Publications by authors named "WoongChol Kang"

6 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Clinical Implication of Hypoxic Liver Injury for Predicting Hypoxic Hepatitis and In-Hospital Mortality in ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction Patients.

Yonsei Med J 2021 Oct;62(10):877-884

Department of Cardiology, Inha University Hospital, Incheon, Korea.

Purpose: In this study, we aimed to determine the value of hypoxic liver injury (HLI) in the emergency room (ER) for predicting hypoxic hepatitis (HH) and in-hospital mortality in ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients.

Materials And Methods: 1537 consecutive STEMI patients were enrolled. HLI in the ER was defined as a ≥2-fold increase in serum aspartate transaminase (AST). HH was defined as a ≥20-fold increase in peak serum transaminase. Patients were divided into four groups according to HLI and HH status (group 1, no HLI or HH; group 2, HLI, but no HH; group 3, no HLI, but HH; group 4, both HLI and HH).

Results: The incidences of HLI and HH in the ER were 22% and 2%, respectively. In-hospital mortality rates were 3.1%, 11.8%, 28.6%, and 47.1% for groups 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. Patients with HLI and/or HH had worse Killip class, higher cardiac biomarker elevations, and lower left ventricular ejection fraction. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that HLI in the ER was an independent predictor of HH [odds ratio 2.572, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.166-5.675, =0.019]. The predictive value of HLI in the ER for the development of HH during hospitalization was favorable [area under the curve (AUC) 0.737, 95% CI 0.643-0.830, sensitivity 0.548, specificity 0.805, for cut-off value AST >80]. Furthermore, in terms of in-hospital mortality, predictive values of HLI in the ER and HH during hospitalization were comparable (AUC 0.701 for HLI at ER and AUC 0.674 for HH).

Conclusion: Among STEMI patients, HLI in the ER is a significant predictor for the development of HH and mortality during hospitalization (INTERSTELLAR number, NCT02800421).
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October 2021

Complete Versus Culprit-Only Revascularization for ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction and Multivessel Disease in the 2 Generation Drug-Eluting Stent Era: Data from the INTERSTELLAR Registry.

Korean Circ J 2018 Nov;48(11):989-999

Department of Cardiology, Gachon University Gil Medical Center, Incheon, Korea.

Background And Objectives: We aimed to compare outcomes of complete revascularization (CR) versus culprit-only revascularization for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and multivessel disease (MVD) in the 2 generation drug-eluting stent (DES) era.

Methods: From 2009 to 2014, patients with STEMI and MVD, who underwent primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) using a 2 generation DES for culprit lesions were enrolled. CR was defined as PCI for a non-infarct-related artery during the index admission. Major adverse cardiovascular event (MACE) was defined as cardiovascular (CV) death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, target lesion revascularization, or heart failure during the follow-up year.

Results: In total, 705 MVD patients were suitable for the analysis, of whom 286 (41%) underwent culprit-only PCI and 419 (59%) underwent CR during the index admission. The incidence of MACE was 11.5% in the CR group versus 18.5% in the culprit-only group (hazard ratio [HR], 0.56; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.37-0.86; p<0.01; adjusted HR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.40-0.99; p=0.04). The CR group revealed a significantly lower incidence of CV death (7.2% vs. 12.9%; HR, 0.51; 95% CI, 0.31-0.86; p=0.01 and adjusted HR, 0.57; 95% CI; 0.32-0.97; p=0.03, respectively).

Conclusions: CR was associated with better outcomes including reductions in MACE and CV death at 1 year of follow-up compared with culprit-only PCI in the 2 generation DES era.
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November 2018

Prognostic Impact of Combined Contrast-Induced Acute Kidney Injury and Hypoxic Liver Injury in Patients with ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction Undergoing Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention: Results from INTERSTELLAR Registry.

PLoS One 2016 14;11(7):e0159416. Epub 2016 Jul 14.

Department of Cardiology, Gil Medical Center, Gachon University, Incheon, Republic of Korea.

Background: Besides contrast-induced acute kidney injury(CI-AKI), adscititious vital organ damage such as hypoxic liver injury(HLI) may affect the survival in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). We sought to evaluate the prognostic impact of CI-AKI and HLI in STEMI patients who underwent primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).

Methods: A total of 668 consecutive patients (77.2% male, mean age 61.3±13.3 years) from the INTERSTELLAR STEMI registry who underwent primary PCI were analyzed. CI-AKI was defined as an increase of ≥0.5 mg/dL in serum creatinine level or 25% relative increase, within 48h after the index procedure. HLI was defined as ≥2-fold increase in serum aspartate transaminase above the upper normal limit on admission. Patients were divided into four groups according to their CI-AKI and HLI states. Major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events (MACCE) defined as a composite of all-cause mortality, non-fatal MI, non-fatal stroke, ischemia-driven target lesion revascularization and target vessel revascularization were recorded.

Results: Over a mean follow-up period of 2.2±1.6 years, 94 MACCEs occurred with an event rate of 14.1%. The rates of MACCE and all-cause mortality were 9.7% and 5.2%, respectively, in the no organ damage group; 21.3% and 21.3% in CI-AKI group; 18.5% and 14.6% in HLI group; and 57.7% and 50.0% in combined CI-AKI and HLI group. Survival probability plots of composite MACCE and all-cause mortality revealed that the combined CI-AKI and HLI group was associated with the worst prognosis (p<0.0001 for both).

Conclusion: Combined CI-AKI after index procedure and HLI on admission is associated with poor clinical outcomes in patients with STEMI who underwent primary PCI. (INTERSTELLAR number, NCT02800421.).
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July 2017

Efficacy and Safety of DP-R202 in Patients with Chronic Artery Occlusive Disease: Multicenter Randomized Double-blind Active-controlled Parallel Group Phase III Clinical Study.

Clin Ther 2016 Mar 5;38(3):557-73. Epub 2016 Feb 5.

Yonsei University College of Medicine, Severance Cardiovascular Hospital, Seoul, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Purpose: Sarpogrelate hydrochloride, a selective 5-hydroxytryptamine 2A antagonist, is a widely used antiplatelet agent for the treatment of peripheral arterial disease (PAD). DP-R202 is a new sarpogrelate hydrochloride product with an improved dosage regimen compared with the agent in current use. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety profile of DP-R202 and Anplag(⁎) Tab in patients with PAD.

Methods: This study was a 12-week, multicenter, randomized, double-blinded, active-controlled, parallel group comparative Phase III clinical trial. One hundred fifty-one volunteer patients with PAD were randomized to receive DP-R202 300 mg once daily or Anplag Table 100 mg TID for 12 weeks. The primary end point was a change in patient assessment of lower leg pain intensity with the use of a visual analog scale (VAS) after 12 weeks of treatment. Results after 4, 8, and 12 weeks of treatment were compared with baseline and between treatment groups, and all patients were assessed for adverse events (AEs), clinical laboratory data, and vital signs.

Findings: Two hundred thirty-one patients from 25 medical centers were assessed, and 151 were enrolled and randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatment groups. Seventy-five patients received DP-R202 300 mg once daily and 76 patients received Anplag Table 100 mg TID for 12 weeks. Analysis of the change in lower leg pain intensity as determined by VAS score between baseline and week 12 (mean [SD], 20.72 [20.06] mm vs 15.55 [21.44] mm) suggested that DP-R202 was not inferior to Anplag Tab, and no significant differences were found in the secondary end points. No significant between-group differences were observed in the prevalence of drug-related clinical- or laboratory-determined AEs. For tolerability, no specific issue was found during the treatment period.

Implication: The results of this study suggest that DP-R202 was not inferior to Anplag Tab for efficacy in patients with PAD and indicated a good safety profile.
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March 2016

Serum transaminase determined in the emergency room predicts outcomes in patients with acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction who undergo primary percutaneous coronary intervention.

Int J Cardiol 2014 Dec 16;177(2):442-7. Epub 2014 Oct 16.

Cardiology Division, Department of Internal Medicine, Gil Medical Center, Gachon University, Incheon, Republic of Korea.

Background: Elevated serum aspartate and alanine aminotransferase (AST and ALT) are often observed in patients with acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and the condition is ascribed to liver hypoperfusion. We evaluated the prevalence and prognostic implication of hypoxic liver injury (HLI) in STEMI.

Methods: Patients with STEMI and no preexisting liver disease who underwent primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) were enrolled. A blood test was performed at the time of presentation and transthoracic echocardiography was performed after the index PCI. We reviewed medical records and contacted families of the patients by telephone to assess outcomes.

Results: Of 456 patients (age 60 ± 13 years, 370 males), 31 patients (7%) died during follow-up (duration: 754 ± 540 days). Those patients were older (72 ± 10 vs. 59 ± 13 years), had higher AST (179 ± 224 vs. 64 ± 103 U/L), ALT (56 ± 79 vs. 35 ± 33 U/L), blood urea nitrogen (25 ± 15 vs. 17 ± 7 mg/dL), uric acid (6.9 ± 2.9 vs. 5.8 ± 1.6 mg/dL), creatine kinase-myocardial band isoenzyme (76 ± 104 vs. 41 ± 79 ng/mL), troponin I (19.9 ± 23.0 vs. 10.8 ± 19.1 ng/mL), and lower albumin (4.0 ± 0.5 vs. 4.2 ± 0.4 g/dL) at the time of presentation (p<0.05 for all). Particularly, AST independently predicted all-cause mortality (per 10 U/L increase, hazard ratio: 1.06, 95% confidence interval: 1.02-1.10, p=0.007), whereas cardiac markers did not. HLI (>2-fold elevation of AST or ALT upper normal limits) showed close correlation with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (β=-0.12, p=0.03) and patients with the condition (n=100 [20%]) had poorer survival than the others (Log-Rank, p=0.005).

Conclusion: The presence of HLI predicts mortality in patients with STEMI who undergo successful primary PCIs.
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December 2014

In vivo imaging of myocardial cell death using a peptide probe and assessment of long-term heart function.

J Control Release 2013 Nov 7;172(1):367-373. Epub 2013 Sep 7.

Department of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, School of Medicine, Cell & Matrix Research Institute, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

During acute myocardial infarction (AMI), both apoptosis and necrosis of myocardial cells could occur and lead to left ventricular (LV) functional decline. Here we determined whether in vivo imaging signals of myocardial cell death by ApoPep-1 (CQRPPR), a peptide probe that binds to apoptotic and necrotic cells through histone H1, at an early stage after AMI showed correlation with the long-term heart function. AMI was induced using a rat model of ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) injury. Fluorescence-labeled ApoPep-1 was administered by intravenous injection into rats 2h after reperfusion. Ex vivo imaging of hearts isolated 2h after peptide injection showed higher levels of near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) signals at hearts of I/R rats than those of sham-operated rats. The fluorescent peptide was rapidly cleared from the blood and did not bind to red and white blood cells. Localization of fluorescent ApoPep-1 at the area of cell death was demonstrated by co-staining of myocardial tissue with TUNEL. The intensity of in vivo NIRF imaging signals by homing of ApoPep-1 to injured myocardium of I/R rats obtained 2h after peptide injection (equivalent to 4h after injury) showed strong and moderate correlation with the change in the LV ejection fractions (r(2)=0.82) and the size of the fibrotic area (r(2)=0.64), respectively, observed at four weeks after injury. These results suggest that ApoPep-1-mediated in vivo imaging signals of myocardial cell death, including both apoptosis and necrosis, at an early stage of AMI could be a potential biomarker for assessment of long-term outcome of heart function.
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November 2013