgical specialty, with a total 421,151 industry payments made to neurosurgeons, totaling $477,451,070. The mean average paid amount per surgeon was $34,932 (±$936,942). The largest proportion of payments were related to food and beverage (75.5%), followed by travel and lodging (14.9%), consulting fees (3.5%), nonconsulting service fees (2.1%), and royalties or licensing (1.9%), totaling 90.4% of all industry payments to neurologic surgeons. Summed across the 5-year period, the largest paid source types were royalties and licensing (64.0%; $305,517,489), consulting fees (11.8%; $56,445,950), nonconsulting service fees (7.3%; $34,629,109), current or prospective investments (6.8%, $32,307,959), and travel and lodging (4.8%, $22,982,165).

Conclusions: Our study shows that over the most recent 5-year period (2014-2018) of the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services Open Payments Database, there was a decreasing trend of the total number of payments, but an increasing trend of the total amount paid to neurosurgeons.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wneu.2020.09.137DOI Listing
January 2021

Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome Caused by Induced Hypertension to Treat Cerebral Vasospasm Secondary to Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage.

World Neurosurg 2020 11 25;143:e309-e323. Epub 2020 Jul 25.

Department of Neurosurgery, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, USA. Electronic address:

Objective: The aim of the present study was to describe the case of a patient who had presented to a university hospital with induced-hypertension (IH) posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES). We also reviewed all other reports of such patients.

Methods: We have described the clinical course of a patient who had presented to the university hospital neurosurgical department. We also performed a systematic review of studies related to the incidence of PRES caused by the use of IH in the treatment of cerebral vasospasm after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.

Results: The patient had presented with an acute-onset headache and found to have a subarachnoid hemorrhage due to anterior communicating artery aneurysm rupture. She underwent coiling the next day. During the subsequent days, she demonstrated fluctuating clinical examination findings, aphasia, and decreased levels of arousal. Digital subtraction angiography was performed, and the findings were concerning for mild vasospasm of the anterior and middle cerebral arteries. The systolic blood pressure goal was increased to 180-220 mm Hg for an IH trial, which had initially resulted in some transient clinical improvements in her level of arousal. However, the improvement was not sustained. During the next 36 hours, the patient worsened, and she developed left middle cerebral artery syndrome. Given the concern for a possible ischemic event, magnetic resonance imaging was performed, which demonstrated interval development of multiple areas of cortical-based fluid-attenuated inversion recovery hyperintensity consistent with PRES. The systolic blood pressure goal was relaxed to normotension, and ~48 hours later, the patient's clinical status had significantly improved.

Conclusion: IH-PRES is a rare complication that should be remembered in the differential diagnosis for at-risk patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wneu.2020.07.135DOI Listing
November 2020

Comparison of epidemiology, treatments, and outcomes in pediatric versus adult ependymoma.

Neurooncol Adv 2020 Jan-Dec;2(1):vdaa019. Epub 2020 Feb 21.

Department of Neurosurgery, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, USA.

Background: Mounting evidence supports the presence of heterogeneity in the presentation of ependymoma patients with respect to location, histopathology, and behavior between pediatric and adult patients. However, the influence of age on treatment outcomes in ependymoma remains obscure.

Methods: The SEER database years 1975-2016 were queried. Patients with a diagnosis of ependymoma were identified using the International Classification of Diseases for Oncology, Third Edition, coding system. Patients were classified into one of 4 age groups: children (age 0-12 years), adolescents (age 13-21 years), young adults (age 22-45 years), and older adults (age >45 years). The weighed multivariate analysis assessed the impact of age on survival outcomes following surgical treatment.

Results: There were a total of 6076 patients identified with ependymoma, of which 1111 (18%) were children, 529 (9%) were adolescents, 2039 (34%) were young adults, and 2397 (40%) were older adults. There were statistically significant differences between cohorts with respect to race ( < .001), anatomical location ( < .001), extent of resection ( < .001), radiation use ( < .001), tumor grade ( < .001), histological classification ( < .001), and all-cause mortality ( < .001). There was no significant difference between cohorts with respect to gender ( = .103). On multivariate logistic regression, factors associated with all-cause mortality rates included males (vs females), supratentorial location (vs spinal cord tumors), and radiation treatment (vs no radiation).

Conclusions: Our study using the SEER database demonstrates the various demographic and treatment risk factors that are associated with increased rates of all-cause mortality between the pediatric and adult populations following a diagnosis of ependymoma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/noajnl/vdaa019DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7212900PMC
February 2020

Portending Influence of Racial Disparities on Extended Length of Stay after Elective Anterior Cervical Discectomy and Interbody Fusion for Cervical Spondylotic Myelopathy.

World Neurosurg 2020 10 27;142:e173-e182. Epub 2020 Jun 27.

Department of Neurosurgery, John Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.

Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate whether race is an independent predictor of extended length of stay (LOS) after elective anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) for cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM).

Methods: A retrospective cohort study was performed using the National Inpatient Sample database from 2016 to 2017. All adult patients undergoing ACDF for CSM were identified using the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision, Clinical Modification coding system.

Results: A total of 15,400 patients were identified, of whom 13,250 (86.0%) were Caucasian (C) and 2150 (14.0%) were African American (AA). The C cohort tended to be older, whereas the AA cohort had 2 times as many patients in the 0-25th income quartile. The prevalence of comorbidities was greater in the AA cohort. Intraoperative fusion levels were similar between the cohorts, whereas the AA cohort had a higher rate of cerebrospinal fluid leak/dural tear. In relation to the number of complications, the C cohort had a lower rate compared with the AA cohort (P = 0.006), including no complication (89.4% vs. 85.3%), 1 complication (9.9% vs. 12.8%), and >1 complication (0.7% vs. 1.9%). The AA cohort experienced significantly longer hospital stays (C, 1.9 ± 2.3 days vs. AA, 2.7 ± 3.5; P < 0.001), greater proportion of extended LOS (C, 17.5% vs. AA, 29.1%; P < 0.001) and nonroutine discharges (C, 16.1% vs. AA, 28.6%; P < 0.001). AA race was a significant independent risk factor for extended LOS (odds ratio, 1.98; 95% confidence interval, 1.50-2.61; P < 0.001).

Conclusions: Our study suggests that AA patients have a significantly higher risk of prolonged LOS after elective ACDF for CSM compared with C patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wneu.2020.06.155DOI Listing
October 2020

Patient Risk Factors Associated With 30- and 90-Day Readmission After Cervical Discectomy: A Nationwide Readmission Database Study.

Clin Spine Surg 2020 11;33(9):E434-E441

Department of Neurosurgery, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT.

Study Design: This is a retrospective cohort study.

Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the patient-level risk factors associated with 30- and 90-day unplanned readmissions following elective anterior cervical decompression and fusion (ACDF) or cervical disk arthroplasty (CDA).

Summary Of Background Data: For cervical disk pathology, both ACDF and CDA are increasingly performed nationwide. However, relatively little is known about the adverse complications and rates of readmission for ACDF and CDA.

Methods: A retrospective cohort study was performed using the Nationwide Readmission Database from the years 2013 to 2015. All patients undergoing either CDA or ACDF were identified using the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification coding system. Unique patient linkage numbers were used to follow patients and to identify 30- and 31-90-day readmission rates. Patients were grouped by no readmission (Non-R), readmission within 30 days (30-R), and readmission within 31-90 days (90-R).

Results: There were a total of 13,093 index admissions with 856 (6.5%) readmissions [30-R: n=532 (4.0%); 90-R: n=324 (2.5%)]. Both overall length of stay and total cost were greater in the 30-R cohort compared with 90-R and Non-R cohorts. The most prevalent 30- and 90-day complications seen among the readmitted cohorts were infection, genitourinary complication, and device complication. On multivariate regression analysis, age, Medicaid status, medium and large hospital bed size, deficiency anemia, and any complication during index admission were independently associated with increased 30-day readmission. Whereas age, large hospital bed size, coagulopathy, and any complication during the initial hospitalization were independently associated with increased 90-day readmission.

Conclusion: Our nationwide study identifies the 30- and 90-day readmission rates and several patient-related risk factors associated with unplanned readmission after common anterior cervical spine procedures.

Level Of Evidence: Level III.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/BSD.0000000000001030DOI Listing
November 2020

Pre-operative headaches and obstructive hydrocephalus predict an extended length of stay following suboccipital decompression for pediatric Chiari I malformation.

Childs Nerv Syst 2021 Jan 9;37(1):91-99. Epub 2020 Jun 9.

Department of Neurosurgery, Yale University School of Medicine, 333 Cedar Street, New Haven, CT, 06520, USA.

Purpose: For young children and adolescents with Chiari malformation type I (CM-I), the determinants of extended length of hospital stay (LOS) after neurosurgical suboccipital decompression are obscure. Here, we investigate the impact of patient- and hospital-level risk factors on extended LOS following surgical decompression for CM-I in young children to adolescents.

Methods: The Kids' Inpatient Database year 2012 was queried. Pediatric CM-I patients (6-18 years) undergoing surgical decompression were identified. Weighted patient demographics, comorbidities, complications, LOS, disposition, and total cost were recorded. A multivariate logistic regression was used to determine the odds ratio for risk-adjusted LOS. The primary outcome was the degree patient comorbidities or post-operative complications correlated with extended LOS.

Results: A total of 1592 pediatric CM-I patients were identified for which 328 (20.6%) patients had extended LOS (normal LOS, 1264; extended LOS, 328). Age, gender, race, median household income quartile, and healthcare coverage distributions were similar between the two cohorts. Patients with extended LOS had significantly greater admission comorbidities including headache symptoms, nausea and vomiting, obstructive hydrocephalus, lack of coordination, deficiency anemias, and fluid and electrolyte disorders. On multivariate logistic regression, several risk factors were associated with extended LOS, including headache symptoms, obstructive hydrocephalus, and fluid and electrolyte disorders.

Conclusions: Our study using the Kids' Inpatient Database demonstrates that presenting symptoms and signs, including headaches and obstructive hydrocephalus, respectively, are significantly associated with extended LOS following decompression for pediatric CM-I.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00381-020-04688-2DOI Listing
January 2021

Associated risk factors for extended length of stay following anterior cervical discectomy and fusion for cervical spondylotic myelopathy.

Clin Neurol Neurosurg 2020 08 4;195:105883. Epub 2020 May 4.

Department of Neurosurgery, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, United States.

Objectives: There is a paucity of literature describing the predictors associated with extended length of hospital stay (LOS) for patients undergoing anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) for cervical spondylotic myelopathy. The aim of this study was to identify the patient- and hospital-level factors associated with extended LOS for patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy undergoing ACDF.

Patients And Methods: The National Inpatient Sample database was queried to identify patients with a diagnosis of cervical spondylotic myelopathy undergoing ACDF between 2010 and 2014. Updated trend weights were used to assess patient demographics, comorbidities, complications, LOS, discharge disposition and total cost. Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine the odds ratio for risk-adjusted LOS. The primary outcome was the degree to which patient comorbidities or postoperative complications correlated with extended LOS (>3 days).

Results: We identified 144,514 patients with 29,947 (20.7%) experiencing an extended LOS (Normal LOS: 114,567; Extended LOS: 29,947). Comorbidities were overall significantly higher in the extended LOS cohort compared to the normal LOS cohort. Patients with extended LOS had a significantly greater proportion of blood transfusion (p < 0.001) and 2-3 vertebral levels fused (p < 0.001). The overall complication rates were greater in the extended LOS cohort (Normal LOS: 7.4% vs. Extended LOS: 44.8%, p < 0.001). The extended LOS cohort incurred $14,489 more in total cost (Normal LOS: $15,486 [11,787-20,623] vs. Extended LOS: $29,975 [21,286-45,285], p < 0.001) and had more patients discharged to non-routine locations (p < 0.001) compared to the normal LOS cohort. On multivariate logistic regression, several risk-factors were associated with extended LOS including: age, male gender, Black and Hispanic race, patient income, insurance, multiple comorbidities, blood transfusion, and number of complications. The odds ratio for extended LOS was 5.15 (95% CI: 4.68-5.67) for patients with 1 complication and 25.54 (95% CI: 20.54-31.75) for patients with >1 complication.

Conclusion: Our national cohort study demonstrated multiple patient- and hospital-level factors associated with extended LOS (>3 days) after ACDF for CSM. Specifically, patients with an extended LOS had lower socioeconomic status, higher rate of comorbidities, greater percentage of postoperative complications and non-routine discharges, with greater overall costs. Further investigational studies are necessary to identify quality improvement strategies targeted to better optimizing patients preoperatively and reducing perioperative complications in order to improve quality of patient care and reduce hospital LOS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clineuro.2020.105883DOI Listing
August 2020

Risk Factors for the Development of Post-Traumatic Hydrocephalus in Children.

World Neurosurg 2020 09 7;141:e105-e111. Epub 2020 May 7.

Department of Neurosurgery, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, USA. Electronic address:

Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the national impact of demographic, hospital, and inpatient risk factors on posttraumatic hydrocephalus (PTH) development in pediatric patients who presented to the emergency department after a traumatic brain injury (TBI).

Methods: The Nationwide Emergency Department Sample database 2010-2014 was queried. Patients (<21 years old) with a primary diagnosis of TBI and subsequent secondary diagnosis of PTH were identified using the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification coding system.

Results: We identified 1,244,087 patients who sustained TBI, of whom 930 (0.07%) developed PTH. The rates of subdural hemorrhage and subarachnoid hemorrhage were both significantly higher for the PTH cohort. On multivariate regression, age 6-10 years (odds ratio [OR], 0.6; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.38-0.93; P = 0.022), 11-15 years (OR, 0.32; 95% CI, 0.21-0.48; P < 0.0001), and 16-20 years (OR, 0.24; 95% CI, 0.15-0.37; P < 0.0001) were independently associated with decreased risk of developing hydrocephalus, compared with ages 0-5 years. Extended loss of consciousness with baseline return and extended loss of consciousness without baseline return were independently associated with increased risk of developing hydrocephalus. Respiratory complication (OR, 28.35; 95% CI, 15.75-51.05; P < 0.0001), hemorrhage (OR, 37.12; 95% CI, 4.79-287.58; P = 0.0001), thromboembolic (OR, 8.57; 95% CI, 1.31-56.19; P = 0.025), and neurologic complication (OR, 64.64; 95% CI, 1.39-3010.2; P = 0.033) were all independently associated with increased risk of developing hydrocephalus.

Conclusions: Our study using the Nationwide Emergency Department Sample database shows that various demographic, hospital, and clinical risk factors are associated with the development of hydrocephalus after traumatic brain injury.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wneu.2020.04.216DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7484270PMC
September 2020

Influence of gender on discharge disposition after spinal fusion for adult spine deformity correction.

Clin Neurol Neurosurg 2020 07 1;194:105875. Epub 2020 May 1.

Department of Neurosurgery, Yale University School of Medicine, 333 Cedar Street, New Haven, CT 06520, USA.

Objectives: Gender has been shown to impact several aspects of spine surgical care. However, the influence of gender disparities on discharge disposition after adult spine deformity correction (ASD) is relatively understudied. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of gender on discharge disposition after elective spinal fusion involving ≥4 levels for ASD correction.

Patients And Methods: The Nationwide Inpatient Sample database (2011-2014) was queried for patients with ASD (≥26 years-old) and elective spine fusion surgery involving ≥4 levels using ICD-9 codes. Patients were stratified by gender: Male or Female. Multivariate linear and logistic regressions were used to assess the impact of gender on length of hospital stay and discharge disposition.

Results: A total of 4972 patients were identified of which 3282 (66.0%) were Female and 1690 (34.0%) were Male. The Male cohort had a higher prevalence of comorbidities than the Female cohort. There was a difference in the number of levels operated on between cohorts, with the Female cohort having fewer 4-8-level fusions (77.6% vs. 86.8%) and more 9+-level fusions (23.0% vs. 13.6%) compared to Males. The Female cohort had greater rates of postoperative UTI (5.5% vs. 2.5%) and surgical site hematomas (2.6% vs. 1.3%), while the Male cohort had more postoperative MI (5.4% vs. 1.5%). The Female cohort spent slightly more time in the hospital than Male cohort (6.2 days vs. 5.9 days, P = 0.035). Female patients had a significantly greater proportion of non-routine discharge disposition (F: 48.5% vs. M: 40.3%, P < 0.001) compared to Male patients. However, in a multivariate analysis including patient and hospital factors, gender was not an independent predictor of discharge disposition (OR: 0.976, CI: 0.865-1.101, P = 0.688), but was independently associated with increased LOS [female (RR: 0.331, CI: 0.106-0.556, P = 0.004)].

Conclusion: Our study suggests gender disparities may not have a significant impact on discharge disposition after spinal fusion for ASD involving four levels or greater. Further studies are necessary to understand risk factors for non-routine discharges in ASD patients to improve quality of patient care and reduced healthcare costs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clineuro.2020.105875DOI Listing
July 2020

Thirty- and 90-Day Readmissions After Treatment of Traumatic Subdural Hematoma: National Trend Analysis.

World Neurosurg 2020 07 6;139:e212-e219. Epub 2020 Apr 6.

Department of Neurosurgery, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, USA; Department of Radiology & Biomedical Imaging, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, USA. Electronic address:

Objective: Subdural hematoma (SDH), a form of traumatic brain injury, is a common disease that requires extensive patient management and resource utilization; however, there remains a paucity of national studies examining the likelihood of readmission in this patient population. The aim of this study is to investigate differences in 30- and 90-day readmissions for treatment of traumatic SDH using a nationwide readmission database.

Methods: The Nationwide Readmission Database years 2013-2015 were queried. Patients with a diagnosis of traumatic SDH and a primary procedure code for incision of cerebral meninges for drainage were identified using the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification coding system. Patients were grouped by no readmission (Non-R), readmission within 30 days (30-R), and readmission within 31-90 days (90-R).

Results: We identified a total of 14,355 patients, with 3106 (21.6%) patients encountering a readmission (30-R: n = 2193 [15.3%]; 90-R: n = 913 [6.3%]; Non-R: n = 11,249). The most prevalent 30- and 90-day diagnoses seen among the readmitted cohorts were postoperative infection (30-R: 10.5%, 90-R: 13.0%) and epilepsy (30-R: 3.7%, 90-R: 1.1%). On multivariate logistic regression analysis, Medicare, Medicaid, hypertension, diabetes, renal failure, congestive heart failure, and coagulopathy were independently associated with 30-day readmission; Medicare and rheumatoid arthritis/collagen vascular disease were independently associated with 90-day readmission.

Conclusions: In this study, we determine the relationship between readmission rates and complications associated with surgical intervention for traumatic subdural hematoma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wneu.2020.03.168DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7380544PMC
July 2020

Risk Factors Portending Extended Length of Stay After Suboccipital Decompression for Adult Chiari I Malformation.

World Neurosurg 2020 06 5;138:e515-e522. Epub 2020 Mar 5.

Department of Neurosurgery, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut. Electronic address:

Objective: For adult patients undergoing surgical decompression for Chiari malformation type I (CM-I), the patient-level factors that influence extended length of stay (LOS) are relatively unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of patient-baseline comorbidities, demographics, and postoperative complications on extended LOS after intervention after adult CM-I decompression surgery.

Methods: A retrospective cohort study using the National Inpatient Sample years 2010-2014 was performed. Adults (≥18 years) with a primary diagnosis of CM-I undergoing surgical decompression were identified. Weighted patient demographics, comorbidities, complications, LOS, disposition, and total cost were recorded. A multivariate logistic regression was used to determine the odds ratio for risk-adjusted LOS.

Results: A total of 29,961 patients were identified, 6802 of whom (22.7%) had extended LOS. The extended LOS cohort had a significantly greater overall complication rate (normal LOS, 10.6% vs. extended LOS, 29.1%; P < 0.001) and total cost (normal LOS, $14,959 ± $6037 vs. extended LOS, $25,324 ± $21,629; P < 0.001) compared with the normal LOS cohort. On multivariate logistic regression, black race, income quartiles, private insurance, obstructive hydrocephalus, lack of coordination, fluid and electrolyte disorders, and paralysis were all independently associated with extended LOS. Additional duraplasty (P = 0.132) was not significantly associated with extended LOS after adjusting for other variables. The odds ratio for extended LOS was 2.07 (95% confidence interval, 1.59-2.71) for patients with 1 complication and 9.47 (95% confidence interval, 5.86-15.30) for patients with >1 complication.

Conclusions: Our study shows that extended LOS after adult CM-I decompression surgery may be influenced by multiple patient-level factors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wneu.2020.02.158DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7379177PMC
June 2020

Preresidency Publication Productivity of U.S. Neurosurgery Interns.

World Neurosurg 2020 05 31;137:e291-e297. Epub 2020 Jan 31.

Department of Neurosurgery, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, USA.

Background: Research experience is believed to be an important component of the neurosurgery residency application process. One measure of research productivity is publication volume. The preresidency publication volume of U.S. neurosurgery interns and any potential association between applicant publication volume and the match results of top-ranked residency programs have not been well characterized.

Objective: In this study, we sought to characterize the preresidency publication volume of U.S. neurosurgery residents in the 2018-2019 intern class using the Scopus database.

Methods: For each intern, we recorded the total number of publications, total number of first or last author publications, total number of neuroscience-related publications, mean number of citations per publication, and mean impact factor of the journal per publication. Preresidency publication volumes of interns at the top-25 programs (based on a composite ranking score according to 4 different ranking metrics) were compared with those at all other programs.

Results: We found that 82% of neurosurgery interns included in the analysis (190 interns from 95 programs) had at least 1 publication. The average number of publications per intern among all programs was 6 ± 0.63 (mean ± standard error of the mean). We also found that interns at top-25 neurosurgery residency programs tended to have a higher number of publications (8.3 ± 1.2 vs. 4.8 ± 0.7, P = 0.0137), number of neuroscience-related publications (6.8 ± 1.1 vs. 4.1 ± 0.7, P = 0.0419), and mean number of citations per publication (9.8 ± 1.7 vs. 5.7 ± 0.8, P = 0.0267) compared with interns at all other programs.

Conclusions: Our results provide a general estimate of the preresidency publication volume of U.S. neurosurgery interns and suggest a potential association between publication volume and matching in the top-25 neurosurgery residency programs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wneu.2020.01.173DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7202965PMC
May 2020

Geographic Variation in Outcomes and Costs After Spinal Fusion for Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis.

World Neurosurg 2020 Apr 7;136:e347-e354. Epub 2020 Jan 7.

Department of Neurosurgery, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, USA. Electronic address:

Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate regional variations in the management, complications, and total cost of admission for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) treated by elective posterior spinal surgery (PSF, ≥4 levels).

Methods: The Kids' Inpatient Database year 2012 was queried and adolescent patients (age 10-17 years old) with AIS undergoing elective PSF (≥4 levels) were selected. The primary outcome was regional variations for intraoperative and postoperative complications, length of surgery, and total cost of admission after elective PSF intervention.

Results: In our cohort of 3759 adolescent patients identified, 704 (18.7%) patients were treated in the Northeast, 917 (24.4%) in the Midwest, 1329 (35.4%) in the South, and 809 (21.5%) in the West (Northeast: n = 704; Midwest: n = 917; South: n = 1329; West: n = 809). The Northeast had the greatest complication rate, followed by the Midwest, South, and West region cohorts (Northeast: 27.7% vs. Midwest: 24.5% vs. South: 23.0% vs. West: 17.2%, P < 0.001). On average, length of surgery was shortest in the South (Northeast: 5.3 ± 2.7 days vs. Midwest: 5.3 ± 3.1 days vs. South: 4.9 ± 3.1 days vs. West: 5.3 ± 2.1 days, P < 0.001), while the total cost of admission was greatest in the West (Northeast: $51,760 ± $25,177 vs. Midwest: $55,201 ± $23,750 vs. South: $58,847 ± $28,227 vs. West: $60,636 ± $29,372, P < 0.001).

Conclusions: Our study suggests that there may be regional variations in health care resource utilization in AIS patients undergoing multilevel posterior spinal fusions. Further study is warranted to determine the specific factors contributing to disparities in regional outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wneu.2019.12.175DOI Listing
April 2020

Identification of KCC2 Mutations in Human Epilepsy Suggests Strategies for Therapeutic Transporter Modulation.

Front Cell Neurosci 2019 15;13:515. Epub 2019 Nov 15.

Department of Neurosurgery, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, United States.

Epilepsy is a common neurological disorder characterized by recurrent and unprovoked seizures thought to arise from impaired balance between neuronal excitation and inhibition. Our understanding of the neurophysiological mechanisms that render the brain epileptogenic remains incomplete, reflected by the lack of satisfactory treatments that can effectively prevent epileptic seizures without significant drug-related adverse effects. Type 2 K-Cl cotransporter (KCC2), encoded by , is important for chloride homeostasis and neuronal excitability. KCC2 dysfunction attenuates Cl extrusion and impairs GABAergic inhibition, and can lead to neuronal hyperexcitability. Converging lines of evidence from human genetics have secured the link between KCC2 dysfunction and the development of epilepsy. Here, we review KCC2 mutations in human epilepsy and discuss potential therapeutic strategies based on the functional impact of these mutations. We suggest that a strategy of augmenting KCC2 activity by antagonizing its critical inhibitory phosphorylation sites may be a particularly efficacious method of facilitating Cl extrusion and restoring GABA inhibition to treat medication-refractory epilepsy and other seizure disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fncel.2019.00515DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6873151PMC
November 2019

Extent of resection of epidermoid tumors and risk of recurrence: case report and meta-analysis.

J Neurosurg 2019 Jul 5:1-11. Epub 2019 Jul 5.

Departments of1Neurosurgery and.

Objective: Intracranial epidermoid tumors are slow-growing, histologically benign tumors of epithelial cellular origin that can be symptomatic because of their size and mass effect. Neurosurgical resection, while the treatment of choice, can be quite challenging due to locations where these lesions commonly occur and their association with critical neurovascular structures. As such, subtotal resection (STR) rather than gross-total resection (GTR) can often be performed, rendering residual and recurrent tumor potentially problematic. The authors present a case of a 28-year-old man who underwent STR followed by aggressive repeat resection for regrowth, and they report the results of the largest meta-analysis to date of epidermoid tumors to compare recurrence rates for STR and GTR.

Methods: The authors conducted a systemic review of PubMed, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Collaboration following the PRISMA guidelines. They then conducted a proportional meta-analysis to compare the pooled recurrence rates between STR and GTR in the included studies. The authors developed fixed- and mixed-effect models to estimate the pooled proportions of recurrence among patients undergoing STR or GTR. They also investigated the relationship between recurrence rate and follow-up time in the previous studies using linear regression and natural cubic spline models.

Results: Overall, 27 studies with 691 patients met the inclusion criteria; of these, 293 (42%) underwent STR and 398 (58%) received GTR. The average recurrence rate for all procedures was 11%. The proportional meta-analysis showed that the pooled recurrence rate after STR (21%) was 7 times greater than the rate after GTR (3%). The average recurrence rate for studies with longer follow-up durations (≥ 4.4 years) (17.4%) was significantly higher than the average recurrence rate for studies with shorter follow-up durations (< 4.4 years) (5.7%). The cutoff point of 4.4 years was selected based on the significant relationship between the recurrence rate of both STR and GTR and follow-up durations in the included studies (p = 0.008).

Conclusions: STR is associated with a significantly higher rate of epidermoid tumor recurrence compared to GTR. Attempts at GTR should be made during the initial surgery with efforts to optimize success. Surgical expertise, as well as the use of adjuncts, such as intraoperative MRI and neuromonitoring, may increase the likelihood of completing a safe GTR and decreasing the long-term risk of recurrence. The most common surgical complications were transient cranial nerve palsies, occurring equally in STR and GTR cases when reported. In all postoperative epidermoid tumor cases, but particularly following STR, close follow-up with serial MRI, even years after surgery, is recommended.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2019.4.JNS19598DOI Listing
July 2019