Publications by authors named "Wouter de Ruijter"

63 Publications

Targeted Temperature Management in Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest With Shockable Rhythm: A Post Hoc Analysis of the Coronary Angiography After Cardiac Arrest Trial.

Crit Care Med 2021 Sep 22. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Department of Cardiology, Amsterdam University Medical Center, location VUmc, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Department of Cardiology, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands. Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands. Department of Cardiology, Amphia Hospital, Breda, The Netherlands. Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Amphia Hospital, Breda, The Netherlands. Department of Cardiology, Rijnstate Hospital, Arnhem, The Netherlands. Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Rijnstate Hospital, Arnhem, The Netherlands. Department of Cardiology, HAGA Hospital, Den Haag, The Netherlands. Department of Intensive Care Medicine, HAGA Hospital, Den Haag, The Netherlands. Department of Cardiology, Maasstad Hospital, Rotterdam, The Netherlands. Department of Cardiology, University Medical Centre Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands. Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Maasstad Hospital, Rotterdam, The Netherlands. Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Amsterdam University Medical Center, location VUmc, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Department of Cardiology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands. Department of Cardiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands. Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Maastricht University Medical Center, University Maastricht, Maastricht, The Netherlands. Department of Intensive Care Medicine, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands. Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Medisch Spectrum Twente, Enschede, The Netherlands. Department of Cardiology, Medisch Spectrum Twente, Enschede, The Netherlands. Department of Cardiology, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands. Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands. Department of Cardiology, Amsterdam University Medical Center, location AMC, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Amsterdam University Medical Center, location AMC, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Department of Cardiology, OLVG, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Department of Intensive Care Medicine, OLVG, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Department of Cardiology, Noord West Ziekenhuisgroep, Alkmaar, The Netherlands. Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Noord West Ziekenhuisgroep, Alkmaar, The Netherlands. Department of Cardiology, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht, The Netherlands. Department of Cardiology, Scheper Hospital, Emmen, The Netherlands. Department of Cardiology, Haaglanden Medical Center, Den Haag, The Netherlands. Department of Cardiology, Isala Hospital, Zwolle, The Netherlands. Department of Cardiology, Tergooi Hospital, Blaricum, The Netherlands. Department of Cardiology, Elisabeth-Tweesteden Hospital, Tilburg, The Netherlands. Department of Epidemiology and Data Science, Amsterdam University Medical Center, location VUmc, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Objectives: The optimal targeted temperature in patients with shockable rhythm is unclear, and current guidelines recommend targeted temperature management with a correspondingly wide range between 32°C and 36°C. Our aim was to study survival and neurologic outcome associated with targeted temperature management strategy in postarrest patients with initial shockable rhythm.

Design: Observational substudy of the Coronary Angiography after Cardiac Arrest without ST-segment Elevation trial.

Setting: Nineteen hospitals in The Netherlands.

Patients: The Coronary Angiography after Cardiac Arrest trial randomized successfully resuscitated patients with shockable rhythm and absence of ST-segment elevation to a strategy of immediate or delayed coronary angiography. In this substudy, 459 patients treated with mild therapeutic hypothermia (32.0-34.0°C) or targeted normothermia (36.0-37.0°C) were included. Allocation to targeted temperature management strategy was at the discretion of the physician.

Interventions: None.

Measurements And Main Results: After 90 days, 171 patients (63.6%) in the mild therapeutic hypothermia group and 129 (67.9%) in the targeted normothermia group were alive (hazard ratio, 0.86 [95% CI, 0.62-1.18]; log-rank p = 0.35; adjusted odds ratio, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.45-1.72). Patients in the mild therapeutic hypothermia group had longer ICU stay (4 d [3-7 d] vs 3 d [2-5 d]; ratio of geometric means, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.15-1.51), lower blood pressures, higher lactate levels, and increased need for inotropic support. Cerebral Performance Category scores at ICU discharge and 90-day follow-up and patient-reported Mental and Physical Health Scores at 1 year were similar in the two groups.

Conclusions: In the context of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest with shockable rhythm and no ST-elevation, treatment with mild therapeutic hypothermia was not associated with improved 90-day survival compared with targeted normothermia. Neurologic outcomes at 90 days as well as patient-reported Mental and Physical Health Scores at 1 year did not differ between the groups.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CCM.0000000000005271DOI Listing
September 2021

Rapid Evaluation of Coronavirus Illness Severity (RECOILS) in intensive care: Development and validation of a prognostic tool for in-hospital mortality.

Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 2021 Oct 8. Epub 2021 Oct 8.

Intensive Care, Reinier de Graaf Gasthuis, Delft, The Netherlands.

Background: The prediction of in-hospital mortality for ICU patients with COVID-19 is fundamental to treatment and resource allocation. The main purpose was to develop an easily implemented score for such prediction.

Methods: This was an observational, multicenter, development, and validation study on a national critical care dataset of COVID-19 patients. A systematic literature review was performed to determine variables possibly important for COVID-19 mortality prediction. Using a logistic multivariable model with a LASSO penalty, we developed the Rapid Evaluation of Coronavirus Illness Severity (RECOILS) score and compared its performance against published scores.

Results: Our development (validation) cohort consisted of 1480 (937) adult patients from 14 (11) Dutch ICUs admitted between March 2020 and April 2021. Median age was 65 (65) years, 31% (26%) died in hospital, 74% (72%) were males, average length of ICU stay was 7.83 (10.25) days and average length of hospital stay was 15.90 (19.92) days. Age, platelets, PaO2/FiO2 ratio, pH, blood urea nitrogen, temperature, PaCO2, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score measured within +/-24 h of ICU admission were used to develop the score. The AUROC of RECOILS score was 0.75 (CI 0.71-0.78) which was higher than that of any previously reported predictive scores (0.68 [CI 0.64-0.71], 0.61 [CI 0.58-0.66], 0.67 [CI 0.63-0.70], 0.70 [CI 0.67-0.74] for ISARIC 4C Mortality Score, SOFA, SAPS-III, and age, respectively).

Conclusions: Using a large dataset from multiple Dutch ICUs, we developed a predictive score for mortality of COVID-19 patients admitted to ICU, which outperformed other predictive scores reported so far.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/aas.13991DOI Listing
October 2021

Effect of Low-Normal vs High-Normal Oxygenation Targets on Organ Dysfunction in Critically Ill Patients: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

JAMA 2021 09;326(10):940-948

Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Research VUmc Intensive Care, Amsterdam Cardiovascular Science, Amsterdam Infection and Immunity Institute, Amsterdam Medical Data Science, Amsterdam UMC, location VUmc, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

Importance: Hyperoxemia may increase organ dysfunction in critically ill patients, but optimal oxygenation targets are unknown.

Objective: To determine whether a low-normal Pao2 target compared with a high-normal target reduces organ dysfunction in critically ill patients with systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS).

Design, Setting, And Participants: Multicenter randomized clinical trial in 4 intensive care units in the Netherlands. Enrollment was from February 2015 to October 2018, with end of follow-up to January 2019, and included adult patients admitted with 2 or more SIRS criteria and expected stay of longer than 48 hours. A total of 9925 patients were screened for eligibility, of whom 574 fulfilled the enrollment criteria and were randomized.

Interventions: Target Pao2 ranges were 8 to 12 kPa (low-normal, n = 205) and 14 to 18 kPa (high-normal, n = 195). An inspired oxygen fraction greater than 0.60 was applied only when clinically indicated.

Main Outcomes And Measures: Primary end point was SOFARANK, a ranked outcome of nonrespiratory organ failure quantified by the nonrespiratory components of the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score, summed over the first 14 study days. Participants were ranked from fastest organ failure improvement (lowest scores) to worsening organ failure or death (highest scores). Secondary end points were duration of mechanical ventilation, in-hospital mortality, and hypoxemic measurements.

Results: Among the 574 patients who were randomized, 400 (70%) were enrolled within 24 hours (median age, 68 years; 140 women [35%]), all of whom completed the trial. The median Pao2 difference between the groups was -1.93 kPa (95% CI, -2.12 to -1.74; P < .001). The median SOFARANK score was -35 points in the low-normal Pao2 group vs -40 in the high-normal Pao2 group (median difference, 10 [95% CI, 0 to 21]; P = .06). There was no significant difference in median duration of mechanical ventilation (3.4 vs 3.1 days; median difference, -0.15 [95% CI, -0.88 to 0.47]; P = .59) and in-hospital mortality (32% vs 31%; odds ratio, 1.04 [95% CI, 0.67 to 1.63]; P = .91). Mild hypoxemic measurements occurred more often in the low-normal group (1.9% vs 1.2%; median difference, 0.73 [95% CI, 0.30 to 1.20]; P < .001). Acute kidney failure developed in 20 patients (10%) in the low-normal Pao2 group and 21 patients (11%) in the high-normal Pao2 group, and acute myocardial infarction in 6 patients (2.9%) in the low-normal Pao2 group and 7 patients (3.6%) in the high-normal Pao2 group.

Conclusions And Relevance: Among critically ill patients with 2 or more SIRS criteria, treatment with a low-normal Pao2 target compared with a high-normal Pao2 target did not result in a statistically significant reduction in organ dysfunction. However, the study may have had limited power to detect a smaller treatment effect than was hypothesized.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02321072.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.2021.13011DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8408761PMC
September 2021

The Dutch Data Warehouse, a multicenter and full-admission electronic health records database for critically ill COVID-19 patients.

Crit Care 2021 08 23;25(1):304. Epub 2021 Aug 23.

Department of Intensive Care, Ziekenhuisgroep Twente, Almelo, The Netherlands.

Background: The Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has underlined the urgent need for reliable, multicenter, and full-admission intensive care data to advance our understanding of the course of the disease and investigate potential treatment strategies. In this study, we present the Dutch Data Warehouse (DDW), the first multicenter electronic health record (EHR) database with full-admission data from critically ill COVID-19 patients.

Methods: A nation-wide data sharing collaboration was launched at the beginning of the pandemic in March 2020. All hospitals in the Netherlands were asked to participate and share pseudonymized EHR data from adult critically ill COVID-19 patients. Data included patient demographics, clinical observations, administered medication, laboratory determinations, and data from vital sign monitors and life support devices. Data sharing agreements were signed with participating hospitals before any data transfers took place. Data were extracted from the local EHRs with prespecified queries and combined into a staging dataset through an extract-transform-load (ETL) pipeline. In the consecutive processing pipeline, data were mapped to a common concept vocabulary and enriched with derived concepts. Data validation was a continuous process throughout the project. All participating hospitals have access to the DDW. Within legal and ethical boundaries, data are available to clinicians and researchers.

Results: Out of the 81 intensive care units in the Netherlands, 66 participated in the collaboration, 47 have signed the data sharing agreement, and 35 have shared their data. Data from 25 hospitals have passed through the ETL and processing pipeline. Currently, 3464 patients are included in the DDW, both from wave 1 and wave 2 in the Netherlands. More than 200 million clinical data points are available. Overall ICU mortality was 24.4%. Respiratory and hemodynamic parameters were most frequently measured throughout a patient's stay. For each patient, all administered medication and their daily fluid balance were available. Missing data are reported for each descriptive.

Conclusions: In this study, we show that EHR data from critically ill COVID-19 patients may be lawfully collected and can be combined into a data warehouse. These initiatives are indispensable to advance medical data science in the field of intensive care medicine.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13054-021-03733-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8381710PMC
August 2021

Risk factors for adverse outcomes during mechanical ventilation of 1152 COVID-19 patients: a multicenter machine learning study with highly granular data from the Dutch Data Warehouse.

Intensive Care Med Exp 2021 Jun 28;9(1):32. Epub 2021 Jun 28.

ICU, Maasstad Ziekenhuis Rotterdam, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

Background: The identification of risk factors for adverse outcomes and prolonged intensive care unit (ICU) stay in COVID-19 patients is essential for prognostication, determining treatment intensity, and resource allocation. Previous studies have determined risk factors on admission only, and included a limited number of predictors. Therefore, using data from the highly granular and multicenter Dutch Data Warehouse, we developed machine learning models to identify risk factors for ICU mortality, ventilator-free days and ICU-free days during the course of invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) in COVID-19 patients.

Methods: The DDW is a growing electronic health record database of critically ill COVID-19 patients in the Netherlands. All adult ICU patients on IMV were eligible for inclusion. Transfers, patients admitted for less than 24 h, and patients still admitted at time of data extraction were excluded. Predictors were selected based on the literature, and included medication dosage and fluid balance. Multiple algorithms were trained and validated on up to three sets of observations per patient on day 1, 7, and 14 using fivefold nested cross-validation, keeping observations from an individual patient in the same split.

Results: A total of 1152 patients were included in the model. XGBoost models performed best for all outcomes and were used to calculate predictor importance. Using Shapley additive explanations (SHAP), age was the most important demographic risk factor for the outcomes upon start of IMV and throughout its course. The relative probability of death across age values is visualized in Partial Dependence Plots (PDPs), with an increase starting at 54 years. Besides age, acidaemia, low P/F-ratios and high driving pressures demonstrated a higher probability of death. The PDP for driving pressure showed a relative probability increase starting at 12 cmHO.

Conclusion: Age is the most important demographic risk factor of ICU mortality, ICU-free days and ventilator-free days throughout the course of invasive mechanical ventilation in critically ill COVID-19 patients. pH, P/F ratio, and driving pressure should be monitored closely over the course of mechanical ventilation as risk factors predictive of these outcomes.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40635-021-00397-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8236316PMC
June 2021

The effect of immediate coronary angiography after cardiac arrest without ST-segment elevation on left ventricular function. A sub-study of the COACT randomised trial.

Resuscitation 2021 07 28;164:93-100. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Department of Intensive care medicine, Noord West Ziekenhuisgroep, Alkmaar, The Netherlands.

Background: The effect of immediate coronary angiography and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in patients who are successfully resuscitated after cardiac arrest in the absence of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) on left ventricular function is currently unknown.

Methods: This prespecified sub-study of a multicentre trial evaluated 552 patients, successfully resuscitated from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest without signs of STEMI. Patients were randomized to either undergo immediate coronary angiography or delayed coronary angiography, after neurologic recovery. All patients underwent PCI if indicated. The main outcomes of this analysis were left ventricular ejection fraction and end-diastolic and systolic volumes assessed by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging or echocardiography.

Results: Data on left ventricular function was available for 397 patients. The mean (± standard deviation) left ventricular ejection fraction was 45.2% (±12.8) in the immediate angiography group and 48.4% (±13.2) in the delayed angiography group (mean difference: -3.19; 95% confidence interval [CI], -6.75 to 0.37). Median left ventricular end-diastolic volume was 177 ml in the immediate angiography group compared to 169 ml in the delayed angiography group (ratio of geometric means: 1.06; 95% CI, 0.95-1.19). In addition, mean left ventricular end-systolic volume was 90 ml in the immediate angiography group compared to 78 ml in the delayed angiography group (ratio of geometric means: 1.13; 95% CI 0.97-1.32).

Conclusion: In patients successfully resuscitated after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest and without signs of STEMI, immediate coronary angiography was not found to improve left ventricular dimensions or function compared with a delayed angiography strategy.

Clinical Trial Registration: Netherlands Trial Register number, NTR4973.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.resuscitation.2021.04.020DOI Listing
July 2021

Data on sex differences in one-year outcomes of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients without ST-segment elevation.

Data Brief 2020 Dec 12;33:106521. Epub 2020 Nov 12.

Department of Intensive care medicine, Maastricht University Medical Center, University Maastricht, Maastricht, the Netherlands.

Sex differences in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) patients are increasingly recognized. Although it has been found that post-resuscitated women are less likely to have significant coronary artery disease (CAD) than men, data on follow-up in these patients are limited. Data for this data in brief article was obtained as a part of the randomized controlled Coronary Angiography after Cardiac Arrest without ST-segment elevation (COACT) trial. The data supplements the manuscript "Sex differences in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients without ST-segment elevation: A COACT trial substudy" were it was found that women were less likely to have significant CAD including chronic total occlusions, and had worse survival when CAD was present. The dataset presented in this paper describes sex differences on interventions, implantable-cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) shocks and hospitalizations due to heart failure during one-year follow-up in patients successfully resuscitated after OHCA. Data was derived through a telephone interview at one year with the patient or general practitioner. Patients in this randomized dataset reflects a homogenous study population, which can be valuable to further build on research regarding long-term sex differences and to further improve cardiac care.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dib.2020.106521DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7691722PMC
December 2020

Sex differences in patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest without ST-segment elevation: A COACT trial substudy.

Resuscitation 2021 01 12;158:14-22. Epub 2020 Nov 12.

Department of Intensive care medicine, Maastricht University Medical Centre, University Maastricht, Maastricht, the Netherlands.

Background: Whether sex is associated with outcomes of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is unclear.

Objectives: This study examined sex differences in survival in patients with OHCA without ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI).

Methods: Using data from the randomized controlled Coronary Angiography after Cardiac Arrest (COACT) trial, the primary point of interest was sex differences in OHCA-related one-year survival. Secondary points of interest included the benefit of immediate coronary angiography compared to delayed angiography until after neurologic recovery, angiographic and clinical outcomes.

Results: In total, 522 patients (79.1% men) were included. Overall one-year survival was 59.6% in women and 63.4% in men (HR 1.18; 95% CI: 0.76-1.81;p = 0.47). No cardiovascular risk factors were found that modified survival. Women less often had significant coronary artery disease (CAD) (37.0% vs. 71.3%;p < 0.001), but when present, they had a worse prognosis than women without CAD (HR 3.06; 95% CI 1.31-7.19;p = 0.01). This was not the case for men (HR 1.05; 95% CI 0.67-1.65;p = 0.83). In both sexes, immediate coronary angiography did not improve one-year survival compared to delayed angiography (women, odds ratio (OR) 0.87; 95% CI 0.58-1.30;p = 0.49; vs. men, OR 0.97; 95% CI 0.45-2.09;p = 0.93).

Conclusion: In OHCA patients without STEMI, we found no sex differences in overall one-year survival. Women less often had significant CAD, but when CAD was present they had worse survival than women without CAD. This was not the case for men. Both sexes did not benefit from a strategy of immediate coronary angiography as compared to delayed strategy with respect to one-year survival.

Clinical Trial Registration Number: Netherlands trial register (NTR) 4973.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.resuscitation.2020.10.026DOI Listing
January 2021

Outcomes of persons with coronavirus disease 2019 in hospitals with and without standard treatment with (hydroxy)chloroquine.

Clin Microbiol Infect 2021 Feb 14;27(2):264-268. Epub 2020 Oct 14.

Amsterdam UMC, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Department of Infectious Diseases, Amsterdam Infection and Immunity Institute, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

Objective: To compare survival of individuals with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) treated in hospitals that either did or did not routinely treat patients with hydroxychloroquine or chloroquine.

Methods: We analysed data of COVID-19 patients treated in nine hospitals in the Netherlands. Inclusion dates ranged from 27 February to 15 May 2020, when the Dutch national guidelines no longer supported the use of (hydroxy)chloroquine. Seven hospitals routinely treated patients with (hydroxy)chloroquine, two hospitals did not. Primary outcome was 21-day all-cause mortality. We performed a survival analysis using log-rank test and Cox regression with adjustment for age, sex and covariates based on premorbid health, disease severity and the use of steroids for adult respiratory distress syndrome, including dexamethasone.

Results: Among 1949 individuals, 21-day mortality was 21.5% in 1596 patients treated in hospitals that routinely prescribed (hydroxy)chloroquine, and 15.0% in 353 patients treated in hospitals that did not. In the adjusted Cox regression models this difference disappeared, with an adjusted hazard ratio of 1.09 (95% CI 0.81-1.47). When stratified by treatment actually received in individual patients, the use of (hydroxy)chloroquine was associated with an increased 21-day mortality (HR 1.58; 95% CI 1.24-2.02) in the full model.

Conclusions: After adjustment for confounders, mortality was not significantly different in hospitals that routinely treated patients with (hydroxy)chloroquine compared with hospitals that did not. We compared outcomes of hospital strategies rather than outcomes of individual patients to reduce the chance of indication bias. This study adds evidence against the use of (hydroxy)chloroquine in hospitalised patients with COVID-19.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cmi.2020.10.004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7554450PMC
February 2021

Coronary Angiography After Cardiac Arrest Without ST Segment Elevation: One-Year Outcomes of the COACT Randomized Clinical Trial.

JAMA Cardiol 2020 Dec;5(12):1358-1365

Department of Cardiology, Scheper Hospital, Emmen, the Netherlands.

Importance: Ischemic heart disease is a common cause of cardiac arrest. However, randomized data on long-term clinical outcomes of immediate coronary angiography and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in patients successfully resuscitated from cardiac arrest in the absence of ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) are lacking.

Objective: To determine whether immediate coronary angiography improves clinical outcomes at 1 year in patients after cardiac arrest without signs of STEMI, compared with a delayed coronary angiography strategy.

Design, Setting, And Participants: A prespecified analysis of a multicenter, open-label, randomized clinical trial evaluated 552 patients who were enrolled in 19 Dutch centers between January 8, 2015, and July 17, 2018. The study included patients who experienced out-of-hospital cardiac arrest with a shockable rhythm who were successfully resuscitated without signs of STEMI. Follow-up was performed at 1 year. Data were analyzed, using the intention-to-treat principle, between August 29 and October 10, 2019.

Interventions: Immediate coronary angiography and PCI if indicated or coronary angiography and PCI if indicated, delayed until after neurologic recovery.

Main Outcomes And Measures: Survival, myocardial infarction, revascularization, implantable cardiac defibrillator shock, quality of life, hospitalization for heart failure, and the composite of death or myocardial infarction or revascularization after 1 year.

Results: At 1 year, data on 522 of 552 patients (94.6%) were available for analysis. Of these patients, 413 were men (79.1%); mean (SD) age was 65.4 (12.3) years. A total of 162 of 264 patients (61.4%) in the immediate angiography group and 165 of 258 patients (64.0%) in the delayed angiography group were alive (odds ratio, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.63-1.28). The composite end point of death, myocardial infarction, or repeated revascularization since the index hospitalization was met in 112 patients (42.9%) in the immediate group and 104 patients (40.6%) in the delayed group (odds ratio, 1.10; 95% CI, 0.77-1.56). No significant differences between the groups were observed for the other outcomes at 1-year follow-up. For example, the rate of ICD shocks was 20.4% in the immediate group and 16.2% in the delayed group (odds ratio, 1.32; 95% CI, 0.66-2.64).

Conclusions And Relevance: In this trial of patients successfully resuscitated after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest and without signs of STEMI, a strategy of immediate angiography was not found to be superior to a strategy of delayed angiography with respect to clinical outcomes at 1 year. Coronary angiography in this patient group can therefore be delayed until after neurologic recovery without affecting outcomes.

Trial Registration: trialregister.nl Identifier: NTR4973.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamacardio.2020.3670DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7489423PMC
December 2020

Unexpected Serotonin Syndrome, Epileptic Seizures, and Cerebral Edema Following 2,5-dimethoxy-4-bromophenethylamine Ingestion.

J Forensic Sci 2019 Nov 23;64(6):1950-1952. Epub 2019 Oct 23.

Amsterdam University Medical Centre, Meibergdreef 9, 1105 AZ, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

4-bromo-2,5-dimethoxyphenethylamine (2C-B) is a designer drug. In Europe, 2C-B is easily obtained and used for recreational purposes. It is known for its stimulating effects similar to those of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, although in higher doses it has more hallucinogenic effects. Here, we report a case of 2C-B ingestion, confirmed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, in an 18-year-old man. The neurological consequences were severe, including the development of serotonin syndrome and severe brain edema. Supportive therapy resulted in a stable condition, although, after several months, the patient still suffered from severe neurological impairment due to the drug-induced toxicity. This case showed that 2C-B could not be identified with the drugs of abuse screening routinely used in Dutch hospitals. The use of 2C-B carries many risks, with potentially profound neurological damage, that both consumers and healthcare physicians are unaware of.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1556-4029.14214DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6900031PMC
November 2019

Predictors of 90-Day Restart of Renal Replacement Therapy after Discontinuation of Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy, a Prospective Multicenter Study.

Blood Purif 2019 22;48(3):243-252. Epub 2019 Jul 22.

Department of Intensive Care, Amsterdam UMC, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Background: Restart of renal replacement therapy (RRT) after initial discontinuation of continuous RRT (CRRT) is frequently needed. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether renal markers after discontinuation of CRRT can predict restart of RRT within 90 days.

Methods: Prospective multicenter observational study in 90 patients, alive, still on the intensive care unit at day 2 after discontinuation of CRRT for expected recovery with urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) available. The endpoint was restart of RRT within 90 days. Baseline and renal characteristics were compared between outcome groups no restart or restart of RRT. Logistic regression and receiver operator characteristic curve analysis were performed to determine the best predictive and discriminative variables.

Results: Restart of RRT was needed in 32/90 (36%) patients. Compared to patients not restarting, patients restarting RRT demonstrated a higher day 2 urinary NGAL, lower day 2 urine output, and higher incremental creatinine ratio (day 2/0). In multivariate analysis, only incremental creatinine ratio (day 2/0) remained independently associated with restart of RRT (OR 5.28, 95% CI 1.45-19.31, p = 0.012). The area under curve for incremental creatinine ratio to discriminate for restart of RRT was 0.76 (95% CI 0.64-0.88). The optimal cutoff was 1.49 (95% CI 1.44-1.62).

Conclusion: In this prospective multicenter study, incremental creatinine ratio (day 2/0) was the best predictor for restart of RRT. Patients with an incremental creatinine ratio at day 2 of 1.5 times creatinine at discontinuation are likely to need RRT within 90 days. These patients might benefit from nephrological follow-up.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000501387DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6878749PMC
February 2020

Predictors of short-term successful discontinuation of continuous renal replacement therapy: results from a prospective multicentre study.

BMC Nephrol 2019 04 15;20(1):129. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Department of Intensive Care, Amsterdam UMC, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Netherlands.

Background: Prediction of successful discontinuation of continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) might reduce complications of over- and under-treatment. The aim of this study was to identify renal and non-renal predictors of short-term successful discontinuation of CRRT in patients in whom CRRT was stopped because renal recovery was expected and who were still in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) at day 2 after stop CRRT.

Methods: Prospective multicentre observational study in 92 patients alive after discontinuation of CRRT for acute kidney injury (AKI), still in the ICU and free from renal replacement therapy (RRT) at day 2 after discontinuation. Successful discontinuation was defined as alive and free from RRT at day 7 after stop CRRT. Urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) and clinical variables were collected. Logistic regression and Receiver Operator Characteristic (ROC) curve analysis were performed to determine the best predictive and discriminative variables.

Results: Discontinuation of CRRT was successful in 61/92 patients (66%). Patients with successful discontinuation of CRRT had higher day 2 urine output, better renal function indicated by higher creatinine clearance (6-h) or lower creatinine ratio (day 2/day 0), less often vasopressors, lower urinary NGAL, shorter duration of CRRT and lower cumulative fluid balance (day 0-2). In multivariate analysis renal function determined by creatinine clearance (Odds Ratio (OR) 1.066, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.022-1.111, p = 0.003) or by creatinine ratio (day 2/day 0) (OR 0.149, 95% CI 0.037-0.583, p = 0.006) and non-renal sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score (OR 0.822, 95% CI 0.678-0.996, p = 0.045) were independently associated with successful discontinuation of CRRT. The area under the curve of creatinine clearance to predict successful discontinuation was 0.791, optimal cut-off of 11 ml/min (95% CI 6-16 ml/min) and of creatinine ratio 0.819 (95% CI 0.732-0.907) optimal cut-off of 1.41 (95% CI 1.27-1.59).

Conclusion: In this prospective multicentre study we found higher creatinine clearance or lower creatinine ratio as best predictors of short-term successful discontinuation of CRRT, with a creatinine ratio of 1.41 (95% CI 1.27-1.59) as optimal cut-off. This study provides a practical bedside tool for clinical decision making.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12882-019-1327-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6466643PMC
April 2019

Coronary Angiography after Cardiac Arrest without ST-Segment Elevation.

N Engl J Med 2019 Apr 18;380(15):1397-1407. Epub 2019 Mar 18.

From the Departments of Cardiology (J.S.L., G.N.J., N.W.H., N.R.), Intensive Care Medicine (P.W.G.E., H.M.O.-S.), and Epidemiology and Biostatistics (P.M.V.), Amsterdam University Medical Center VUmc, the Departments of Cardiology (J.P.H.) and Intensive Care Medicine (A.P.J.V.), Amsterdam University Medical Center AMC, and the Departments of Cardiology (M.A.V.) and Intensive Care Medicine (B.B.), Onze Lieve Vrouwe Gasthuis, Amsterdam, the Thorax Center, Erasmus Medical Center (L.S.D.J., E.A.D.), and the Departments of Cardiology (G.J.V.) and Intensive Care Medicine (B.J.W.E.), Maasstad Hospital, Rotterdam, the Departments of Cardiology (M. Meuwissen) and Intensive Care Medicine (T.A.R.), Amphia Hospital, Breda, the Departments of Cardiology (H.A.B.) and Intensive Care Medicine (M.J.B.), Rijnstate Hospital, Arnhem, the Departments of Cardiology (G.B.B.) and Intensive Care Medicine (R.B.), Haga Hospital, and the Department of Cardiology, Haaglanden Medical Center (P.V.O.), The Hague, the Departments of Cardiology (P.H.) and Intensive Care Medicine (I.C.C.H.), University of Groningen, Groningen, the Departments of Cardiology (M.V.) and Intensive Care Medicine (J.J.H.), University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, the Departments of Intensive Care Medicine (A.B.) and Cardiology (M.S.), Medisch Spectrum Twente, Enschede, the Departments of Cardiology (C.C., N.R.) and Intensive Care Medicine (H.H.), Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, the Departments of Cardiology (T.A.C.M.H.) and Intensive Care Medicine (W.R.), Noordwest Ziekenhuisgroep, Alkmaar, the Departments of Intensive Care Medicine (T.S.R.D.) and Cardiology (H.J.G.M.C.), Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht, the Department of Cardiology, Scheper Hospital, Emmen (G.A.J.J.), the Department of Cardiology, Isala Hospital, Zwolle (M.T.M.G.), the Department of Cardiology, Tergooi Hospital, Blaricum (K.P.), and the Department of Cardiology, Elisabeth-Tweesteden Hospital, Tilburg (M. Magro) - all in the Netherlands.

Background: Ischemic heart disease is a major cause of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. The role of immediate coronary angiography and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in the treatment of patients who have been successfully resuscitated after cardiac arrest in the absence of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) remains uncertain.

Methods: In this multicenter trial, we randomly assigned 552 patients who had cardiac arrest without signs of STEMI to undergo immediate coronary angiography or coronary angiography that was delayed until after neurologic recovery. All patients underwent PCI if indicated. The primary end point was survival at 90 days. Secondary end points included survival at 90 days with good cerebral performance or mild or moderate disability, myocardial injury, duration of catecholamine support, markers of shock, recurrence of ventricular tachycardia, duration of mechanical ventilation, major bleeding, occurrence of acute kidney injury, need for renal-replacement therapy, time to target temperature, and neurologic status at discharge from the intensive care unit.

Results: At 90 days, 176 of 273 patients (64.5%) in the immediate angiography group and 178 of 265 patients (67.2%) in the delayed angiography group were alive (odds ratio, 0.89; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.62 to 1.27; P = 0.51). The median time to target temperature was 5.4 hours in the immediate angiography group and 4.7 hours in the delayed angiography group (ratio of geometric means, 1.19; 95% CI, 1.04 to 1.36). No significant differences between the groups were found in the remaining secondary end points.

Conclusions: Among patients who had been successfully resuscitated after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest and had no signs of STEMI, a strategy of immediate angiography was not found to be better than a strategy of delayed angiography with respect to overall survival at 90 days. (Funded by the Netherlands Heart Institute and others; COACT Netherlands Trial Register number, NTR4973.).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1816897DOI Listing
April 2019

Early Prediction of Intensive Care Unit-Acquired Weakness: A Multicenter External Validation Study.

J Intensive Care Med 2020 Jun 1;35(6):595-605. Epub 2018 May 1.

Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Academic Medical Center (AMC), Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

Objectives: An early diagnosis of intensive care unit-acquired weakness (ICU-AW) is often not possible due to impaired consciousness. To avoid a diagnostic delay, we previously developed a prediction model, based on single-center data from 212 patients (development cohort), to predict ICU-AW at 2 days after ICU admission. The objective of this study was to investigate the external validity of the original prediction model in a new, multicenter cohort and, if necessary, to update the model.

Methods: Newly admitted ICU patients who were mechanically ventilated at 48 hours after ICU admission were included. Predictors were prospectively recorded, and the outcome ICU-AW was defined by an average Medical Research Council score <4. In the validation cohort, consisting of 349 patients, we analyzed performance of the original prediction model by assessment of calibration and discrimination. Additionally, we updated the model in this validation cohort. Finally, we evaluated a new prediction model based on all patients of the development and validation cohort.

Results: Of 349 analyzed patients in the validation cohort, 190 (54%) developed ICU-AW. Both model calibration and discrimination of the original model were poor in the validation cohort. The area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC-ROC) was 0.60 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.54-0.66). Model updating methods improved calibration but not discrimination. The new prediction model, based on all patients of the development and validation cohort (total of 536 patients) had a fair discrimination, AUC-ROC: 0.70 (95% CI: 0.66-0.75).

Conclusions: The previously developed prediction model for ICU-AW showed poor performance in a new independent multicenter validation cohort. Model updating methods improved calibration but not discrimination. The newly derived prediction model showed fair discrimination. This indicates that early prediction of ICU-AW is still challenging and needs further attention.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0885066618771001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7222288PMC
June 2020

Orthostatic hypotension in older persons is not associated with cognitive functioning, features of cerebral damage or cerebral blood flow.

J Hypertens 2018 05;36(5):1201-1206

Department of Radiology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, the Netherlands.

Objective: Particularly in old age, orthostatic hypotension has been related to worse cognitive functioning, possibly caused by reduced cerebral blood flow (CBF). This study investigates whether orthostatic hypotension in older people is associated with cognitive dysfunction and, if so, whether this association is mediated by cerebral vascular damage and/or decreased CBF.

Methods: Four hundred and twenty participants of the Discontinuation of ANtihypertensive Treatment in Elderly People (DANTE) Study Leiden (mean age 81 years, all using antihypertensive medication and with mild cognitive deficits), and MRI data from 214 participants of the nested DANTE MRI sub-study. Orthostatic hypotension was defined as either a SBP decrease at least 20 mmHg and/or a DBP decrease of at least 10 mmHg within 3 min of standing up. Cognitive functioning was assessed using a battery of six cognitive tests covering global cognition, memory function, executive function and psychomotor speed. Cerebral vascular damage and CBF were assessed using MRI.

Results: The prevalence of orthostatic hypotension was 47% (n = 199). Compared with the group without orthostatic hypotension, participants with orthostatic hypotension showed no differences in any of the cognitive functions, features of cerebral small vessel disease, microstructural integrity or CBF.

Conclusion: In this population of older persons, the presence of orthostatic hypotension was not associated with decreased cognition. In addition, no differences were found in the supposedly underlying cerebral vascular mechanisms.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/HJH.0000000000001681DOI Listing
May 2018

Deprescribing preventive cardiovascular medication in patients with predicted low cardiovascular disease risk in general practice - the ECSTATIC study: a cluster randomised non-inferiority trial.

BMC Med 2018 01 11;16(1). Epub 2018 Jan 11.

Department of Public Health and Primary Care, Leiden University Medical Centre, PO Box 9600, 2300 RC, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Background: The use of cardiovascular medication for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is potentially inappropriate when potential risks outweigh the potential benefits. It is unknown whether deprescribing preventive cardiovascular medication in patients without a strict indication for such medication is safe and cost-effective in general practice.

Methods: In this pragmatic cluster randomised controlled non-inferiority trial, we recruited 46 general practices in the Netherlands. Patients aged 40-70 years who were using antihypertensive and/or lipid-lowering drugs without CVD and with low risk of future CVD were followed for 2 years. The intervention was an attempt to deprescribe preventive cardiovascular medication. The primary outcome was the difference in the increase in predicted (10-year) CVD risk in the per-protocol (PP) population with a non-inferiority margin of 2.5 percentage points. An economic evaluation was performed in the intention-to-treat (ITT) population. We used multilevel (generalised) linear regression with multiple imputation of missing data.

Results: Of 1067 participants recruited between 7 November 2012 and 18 February 2014, 72% were female. Overall, their mean age was 55 years and their mean predicted CVD risk at baseline was 5%. Of 492 participants in the ITT intervention group, 319 (65%) quit the medication (PP intervention group); 135 (27%) of those participants were still not taking medication after 2 years. The predicted CVD risk increased by 2.0 percentage points in the PP intervention group compared to 1.9 percentage points in the usual care group. The difference of 0.1 (95% CI -0.3 to 0.6) fell within the non-inferiority margin. After 2 years, compared to the usual care group, for the PP intervention group, systolic blood pressure was 6 mmHg higher, diastolic blood pressure was 4 mmHg higher and total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels were both 7 mg/dl higher (all P < 0.05). Cost and quality-adjusted life years did not differ between the groups.

Conclusions: The results of the ECSTATIC study show that an attempt to deprescribe preventive cardiovascular medication in low-CVD-risk patients is safe in the short term when blood pressure and cholesterol levels are monitored after stopping. An attempt to deprescribe medication can be considered, taking patient preferences into consideration.

Trial Registration: This study was registered with Dutch trial register on 20 June 2012 ( NTR3493 ).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12916-017-0988-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5763574PMC
January 2018

Understanding deprescribing of preventive cardiovascular medication: a Q-methodology study in patients.

Patient Prefer Adherence 2017 23;11:975-984. Epub 2017 May 23.

Department of Public Health and Primary Care, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden.

Background: Patients with low cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk potentially use preventive cardiovascular medication unnecessarily. Our aim was to identify various viewpoints and beliefs concerning the preventive CVD management of patients with low CVD risk using preventive cardiovascular medication. Furthermore, we investigated whether certain viewpoints were related to a preference for deprescription or the continuation of preventive cardiovascular medication.

Methods: In 2015, we purposively sampled patients from the intervention arm of the Evaluating Cessation of STatins and Antihypertensive Treatment In primary Care (ECSTATIC) trial in the Netherlands for this study. Participants made Q-sorts by ranking 43 statements concerning preventive CVD management from "totally disagree" to "totally agree". These Q-sorts were analyzed using PQMethod 2.35 software. A varimax procedure presented the distinguishing viewpoints that were favored by our participants. We used group discussion quotations to underline our findings. For validation purposes, we asked participants how well each viewpoint fitted them.

Results: Of 291 invited patients, 33 participated. Thirty-one Q-sorts were analyzed. The following three viewpoints were found: 1) a controlling viewpoint, in which patients held the belief that monitoring blood pressure and cholesterol levels is important (n=13, of which seven had their medication deprescribed and six continued their medication); 2) an autonomous viewpoint, in which patients showed a dislike of medication (n=8, of which seven had their medication deprescribed and one had it continued); and 3) an afraid viewpoint, in which patients were fearful of developing CVD (n=8, of which two had their medication deprescribed and six had it continued). Seventy-four percent of the participants believed that the viewpoint to which they were assigned was a good fit.

Conclusion: Three well-discriminating viewpoints about preventive CVD management were determined. Knowing and recognizing these viewpoints is effective for general practitioners when discussing the deprescribing of preventive cardiovascular medications with patients and may be used to promote implementation of deprescription.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/PPA.S131625DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5449103PMC
May 2017

Statin Use and Self-Reported Hindering Muscle Complaints in Older Persons: A Population Based Study.

PLoS One 2016 2;11(12):e0166857. Epub 2016 Dec 2.

Department of Public Health and Primary Care, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, the Netherlands.

Purpose: Statins are widely used by older persons in primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Although serious adverse events are rare, many statin users report mild muscle pain and/or muscle weakness. It's unclear what impact statins exert on a patient's daily life. Research on statin related side effects in older persons is relatively scarce. We therefore investigated the relation between statin use and self-reported hindering muscle complaints in older persons in the general population.

Methods: The present research was performed within the Integrated Systematic Care for Older Persons (ISCOPE) study in the Netherlands (Netherlands trial register, NTR1946). All registered adults aged ≥ 75 years from 59 participating practices (n = 12,066) were targeted. Information about the medical history and statin use at baseline and after 9 months was available for 4355 participants from the Electronic Patient Records of the general practitioners. In the screening questionnaire at baseline we asked participants: 'At the moment, which health complaints limit you the most in your day-to-day life?' Answers indicating muscle or musculoskeletal complaints were coded as such. No specific questions about muscle complaints were asked.

Results: The participants had a median age of 80.3 (IQR 77.6-84.4) years, 60.8% were female and 28.5% had a history of CVD. At baseline 29% used a statin. At follow-up, no difference was found in the prevalence of self-reported hindering muscle complaints in statin users compared to non-statin users (3.3% vs. 2.5%, OR 1.39, 95% CI 0.94-2.05; P = 0.98). Discontinuation of statin use during follow-up was independent of self-reported hindering muscle complaints.

Conclusion: Based on the present findings, prevalent statin use in this community-dwelling older population is not associated with self-reported hindering muscle complaints; however, the results might be different for incident users.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0166857PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5135075PMC
June 2017

Structural Covariance Networks and Their Association with Age, Features of Cerebral Small-Vessel Disease, and Cognitive Functioning in Older Persons.

Brain Connect 2016 11 22;6(9):681-690. Epub 2016 Sep 22.

3 Department of Radiology, Leiden University Medical Center , Leiden, the Netherlands .

Recently, cerebral structural covariance networks (SCNs) have been shown to partially overlap with functional networks. However, although for some of these SCNs a strong association with age is reported, less is known about the association of individual SCNs with separate cognition domains and the potential mediation effect in this of cerebral small vessel disease (SVD). In 219 participants (aged 75-96 years) with mild cognitive deficits, 8 SCNs were defined based on structural covariance of gray matter intensity with independent component analysis on 3DT1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Features of SVD included volume of white matter hyperintensities (WMH), lacunar infarcts, and microbleeds. Associations with SCNs were examined with multiple linear regression analyses, adjusted for age and/or gender. In addition to higher age, which was associated with decreased expression of subcortical, premotor, temporal, and occipital-precuneus networks, the presence of SVD and especially higher WMH volume was associated with a decreased expression in the occipital, cerebellar, subcortical, and anterior cingulate network. The temporal network was associated with memory (p = 0.005), whereas the cerebellar-occipital and occipital-precuneus networks were associated with psychomotor speed (p = 0.002 and p < 0.001). Our data show that a decreased expression of specific networks, including the temporal and occipital lobe and cerebellum, was related to decreased cognitive functioning, independently of age and SVD. This indicates the potential of SCNs in substantiating cognitive functioning in older persons.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/brain.2016.0434DOI Listing
November 2016

Validity of the three apathy items of the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-3A) in measuring apathy in older persons.

Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 2017 04 7;32(4):421-428. Epub 2016 Apr 7.

Department of Gerontology and Geriatrics, Leiden University Medical Centre, Leiden, the Netherlands.

Objective: The Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS)-3A, a three-item subset of the GDS-15, is increasingly used as a measure for apathy in research settings to assess factors associating with this neuropsychiatric syndrome. We aimed to assess how accurately the GDS-3A discriminates between presence and absence of apathy in two populations of community-dwelling older persons, using the Apathy Scale as reference standard.

Methods: Baseline data were used from 427 participants of the Discontinuation of Antihypertensive Treatment in Elderly people (DANTE) Study Leiden and 1118 participants of the PROactive Management Of Depression in the Elderly (PROMODE) Study, all ≥75 years and with available GDS-3A and Apathy Scale measurements. A cut-off score of ≥14 was used for presence of apathy according to the Apathy Scale. Areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) were calculated. Based on the likelihood ratios for GDS-3A scores, a cut-off of ≥2 was used for presence of apathy according to the GDS-3A to calculate test characteristics.

Results: The AUC was 0.68 (95% confidence interval 0.62-0.73) in the DANTE Study and 0.72 (0.67-0.77) in the PROMODE Study. In the DANTE Study sensitivity was 29.3% (21.4-38.1) and specificity was 88.5% (84.4-91.8), whereas in the PROMODE Study sensitivity was 32.8% (24.5-41.1) and specificity 92.6% (90.9-94.2). Stratification on population characteristics did not yield more favourable test characteristics.

Conclusion: The GDS-3A has low sensitivity and high specificity as a measure of apathy in two populations of older persons. Using the GDS-3A in research might yield estimates biassed towards the null in case of non-differential misclassification. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/gps.4484DOI Listing
April 2017

Deprescribing Potentially Inappropriate Preventive Cardiovascular Medication: Barriers and Enablers for Patients and General Practitioners.

Ann Pharmacother 2016 06 3;50(6):446-54. Epub 2016 Mar 3.

Department of Public Health and Primary Care, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, the Netherlands.

Background: The use of preventive cardiovascular medication by patients with low cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk is potentially inappropriate.

Objective: The aim of this study was to identify barriers to and enablers of deprescribing potentially inappropriate preventive cardiovascular medication experienced by patients and general practitioners (GPs).

Methods: A total of 10 GPs participating in the ECSTATIC trial (Evaluating Cessation of STatins and Antihypertensive Treatment In primary Care) audiotaped deprescribing consultations with low-CVD-risk patients. After initial conventional content analysis, 2 researchers separately coded all barriers to and enablers of deprescribing medication using framework analysis. We performed a within-case and cross-case analysis to explore barriers and enablers among both patients and GPs.

Results: Patients (n = 49) and GPs (n = 10) expressed barriers and enablers with regard to the appropriateness of the medication and the deprescribing process. A family history for CVD was identified as a barrier to deprescribing medication for both patients and GPs. Patients feared possible consequences of deprescribing and were influenced by the opinion of their GP. Additionally, a presumed disapproving opinion from specialists influenced the GPs' willingness to deprescribe medication.

Conclusions: Patients appreciated discussing their doubts regarding deprescribing potentially inappropriate preventive cardiovascular medication. Furthermore, they acknowledged their GP's expertise and took their opinion toward deprescribing into consideration. The GPs' decisions to deprescribe were influenced by the low CVD risk of the patients, additional risk factors, and the alleged specialist's opinion toward deprescribing. We recommend deprescribing consultations to be patient centered, with GPs addressing relevant themes and probable consequences of deprescribing preventive cardiovascular medication.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1060028016637181DOI Listing
June 2016

Effect of discontinuation of antihypertensive medication on orthostatic hypotension in older persons with mild cognitive impairment: the DANTE Study Leiden.

Age Ageing 2016 Mar 11;45(2):249-55. Epub 2016 Jan 11.

Department of Psychiatry, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands Department of Psychiatry, Collaborative Antwerp Psychiatric Research Institute (CAPRI), University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium.

Background: the relationship between antihypertensive medication and orthostatic hypotension in older persons remains ambiguous, due to conflicting observational evidence and lack of data of clinical trials.

Objective: to assess the effect of discontinuation of antihypertensive medication on orthostatic hypotension in older persons with mild cognitive impairment.

Methods: a total of 162 participants with orthostatic hypotension were selected from the Discontinuation of Antihypertensive Treatment in Elderly people (DANTE) Study. This randomised clinical trial included community-dwelling participants aged ≥75 years, with mild cognitive impairment, using antihypertensive medication and without serious cardiovascular disease. Participants were randomised to discontinuation or continuation of antihypertensive treatment (ratio 1:1). Orthostatic hypotension was defined as a drop of at least 20 mmHg in systolic blood pressure and/or 10 mmHg in diastolic blood pressure on standing from a seated position. Outcome was the absence of orthostatic hypotension at 4-month follow-up. Relative risks (RR) were calculated by intention-to-treat and per-protocol analyses.

Results: at follow-up, according to intention-to-treat analyses, of the 86 persons assigned to discontinuation of antihypertensive medication, 43 (50%) were free from orthostatic hypotension, compared with 29 (38%) of the 76 persons assigned to continuation of medication [RR 1.31 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.92-1.87); P = 0.13]. Per-protocol analysis showed that recovery from orthostatic hypotension was significantly higher in persons who completely discontinued all antihypertensive medication (61%) compared with the continuation group (38%) [RR 1.60 (95% CI 1.10-2.31); P = 0.01].

Conclusion: in older persons with mild cognitive impairment and orthostatic hypotension receiving antihypertensive medication, discontinuation of antihypertensive medication may increase the probability of recovery from orthostatic hypotension.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ageing/afv199DOI Listing
March 2016

Unilateral fetal-type circle of Willis anatomy causes right-left asymmetry in cerebral blood flow with pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling: A limitation of arterial spin labeling-based cerebral blood flow measurements?

J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 2016 09 11;36(9):1570-8. Epub 2016 Jan 11.

Department of Radiology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, the Netherlands

The accuracy of cerebral blood flow measurements using pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling can be affected by vascular factors other than cerebral blood flow, such as flow velocity and arterial transit time. We aimed to elucidate the effects of common variations in vascular anatomy of the circle of Willis on pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling signal. In addition, we investigated whether possible differences in pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling signal could be mediated by differences in flow velocities. Two hundred and three elderly participants underwent magnetic resonance angiography of the circle of Willis and pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling scans. Mean pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling-cerebral blood flow signal was calculated for the gray matter of the main cerebral flow territories. Mean cerebellar gray matter pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling-cerebral blood flow was significantly lower in subjects having a posterior fetal circle of Willis variant with an absent P1 segment. The posterior fetal circle of Willis variants also showed a significantly higher pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling-cerebral blood flow signal in the ipsilateral flow territory of the posterior cerebral artery. Flow velocity in the basilar artery was significantly lower in these posterior fetal circle of Willis variants. This study indicates that pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling measurements underestimate cerebral blood flow in the posterior flow territories and cerebellum of subjects with a highly prevalent variation in circle of Willis morphology. Additionally, our data suggest that this effect is mediated by concomitant differences in flow velocity between the supplying arteries.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0271678X15626155DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5012520PMC
September 2016

Drug prescription rates in secondary cardiovascular prevention in old age: Do vulnerability and severity of the history of cardiovascular disease matter?

Scand J Prim Health Care 2015 ;33(4):260-8

a Department of Public Health and Primary Care , Leiden University Medical Center , Leiden , The Netherlands.

Objective: To assess the influence vulnerability and severity of cardiovascular disease (CVD), on prescription rates of secondary cardiovascular preventive drugs in old age.

Design: Population-based observational study within the ISCOPE study.

Setting: General practices in the Netherlands.

Subjects: A total of 1350 patients with a history of CVD (median age 81 years, 50% female).

Main Outcome Measures: One-year prescription rates of lipid-lowering drugs and antithrombotics were obtained from the electronic medical records of 46 general practitioners (GPs). Prescription of both drugs for ≥ 270 days per year was considered optimal. GPs made a judgement of vulnerability. Severity of CVD was expressed as major (myocardial infarction, stroke, or arterial surgery) versus minor (angina, transient ischaemic attack, or claudication).

Results: GPs considered 411 (30%) participants to be vulnerable and 619 (55%) participants had major CVD. Optimal treatment was prescribed to 680 (50%) participants, whereas 370 (27%) received an antithrombotic drug only, 53 (4%) a lipid-lowering drug only, and 247 (18%) received neither. Optimal treatment was lower in participants aged ≥ 85 years (OR 0.37 [95% CI 0.29-0.48]), in females (OR 0.63 [0.50-0.78]), in vulnerable persons (OR 0.79 [0.62-0.99]) and in participants with minor CVD (OR 0.65 [0.53-0.81]). Multivariate ORs remained similar whereas vulnerability lost its significance (OR 0.88 [0.69-1.1]).

Conclusion: In old age, GPs' judgement of vulnerability is not independently associated with lower treatment rates of both lipid-lowering drugs and antithrombotics, whereas a history of minor CVD is. Individual proactive re-evaluation of preventive treatment in older (female) patients, especially those with a history of minor CVD, is recommended. Key points Prescriptions of lipid-lowering drugs and antithrombotics in secondary cardiovascular prevention tend to decline with age. In this study with median age 81 years, 50% of participants received optimal treatment with both lipid-lowering drugs and antithrombotics. GPs' judgement of vulnerability was not independently associated with optimal treatment. A history of less severe cardiovascular disease was independently associated with lower prescription rates of lipid-lowering drugs and antithrombotics. Proactive individual re-evaluation of cardiovascular preventive treatment in older (female) patients, especially patients with less severe cardiovascular disease, is recommended.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/02813432.2015.1117281DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4750735PMC
September 2016

Risk stratification and treatment effect of statins in secondary cardiovascular prevention in old age: Additive value of N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide.

Eur J Prev Cardiol 2016 07 24;23(10):1104-13. Epub 2015 Nov 24.

Department of Public Health and Primary Care, Leiden University Medical Center, The Netherlands.

Background: To date, no validated risk scores exist for prediction of recurrence risk or potential treatment effect for older people with a history of a cardiovascular event. Therefore, we assessed predictive values for recurrent cardiovascular disease of models with age and sex, traditional cardiovascular risk markers, and 'SMART risk score', all with and without addition of N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP). Treatment effect of pravastatin was assessed across low and high risk groups identified by the best performing models.

Design And Methods: Post-hoc analysis in 2348 participants (age 70-82 years) with a history of cardiovascular disease within the PROspective Study of Pravastatin in the Elderly at Risk (PROSPER) study. Composite endpoint was a recurrent cardiovascular event/cardiovascular mortality.

Results: The models with age and sex, traditional risk markers and SMART risk score had comparable predictive values (area under the curve (AUC) 0.58, 0.61 and 0.59, respectively). Addition of NT-proBNP to these models improved AUCs with 0.07 (p for difference ((pdiff)) = 0.003), 0.05 (pdiff = 0.009) and 0.06 (pdiff < 0.001), respectively. For the model with age, sex and NT-proBNP, the hazard ratio for the composite endpoint in pravastatin users compared with placebo was 0.67 (95% confidence interval 0.49-0.90) for those in the highest third of predicted risk and 0.91 (0.57-1.46) in the lowest third, number needed to treat 12 and 115 (pdiff = 0.038) respectively.

Conclusion: In secondary cardiovascular prevention in old age addition of NT-proBNP improves prediction of recurrent cardiovascular disease, cardiovascular mortality and treatment effect of pravastatin. A minimal model including age, sex and NT-proBNP predicts as accurately as complex risk models including NT-proBNP.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2047487315617908DOI Listing
July 2016

GPs' perspectives on secondary cardiovascular prevention in older age: a focus group study in the Netherlands.

Br J Gen Pract 2015 Nov;65(640):e739-47

Department of Public Health and Primary Care, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, the Netherlands.

Background: Although guidelines recommend secondary cardiovascular prevention irrespective of age, in older age the uptake of treatment is lower than in younger age groups.

Aim: To explore the dilemmas GPs in the Netherlands encounter when implementing guidelines for secondary cardiovascular prevention in older age.

Design And Setting: Qualitative study in four focus groups consisting of GPs (n = 23, from the northern part of the province South Holland) and a fifth focus group consisting of GP trainees (n = 4, from the Leiden University Medical Center).

Method: Focus group discussions were organised to elicit perspectives on the implementation of secondary cardiovascular prevention for older people. The 14 theoretical domains of the refined Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) were used for (deductive) coding of the focus group discussions. The coded texts were analysed, content was discussed, and barriers and facilitators were identified for each domain of the TDF.

Results: The main theme that emerged was 'uncertainty'. Identified barriers were guideline-related, patient-related, and organisation-related. Identified facilitators were doctor-related, patient-related, and organisation-related. The main aim of secondary preventive treatment was improvement in quality of life.

Conclusion: GPs in the Netherlands are uncertain about many aspects of secondary cardiovascular prevention in older age; the guidelines themselves, their own role, patient factors, and the organisation of care. In view of this uncertainty, GPs consciously weigh all aspects of the situation in close dialogue with the individual patient, with the ultimate aim of improving quality of life. This highly-individualised care may largely explain the reduced prescription rates.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3399/bjgp15X687373DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4617268PMC
November 2015

Blood Pressure Is Not Associated With Cerebral Blood Flow in Older Persons.

Hypertension 2015 Nov 8;66(5):954-60. Epub 2015 Sep 8.

From the Departments of Psychiatry (J.C.F.-D., J.E.F.M., R.C.v.d.M.), Gerontology and Geriatrics (A.J.M.d.C.), Public health and Primary care (W.d.R.), and Radiology (J.v.d.G.), Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands; and Department of Psychiatry, CAPRI, University of Antwerp, Antwerpen, Belgium (R.C.v.d.M.).

Many studies showing a relation between low blood pressure (BP) and adverse health outcomes in older persons suggest that low BP gives rise to reduced cerebral blood flow (CBF). However, limited evidence is available about this association. Baseline data of 203 participants in the Discontinuation of Antihypertensive Treatment in the Elderly (DANTE) trial were used (mean age, 81 years, using antihypertensive medication and with mild cognitive deficits). BP, BP changes on standing, and CBF derived from pseudo-continuous arterial spin-labeling magnetic resonance imaging were assessed in all participants. In 102 participants who were randomly assigned to 4-month continuation (n=47) or discontinuation of antihypertensive treatment (n=55), BP and CBF change were evaluated at 4-month follow-up. Systolic and diastolic BP were not associated with CBF (B=-0.21, P=0.50 and B=-1.07, P=0.07), neither were mean arterial pressure, pulse pressure, and BP changes on standing. In subgroups of participants with small vessel-related cerebral pathologies, including high white matter hyperintensity volume, microbleeds, and lacunar infarcts, or in participants with lower cognition or diabetes mellitus, no association was found between any BP parameters and CBF. Furthermore, compared to the continuation group, CBF change at 4 months was not different in the discontinuation group (B=-0.12, P=0.23). Contrary to the notion that lower BP in old age is associated with decreased CBF, our data do not show this association in older persons using antihypertensive medication and with mild cognitive deficits. Also, this association was not present in subgroups of more vulnerable persons, reflected by small vessel-related cerebral pathologies, lower cognition, or diabetes mellitus.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.115.05799DOI Listing
November 2015

Effect of Discontinuation of Antihypertensive Treatment in Elderly People on Cognitive Functioning--the DANTE Study Leiden: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

JAMA Intern Med 2015 Oct;175(10):1622-30

Department of Psychiatry, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, the Netherlands9Department of Psychiatry, Collaborative Antwerp Psychiatric Research Institute (CAPRI), University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium.

Importance: Observational studies indicate that lower blood pressure (BP) increases risk for cognitive decline in elderly individuals. Older persons are at risk for impaired cerebral autoregulation; lowering their BP may compromise cerebral blood flow and cognitive function.

Objective: To assess whether discontinuation of antihypertensive treatment in older persons with mild cognitive deficits improves cognitive, psychological, and general daily functioning.

Design, Setting, And Participants: A community-based randomized clinical trial with a blinded outcome assessment at the 16-week follow-up was performed at 128 general practices in the Netherlands. A total of 385 participants 75 years or older with mild cognitive deficits (Mini-Mental State Examination score, 21-27) without serious cardiovascular disease who received antihypertensive treatment were enrolled in the Discontinuation of Antihypertensive Treatment in Elderly People (DANTE) Study Leiden from June 26, 2011, through August 23, 2013 (follow-up, December 16, 2013). Intention-to-treat analyses were performed from January 20 through April 11, 2014.

Interventions: Discontinuation (n=199) vs continuation (n=186) of antihypertensive treatment (allocation ratio, 1:1).

Main Outcomes And Measures: Change in the overall cognition compound score. Secondary outcomes included changes in scores on cognitive domains, the Geriatric Depression Scale-15, Apathy Scale, Groningen Activity Restriction Scale (functional status), and Cantril Ladder (quality of life).

Results: Compared with 176 participants undergoing analysis in the control (continuation) group, 180 in the intervention (discontinuation) group had a greater increase (95% CI) in systolic BP (difference, 7.36 [3.02 to 11.69] mm Hg; P=.001) and diastolic BP (difference, 2.63 [0.34 to 4.93] mm Hg; P=.03). The intervention group did not differ from the control group in change (95% CI) in overall cognition compound score (0.01 [-0.14 to 0.16] vs -0.01 [-0.16 to 0.14]; difference, 0.02 [-0.19 to 0.23]; P=.84). The intervention and control groups did not differ significantly in secondary outcomes, including differences (95% CIs) in change in compound scores of the 3 cognitive domains (executive function, -0.07 [-0.29 to 0.15; P=.52], memory, 0.08 [-0.12 to 0.29; P=.43], and psychomotor speed, -0.85 [-1.72 to 0.02; P=.06]), symptoms of apathy (0.17 [-0.65 to 0.99; P=.68]) and depression (0.14 [-0.20 to 0.48; P=.41]), functional status (-0.72 [-1.52 to 0.09; P=.08]), and quality-of-life score (-0.09 [-0.34 to 0.16; P=.46]). Adverse events were equally distributed.

Conclusions And Relevance: In older persons with mild cognitive deficits, discontinuation of antihypertensive treatment did not improve cognitive, psychological, or general daily functioning at the 16-week follow-up.

Trial Registration: trialregister.nl Identifier: NTR2829.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamainternmed.2015.4103DOI Listing
October 2015
-->