Publications by authors named "Wu Yin"

432 Publications

A Comparison of Two Tai Chi Interventions Tailored for Different Health Outcomes.

Complement Ther Med 2021 May 11:102731. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Kinesiology, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT, USA.

Objectives: We compared the health benefits of two different Tai Chi interventions tailored for improving blood pressure (BP) (PRESSURE) or balance (BALANCE).

Design: randomized controlled trial.

Setting: Community dwelling older adults (≥60yr) practiced Tai Chi at the fitness center of a continuous care community.

Interventions: We tailored PRESSURE to emphasize breathing techniques and mental relaxation and BALANCE to emphasize movement principles that challenged balance. Subjects were randomized to PRESSURE (n = 12), BALANCE (n = 13), or CONTROL (n = 10). Tai Chi was practiced 3 sessions/wk, 60 min/session for 12 wk. CONTROL performed normal daily activities.

Main Outcome Measures: We compared the change in cardiometabolic health, balance, and functional fitness between groups with ANCOVA using baseline values, age, and body mass index as covariates.

Results: Subjects were physically active, Tai Chi naive (97.1%), white, mostly female (82.9%), and older (78.9 ± 5.7 yr) with resting systolic BP (SBP) of 126.5 ± 14.4 mmHg and diastolic BP of 69.3 ± 8.4 mmHg. PRESSURE significantly improved Chair Sit-to-Stand Test (CSTS) (1.0 ± 1.8 vs. -0.6 ± 0.8times/30 sec,p = 0.03) versus CONTROL, and gait speed (12.8±43.3 vs. -24.1±22.4cm/sec, p = 0.02) versus BALANCE. Meanwhile, BALANCE significantly improved Single Leg Stance Test (5.4±18.0 vs. -8.2±10.3sec, p = 0.049) and CSTS (1.0±1.7 vs. -0.6±0.8times/30sec, p = 0.03), and tended to lower SBP (-4.2±16.0 vs. 3.5±8.3mmHg, p = 0.052) versus CONTROL.

Conclusion: Within 3 months, Tai Chi improved several health outcomes independent of the type of practice among physically active, Tai Chi naive older adults. Therefore, healthcare and exercise professionals may recommend Tai Chi to physically active older adults without specifying the type of practice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ctim.2021.102731DOI Listing
May 2021

Accuracy of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale Depression subscale (HADS-D) to screen for major depression: systematic review and individual participant data meta-analysis.

BMJ 2021 05 10;373:n972. Epub 2021 May 10.

Lady Davis Institute for Medical Research, Jewish General Hospital, Montréal, QC, Canada

Objective: To evaluate the accuracy of the depression subscale of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS-D) to screen for major depression among people with physical health problems.

Design: Systematic review and individual participant data meta-analysis.

Data Sources: Medline, Medline In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, PsycInfo, and Web of Science (from inception to 25 October 2018).

Review Methods: Eligible datasets included HADS-D scores and major depression status based on a validated diagnostic interview. Primary study data and study level data extracted from primary reports were combined. For HADS-D cut-off thresholds of 5-15, a bivariate random effects meta-analysis was used to estimate pooled sensitivity and specificity, separately, in studies that used semi-structured diagnostic interviews (eg, Structured Clinical Interview for ), fully structured interviews (eg, Composite International Diagnostic Interview), and the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. One stage meta-regression was used to examine whether accuracy was associated with reference standard categories and the characteristics of participants. Sensitivity analyses were done to assess whether including published results from studies that did not provide raw data influenced the results.

Results: Individual participant data were obtained from 101 of 168 eligible studies (60%; 25 574 participants (72% of eligible participants), 2549 with major depression). Combined sensitivity and specificity was maximised at a cut-off value of seven or higher for semi-structured interviews, fully structured interviews, and the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Among studies with a semi-structured interview (57 studies, 10 664 participants, 1048 with major depression), sensitivity and specificity were 0.82 (95% confidence interval 0.76 to 0.87) and 0.78 (0.74 to 0.81) for a cut-off value of seven or higher, 0.74 (0.68 to 0.79) and 0.84 (0.81 to 0.87) for a cut-off value of eight or higher, and 0.44 (0.38 to 0.51) and 0.95 (0.93 to 0.96) for a cut-off value of 11 or higher. Accuracy was similar across reference standards and subgroups and when published results from studies that did not contribute data were included.

Conclusions: When screening for major depression, a HADS-D cut-off value of seven or higher maximised combined sensitivity and specificity. A cut-off value of eight or higher generated similar combined sensitivity and specificity but was less sensitive and more specific. To identify medically ill patients with depression with the HADS-D, lower cut-off values could be used to avoid false negatives and higher cut-off values to reduce false positives and identify people with higher symptom levels.

Trial Registration: PROSPERO CRD42015016761.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.n972DOI Listing
May 2021

Safety and immunogenicity of one versus two doses of the COVID-19 vaccine BNT162b2 for patients with cancer: interim analysis of a prospective observational study.

Lancet Oncol 2021 Apr 27. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Guy's and St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK.

Background: The efficacy and safety profiles of vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 in patients with cancer is unknown. We aimed to assess the safety and immunogenicity of the BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech) vaccine in patients with cancer.

Methods: For this prospective observational study, we recruited patients with cancer and healthy controls (mostly health-care workers) from three London hospitals between Dec 8, 2020, and Feb 18, 2021. Participants who were vaccinated between Dec 8 and Dec 29, 2020, received two 30 μg doses of BNT162b2 administered intramuscularly 21 days apart; patients vaccinated after this date received only one 30 μg dose with a planned follow-up boost at 12 weeks. Blood samples were taken before vaccination and at 3 weeks and 5 weeks after the first vaccination. Where possible, serial nasopharyngeal real-time RT-PCR (rRT-PCR) swab tests were done every 10 days or in cases of symptomatic COVID-19. The coprimary endpoints were seroconversion to SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) protein in patients with cancer following the first vaccination with the BNT162b2 vaccine and the effect of vaccine boosting after 21 days on seroconversion. All participants with available data were included in the safety and immunogenicity analyses. Ongoing follow-up is underway for further blood sampling after the delayed (12-week) vaccine boost. This study is registered with the NHS Health Research Authority and Health and Care Research Wales (REC ID 20/HRA/2031).

Findings: 151 patients with cancer (95 patients with solid cancer and 56 patients with haematological cancer) and 54 healthy controls were enrolled. For this interim data analysis of the safety and immunogenicity of vaccinated patients with cancer, samples and data obtained up to March 19, 2021, were analysed. After exclusion of 17 patients who had been exposed to SARS-CoV-2 (detected by either antibody seroconversion or a positive rRT-PCR COVID-19 swab test) from the immunogenicity analysis, the proportion of positive anti-S IgG titres at approximately 21 days following a single vaccine inoculum across the three cohorts were 32 (94%; 95% CI 81-98) of 34 healthy controls; 21 (38%; 26-51) of 56 patients with solid cancer, and eight (18%; 10-32) of 44 patients with haematological cancer. 16 healthy controls, 25 patients with solid cancer, and six patients with haematological cancer received a second dose on day 21. Of the patients with available blood samples 2 weeks following a 21-day vaccine boost, and excluding 17 participants with evidence of previous natural SARS-CoV-2 exposure, 18 (95%; 95% CI 75-99) of 19 patients with solid cancer, 12 (100%; 76-100) of 12 healthy controls, and three (60%; 23-88) of five patients with haematological cancers were seropositive, compared with ten (30%; 17-47) of 33, 18 (86%; 65-95) of 21, and four (11%; 4-25) of 36, respectively, who did not receive a boost. The vaccine was well tolerated; no toxicities were reported in 75 (54%) of 140 patients with cancer following the first dose of BNT162b2, and in 22 (71%) of 31 patients with cancer following the second dose. Similarly, no toxicities were reported in 15 (38%) of 40 healthy controls after the first dose and in five (31%) of 16 after the second dose. Injection-site pain within 7 days following the first dose was the most commonly reported local reaction (23 [35%] of 65 patients with cancer; 12 [48%] of 25 healthy controls). No vaccine-related deaths were reported.

Interpretation: In patients with cancer, one dose of the BNT162b2 vaccine yields poor efficacy. Immunogenicity increased significantly in patients with solid cancer within 2 weeks of a vaccine boost at day 21 after the first dose. These data support prioritisation of patients with cancer for an early (day 21) second dose of the BNT162b2 vaccine.

Funding: King's College London, Cancer Research UK, Wellcome Trust, Rosetrees Trust, and Francis Crick Institute.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1470-2045(21)00213-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8078907PMC
April 2021

Non-viral vector mediated CKb11 with folic acid modification regulates macrophage polarization and DC maturation to elicit immune response against cancer.

Bioact Mater 2021 Nov 6;6(11):3678-3691. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Department of Neurosurgery and Institute of Neurosurgery, State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy and Cancer Center, West China Hospital, West China Medical School, Sichuan University and Collaborative Innovation Center for Biotherapy, Chengdu, 610041, PR China.

The immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment (TME) of cancer strongly hinders the anti-tumor immune responses, thereby resulting in disappointing responses to immunotherapy. Chemoattractive and promotive traits of chemokines exerted on leukocytes have garnered interest in improving the efficiency of immunotherapy by increasing the infiltration of immune cells in the TME. In this study, a folic acid (FA) -modified gene delivery system based on the self-assembly of DOTAP, MPEG-PCL-MPEG, and FA-PEG-PCL-PEG-FA, namely F-PPPD, was developed to deliver plasmids encoding the immunostimulating chemokine CKb11. The delivery of plasmid CKb11 (pCKb11) by F-PPPD nanoparticles resulted in the high secretion of CKb11 from tumor cells, which successfully activated T cells, suppressed the M2 polarization of macrophages, promoted the maturation of dendritic cells (DCs), facilitated the infiltration of natural killer (NK) cells and inhibited the infiltration of immunosuppressive cells in tumor tissues. Administration of F-PPPD/pCKb11 also significantly suppressed the cancer progression. Our study demonstrated a nanotechnology-enabled delivery of pCKb11, that remodeled the immunosuppressive TME, for cancer treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bioactmat.2021.03.031DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8056185PMC
November 2021

Neutralization potency of monoclonal antibodies recognizing dominant and subdominant epitopes on SARS-CoV-2 Spike is impacted by the B.1.1.7 variant.

Immunity 2021 Apr 1. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Infectious Diseases, School of Immunology & Microbial Sciences, King's College London, London, UK; Genotype-to-Phenotype UK National Virology Consortium. Electronic address:

Interaction of the SARS-CoV-2 Spike receptor binding domain (RBD) with the receptor ACE2 on host cells is essential for viral entry. RBD is the dominant target for neutralizing antibodies, and several neutralizing epitopes on RBD have been molecularly characterized. Analysis of circulating SARS-CoV-2 variants has revealed mutations arising in the RBD, N-terminal domain (NTD) and S2 subunits of Spike. To understand how these mutations affect Spike antigenicity, we isolated and characterized >100 monoclonal antibodies targeting epitopes on RBD, NTD, and S2 from SARS-CoV-2-infected individuals. Approximately 45% showed neutralizing activity, of which ∼20% were NTD specific. NTD-specific antibodies formed two distinct groups: the first was highly potent against infectious virus, whereas the second was less potent and displayed glycan-dependant neutralization activity. Mutations present in B.1.1.7 Spike frequently conferred neutralization resistance to NTD-specific antibodies. This work demonstrates that neutralizing antibodies targeting subdominant epitopes should be considered when investigating antigenic drift in emerging variants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.immuni.2021.03.023DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8015430PMC
April 2021

Network pharmacology integrated with molecular docking reveals the common experiment-validated antipyretic mechanism of bitter-cold herbs.

J Ethnopharmacol 2021 Jun 26;274:114042. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Institute of Chinese Materia Medica, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Beijing, 100700, China. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Bitter-cold herbs have been used to clearing heat and expelling damp in clinical practice in China for thousands of years.

Aim Of The Study: This study aimed to investigate the common molecular mechanism of bitter-cold herbs through network pharmacology analysis, molecular docking and experimental validation in vivo.

Materials And Methods: Network pharmacological analysis integrated with molecular docking was employed to identify the active compounds and core action targets of the bitter-cold herbs. Then, the yeast-induced pathological model was established, and the antipyretic effect of the herbs was evaluated by checking rectal temperatures of the mice hourly. Lastly, the protein expression of core targets was examined to reveal the antipyretic mechanism.

Results: A total of 52 lead compounds from the four bitter-cold herbs, Phellodendri Chinensis Cortex (PCC), Sophorae Flavescentis Radix (SFR), Gentianae Radix Et Rhozima (GRER) and Coptidis Rhizoma (CR), and 248 compounds-related targets were screened out with PTGS2 ranking the first. The results from molecular docking showed that 22 compounds adopted the same orientation as aspirin and had an excellent stability in the active site pocket of PTGS2. Furthermore, these herbs exerted potential therapeutic effects through 38 related pathways. On the other hand, the outcome of animal experiments showed that they could significantly attenuate the yeast-induced mice fever with dose-dependent relationship. Further experimental results demonstrated that administration of yeast suspension raised protein expression of PTGS2 significantly, which was evidently inhibited in the high or low-dose groups of GRER as well as in the low-dose group of SFR (P < 0.01) though a higher expression of PTGS2 was shown in the low-dose group of CR compared with FM group (P < 0.01).

Conclusions: The bitter-cold herbs can alleviate fever response and their antipyretic effect may mainly be attributed to regulating the expression of PTGS2 after the formation of ligand-receptor/PTGS2 complexes, and their active compounds might be nominated as antipyretic lead-ligand candidates.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2021.114042DOI Listing
June 2021

Preliminary demonstration of in vivo quasi-steady-state CEST postprocessing-Correction of saturation time and relaxation delay for robust quantification of tumor MT and APT effects.

Magn Reson Med 2021 Aug 15;86(2):943-953. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Paul C. Lauterbur Research Center for Biomedical Imaging, Shenzhen Institutes of Advanced Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenzhen, Guangdong, China.

Purpose: Chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) MRI is versatile for measuring the dilute labile protons and microenvironment properties. However, the use of insufficiently long RF saturation duration (Ts) and relaxation delay (Td) may underestimate the CEST measurement. This study proposed a quasi-steady-state (QUASS) CEST analysis for robust CEST quantification.

Methods: The CEST signal evolution was modeled as a function of the longitudinal relaxation rate during Td and spin-lock relaxation rate during Ts, from which the QUASS-CEST effect is derived. Numerical simulation and in vivo rat glioma MRI experiments were conducted at 11.7 T to compare the apparent and QUASS-CEST results obtained under different Ts/Td of 2 seconds/2 seconds and 4 seconds/4 seconds. Magnetization transfer and amide proton transfer effects were resolved using a multipool Lorentzian fitting and evaluated in contralateral normal tissue and tumor regions.

Results: The simulation showed the dependence of the apparent CEST effect on Ts and Td, and such reliance was mitigated with the QUASS algorithm. Animal experiment results showed that the apparent magnetization transfer and amide proton transfer effects and their contrast between contralateral normal tissue and tumor regions increased substantially with Ts and Td. In comparison, the QUASS magnetization transfer and amide proton transfer effects and their difference between contralateral normal tissue and tumor exhibited little dependence on Ts and Td. In addition, the apparent magnetization transfer and amide proton transfer were significantly smaller than the corresponding QUASS indices (P < .05).

Conclusion: The QUASS-CEST algorithm enables robust CEST quantification and offers a straightforward approach to standardize CEST experiments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mrm.28764DOI Listing
August 2021

Testosterone reduces generosity through cortical and subcortical mechanisms.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Mar;118(12)

Zurich Center for Neuroeconomics, Department of Economics, University of Zurich, 8006 Zürich, Switzerland.

Recent evidence has linked testosterone, a major sex hormone, to selfishness in economic decision-making. Here, we aimed to investigate the neural mechanisms through which testosterone reduces generosity by combining functional MRI with pharmacological manipulation among healthy young males in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, between-subject design. After testosterone or placebo gel administration, participants performed a social discounting task in which they chose between selfish options (benefiting only the participant) and generous options (providing also some benefit to another person at a particular social distance). At the behavioral level, testosterone reduced generosity compared to the placebo. At the neural level ( = 60), the temporoparietal junction (TPJ) encoded the other-regarding value of the generous option during generous choices, and this effect was attenuated by testosterone, suggesting that testosterone reduced the consideration of other's welfare as underpinned by TPJ activity. Moreover, TPJ activity more strongly reflected individual differences in generosity in the placebo than the testosterone group. Furthermore, testosterone weakened the relation between the other-regarding value of generous decisions and connectivity between the TPJ and a region extending from the insula into the striatum. Together, these findings suggest that a network encompassing both cortical and subcortical components underpins the effects of testosterone on social preferences.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2021745118DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8000274PMC
March 2021

Development of a Novel Clinical Decision Support System for Exercise Prescription Among Patients With Multiple Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors.

Mayo Clin Proc Innov Qual Outcomes 2021 Feb 22;5(1):193-203. Epub 2020 Oct 22.

Servier Pharmaceuticals, Boston, MA.

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors cluster in an individual. Exercise is universally recommended to prevent and treat CVD. Yet, clinicians lack guidance on how to design an exercise prescription (ExR) for patients with multiple CVD risk factors. To address this unmet need, we developed a novel clinical decision support system to prescribe exercise (prioritize personalize prescribe exercise [P3-EX]) for patients with multiple CVD risk factors founded upon the evidenced-based recommendations of the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) and American Heart Association. To develop P3-EX, we integrated (1) the ACSM exercise preparticipation health screening recommendations; (2) an adapted American Heart Association Life's Simple 7 cardiovascular health scoring system; (3) adapted ACSM strategies for designing an ExR for people with multiple CVD risk factors; and (4) the ACSM frequency, intensity, time, and time principle of ExR. We have tested the clinical utility of P3-EX within a university-based online graduate program in ExR among students that includes physicians, physical therapists, registered dietitians, exercise physiologists, kinesiologists, fitness industry professionals, and kinesiology educators in higher education. The support system P3-EX has proven to be an easy-to-use, guided, and time-efficient evidence-based approach to ExR for patients with multiple CVD risk factors that has applicability to other chronic diseases and health conditions. Further evaluation is needed to better establish its feasibility, acceptability, and clinical utility as an ExR tool.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mayocpiqo.2020.08.005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7930885PMC
February 2021

Single dose testosterone administration enhances novelty responsiveness and short-term habituation in healthy males.

Horm Behav 2021 May 9;131:104963. Epub 2021 Mar 9.

School of Psychology, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen, China; Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Affective and Social Cognitive Science, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen, China. Electronic address:

The role of testosterone in sensory perception suggests that testosterone likely regulates adaptive responses to sensory changes, including habituation to repeated events and responsiveness to novel events. To test this hypothesis, we investigated how testosterone modulates brain responses to rapid changes in sensory inputs. Using a double-blind, placebo-controlled, within-participant design, each participant received a single dose of either testosterone or placebo, and then completed a passive auditory oddball task in which infrequent deviant tones were embedded in a series of frequent standard tones. Analysis of novelty-evoked potentials revealed smaller Mismatch Negativity (MMN) responses, but larger P3a responses in the testosterone session than in the placebo session. This suggests testosterone attenuates MMN responses that are associated with pre-attentive novelty detection and enhances P3a responses that are associated with involuntary attentional orientation toward novelty. Along with the repetition of standard tones, P2 responses on the auditory evoked potentials became significantly attenuated in the testosterone session, but not in the placebo session. This suggests testosterone enhances short-term habituation of P2 responses to recurring sensory events, which has been associated with bottom-up attention allocation. Mediation analysis further revealed that the role of testosterone in promoting attentional orientation toward novelty could be explained by the influence it exerts on short-term habituation and pre-attentive novelty detection. Overall, testosterone facilitated involuntary attention switching-withdrawal of attention from repeated sensory events and orientation toward novel sensory events-at the cost of attenuated pre-attentive novelty detection. This finding provides insight into the interplay between endocrinology and involuntary attentional processes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yhbeh.2021.104963DOI Listing
May 2021

Impact of cancer evolution on immune surveillance and checkpoint inhibitor response.

Semin Cancer Biol 2021 Feb 22. Epub 2021 Feb 22.

Cancer Evolution and Genome Instability Laboratory, The Francis Crick Institute, London, NW1 1AT, UK; Cancer Research UK Lung Cancer Centre of Excellence, University College London Cancer Institute, Paul O'Gorman Building, London, WC1E 6DD, UK. Electronic address:

Intratumour heterogeneity (ITH) is pervasive across all cancers studied and may provide the evolving tumour multiple routes to escape immune surveillance. Immune checkpoint inhibitors (CPIs) are rapidly becoming standard of care for many cancers. Here, we discuss recent work investigating the influence of ITH on patient response to immune checkpoint inhibitor (CPI) therapy. At its simplest, ITH may confound the diagnostic accuracy of predictive biomarkers used to stratify patients for CPI therapy. Furthermore, ITH is fuelled by mechanisms of genetic instability that can both engage immune surveillance and drive immune evasion. A greater appreciation of the interplay between ITH and the immune system may hold the key to increasing the proportion of patients experiencing durable responses from CPI therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.semcancer.2021.02.013DOI Listing
February 2021

SS-31 ameliorates hepatic injury in rats subjected to severe burns plus delayed resuscitation via inhibiting the mtDNA/STING pathway in Kupffer cells.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2021 03 11;546:138-144. Epub 2021 Feb 11.

Department of Burn and Plastic Surgery, Nanjing First Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, PR China.

Hepatic injury is common in patients who suffer from severe burns plus delayed resuscitation (B + DR). Stimulator of interferon genes (STING) is primarily expressed in Kupffer cells (KCs). We demonstrated that B + DR caused hepatic injury and oxidative stress. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) damage mitochondrial membranes in hepatocytes, leading to the release of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) into the hepatocyte cytosol and the circulation. The damaged hepatocytes then activate the mtDNA/STING pathway in KCs and trigger KCs polarization towards pro-inflammatory phenotype. SS-31 is a strong antioxidant that specifically concentrates in the inner mitochondrial membrane. SS-31 prevented hepatic injury by neutralizing ROS, inhibiting the release of mtDNA, protecting hepatocyte mitochondria, suppressing the activation of the mtDNA/STING pathway and inhibiting KCs polarization into pro-inflammatory phenotype.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2021.01.110DOI Listing
March 2021

Impact of the B.1.1.7 variant on neutralizing monoclonal antibodies recognizing diverse epitopes on SARS-CoV-2 Spike.

bioRxiv 2021 Feb 3. Epub 2021 Feb 3.

The interaction of the SARS-CoV-2 Spike receptor binding domain (RBD) with the ACE2 receptor on host cells is essential for viral entry. RBD is the dominant target for neutralizing antibodies and several neutralizing epitopes on RBD have been molecularly characterized. Analysis of circulating SARS-CoV-2 variants has revealed mutations arising in the RBD, the N-terminal domain (NTD) and S2 subunits of Spike. To fully understand how these mutations affect the antigenicity of Spike, we have isolated and characterized neutralizing antibodies targeting epitopes beyond the already identified RBD epitopes. Using recombinant Spike as a sorting bait, we isolated >100 Spike-reactive monoclonal antibodies from SARS-CoV-2 infected individuals. ≈45% showed neutralizing activity of which ≈20% were NTD-specific. None of the S2-specific antibodies showed neutralizing activity. Competition ELISA revealed that NTD-specific mAbs formed two distinct groups: the first group was highly potent against infectious virus, whereas the second was less potent and displayed glycan-dependant neutralization activity. Importantly, mutations present in B.1.1.7 Spike frequently conferred resistance to neutralization by the NTD-specific neutralizing antibodies. This work demonstrates that neutralizing antibodies targeting subdominant epitopes need to be considered when investigating antigenic drift in emerging variants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/2021.02.03.429355DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7872354PMC
February 2021

Performance of an artificial intelligence system for bone age assessment in Tibet.

Br J Radiol 2021 Apr 9;94(1120):20201119. Epub 2021 Feb 9.

Department of Radiology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Beijing, China.

Objective: To investigate whether bone age (BA) of children living in Tibet Highland could be accurately assessed using a fully automated artificial intelligence (AI) system.

Methods:: Left hand radiographs of 385 children (300 Tibetan and 85 immigrant Han) aged 4-18 years who presented to the largest medical center of Tibet between September 2013 and November 2019 were consecutively collected. From these radiographs, BA was determined using the Greulich and Pyle (GP) method by experts in a consensus manner; furthermore, BA was estimated by a previously reported artificial intelligence (AI) BA system based on Han children from southern China. The performance of the AI system was compared with that of experts by using statistical analysis.

Results: Compared with the experts' results, the accuracy of the AI system for Tibetan and Han children within 1 year was 84.67 and 89.41%, respectively, and its mean absolute difference (MAD) was 0.65 and 0.56 years, respectively. The discrepancy in hand-wrist bone maturation was the main cause of low accuracy of the system in the 4- to 6-year-old group.

Conclusion: The AI BA system developed for Han Chinese children living in flat regions could enable to assess BA accurately in Tibet where medical resources are limited.

Advances In Knowledge: AI-based BA system may serve as an effective and efficient solution to assess BA in Tibet.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1259/bjr.20201119DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8010542PMC
April 2021

Acute Immune Signatures and Their Legacies in Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 Infected Cancer Patients.

Cancer Cell 2021 02 5;39(2):257-275.e6. Epub 2021 Jan 5.

Targeted Therapy Team, The Institute of Cancer Research, London, UK.

Given the immune system's importance for cancer surveillance and treatment, we have investigated how it may be affected by SARS-CoV-2 infection of cancer patients. Across some heterogeneity in tumor type, stage, and treatment, virus-exposed solid cancer patients display a dominant impact of SARS-CoV-2, apparent from the resemblance of their immune signatures to those for COVID-19 non-cancer patients. This is not the case for hematological malignancies, with virus-exposed patients collectively displaying heterogeneous humoral responses, an exhausted T cell phenotype and a high prevalence of prolonged virus shedding. Furthermore, while recovered solid cancer patients' immunophenotypes resemble those of non-virus-exposed cancer patients, recovered hematological cancer patients display distinct, lingering immunological legacies. Thus, while solid cancer patients, including those with advanced disease, seem no more at risk of SARS-CoV-2-associated immune dysregulation than the general population, hematological cancer patients show complex immunological consequences of SARS-CoV-2 exposure that might usefully inform their care.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ccell.2021.01.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7833668PMC
February 2021

Analysis Protocol for the Quantification of Renal pH Using Chemical Exchange Saturation Transfer (CEST) MRI.

Methods Mol Biol 2021 ;2216:667-688

Yerkes Imaging Center, Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA.

The kidney plays a major role in maintaining body pH homeostasis. Renal pH, in particular, changes immediately following injuries such as intoxication and ischemia, making pH an early biomarker for kidney injury before the symptom onset and complementary to well-established laboratory tests. Because of this, it is imperative to develop minimally invasive renal pH imaging exams and test pH as a new diagnostic biomarker in animal models of kidney injury before clinical translation. Briefly, iodinated contrast agents approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for computed tomography (CT) have demonstrated promise as novel chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) MRI agents for pH-sensitive imaging. The generalized ratiometric iopamidol CEST MRI analysis enables concentration-independent pH measurement, which simplifies in vivo renal pH mapping. This chapter describes quantitative CEST MRI analysis for preclinical renal pH mapping, and their application in rodents, including normal conditions and acute kidney injury.This publication is based upon work from the COST Action PARENCHIMA, a community-driven network funded by the European Cooperation in Science and Technology (COST) program of the European Union, which aims to improve the reproducibility and standardization of renal MRI biomarkers. This analysis protocol chapter is complemented by two separate chapters describing the basic concepts and experimental procedure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-0716-0978-1_40DOI Listing
March 2021

Identification of the raw and processed Crataegi Fructus based on the electronic nose coupled with chemometric methods.

Sci Rep 2021 Jan 20;11(1):1849. Epub 2021 Jan 20.

State Key Lab of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, College of Life Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing, China.

Crataegi Fructus (CF) is widely used as a medicinal and edible material around the world. Currently, different types of processed CF products are commonly found in the market. Quality evaluation of them mainly relies on chemical content determination, which is time and money consuming. To rapidly and nondestructively discriminate different types of processed CF products, an electronic nose coupled with chemometrics was developed. The odour detection method of CF was first established by single-factor investigation. Then, the sensor array was optimised by a stepwise discriminant analysis (SDA) and analysis of variance (ANOVA). Based on the best-optimised sensor array, the digital and mode standard were established, realizing the odour quality control of samples. Meanwhile, mathematical prediction models including the discriminant formula and back-propagation neural network (BPNN) model exhibited good evaluation with a high accuracy rate. These results suggest that the developed electronic nose system could be an alternative way for evaluating the odour of different types of processed CF products.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-79717-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7817683PMC
January 2021

Comment on: Prevalence, Risk Factors and Assessment of Depressive Symptoms in Patients With Systemic Sclerosis.

Arch Rheumatol 2020 Sep 24;35(3):458-459. Epub 2020 Jul 24.

Department of Psychiatry, Lady Davis Institute for Medical Research, Jewish General Hospital, Montreal, Canada.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.46497/ArchRheumatol.2020.7920DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7788642PMC
September 2020

Case Report of Remifentanil Labor Analgesia for a Pregnant Patient With Congenital Methemoglobinemia Type 1.

A A Pract 2021 Jan 6;15(1):e01373. Epub 2021 Jan 6.

From the Department of Anesthesiology & Perioperative Medicine, UPMC Magee-Womens Hospital.

Congenital methemoglobinemia is a rare disease characterized by cyanosis and a left shifting of the oxyhemoglobin dissociation curve. The disease necessitates avoidance of certain medications commonly used in obstetrics, making labor analgesia and anesthesia challenging. We present a case report of peripartum anesthetic management of a pregnant patient with congenital methemoglobinemia type 1 who received remifentanil labor analgesia and continuous methemoglobin monitoring. Continuous real-time monitoring of methemoglobin concentrations may prove to be a useful monitor in future care settings. A review of literature encompassing various perioperative and obstetric anesthesia and analgesia management considerations is presented.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1213/XAA.0000000000001373DOI Listing
January 2021

Automated segmentation of the left ventricle from MR cine imaging based on deep learning architecture.

Biomed Phys Eng Express 2020 02 18;6(2):025009. Epub 2020 Feb 18.

Lauterbur Research Center for Biomedical Imaging, Shenzhen Institutes of Advanced Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenzhen 518055, People's Republic of China.

Background: Magnetic resonance cine imaging is the accepted standard for cardiac functional assessment. Left ventricular (LV) segmentation plays a key role in volumetric functional quantification of the heart. Conventional manual analysis is time-consuming and observer-dependent. Automated segmentation approaches are needed to improve the clinical workflow of cardiac functional quantification. Recently, deep-learning networks have shown promise for efficient LV segmentation.

Purpose: The routinely used V-Net is a convolutional network that segments images by passing features from encoder to decoder. In this study, this method was advanced as DenseV-Net by replacing the convolutional block with a densely connected algorithm and dense calculations to alleviate the vanishing-gradient problem, prevent exploding gradients, and to strengthen feature propagation. Thirty patients were scanned with a 3 Tesla MR imager. ECG-free, free-breathing, real-time cines were acquired with a balanced steady-state free precession technique. Linear regression and the dice similarity coefficient (DSC) were performed to evaluate LV segmentation performance of the classic neural networks FCN, UNet, V-Net, and the proposed DenseV-net methods, using manual analysis as the reference. Slice-based LV function was compared among the four methods.

Results: Thirty slices from eleven patients were randomly selected (each slice contained 73 images), and the LVs were segmented using manual analysis, UNet, FCN, V-Net, and the proposed DenseV-Net methods. A strong correlation of the left ventricular areas was observed between the proposed DenseV-Net network and manual segmentation (R = 0.92), with a mean DSC of 0.90 ± 0.12. A weaker correlation was found between the routine V-Net, UNet, FCN, and manual segmentation methods (R = 0.77, 0.74, 0.76, respectively) with a lower mean DSC (0.85 ± 0.13, 0.84 ± 0.16, 0.79 ± 0.17, respectively). Additionally, the proposed DenseV-Net method was strongly correlated with the manual analysis in slice-based LV function quantification compared with the state-of-art neural network methods V-Net, UNet, and FCN.

Conclusion: The proposed DenseV-Net method outperforms the classic convolutional networks V-Net, UNet, and FCN in automated LV segmentation, providing a novel way for efficient heart functional quantification and the diagnosis of cardiac diseases using cine MRI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/2057-1976/ab7363DOI Listing
February 2020

Loss of PIGK function causes severe infantile encephalopathy and extensive neuronal apoptosis.

Hum Genet 2021 May 4;140(5):791-803. Epub 2021 Jan 4.

Center for Medical Genetics and Hunan Key Laboratory of Medical Genetics, School of Life Sciences, Central South University, 110 Xiangya Road, Changsha, 410078, Hunan, China.

PIGK gene, encoding a key component of glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) transamidase, was recently reported to be associated with inherited GPI deficiency disorders (IGDs). However, little is known about the specific downstream effects of PIGK on neurodevelopment due to the rarity of the disease and the lack of in vivo study. Here, we described 2 patients in a Chinese family presented with profound global developmental delay, severe hypotonia, seizures, and postnatal progressive global brain atrophy including hemisphere, cerebellar and corpus callosum atrophy. Two novel compound heterozygous variants in PIGK were identified via genetic analysis, which was proved to cause significant decrease of PIGK protein and reduced cell surface presence of GPI-APs in the patients. To explore the role of Pigk on embryonic and neuronal development, we constructed Pigk knock-down zebrafish and knock-in mouse models. Zebrafish injected with a small dose of morpholino oligonucleotides displayed severe developmental defects including small eyes, deformed head, curly spinal cord, and unconsumed yolk sac. Primary motor neuronal dysplasia and extensive neural cell apoptosis were further observed. Meanwhile, the mouse models, carrying the two variants respectively homologous with the patients, both resulted in complete embryonic lethality of the homozygotes, which suggested the intolerable effect caused by amino acid substitution of Asp204 as well as the truncated mutation. Our findings provide the in vivo evidence for the essential role of PIGK during the embryonic and neuronal development. Based on these data, we propose a basis for further study of pathological and molecular mechanisms of PIGK-related neurodevelopmental defects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00439-020-02243-2DOI Listing
May 2021

Study of biochip integrated with microelectrodes modified by poly-dopamine-co-chitosan composite gel for separation, enrichment and detection of microbes in the aerosol.

Biosens Bioelectron 2021 Mar 24;176:112931. Epub 2020 Dec 24.

Key Disciplines Lab of Novel Micro-Nano Devices and System Technology, Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Technology and Systems, Ministry of Education, Chongqing University, Chongqing, 400044, PR China; School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing, 400044, PR China; School of Optoelectronics Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing, 400044, PR China. Electronic address:

As the urgent need for rapid detection of airborne microbes in a specific environment, a biochip which was integrated with the functions of enrichment and detection was designed and developed. It was composed of cover plate, copper microelectrodes modified with poly-dopamine-co-chitosan (PDA-co-CS) composite gel, sealing washer and substrate containing copper sheet electrode. The microbes were enriched due to the good ventilation efficiency and adhesion of the PDA-co-CS composite gel. The enrichment efficiency of microbes was 99.9%. The electrical impedance spectrum (EIS) test system which was composed of the copper electrodes and the copper sheet electrode were used to detect the concentrated microbes and establish the quantitative detection method of single microbe (S. aureus ATCC 6538) and mixed microbes (S. aureus ATCC 6538, E. coli JM109, and Candida albicans). It was shown that the biochip could respond to the aerosol with 1.26 × 10 cfu/mS. aureus ATCC 6538, which was 25 times as high as the detection limit of natural deposition method. Meanwhile, the Surface-enhanced Raman Spectrum (SERS) of different microbes were detected in-situ with the help of the silver sol. The SERS data of S. aureus, E. coli and Candida albicans had been analyzed to establish recognition model by the principal component analysis (PCA) method and the three microbes were successfully identified. It was demonstrated that the designed biochip could be applied for separation, enrichment and detection of microbes in the aerosol.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bios.2020.112931DOI Listing
March 2021

Crack Detection during Laser Metal Deposition by Infrared Monochrome Pyrometer.

Materials (Basel) 2020 Dec 10;13(24). Epub 2020 Dec 10.

State Key Laboratory for Manufacturing Systems Engineering, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049, China.

Laser metal deposition (LMD) is an advanced technology of additive manufacturing which involves sophisticated processes. However, it is associated with high risks of failure due to the possible generation of cracks and bubbles. If not identified in time, such defects can cause substantial losses. In this paper, real-time monitoring of LMD samples and online detection of cracks by an infrared monochrome pyrometer (IMP) could mitigate this risk. An experimental platform for crack detection in LMD samples was developed, and the identification of four simulated cracks in a 316L austenitic stainless-steel LMD sample was conducted. Data at temperatures higher than 150 °C were collected by an IMP, and the results indicated that crack depth is an important factor affecting the peak temperature. Based on this factor, the locations of cracks in LMD-316L austenitic stainless-steel samples can be determined. The proposed technique can provide real-time detection of cracks through layers of cladding during large-scale manufacturing, which suggests its relevance for optimizing the technological process and parameters, as well as reducing the possibility of cracks in the LMD process.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma13245643DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7763096PMC
December 2020

Diagnostic performance between MR amide proton transfer (APT) and diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) in glioma grading and IDH mutation status prediction at 3 T.

Eur J Radiol 2021 Jan 3;134:109466. Epub 2020 Dec 3.

Paul C. Lauterbur Research Center for Biomedical Imaging, Shenzhen Institutes of Advanced Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenzhen, Guangdong, China; Key Laboratory of Health Informatics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenzhen, Guangdong, China. Electronic address:

Purpose: Accurate glioma grading and IDH mutation status prediction are critically essential for individualized preoperative treatment decisions. This study aims to compare the diagnostic performance of magnetic resonance (MR) amide proton transfer (APT) and diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) in glioma grading and IDH mutation status prediction.

Method: Fifty-one glioma patients without treatment were retrospectively included. APT-weighted (APTw) effect and DKI indices, including mean diffusivity (MD), fractional anisotropy (FA), mean kurtosis (MK), and kurtosis FA (KFA) were obtained from APT and diffusion-weighted images, respectively. DKI indices in tumors were normalized to that in contralateral normal appearing white matter (CNAWM) and the APTw difference (ΔAPTw) between the two regions was calculated. Student's t-test, one-way ANOVA and ROC analyses were conducted.

Results: Among the enrolled 51 patients, 13 had glioma-II, 17 had glioma-III and 21 had glioma-IV. 25 patients were diagnosed as IDH-mutant, and 26 as IDH-wild type. MD and MK differed significantly between glioma-IV and glioma II/III (P < 0.05), but not between glioma-II and glioma-III. FA and KFA showed no significant difference among the three groups (P > 0.05). IDH-mutant group exhibited significantly higher MD and lower FA, MK and ΔAPTw than IDH-wild type (P < 0.05), whereas the two groups showed comparable KFA values. In contrast, ΔAPTw differed significantly across tumor grades and IDH mutation status (P < 0.05), with consistently better discriminatory performance than DKI indices in glioma grading and IDH mutation status prediction.

Conclusions: APT imaging was superior to DKI in glioma grading and IDH mutation status prediction, benefiting accurate diagnoses and treatment decisions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejrad.2020.109466DOI Listing
January 2021

Deep and partial immunoparesis is a poor prognostic factor for newly diagnosed multiple myeloma patients.

Leuk Lymphoma 2021 04 4;62(4):883-890. Epub 2020 Dec 4.

Department of Hematology, Beijing Chaoyang Hospital, Capital medical University, Beijing, China.

We retrospectively analyzed immunosuppression status in 287 newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (MM) patients and assessed the prognostic value of immunoparesis on survival. Deep immunoparesis was defined that one of uninvolved immunoglobulins was below 50% the lower limit of normal ranges, partial immunoparesis was defined at least two suppressed uninvolved immunoglobulins. We found that patients with deep and partial immunoparesis had a significantly shorter median overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS). Moreover, deep and partial immunoparesis was a poor prognostic factor for OS and PFS in univariate and multivariable analyses. To reduce the bias between the groups, we performed a 1:1 propensity score matching technique for analysis and found that patients with deep and partial immunoparesis also had shorter OS and PFS. Our study showed that deep and partial immunoparesis can be defined an independent poor prognostic factor for patients with newly diagnosed MM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10428194.2020.1855345DOI Listing
April 2021

Factors associated with fears due to COVID-19: A Scleroderma Patient-centered Intervention Network (SPIN) COVID-19 cohort study.

J Psychosom Res 2021 01 25;140:110314. Epub 2020 Nov 25.

Lady Davis Institute for Medical Research, Jewish General Hospital, Montreal, Quebec, Canada; Department of Psychiatry, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada; Department of Epidemiology, Biostatistics, and Occupational Health, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada; Department of Medicine, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada; Department of Psychology, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada; Department of Educational and Counselling Psychology, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada; Biomedical Ethics Unit, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada. Electronic address:

Introduction: No studies have examined factors associated with fear in any group of people vulnerable during COVID-19 due to pre-existing medical conditions.

Objective: To investigate factors associated with fear of consequences of COVID-19 among people living with a pre-existing medical condition, the autoimmune disease systemic sclerosis (SSc; scleroderma), including country.

Methods: Pre-COVID-19 data from the Scleroderma Patient-centered Intervention Network (SPIN) Cohort were linked to COVID-19 data collected in April 2020. Multivariable linear regression was used to assess factors associated with continuous scores of the 10-item COVID-19 Fears Questionnaire for Chronic Medical Conditions, controlling for pre-COVID-19 anxiety symptoms.

Results: Compared to France (N = 156), COVID-19 Fear scores among participants from the United Kingdom (N = 50) were 0.12 SD (95% CI 0.03 to 0.21) higher; scores for Canada (N = 97) and the United States (N = 128) were higher, but not statistically significant. Greater interference of breathing problems was associated with higher fears due to COVID-19 (Standardized regression coefficient = 0.12, 95% CI 0.01 to 0.23). Participants with higher financial resources adequacy scores had lower COVID-19 Fear scores (Standardized coefficient = -0.18, 95% CI -0.28 to -0.09).

Conclusions: Fears due to COVID-19 were associated with clinical and functional vulnerabilities in this chronically ill population. This suggests that interventions may benefit from addressing specific clinical issues that apply to specific populations. Financial resources, health policies and political influences may also be important. The needs of people living with chronic illness during a pandemic may differ depending on the social and political context in which they live.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsychores.2020.110314DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7685938PMC
January 2021

Acetylharpagide Protects Mice from -Induced Acute Lung Injury by Inhibiting NF-κB Signaling Pathway.

Molecules 2020 Nov 25;25(23). Epub 2020 Nov 25.

The State Key Lab of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, College of life Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023, China.

()-induced acute lung injury (ALI) is a serious disease that has a high risk of death among infants and teenagers. Acetylharpagide, a natural compound of Thunb. (family Labiatae), has been found to have anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory and anti-viral effects. This study investigates the therapeutic effects of acetylharpagide on -induced ALI in mice. Here, we found that acetylharpagide alleviated -induced lung pathological morphology damage, protected the pulmonary blood-gas barrier and improved the survival of -infected mice. Furthermore, -induced myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity of lung homogenate and pro-inflammatory factors in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid were suppressed by acetylharpagide. Mechanically, acetylharpagide inhibited the interaction between polyubiquitinated receptor interacting protein 1 (RIP1) and NF-κB essential modulator (NEMO), thereby suppressing NF-κB activity. In summary, these results show that acetylharpagide protects mice from -induced ALI by suppressing the NF-κB signaling pathway. Acetylharpagide is expected to become a potential treatment for -induced ALI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules25235523DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7728067PMC
November 2020

Objectively measured association between air pollution and physical activity, sedentary behavior in college students in Beijing.

Environ Res 2021 03 18;194:110492. Epub 2020 Nov 18.

Department of Physical Education, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

The purpose of this study is to examine the association between hourly air pollution on hourly physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior (SB) among college students in Beijing, China. The secondary aim was to examine such associations varied at specific time. A total of 340 participants were recruited from the Tsinghua University, in Beijing, China. Accelerometers provided PA measures, including moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), walking steps, energy expenditure and sedentary time for 7 consecutive days. Corresponding air pollution data by the Beijing Municipal Ecological Environment Bureau in the closed site (Wan Liu site) in Tsinghua University were collected including average hourly air quality index (AQI) and PM (μg/m³). Associations were estimated using linear individual fixed-effect regressions. We also conducted an air pollution risk perception survey among 2307 freshmen (76.6% males) who were enrolled in Tsinghua in 2016, and the survey was done in May 22-26, 2017. A one level increase in hourly air quality index (AQI) was associated with a reduction in 1-h PA by 0.083 (95% confidence interval [CI] = -0.137, -0.029) minutes of MVPA, 8.8 (95% CI = -15.0, -2.6) walking steps, 0.65 (95% CI = -1.03, -0.27) kcals of energy expenditure. A 10 μg/m³ increase in air pollution concentration in hourly PM was associated with a reduction in 1-h PA by 0.021 (95% confidence interval [CI] = -0.033, -0.010) minutes of MVPA, 2.2 (95% CI = -3.5, -0.9) walking steps, 0.170 (95% CI = -0.250, -0.089) kcals of energy expenditure an increase in 1-h sedentary behavior 0.045 (0.005, 0.0845). At specific time, stronger negative associations of AQI and PM air pollution with PA at 8 a.m., 4 p.m., 5 p.m. and 7 p.m. Similarly, stronger positive associations of 1 h AQI and PM air pollution with SB at 8 a.m., 9 a.m., 11 a.m., and 7 p.m. A total of 94.9% participants (n = 2235) responded "yes" to air pollution change activities in the survey, which may partially explain PA change. Air pollution may discourage physical activity and increases sedentary behavior among freshman students living in Beijing, China. This is preliminary study. The impact of air pollution on physical activity and sedentary behavior at a specific time may be different.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2020.110492DOI Listing
March 2021

What Multiple Myeloma With t(11;14) Should Be Classified Into in Novel Agent Era: Standard or Intermediate Risk?

Front Oncol 2020 26;10:538126. Epub 2020 Oct 26.

Department of Hematology, Myeloma Research Center of Beijing, Beijing Chao-Yang Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

Objective: To investigate the prognostic value of t(11;14) for multiple myeloma (MM) patients in novel agent era.

Methods: A total of 455 patients with fluorescence hybridization (FISH), before treatments from three hospitals in China, were included in the study. All patients received autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) after induction therapy as consolidation. High risk (HR) cytogenetics were defined as t(4;14), t(14;16), and/or del 17p.

Results: A total of 152 patients were in the HR group. Of patients without HR cytogenetics, 55 were in the t(11;14) group, and 248 were in the standard risk (SR) group without t(11;14). Gain in 1q21 was observed in 38.9% patients with t(11;14). There were no differences in median progression free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS), respectively, between patients in the t(11;14) group and those in the SR group. Patients in the t(11;14) group had the longer median PFS and OS, respectively, compared with those in the HR group. Regardless of coexisting with 1q21 gain or not, patients in the t(11;14) group still had similar median PFS and OS compared to those in the SR group. Finally, multivariate analysis indicated that including 1q21 gain and bone marrow plasma cell with CD20 expression, no variables were found to predict the outcome of the t(11;14) group in our cohort.

Conclusions: These results confirm that outcomes of t(11;14) MM are similar to standard risk patients when they receive novel agent induction therapy consolidated by ASCT. Gain of 1q21 coexists with t(11;14) frequently. In addition, both bone marrow plasma cell with CD20 expression and 1q21 gain have no impact on median PFS or OS for patients with t(11;14).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2020.538126DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7649769PMC
October 2020