Publications by authors named "Wouter M van Everdingen"

15 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Automated Assessment of COVID-19 Reporting and Data System and Chest CT Severity Scores in Patients Suspected of Having COVID-19 Using Artificial Intelligence.

Radiology 2021 01 30;298(1):E18-E28. Epub 2020 Jul 30.

From the Department of Radiology, Nuclear Medicine and Anatomy, Radboud University Medical Center, P.O. Box 9101, 6500 HB Nijmegen, the Netherlands (N.L., C.I.S., L.H.B., M.B., E.C., W.M.v.E., P.K.G., B.G., M.G., N.H., W.H., H.J.H., C.J., R.K., M.K., K.v.L., J.M., M.O., R.S., C. Schaefer-Prokop, S.S., E.T.S., C. Sital, J.T., K.V.V., C.d.V., W.X., B.d.W., M.P., B.v.G.); Department of Radiology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, the Netherlands (L.B.); Thirona, Nijmegen, the Netherlands (J.P.C., E.M.v.R.); Departments of Internal Medicine (T.D.) and Radiology (M.V.), Canisius-Wilhelmina Ziekenhuis, Nijmegen, the Netherlands; Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht, the Netherlands (H.A.G.); GROW School of Oncology and Developmental Biology, Maastricht, the Netherlands (H.A.G.); Departments of Biomedical Physics and Engineering and Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Amsterdam University Medical Center, Amsterdam, the Netherlands (L.v.H., I.I.); Department of Radiology, Zuyderland Medical Center, Heerlen, the Netherlands (J.K.); Fraunhofer Institute for Digital Medicine MEVIS, Bremen, Germany (B.L.); Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Haaglanden Medical Center, The Hague, the Netherlands (T.v.R.V.); Department of Radiology, Meander Medical Center, Amersfoort, the Netherlands (C. Schaefer-Prokop, S.S.); and Department of Radiology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, the Netherlands (J.L.S.).

Background The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has spread across the globe with alarming speed, morbidity, and mortality. Immediate triage of patients with chest infections suspected to be caused by COVID-19 using chest CT may be of assistance when results from definitive viral testing are delayed. Purpose To develop and validate an artificial intelligence (AI) system to score the likelihood and extent of pulmonary COVID-19 on chest CT scans using the COVID-19 Reporting and Data System (CO-RADS) and CT severity scoring systems. Materials and Methods The CO-RADS AI system consists of three deep-learning algorithms that automatically segment the five pulmonary lobes, assign a CO-RADS score for the suspicion of COVID-19, and assign a CT severity score for the degree of parenchymal involvement per lobe. This study retrospectively included patients who underwent a nonenhanced chest CT examination because of clinical suspicion of COVID-19 at two medical centers. The system was trained, validated, and tested with data from one of the centers. Data from the second center served as an external test set. Diagnostic performance and agreement with scores assigned by eight independent observers were measured using receiver operating characteristic analysis, linearly weighted κ values, and classification accuracy. Results A total of 105 patients (mean age, 62 years ± 16 [standard deviation]; 61 men) and 262 patients (mean age, 64 years ± 16; 154 men) were evaluated in the internal and external test sets, respectively. The system discriminated between patients with COVID-19 and those without COVID-19, with areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.95 (95% CI: 0.91, 0.98) and 0.88 (95% CI: 0.84, 0.93), for the internal and external test sets, respectively. Agreement with the eight human observers was moderate to substantial, with mean linearly weighted κ values of 0.60 ± 0.01 for CO-RADS scores and 0.54 ± 0.01 for CT severity scores. Conclusion With high diagnostic performance, the CO-RADS AI system correctly identified patients with COVID-19 using chest CT scans and assigned standardized CO-RADS and CT severity scores that demonstrated good agreement with findings from eight independent observers and generalized well to external data. © RSNA, 2020
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1148/radiol.2020202439DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7393955PMC
January 2021

Hemodynamic Optimization in Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy: Should We Aim for dP/dt or Stroke Work?

JACC Clin Electrophysiol 2019 09 31;5(9):1013-1025. Epub 2019 Jul 31.

Department of Cardiology, and Amsterdam Cardiovascular Sciences (ACS), Amsterdam University Medical Centers, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Electronic address:

Objectives: This study evaluated the acute effect of dP/dt- versus stroke work (SW)-guided cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) optimization and the related acute hemodynamic changes to long-term CRT response.

Background: Hemodynamic optimization may increase benefit from CRT. Typically, maximal left ventricular (LV) pressure rise dP/dt is used as an index of ventricular performance. Alternatively, SW can be derived from pressure-volume (PV) loops.

Methods: Forty-one patients underwent CRT implantation followed by invasive PV loop measurements. The stimulation protocol included 16 LV pacing configurations using each individual electrode of the quadripolar lead with 4 atrioventricular (AV) delays. Conventional CRT was defined as pacing from the distal electrode with an AV delay of approximately 120 ms.

Results: Compared with conventional CRT, dP/dt-guided optimization resulted in a one-third additional dP/dt increase (17 ± 11% vs. 12 ± 9%; p < 0.001). Similarly, SW-guided optimization resulted in a one-third additional SW increase (80 ± 55% vs. 53 ± 48%; p < 0.001). Comparing both optimization strategies, dP/dt favored contractility (8 ± 12% vs. 5 ± 10%; p = 0.015), whereas SW optimization improved ventricular-arterial (VA) coupling (45% vs. 32%; p < 0.001). After 6 months, mean LV ejection fraction (LVEF) change was 10 ± 9% with 23 (56%) patients becoming super-responders to CRT (≥10% LVEF improvement). Although acute changes in SW were predictive for long-term CRT response (area under the curve: 0.78; p = 0.002), changes in dP/dt were not (area under the curve: 0.65; p = 0.112).

Conclusions: PV-guided hemodynamic optimization in CRT results in approximately one-third SW improvement on top of conventional CRT, caused by a mechanism of enhanced VA coupling. In contrast, dP/dt optimization favored LV contractility. Ultimately, acute changes in SW showed larger predictive value for long-term CRT response compared with dP/dt.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacep.2019.05.020DOI Listing
September 2019

Multimodality imaging for real-time image-guided left ventricular lead placement during cardiac resynchronization therapy implantations.

Int J Cardiovasc Imaging 2019 Jul 7;35(7):1327-1337. Epub 2019 Mar 7.

Department of Cardiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 100, P.O. Box 85500, 3584 CX, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

This study was performed to evaluate the feasibility of intra-procedural visualization of optimal pacing sites and image-guided left ventricular (LV) lead placement in cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). In fifteen patients (10 males, 68 ± 11 years, 7 with ischemic cardiomyopathy and ejection fraction of 26 ± 5%), optimal pacing sites were identified pre-procedurally using cardiac imaging. Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) derived scar and dyssynchrony maps were created for all patients. In six patients the anatomy of the left phrenic nerve (LPN) and coronary sinus ostium was assessed via a computed tomography (CT) scan. By overlaying the CMR and CT dataset onto live fluoroscopy, aforementioned structures were visualized during LV lead implantation. In the first nine patients, the platform was tested, yet, no real-time image-guidance was implemented. In the last six patients real-time image-guided LV lead placement was successfully executed. CRT implant and fluoroscopy times were similar to previous procedures and all leads were placed close to the target area but away from scarred myocardium and the LPN. Patients that received real-time image-guided LV lead implantation were paced closer to the target area compared to patients that did not receive real-time image-guidance (8 mm [IQR 0-22] vs 26 mm [IQR 17-46], p = 0.04), and displayed marked LV reverse remodeling at 6 months follow up with a mean LVESV change of -30 ± 10% and a mean LVEF improvement of 15 ± 5%. Real-time image-guided LV lead implantation is feasible and may prove useful for achieving the optimal LV lead position.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10554-019-01574-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6598949PMC
July 2019

Atrioventricular optimization in cardiac resynchronization therapy with quadripolar leads: should we optimize every pacing configuration including multi-point pacing?

Europace 2019 Jan;21(1):e11-e19

Department of Cardiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 100, CX Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Aims: This study aims to define an atrioventricular (AV) delay optimization method for cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) with a quadripolar left ventricular (LV) lead based on intrinsic conduction intervals.

Methods And Results: Heart failure patients with a left bundle branch block underwent CRT implantation with a quadripolar LV lead. Invasive LV pressure-volume loops were recorded during four biventricular and three multi-point pacing (MPP) settings, using four patient-specific paced AV delays. Haemodynamic response was defined as change in stroke work (Δ%SW) compared to intrinsic rhythm and was related to the following conduction intervals: right atrial pacing to right ventricular sensing interval (RAp-RVs), Q to LV sensing interval normalized to QRS duration (QLV/QRSd), PR-interval, and P-wave duration. In 44 patients, the largest Δ%SW (104 ± 76%) occurred at a paced AV delay of 128 ± 32 ms, at 47 ± 9% of RAp-RVs. Optimal AV delay of biventricular pacing (126 ± 26 ms) did not differ from MPP (126 ± 21 ms, P = 0.29). Intra-class correlation coefficient between optimal AV delays of different pacing configurations was 0.64 (0.45-0.78, P < 0.001). Although not statistically significant, Δ%SW at 50% of RAp-RVs (98 ± 74%) was closer to the maximal achievable Δ%SW increase than a fixed interval of 120 ms (96 ± 73%, P = 0.60). RAp-RVs, QLV/QRSd, PR interval, and P-wave duration were associated with the optimal AV delay in univariate analysis, but only RAp-RVs remained significantly associated in multivariate analysis (R = 0.69).

Conclusion: The AV delay that provides highest haemodynamic response is similar for various LV pacing configurations and for MPP. An AV delay ∼50% of RAp-RVs creates an acute haemodynamic response close to the maximal patient-specific response.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/europace/euy138DOI Listing
January 2019

Strain imaging to predict response to cardiac resynchronization therapy: a systematic comparison of strain parameters using multiple imaging techniques.

ESC Heart Fail 2018 12 26;5(6):1130-1140. Epub 2018 Jul 26.

Department of Cardiology, and Amsterdam Cardiovascular Sciences (ACS), VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Aims: Various strain parameters and multiple imaging techniques are presently available including cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) tagging (CMR-TAG), CMR feature tracking (CMR-FT), and speckle tracking echocardiography (STE). This study aims to compare predictive performance of different strain parameters and evaluate results per imaging technique to predict cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) response.

Methods And Results: Twenty-seven patients were prospectively enrolled and underwent CMR and echocardiographic examination before CRT implantation. Strain analysis was performed in circumferential (CMR-TAG, CMR-FT, and STE-circ) and longitudinal (STE-long) orientations. Regional strain values, parameters of dyssynchrony, and discoordination were calculated. After 12 months, CRT response was measured by the echocardiographic change in left ventricular (LV) end-systolic volume (LVESV). Twenty-six patients completed follow-up; mean LVESV change was -29 ± 27% with 17 (65%) patients showing ≥15% LVESV reduction. Measures of dyssynchrony (SD-TTP ) and discoordination (ISF ) were strongly related to CRT response when using CMR-TAG (R 0.61 and R 0.57, respectively), but showed poor correlations for CMR-FT and STE (all R  ≤ 0.32). In contrast, the end-systolic septal strain (ESS ) parameter showed a consistent high correlation with LVESV change for all techniques (CMR-TAG R 0.60; CMR-FT R 0.50; STE-circ R 0.43; and STE-long R 0.43). After adjustment for QRS duration and QRS morphology, ESS remained an independent predictor of response per technique.

Conclusions: End-systolic septal strain was the only parameter with a consistent good relation to reverse remodelling after CRT, irrespective of assessment technique. In clinical practice, this measure can be obtained by any available strain imaging technique and provides predictive value on top of current guideline criteria.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ehf2.12335DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6300826PMC
December 2018

Pressure-Volume Loop Analysis of Multipoint Pacing With a Quadripolar Left Ventricular Lead in Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy.

JACC Clin Electrophysiol 2018 07 28;4(7):881-889. Epub 2018 Mar 28.

Department of Cardiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, the Netherlands.

Objectives: This study aimed to compare multipoint pacing (MPP) to optimal biventricular pacing with a quadripolar left ventricular (LV) lead and find factors associated with hemodynamic response to MPP.

Background: MPP with a quadripolar LV lead may increase response to cardiac resynchronization therapy.

Methods: Heart failure patients with a left bundle branch block underwent cardiac resynchronization therapy implantation. Q to LV sensing interval divided by the intrinsic QRS duration was measured. Invasive pressure-volume loops were assessed during 4 biventricular pacing settings and 3 MPP settings, using 4 atrioventricular delays. Hemodynamic response was defined as change in stroke work (Δ%SW) compared with baseline measurements during intrinsic conduction. Δ%SW of MPP was compared with conventional biventricular pacing using the distal electrode and the electrode with highest Δ%SW (BIV-OPT).

Results: Forty-three patients were analyzed (age 66 ± 10 years, 63% men, 30% ischemic cardiomyopathy, LV ejection fraction 29 ± 8%, and QRS duration 175 ± 13 ms). Q to local LV sensing interval corrected for QRS duration was 84 ± 8%, and variation between LV electrodes was 9 ± 5%. Compared with conventional biventricular pacing using the distal electrode, MPP showed a significant higher increase of SW (Δ%SW +15 ± 35%; p < 0.05) with a large interindividual variation. There was no significant difference in Δ%SW with MPP compared with BIV-OPT (-5 ± 24%; p = 0.19). Male sex and low LV ejection fraction were associated with increase in Δ%SW due to MPP versus BIV-OPT in multivariate analysis, while ischemic cardiomyopathy was only associated in univariate analysis.

Conclusions: Optimization of the pacing site of a quadripolar LV lead is more important than to program MPP. However, specific subgroups (i.e., especially men) may benefit substantially from MPP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacep.2018.02.005DOI Listing
July 2018

Can We Use the Intrinsic Left Ventricular Delay (QLV) to Optimize the Pacing Configuration for Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy With a Quadripolar Left Ventricular Lead?

Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol 2018 03;11(3):e005912

From the Department of Cardiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, The Netherlands (W.M.v.E., M.J.C., P.A.D., M.M.); Department of Cardiology, Institute for Cardiovascular Research, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands (A.Z., A.C.v.R., C.P.A.); Department of Cardiology, Maastricht University Medical Center, The Netherlands (U.C.N., K.V.); and Department of Physiology, CARIM (Cardiovascular Research Institute Maastricht), Maastricht University, The Netherlands (U.C.N., F.W.P.).

Background: Previous studies indicated the importance of the intrinsic left ventricular (LV) electric delay (QLV) for optimal benefit to cardiac resynchronization therapy. We investigated the use of QLV for achieving optimal acute hemodynamic response to cardiac resynchronization therapy with a quadripolar LV lead.

Methods And Results: Forty-eight heart failure patients with a left bundle branch block were prospectively enrolled (31 men; age, 66±10 years; LV ejection fraction, 28±8%; QRS duration, 176±14 ms). Immediately after cardiac resynchronization therapy implantation, invasive LV pressure-volume loops were recorded during biventricular pacing with each separate electrode at 4 atrioventricular delays. Acute cardiac resynchronization therapy response, measured as change in stroke work (Δ%SW) compared with intrinsic conduction, was related to intrinsic interval between Q on the ECG and LV sensing delay (QLV), normalized for QRS duration (QLV/QRSd), and electrode position. QLV/QRSd was 84±9% and variation between the 4 electrodes 9±5%. Δ%SW was 89±64% and varied by 39±36% between the electrodes. In univariate analysis, an anterolateral or lateral electrode position and a high QLV/QRSd had a significant association with a large Δ%SW (all <0.01). In a combined model, only QLV/QRSd remained significantly associated with Δ%SW (<0.05). However, a direct relation between QLV/QRSd and Δ%SW was only seen in 24 patients, whereas 24 patients showed an inverse relation.

Conclusions: The large variation in acute hemodynamic response indicates that the choice of the stimulated electrode on a quadripolar lead is important. Although QLV/QRSd was associated with acute hemodynamic response at group level, it cannot be used to select the optimal electrode in the individual patient.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCEP.117.005912DOI Listing
March 2018

Comparison of strain parameters in dyssynchronous heart failure between speckle tracking echocardiography vendor systems.

Cardiovasc Ultrasound 2017 Oct 18;15(1):25. Epub 2017 Oct 18.

Department of Cardiology, University Medical Centre Utrecht, P.O. Box 855500, 3508, GA, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Background: Although mechanical dyssynchrony parameters derived by speckle tracking echocardiography (STE) may predict response to cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT), comparability of parameters derived with different STE vendors is unknown.

Methods: In the MARC study, echocardiographic images of heart failure patients obtained before CRT implantation were prospectively analysed with vendor specific STE software (GE EchoPac and Philips QLAB) and vendor-independent software (TomTec 2DCPA). Response was defined as change in left ventricular (LV) end-systolic volume between examination before and six-months after CRT implantation. Basic longitudinal strain and mechanical dyssynchrony parameters (septal to lateral wall delay (SL-delay), septal systolic rebound stretch (SRSsept), and systolic stretch index (SSI)) were obtained from either separate septal and lateral walls, or total LV apical four chamber. Septal strain patterns were categorized in three types. The coefficient of variation and intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) were analysed. Dyssynchrony parameters were associated with CRT response using univariate regression analysis and C-statistics.

Results: Two-hundred eleven patients were analysed. GE-cohort (n = 123): age 68 years (interquartile range (IQR): 61-73), 67% male, QRS-duration 177 ms (IQR: 160-192), LV ejection fraction: 26 ± 7%. Philips-cohort (n = 88): age 67 years (IQR: 59-74), 60% male, QRS-duration: 179 ms (IQR: 166-193), LV ejection fraction: 27 ± 8. LV derived peak strain was comparable in the GE- (GE: -7.3 ± 3.1%, TomTec: -6.4 ± 2.8%, ICC: 0.723) and Philips-cohort (Philips: -7.7 ± 2.7%, TomTec: -7.7 ± 3.3%, ICC: 0.749). SL-delay showed low ICC values (GE vs. TomTec: 0.078 and Philips vs. TomTec: 0.025). ICC's of SRSsept and SSI were higher but only weak (GE vs. TomTec: SRSsept: 0.470, SSI: 0.467) (Philips vs. QLAB: SRSsept: 0.419, SSI: 0.421). Comparability of septal strain patterns was low (Cohen's kappa, GE vs. TomTec: 0.221 and Philips vs. TomTec: 0.279). Septal strain patterns, SRSsept and SSI were associated with changes in LV end-systolic volume for all vendors. SRSsept and SSI had relative varying C-statistic values (range: 0.530-0.705) and different cut-off values between vendors.

Conclusions: Although global longitudinal strain analysis showed fair comparability, assessment of dyssynchrony parameters was vendor specific and not applicable outside the context of the implemented platform. While the standardization taskforce took an important step for global peak strain, further standardization of STE is still warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12947-017-0116-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5648447PMC
October 2017

Comparison of strain imaging techniques in CRT candidates: CMR tagging, CMR feature tracking and speckle tracking echocardiography.

Int J Cardiovasc Imaging 2018 Mar 17;34(3):443-456. Epub 2017 Oct 17.

Department of Cardiology, University Medical Centre Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Parameters using myocardial strain analysis may predict response to cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). As the agreement between currently available strain imaging modalities is unknown, three different modalities were compared. Twenty-seven CRT-candidates, prospectively included in the MARC study, underwent cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging and echocardiographic examination. Left ventricular (LV) circumferential strain was analysed with CMR tagging (CMR-TAG), CMR feature tracking (CMR-FT), and speckle tracking echocardiography (STE). Basic strain values and parameters of dyssynchrony and discoordination obtained with CMR-FT and STE were compared to CMR-TAG. Agreement of CMR-FT and CMR-TAG was overall fair, while agreement between STE and CMR-TAG was often poor. For both comparisons, agreement on discoordination parameters was highest, followed by dyssynchrony and basic strain parameters. For discoordination parameters, agreement on systolic stretch index was highest, with fair intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) (CMR-FT: 0.58, STE: 0.55). ICC of septal systolic rebound stretch (SRS) was poor (CMR-FT: 0.41, STE: 0.30). Internal stretch factor of septal and lateral wall (ISF) showed fair ICC values (CMR-FT: 0.53, STE: 0.46), while the ICC of the total LV (ISF) was fair for CMR-FT (0.55) and poor for STE (ICC: 0.32). The CURE index had a fair ICC for both comparisons (CMR-FT: 0.49, STE 0.41). Although comparison of STE to CMR-TAG was limited by methodological differences, agreement between CMR-FT and CMR-TAG was overall higher compared to STE and CMR-TAG. CMR-FT is a potential clinical alternative for CMR-TAG and STE, especially in the detection of discoordination in CRT-candidates.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10554-017-1253-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5847211PMC
March 2018

Echocardiographic Prediction of Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy Response Requires Analysis of Both Mechanical Dyssynchrony and Right Ventricular Function: A Combined Analysis of Patient Data and Computer Simulations.

J Am Soc Echocardiogr 2017 Oct 8;30(10):1012-1020.e2. Epub 2017 Aug 8.

University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Background: Pronounced echocardiographically measured mechanical dyssynchrony is a positive predictor of response to cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT), whereas right ventricular (RV) dysfunction is a negative predictor. The aim of this study was to investigate how RV dysfunction influences the association between mechanical dyssynchrony and left ventricular (LV) volumetric remodeling following CRT.

Methods: One hundred twenty-two CRT candidates (mean LV ejection fraction, 19 ± 6%; mean QRS width, 168 ± 21 msec) were prospectively enrolled and underwent echocardiography before and 6 months after CRT. Volumetric remodeling was defined as percentage reduction in LV end-systolic volume. RV dysfunction was defined as RV fractional area change < 35%. Mechanical dyssynchrony was assessed as time to peak strain between the septum and LV lateral wall, interventricular mechanical delay, and septal systolic rebound stretch. Simulations of heart failure with an LV conduction delay in the CircAdapt computer model were used to investigate how LV and RV myocardial contractility influence LV dyssynchrony and acute CRT response.

Results: In the entire patient cohort, higher baseline septal systolic rebound stretch, time to peak strain between the septum and LV lateral wall, and interventricular mechanical delay were all associated with LV volumetric remodeling in univariate analysis (R = 0.599, R = 0.421, and R = 0.410, respectively, P < .01 for all). The association between septal systolic rebound stretch and LV volumetric remodeling was even stronger in patients without RV dysfunction (R = 0.648, P < .01). However, none of the mechanical dyssynchrony parameters were associated with LV remodeling in the RV dysfunction subgroup. The computer simulations showed that low RV contractility reduced CRT response but hardly affected mechanical dyssynchrony. In contrast, LV contractility changes had congruent effects on mechanical dyssynchrony and CRT response.

Conclusions: Mechanical dyssynchrony parameters do not reflect the negative impact of reduced RV contractility on CRT response. Echocardiographic prediction of CRT response should therefore include parameters of mechanical dyssynchrony and RV function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.echo.2017.06.004DOI Listing
October 2017

Quadripolar Leads in Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy.

JACC Clin Electrophysiol 2015 Aug 17;1(4):225-237. Epub 2015 Jul 17.

Department of Cardiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, the Netherlands.

Despite the benefit of cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) in patients with heart failure and conduction delay, a considerable number of patients do not respond substantially. Left ventricular lead position is an important factor in response, restricted by the patient's specific anatomy and local pathophysiology. Quadripolar leads could enhance response to CRT, offering 4 pacing locations along the distal end of the lead. Several quadripolar leads are available, all with different shapes and electrode spacing. Electrodes can be positioned in an ideal pacing location, determined by delayed mechanical or electrical activation, and away from phrenic nerve stimulation, high pacing thresholds, and fibrosis. Implantation is safe, with comparable or even lower complication rates compared with standard bipolar leads. Studies on biventricular pacing with quadripolar leads show apparent variations in acute hemodynamic response between pacing configurations, implying a patient-specific response. Pacing with an optimal pacing vector of a quadripolar lead benefits acute hemodynamic response. Multipoint pacing, pacing the left ventricle with 2 of 4 electrodes, could further enhance response. However, larger trials are needed to confirm these results, and results on long-term outcome of CRT with quadripolar leads and the benefit of multipoint pacing are warranted. We conclude that quadripolar leads are an important improvement in the treatment of heart failure patients with CRT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacep.2015.07.004DOI Listing
August 2015

Volumetric Response beyond Six Months of Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy and Clinical Outcome.

PLoS One 2015 1;10(5):e0124323. Epub 2015 May 1.

Department of Cardiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Aims: Response to cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) is often assessed six months after implantation. Our objective was to assess the number of patients changing from responder to non-responder between six and 14 months, so-called late non-responders, and compare them to patients who were responder both at six and 14 months, so-called stable responders. Furthermore, we assessed predictive values of six and 14-month response concerning clinical outcome.

Methods: 105 patients eligible for CRT were enrolled. Clinical, laboratory, ECG, and echocardiographic parameters and patient-reported health status (Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire [KCCQ]) were assessed before, and six and 14 months after implantation. Response was defined as ≥15% LVESV decrease as compared to baseline. Major adverse cardiac events (MACE) were registered until 24 months after implantation. Predictive values of six and 14-month response for MACE were examined.

Results: In total, 75 (71%) patients were six-month responders of which 12 (16%) patients became late non-responder. At baseline, late non-responders more often had ischemic cardiomyopathy and atrial fibrillation, higher BNP and less dyssynchrony compared to stable responders. At six months, late non-responders showed significantly less LVESV decrease, and higher creatinine levels. Mean KCCQ scores of late non-responders were lower than those of stable responders at every time point, with the difference being significant at 14 months. The 14 months response was a better predictor of MACE than six months response.

Conclusions: The assessment of treatment outcomes after six months of CRT could be premature and response rates beyond might better correlate to long-term clinical outcome.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0124323PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4416763PMC
January 2016

Comment on the article by Trolese T et al.

Europace 2015 Jun 4;17(6):999. Epub 2015 Mar 4.

Department of Cardiology, University Medical Centre Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/europace/euu382DOI Listing
June 2015

Vectorcardiography for optimization of stimulation intervals in cardiac resynchronization therapy.

J Cardiovasc Transl Res 2015 Mar 6;8(2):128-37. Epub 2015 Mar 6.

Departments of Physiology, Cardiovascular Research Institute Maastricht, Maastricht, The Netherlands.

Current optimization of atrioventricular (AV) and interventricular (VV) intervals in cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) is time consuming and subject to noise. We aimed to prove the principle that the best hemodynamic effect of CRT is achieved by cancelation of opposing electrical forces, detectable from the QRS morphology in the 3D vectorcardiogram (VCG). Different degrees of left (LV) and right ventricular (RV) pre-excitation were induced, using variation in AV intervals during LV pacing in 20 patients with left bundle branch block (LBBB) and variation in VV intervals during biventricular pacing in 18 patients with complete AV block or atrial fibrillation. The smallest QRS vector area identified stimulation intervals with minimal systolic stretch (median difference [IQR] 20 ms [-20, 20 ms] and maximal hemodynamic response (10 ms [-20, 40 ms]). Reliability of VCG measurements was superior to hemodynamic measurements. This study proves the principle that VCG analysis may allow easy and reliable optimization of stimulation intervals in CRT patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12265-015-9615-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4382533PMC
March 2015

Comparison of septal strain patterns in dyssynchronous heart failure between speckle tracking echocardiography vendor systems.

J Electrocardiol 2015 Jul-Aug;48(4):609-16. Epub 2014 Dec 31.

Department of Physiology, CARIM, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht, The Netherlands.

Aim: To analyze inter-vendor differences of speckle tracking echocardiography (STE) in imaging cardiac deformation in patients with dyssynchronous heart failure.

Methods And Results: Eleven patients (all with LBBB, median age 60.7 years, 9 males) with implanted cardiac resynchronization therapy devices were prospectively included. Ultrasound systems of two vendors (i.e. General Electric and Philips) were used to record images in the apical four chamber view. Regional longitudinal strain patterns were analyzed with vendor specific software in the basal, mid and apical septal segments. Systolic strain (SS), time to peak strain (TTP) and septal rebound stretch (SRS) were determined during four pacing settings, resulting in 44 unique strain patterns per segment (total 132 patterns). Cross correlation was used to analyze the comparability of the shape of 132 normalized strain patterns. Correlation of strain patterns of the two systems was high (R(2) median: 0.68, interquartile range: 0.53-0.82). Accordingly, strain patterns of intrinsic rhythm were recognized equally using both systems, when divided into three types. GE based SS (18.9 ± 4.7%) was significantly higher than SS determined by the Philips system (13.4 ± 4.3%). TTP was slightly but non-significantly lower in GE (384 ± 77 ms) compared to Philips (404 ± 83 ms) derived strain signals. Correlation of SRS between the systems was poor, due to minor differences in the strain signal and timing of aortic valve closure.

Conclusions: The two systems provide similar shape of strain patterns. However, important differences are found in the amplitude, timing of systole and SRS. Until STE is standardized, clinical decision making should be restricted to pattern analysis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jelectrocard.2014.12.021DOI Listing
March 2016