Publications by authors named "Wook Sung Chung"

133 Publications

Multivessel versus IRA-only PCI in patients with NSTEMI and severe left ventricular systolic dysfunction.

PLoS One 2021 13;16(10):e0258525. Epub 2021 Oct 13.

Korea Institute of Toxicology, Daejeon, Republic of Korea.

Background: A substantial number of patients presenting with non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) and multivessel disease (MVD) have severe left ventricular systolic dysfunction (LVSD) (left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) less than 35%). But data are lacking regarding optimal percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) strategy for these patients. The aim of this study was to compare the long-term outcomes of IRA (infarct-related artery)-only and multivessel PCI in patients with NSTEMI and MVD complicated by severe LVSD.

Methods: Among 13,104 patients enrolled in the PCI registry from November 2011 to December 2015, patients with NSTEMI and MVD with severe LVSD who underwent successful PCI were screened. The primary outcome was 3-year major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs), defined as all-cause death, any myocardial infarction, stroke, and any revascularization.

Results: Overall, 228 patients were treated with IRA-only PCI (n = 104) or MV-PCI (n = 124). The MACE risk was significantly lower in the MV-PCI group than in the IRA-only PCI group (35.5% vs. 54.8%; hazard ratio [HR] 0.561; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.378-0.832; p = 0.04). This result was mainly driven by a significantly lower risk of all-cause death (23.4% vs. 41.4%; hazard ratio [HR] 0.503; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.314-0.806; p = 0.004). The results were consistent after multivariate regression, propensity-score matching, and inverse probability weighting to adjust for baseline differences.

Conclusions: Among patients with NSTEMI and MVD complicated with severe LVSD, multivessel PCI was associated with a significantly lower MACE risk. The findings may provide valuable information to physicians who are involved in decision-making for these patients.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0258525PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8513855PMC
October 2021

Visit-to-visit blood pressure variability and mortality and cardiovascular outcomes after acute myocardial infarction.

J Hum Hypertens 2021 Sep 13. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul St. Mary's Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

The relationship between visit-to-visit blood pressure variability (BPV) and cardiovascular outcomes remains unclear. Our study assessed the prognostic implications of visit-to-visit BPV in patients after acute myocardial infarction (AMI). The present study enrolled 7,375 patients who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention for AMI and at least five measurements of blood pressure after hospital discharge. Visit-to-visit BPV was estimated as variability independent of mean. The primary endpoint was all-cause mortality. The secondary endpoints were major cardiovascular events (the composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, and ischemic stroke) and hospitalization for heart failure. During a median follow-up of 5.8 years, adjusted risks of all-cause mortality, major cardiovascular events, and hospitalization for heart failure continuously increased as systolic BPV and diastolic BPV increased. Patients in the highest quartile of systolic BPV (versus lowest) had increased risk of all-cause mortality (adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) 1.51 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.23-1.85]), major cardiovascular events (aHR 1.31 [95% CI 1.1-1.55]), and hospitalization for heart failure (aHR 2.15 [95% CI 1.49-3.1]). Patients in the highest quartile of diastolic BPV was also associated with all-cause mortality (aHR 1.39 [95% CI 1.14-1.7]), major cardiovascular events (aHR 1.29 [95% CI 1.08-1.53]), and hospitalization for heart failure (aHR 2.01[95% CI 1.4-2.87]). Both systolic and diastolic BPV improved the predictive ability of the GRACE (Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events) risk score for both all-cause mortality and major cardiovascular events. Higher visit-to-visit BPV was associated with increased risks of mortality and cardiovascular events in patients after AMI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41371-021-00594-5DOI Listing
September 2021

Risks of Recurrent Cardiovascular Events and Mortality in 1-Year Survivors of Acute Myocardial Infarction Implanted with Newer-Generation Drug-Eluting Stents.

J Clin Med 2021 Aug 17;10(16). Epub 2021 Aug 17.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul St. Mary's Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul 06591, Korea.

Current treatments for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) have dramatically improved clinical outcomes during the first year after AMI. Less is known, however, about the subsequent risks of recurrent cardiovascular events and mortality in patients who survive 1 year after AMI. The purpose of the present study is to evaluate long-term clinical outcomes in 1-year AMI survivors who were implanted with newer-generation drug-eluting stents (DESs) since 2010. The COREA-AMI (CardiOvascular Risk and idEntificAtion of potential high-risk population in AMI) registry consecutively enrolled AMI patients who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), and patients who received newer-generation DESs since 2010 were analyzed. The primary endpoint was major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs), and secondary endpoint was all-cause mortality. Of 6242 AMI patients, 5397 were alive 1 year after the index procedure. The cumulative incidence of MACEs and all-cause death 1 to 7 years after AMI were 28.4% (annually 4-6%) and 20.2% (annually 3-4%), respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that uncontrolled systolic blood pressure (SBP) and serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) concentration, as well as traditional risk factors, were associated with MACEs and all-cause death. Recurrent non-fatal myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, and bleeding events within 1 year were significantly associated with all-cause death. The risks of adverse cardiovascular events and death remain high in AMI patients more than 1 year after the index PCI with newer-generation DESs. Traditional risk factors, uncontrolled SBP and LDL-C, and non-fatal adverse events within 1 year after the index procedure strongly influence long-term clinical outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm10163642DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8396866PMC
August 2021

Activation of Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor by ITE Improves Cardiac Function in Mice After Myocardial Infarction.

J Am Heart Assoc 2021 07 23;10(13):e020502. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

Division of Cardiology Seoul St. Mary's Hospital College of Medicine The Catholic University of Korea Seoul Republic of Korea.

Background The immune and inflammatory responses play a considerable role in left ventricular remodeling after myocardial infarction (MI). Binding of AhR (aryl hydrocarbon receptor) to its ligands modulates immune and inflammatory responses; however, the effects of AhR in the context of MI are unknown. Therefore, we evaluated the potential association between AhR and MI by treating mice with a nontoxic endogenous AhR ligand, ITE (2-[1'H-indole-3'-carbonyl]-thiazole-4-carboxylic acid methyl ester). We hypothesized that activation of AhR by ITE in MI mice would boost regulatory T-cell differentiation, modulate macrophage activity, and facilitate infarct healing. Methods and Results Acute MI was induced in C57BL/6 mice by ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery. Then, the mice were randomized to daily intraperitoneal injection of ITE (200 µg/mouse, n=19) or vehicle (n=16) to examine the therapeutic effects of ITE during the postinfarct healing process. Echocardiographic and histopathological analyses revealed that ITE-treated mice exhibited significantly improved systolic function (<0.001) and reduced infarct size compared with control mice (<0.001). In addition, we found that ITE increased regulatory T cells in the mediastinal lymph node, spleen, and infarcted myocardium, and shifted the M1/M2 macrophage balance toward the M2 phenotype in vivo, which plays vital roles in the induction and resolution of inflammation after acute MI. In vitro, ITE expanded the Foxp3 (forkhead box protein P3-positive) regulatory T cells and tolerogenic dendritic cell populations. Conclusions Activation of AhR by a nontoxic endogenous ligand, ITE, improves cardiac function after MI. Post-MI mice treated with ITE have a significantly lower risk of developing advanced left ventricular systolic dysfunction than nontreated mice. Thus, the results imply that ITE has a potential as a stimulator of cardiac repair after MI to prevent heart failure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.120.020502DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8403290PMC
July 2021

Five-year clinical outcomes of the first Korean-made sirolimus-eluting coronary stent with abluminal biodegradable polymer.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 May;100(19):e25765

Department of Cardiology, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon.

Abstract: This study evaluated the 5-year clinical outcomes of the Genoss DES, the first Korean-made sirolimus-eluting coronary stent with abluminal biodegradable polymer.We previously conducted the first-in-patient prospective, multicenter, randomized trial with a 1:1 ratio of patients using the Genoss DES and Promus Element stents; the angiographic and clinical outcomes of the Genoss DES stent were comparable to those of the Promus Element stent. The primary endpoint was major adverse cardiac events (MACE), which was a composite of death, myocardial infarction (MI), and target lesion revascularization (TLR) at 5 years.We enrolled 38 patients in the Genoss DES group and 39 in the Promus Element group. Thirty-eight patients (100%) from the Genoss DES group and 38 (97.4%) from the Promus Element group were followed up at 5 years. The rates of MACE (5.3% vs 12.8%, P = .431), death (5.3% vs 10.3%, P = .675), TLR (2.6% vs 2.6%, P = 1.000), and target vessel revascularization (TVR) (7.9% vs 2.6%, P = .358) at 5 years did not differ significantly between the groups. No TLR or target vessel revascularization was reported from years 1 to 5 after the index procedure, and no MI or stent thrombosis occurred in either group during 5 years.The biodegradable polymer Genoss DES and durable polymer Promus Element stents showed comparable low rates of MACE at the 5-year clinical follow-up.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000025765DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8133141PMC
May 2021

Effects of Smoking on Long-Term Clinical Outcomes and Lung Cancer in Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction.

Korean Circ J 2021 Apr;51(4):336-348

Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul St. Mary's Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Korea.

Background And Objectives: Smoking is well-established as a risk factor for coronary artery disease. However, recent studies demonstrated favorable results, including reduced mortality, among smokers, which are referred to as the "smoker's paradox". This study examined the impact of smoking on clinical outcomes in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).

Methods: Patients with AMI undergoing PCI between 2004 and 2014 were enrolled and classified according to smoking status. The primary endpoint was a composite of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) including cardiac death, myocardial infarction, stroke, and revascularization.

Results: Among the 10,683 patients, 4,352 (40.7%) were current smokers. Smokers were 10.7 years younger and less likely to have comorbidities such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease, stroke, and prior PCI. Smokers had less MACE (hazard ratio [HR], 0.644; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.594-0.698; p<0.001) and cardiac death (HR, 0.494; 95% CI, 0.443-0.551; p<0.001) compared to nonsmokers during the 5 years in an unadjusted model. However, after propensity-score matching, smokers showed higher risk of MACE (HR, 1.125; 95% CI, 1.009-1.254; p=0.034) and cardiac death (HR, 1.190; 95% CI, 1.026-1.381; p=0.022). Smoking was a strong independent predictor of lung cancer (propensity-score matched HR, 2.749; 95% CI, 1.416-5.338; p=0.003).

Conclusions: In contrast to the unadjusted model, smoking is associated with worse cardiovascular outcome and higher incidence of lung cancer after adjustment of various confounding factors. This result can be explained by the characteristics of smokers, which were young and had fewer comorbidities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4070/kcj.2020.0430DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8022024PMC
April 2021

Influence of lesion and disease subsets on the diagnostic performance of the quantitative flow ratio in real-world patients.

Sci Rep 2021 02 4;11(1):2995. Epub 2021 Feb 4.

Department of Cardiology, Seoul St. Mary's Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea, 222, Banpo-daero, Seocho-gu, Seoul, 06591, Republic of Korea.

The quantitative flow ratio (QFR) is a novel angiography-based computational method assessing functional ischemia caused by coronary stenosis. This study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic performance of quantitative flow ratio (QFR) in patients with angina and acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and to identify the conditions with low diagnostic performance. We assessed the QFR for 1077 vessels under fractional flow ratio (FFR) evaluation in 915 patients with angina and AMI. The diagnostic accuracies of the QFR for identifying an FFR ≤ 0.8 were 95.98% (95% confidence interval [CI] 94.52 to 97.14%) for the angina group and 92.42% (95% CI 86.51 to 96.31%) for the AMI group. The diagnostic accuracy of the QFR in the borderline FFR zones (> 0.75, ≤ 0.85) (91.23% [95% CI 88.25 to 93.66%]) was significantly lower than that in others (difference: 4.32; p = 0.001). The condition accompanying both AMI and the borderline FFR zone showed the lowest QFR diagnostic accuracy in our data (83.93% [95% CI 71.67 to 92.38]). The diagnostic accuracy was reduced for tandem lesions (p = 0.04, not correcting for multiple testing). Our study found that the QFR method yielded a high overall diagnostic performance in real-world patients. However, low diagnostic accuracy has been observed in borderline FFR zones with AMI, and the hybrid FFR approach needs to be considered.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-82235-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7862355PMC
February 2021

Gender differences in clinical outcomes of acute myocardial infarction undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention: insights from the KAMIR-NIH Registry.

J Geriatr Cardiol 2020 Nov;17(11):680-693

Division of Cardiology, Daejeon St. Mary's hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, South Korea.

Background: There are numerous but conflicting data regarding gender differences in outcomes following percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Furthermore, gender differences in clinical outcomes with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) following PCI in Asian population remain uncertain because of the under-representation of Asian in previous trials.

Methods: A total of 13, 104 AMI patients from Korea Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry-National Institute of Health (KAMIR-NIH) between November 2011 and December 2015 were classified into male ( = 8021, 75.9%) and female ( = 2547, 24.1%). We compared the demographic, clinical and angiographic characteristics, 30-days and 1-year major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (MACCE) in women with those in men after AMI by using propensity score (PS) matching.

Results: Compared with men, women were older, had more comorbidities and more often presented with non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) and reduced left ventricular systolic function. Over the median follow-up of 363 days, gender differences in both 30-days and 1-year MACCE as well as thrombolysis in myocardial infarction minor bleeding risk were not observed in the PS matched population (30-days MACCE: 5.3% . 4.7%, log-rank = 0.494, HR = 1.126, 95% CI: 0.800-1.585; 1-year MACCE: 9.3% . 9.0%, log-rank = 0.803, HR = 1.032, 95% CI: 0.802-1.328; TIMI minor bleeding: 4.9% . 3.9%, log-rank = 0.215, HR = 1.255, 95% CI: 0.869-1.814).

Conclusions: Among Korean AMI population undergoing contemporary PCI, women, as compared with men, had different clinical and angiographic characteristics but showed similar 30-days and 1-year clinical outcomes. The risk of bleeding after PCI was comparable between men and women during one-year follow up.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.11909/j.issn.1671-5411.2020.11.006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7729180PMC
November 2020

Prognostic Value of Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate 3-6 Months after Percutaneous Coronary Intervention.

Cardiorenal Med 2021 17;11(1):77-86. Epub 2020 Dec 17.

Department of Cardiology, College of Medicine, Seoul St. Mary's Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Background: The prognostic significance of follow-up (f/u) renal function for patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) remains unknown. This study sought to investigate the prognostic implications of f/u renal function in patients undergoing PCI.

Methods: A drug-eluting stent registry was used. We divided patients into 4 groups according to the change in the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) before PCI and 3-6 months after PCI. Patients with normal pre-PCI eGFR and f/u eGFR were assigned to group 1. Those with normal pre-PCI eGFR and abnormal f/u eGFR were assigned to group 2. Patients with abnormal pre-PCI eGFR and normal f/u eGFR were assigned to group 3. Patients with abnormal pre-PCI eGFR and f/u eGFR were allocated into group 4.

Results: A total of 4,899 PCI patients were enrolled. The death rate in group 1, 2, 3, and 4 at 3 years was 2, 11, 4, and 9%, respectively. This showed significant differences between groups, except between groups 2 and 4. The prognosis of a group with aggravation from normal renal function was worse than that of a group with recovery from abnormal renal function. A prediction model that combines clinical risk factors and f/u eGFR has more power for predicting clinical outcomes than a combination of clinical risk factors and pre-PCI eGFR.

Conclusion: Post-PCI eGFR was more accurate for predicting patient outcomes than pre-PCI eGFR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000512817DOI Listing
October 2021

Ischemic and Bleeding Events Associated with Thrombocytopenia and Thrombocytosis after Percutaneous Coronary Intervention in Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction.

J Clin Med 2020 Oct 21;9(10). Epub 2020 Oct 21.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul St. Mary's Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul 06591, Korea.

The early and late ischemic and bleeding clinical outcomes according to baseline platelet count after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) remain unclear. Overall, 10,667 patients from the Cardiovascular Risk and identification of potential high-risk population in AMI (COREA-AMI) I and II registries were classified according to the following universal criteria on baseline platelet counts: (1) moderate to severe thrombocytopenia (platelet < 100 K/μL, = 101), (2) mild thrombocytopenia (platelet = 100~149 K/μL, = 631), (3) normal reference (platelet = 150~450 K/μL, = 9832), and (4) thrombocytosis (platelet > 450 K/μL, = 103). The primary endpoint was the occurrence of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE). The secondary outcome was Bleeding Academic Research Consortium (BARC) 2, 3, and 5 bleeding. After adjusting for confounders, the moderate to severe thrombocytopenia (HR, 2.03; 95% CI, 1.49-2.78); 0.001), mild thrombocytopenia (HR, 1.15; 95% CI, 1.01-1.34; = 0.045), and thrombocytosis groups (HR, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.07-2.03; = 0.019) showed higher 5-year MACE rates than the normal reference. In BARC 2, 3, and 5 bleeding outcomes, the bleedings rates were higher than the normal range in the moderate to severe thrombocytopenia (HR, 2.18; 95% CI, 1.36-3.49; = 0.001) and mild thrombocytopenia (HR, 1.41; 95% CI, 1.12-1.78; = 0.004) groups. Patients with AMI had higher 5-year MACE rates after PCI if they had lower- or higher-than-normal platelet counts. Thrombocytopenia revealed higher early and late bleeding rates whereas thrombocytosis showed long-term bleeding trends, although these trends were not statistically significant.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm9103370DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7589459PMC
October 2020

Predictors of Significant Coronary Artery Disease in Patients with Cerebral Artery Atherosclerosis.

Cerebrovasc Dis 2019 11;48(3-6):226-235. Epub 2019 Dec 11.

Department of Cardiology, Bucheon St. Mary's Hospital, The Catholic University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea,

Objective: There are few existing data on the status of coronary artery disease (CAD) in patients with atherosclerosis of the cerebral artery detected by brain imaging studies. We aimed to analyze the predictors of asymptomatic angiographically significant CAD detected by simultaneous cerebral and coronary angiography.

Methods: This retrospective cohort study screened data obtained between August 2009 and April 2019; 11,047 patients underwent cerebral angiography for atherosclerotic change (>50% stenosis or aneurysm) seen in brain magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) or computed tomography angiography (CTA) at a single center by endovascular neurosurgeon's decision. Of these, 700 patients including 622 patients who underwent simultaneous coronary and cerebral angiography and 78 patients who underwent coronary angiography within a month were enrolled. We investigated the characteristics and predictors of angiographically significant CAD (>50% stenosis). Furthermore, we also analyzed the major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events (MACCE), including all-cause death, myocardial infarction, and stroke for 5 years.

Results: The frequency of significant CAD was 59% (413/700), the mean age was 68.9 ± 10.3 years, and 60.6% were male. During mean follow-up of 50 months, the MACCE rate of our whole cohort was significantly higher in the CAD group (21.5%) than in the non-CAD group (14.6%; hazard ratio 1.65, 95% CI 1.17-2.33, p value = 0.005). Considering that the embolic stroke is less associated with atherosclerotic change, our predictive model of significant CAD was made without embolic stroke (n = 599). In our multivariate model 2 including univariate <0.1, the independent predictors of significant CAD were male (OR 1.62, 95% CI 1.11-2.35, p = 0.012), diabetes mellitus (OR 1.81, 95% CI 1.22-2.68, p = 0.003), previous stroke (OR 1.63, 95% CI 1.02-2.60, p = 0.039), low ankle-brachial index (ABI; <0.9; OR 3.25, 95% CI 1.21-8.73, p = 0.019), left ventricular ejection fraction (EF) <50% on echocardiography (OR 2.82, 95% CI 1.25-6.35, p = 0.012), troponin I or T positive (OR 2.76, 95% CI 1.69-4.53, p < 0.001), and complex features on cerebral angiography (OR 2.73, 95% CI 1.78-4.19, p < 0.001).

Conclusions: Accurate coronary evaluation by coronary angiography might be considered when patients with atherosclerotic cerebral artery detected on brain MRA or CTA planned cerebral angiography were male or have diabetes mellitus, previous stroke, low ABI (<0.9), left ventricular EF <50% on echocardiography, troponin I or T positivity, and complex features on cerebral angiography.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000504927DOI Listing
May 2020

Association between body mass index and 1-year outcome after acute myocardial infarction.

PLoS One 2019 14;14(6):e0217525. Epub 2019 Jun 14.

Chonbuk National University Hospital, Jeonju, Republic of Korea.

Objectives: Beneficial effects of overweight and obesity on mortality after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) have been described as "Body Mass Index (BMI) paradox". However, the effects of BMI is still on debate. We analyzed the association between BMI and 1-year clinical outcomes after AMI.

Methods: Among 13,104 AMI patients registered in Korea Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry-National Institute of Health (KAMIR-NIH) between November 2011 and December 2015, 10,568 patients who eligible for this study were classified into 3 groups according to BMI (Group 1; < 22 kg/m2, 22 ≤ Group 2 < 26 kg/m2, Group 3; ≥ 26 kg/m2). The primary end point was all cause death at 1 year.

Results: Over the median follow-up of 12 months, the event of primary end point occurred more frequently in the Group 1 patients than in the Group 3 patients (primary endpoint: adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 1.537; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.177 to 2.007, p = 0.002). Especially, cardiac death played a major role in this effect (aHR, 1.548; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.128 to 2.124, p = 0.007).

Conclusions: Higher BMI appeared to be good prognostic factor on 1-year all cause death after AMI. This result suggests that higher BMI or obesity might confer a protective advantage over the life-quality after AMI.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0217525PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6570024PMC
February 2020

Ticagrelor Does Not Improve Endothelial Dysfunction in Stable Survivors of Acute Coronary Syndrome.

J Cardiovasc Pharmacol Ther 2019 09 29;24(5):442-449. Epub 2019 Apr 29.

5 Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul St Mary's Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Background: Ticagrelor is an intriguing antiplatelet agent with a potentially beneficial impact on endothelial dysfunction and confers a mortality benefit beyond 1 month after acute coronary syndrome (ACS). However, little data exist on whether ticagrelor improves endothelial dysfunction in stable patients who survive the acute period and receive guideline-directed medical therapy.

Methods And Results: This study is a prospective, randomized, parallel, open-labeled study that enrolled 30-day survivors of non-ST-segment elevation ACS (NSTE-ACS). Forty patients with NSTE-ACS were randomly assigned to ticagrelor or clopidogrel groups. The primary end point was the change in the percentage brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (baFMD) from baseline. Baseline characteristics were not different between the 2 groups. The median time from the stent implantation to screening was 269 days. After 30 days of study medication administration, the change in the percentage baFMD value was similar between the ticagrelor and clopidogrel groups (-0.08 [1.42] vs 0.30 [1.69], = .66). There was no difference in the change in high-sensitive C-reactive protein (-0.61 [1.48] vs -0.01 [0.57], = .28); however, the change in platelet inhibition significantly differed (P2Y reaction units, -140.5 [49.5] vs -3.9 [51.4], < .001).

Conclusions: This dual time point baFMD study demonstrated that treatment with ticagrelor was not superior to clopidogrel for improving endothelial dysfunction in stabilized patients with NSTE-ACS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1074248419841640DOI Listing
September 2019

Comparison of successful percutaneous coronary intervention versus optimal medical therapy in patients with coronary chronic total occlusion.

J Cardiol 2019 02 6;73(2):156-162. Epub 2018 Nov 6.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul St. Mary's Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Background: Chronic total occlusion (CTO) is a challenging entity in coronary interventions. With improvements in technology and techniques, success rates for percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) of CTO continue to improve. However, the clinical benefits of PCI remain unclear. The aim of the study was to determine the effectiveness of successful PCI on clinical outcomes using drug-eluting stents in patients with CTO.

Methods: From 2004 to 2010, we analyzed 898 patients with at least one CTO who underwent successful PCI (n=424, 448 lesions) or only medical treatment (n=474, 519 lesions) from a multicenter registry. The primary outcome was all-cause death.

Results: During a median of 2.2 years, incidence rate of all-cause death after successful PCI was lower than that after medical treatment (10.6% and 17.5%, p=0.004). However, the multivariate Cox proportional hazards model showed that successful PCI was not associated with improvement in mortality compared to medical treatment [adjusted hazard ratio (HR) 0.84, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.57-1.24, p=0.38]. Comparable results were obtained after propensity-score matching. Subgroup analysis of propensity-score matched population demonstrated that patients with age under 65 years benefited from successful PCI (HR 0.25, 95% CI 0.08-0.75, p for interaction=0.005).

Conclusions: In patients considered for CTO intervention, medical treatment appears to be associated with a similar mortality compared to successful PCI. Successful CTO PCI might be associated with survival benefit in younger patients compared to medical treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jjcc.2018.08.006DOI Listing
February 2019

Effect of visit-to-visit LDL-, HDL-, and non-HDL-cholesterol variability on mortality and cardiovascular outcomes after percutaneous coronary intervention.

Atherosclerosis 2018 12 17;279:1-9. Epub 2018 Oct 17.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul St. Mary's Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, South Korea. Electronic address:

Background And Aims: Visit-to-visit variability in biological measures has been suggested as an independent predictor of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Although low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) are important risk factors of CVD, there are few studies investigating the effect of variability in LDL-C and HDL-C on cardiovascular outcomes. We investigated the association between visit-to-visit variability in LDL-C, HDL-C, and non-HDL-C and major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events (MACCE) in patients who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).

Methods: Data from 1792 subjects who underwent PCI from January 2004 to December 2009 were analyzed. Visit-to-visit variability was calculated using various indices: standard deviation (SD), coefficient of variation, and corrected variability independent of mean (cVIM). MACCE comprised all-cause death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, and stroke.

Results: During a median follow-up period of 65 months, 114 subjects (6.4%) experienced MACCE: 68 (3.8%) all-cause death; 43 (2.4%) stroke, and 15 (0.8%) non-fatal myocardial infarction. Visit-to-visit variability in LDL-C, HDL-C, and non-HDL-C was significantly higher in the MACCE group compared to the non-MACCE group. In multiple regression analysis, all LDL-C, HDL-C, and non-HDL-C variability parameters were independent predictors for MACCE after adjusting for potential confounding factors. Each 1-SD increase of cVIM in LDL-C, HDL-C, and non-HDL-C increased the risk of MACCE by 34% (HR 1.34 [95% CI, 1.18-1.52]), 50% (HR 1.50 [95% CI 1.32-1.71]), and 37% (HR 1.37 [95% CI, 1.20-1.57]), respectively. These relationships were observed in various subgroups according to age, sex, and diabetes status.

Conclusions: Visit-to-visit variability in LDL-C, HDL-C, and non-HDL-C is associated with MACCE in subjects with previous PCI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2018.10.012DOI Listing
December 2018

Incremental age-related one-year MACCE after acute myocardial infarction in the drug-eluting stent era (from KAMIR-NIH registry).

J Geriatr Cardiol 2018 Sep;15(9):574-584

Statistical Manager, Institute of Toxicology, Daejeon, South Korea.

Objectives: To evaluate the age-related one-year major adverse cardiocerebrovascular events (MACCE) after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in acute myocardial infarction (AMI). We analyzed the association between age and one-year MACCE after AMI.

Methods: A total of 13,104 AMI patients from Korea Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry-National Institue of Health (KAMIR-NIH) between November 2011 and December 2015 were classified into four groups according to age (Group I, < 60 years, = 4199; Group II, 60-70 years, = 2577; Group III; 70-80 years, = 2774; Group IV, ≥ 80 years, = 1018). Patients were analyzed for one-year composite of MACCE (cardiac death, myocardial infarction, target vessel revascularization, cerebrovascular events) after AMI.

Results: The one-year MACCE in AMI were 3.5% (Group I), 6.3% (Group II), 9.6% (Group III) and 17.6% (Group IV). After adjustment for confounding parameters, the analysis results showed that patients with AMI had incremental risk of one-year MACCE [Group II, adjusted hazard ratios (aHR) = 1.224, 95% CI: 0.965-1.525, = 0.096; Group III, aHR = 1.316, 95% CI: 1.037-1.671, = 0.024; Group IV, aHR = 1.975, 95% CI: 1.500-62.601, < 0.001) compared to Group I. Especially, cardiac death in the composite of primary end point played a major role in this effect (Group II, aHR = 1.335, 95% CI: 0.941-1.895, = 0.106; Group III, aHR = 1.575, 95% CI: 1.122-2.210, = 0.009; Group IV, aHR = 2.803, 95% CI: 1.937-4.054, < 0.001).

Conclusions: Despite advanced techniques and medications for PCI in AMI, age still exerts a powerful influence in clinical outcomes. Careful approaches, even in the modern era of developed cardiology are needed for aged-population in AMI intervention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.11909/j.issn.1671-5411.2018.09.005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6188977PMC
September 2018

Thyroid stimulating hormone elevation as a predictor of long-term mortality in patients with acute myocardial infarction.

Clin Cardiol 2018 Oct 16;41(10):1367-1373. Epub 2018 Oct 16.

Department of Internal Medicine, Cardiovascular Center and Cardiology Division, Seoul St. Mary's Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, South Korea.

Background: Hypothyroidism has been known to be associated with hyperlipidemia, endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis. Elevation of thyroid-stimulation hormone (TSH) is a gold standard to detect these conditions. However, no large studies have investigated the association between TSH elevation and long-term clinical outcomes in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI).

Hypothesis: Hypothyroidism is associated with higher mortality in patients with AMI.

Methods: A total of 4748 AMI patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with drug-eluting stents were consecutively enrolled. We analyzed 1977 patients whose thyroid function data available after the exclusion of hyperthyroidism and possible central hypothyroidism. Patients were divided into two groups; euthyroid group (n = 1846) with normal TSH and normal free thyroxine (FT4); hypothyroidism group (n = 131) with elevated TSH and normal or low FT4. The two groups were subsequently compared with their all-cause and cardiac mortalities.

Results: Median follow-up duration was 3.5 years. Hypothyroidism group were older, included in more females, and had higher incidences of atrial fibrillation, stroke, and renal dysfunction. Elevated TSH was associated with significantly higher all-cause mortality (26.0% vs 11.7%, P < 0.0001) and cardiac mortality (9.2% vs 4.6%, P = 0.014). The multivariate Cox proportional hazards model identified that TSH elevation was a significant predictor of all-cause mortality (adjusted hazard ratio 1.560, 95% confidence interval 1.017 to 2.392, P = 0.041).

Conclusions: Our data suggest that AMI patients with TSH elevation had worse clinical outcome. Moreover, TSH elevation was a predictor of all-cause mortality in patients with AMI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/clc.23062DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6489767PMC
October 2018

A Phase III, Multicenter, Randomized, Double-blind, Active Comparator Clinical Trial to Compare the Efficacy and Safety of Combination Therapy With Ezetimibe and Rosuvastatin Versus Rosuvastatin Monotherapy in Patients With Hypercholesterolemia: I-ROSETTE (Ildong Rosuvastatin & Ezetimibe for Hypercholesterolemia) Randomized Controlled Trial.

Clin Ther 2018 02;40(2):226-241.e4

Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Purpose: Combination therapy with ezetimibe and statins is recommended in cases of statin intolerance or insufficiency. The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety of combination therapy with ezetimibe and rosuvastatin versus those of rosuvastatin monotherapy in patients with hypercholesterolemia.

Methods: I-ROSETTE (Ildong ROSuvastatin & ezETimibe for hypercholesTElolemia) was an 8-week, double-blind, multicenter, Phase III randomized controlled trial conducted at 20 hospitals in the Republic of Korea. Patients with hypercholesterolemia who required medical treatment according to National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III guidelines were eligible for participation in the study. Patients were randomly assigned to receive ezetimibe 10 mg/rosuvastatin 20 mg, ezetimibe 10 mg/rosuvastatin 10 mg, ezetimibe 10 mg/rosuvastatin 5 mg, rosuvastatin 20 mg, rosuvastatin 10 mg, or rosuvastatin 5 mg in a 1:1:1:1:1:1 ratio. The primary end point was the difference in the mean percent change from baseline in LDL-C level after 8 weeks of treatment between the ezetimibe/rosuvastatin and rosuvastatin treatment groups. All patients were assessed for adverse events (AEs), clinical laboratory data, and vital signs.

Findings: Of 396 patients, 389 with efficacy data were analyzed. Baseline characteristics among 6 groups were similar. After 8 weeks of double-blind treatment, the percent changes in adjusted mean LDL-C levels at week 8 compared with baseline values were -57.0% (2.1%) and -44.4% (2.1%) in the total ezetimibe/rosuvastatin and total rosuvastatin groups, respectively (P < 0.001). The LDL-C-lowering efficacy of each of the ezetimibe/rosuvastatin combinations was superior to that of each of the respective doses of rosuvastatin. The mean percent change in LDL-C level in all ezetimibe/rosuvastatin combination groups was >50%. The number of patients who achieved target LDL-C levels at week 8 was significantly greater in the ezetimibe/rosuvastatin group (180 [92.3%] of 195 patients) than in the rosuvastatin monotherapy group (155 [79.9%] of 194 patients) (P < 0.001). There were no significant differences in the incidence of overall AEs, adverse drug reactions, and serious AEs; laboratory findings, including liver function test results and creatinine kinase levels, were comparable between groups.

Implications: Fixed-dose combinations of ezetimibe/rosuvastatin significantly improved lipid profiles in patients with hypercholesterolemia compared with rosuvastatin monotherapy. All groups treated with rosuvastatin and ezetimibe reported a decrease in mean LDL-C level >50%. The safety and tolerability of ezetimibe/rosuvastatin therapy were comparable with those of rosuvastatin monotherapy. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02749994.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clinthera.2017.12.018DOI Listing
February 2018

Clinical implications of combined glucose intolerance in treatment-naïve hypertensive patients.

Clin Exp Hypertens 2018 2;40(8):762-771. Epub 2018 Feb 2.

d Division of Cardiology, Seoul St. Paul's hospital, College of Medicine , The Catholic University of Korea.

Background: This study is the first study to evaluate clinical significance of combined glucose intolerance (CGI) in treatment-naïve hypertensive patients.

Methods: We compared the results of demographic, anthropometric, clinical, laboratory examinations, echocardiography, arterial stiffness, central blood pressure (BP) and ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM) between the groups according to fasting blood sugar (FBS), postprandial 2 hour blood glucose (PP2) and gender in treatment-naïve hypertensive patients. A total of 376 concecutively-eligible patients were categorized as follows: (1) normal glucose tolerance (NGT); FBS<100 mg/dL and PP2 < 140 (2) isolated glucose intolerance (IGI); 100≤FBS<126 or 140≤PP2 < 200, but not both 100≤FBS<126 and 140≤PP2 < 200 (3) CGI; both 100≤FBS<126 and 140≤PP2 < 200.

Results: Males were divided into NGT (n = 58, 33.1%), IGI (n = 88, 50.3%), CGI (n = 29, 16.6%) and females were divided into NGT (n = 59, 43.1%), IGI (n = 48, 35%), CGI (n = 30, 21.9%). In males multivariate analyses revealed that mitral average E/Ea (IGI vs CGI, p = 0.022), brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity baPWV(Rt.) (IGI vs CGI, p = 0.026), baPWV(Lt.) (IGI vs CGI, p = 0.018), office systolic BP (SBP) (NGT vs. CGI, p = 0.005; IGI vs. CGI, p = 0.001), office diastolic BP (DBP) (NGT vs. CGI, p = 0.034; IGI vs. CGI, p = 0.019), night-time SBP (NGT vs. CGI, p = 0.049; IGI vs. CGI, p = 0.018) were significantly higher in the CGI group than in the NGT or IGI group. However, there were no significant differences between the female groups.

Conclusions: Treatment-naïve hypertensive males with CGI revealed subclinical diastolic dysfunction, arterial stiffness, and BPs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10641963.2018.1431260DOI Listing
December 2018

Visit-to-visit variability of systolic blood pressure predicts all-cause mortality in patients received percutaneous coronary intervention with drug-eluting stents.

Heart Vessels 2018 May 18;33(5):489-497. Epub 2017 Nov 18.

Cardiovascular Center and Cardiology Division, Seoul St. Mary's Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea, 222 Banpo-daero, Seocho-gu, Seoul, 06591, Republic of Korea.

Blood pressure (BP) and its variability are associated with atherosclerotic disease and cardiovascular events. The prognostic implications of outpatient clinic visit-to-visit blood pressure variability (BPV) are unknown in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with drug-eluting stents (DES). A total of 1,463 patients undergoing PCI with DES were consecutively enrolled from January 2009 to December 2013. We analyzed the 1,234 patients, who measured clinic BP more than three times during the first year after PCI. The BPV is determined by standard deviation of systolic and diastolic BP, and coefficient of variation. Median follow-up duration was 905 days (interquartile range 529-1,310 days). All patients were divided into two groups according to the coefficient of variation of systolic BP (CVSBP); high CVSBP group (> 8.78, n = 617) and low CVSBP group (≤ 8.78, n = 617). High CVSBP group had significantly higher all-cause mortality (7.9% versus 3.1%, p < 0.001) and composite of all-cause mortality, myocardial infarction, and stroke (13.1% versus 6.2%, p < 0.001). In multivariate logistic regression analysis for prediction of all-cause mortality, and composite of all-cause mortality, myocardial infarction, and stroke after PCI with DES, hazard ratios of high CVSBP group were 2.441 (95% of confidence interval 1.042-5.718, p = 0.040), and 1.980 (95% of confidence interval 1.125-3.485, p = 0.018). The higher visit-to-visit BPV is associated higher mortality in patients undergoing PCI with DES. The clinic measured visit-to-visit BPV may serve as a predictor of all-cause mortality after PCI with DES.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00380-017-1085-1DOI Listing
May 2018

Relationship between airflow obstruction and coronary atherosclerosis in asymptomatic individuals: evaluation by coronary CT angiography.

Int J Cardiovasc Imaging 2018 Apr 14;34(4):641-648. Epub 2017 Nov 14.

Cardiovascular Center and Cardiology Division, St. Paul's Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea, 180, Wangsan-ro, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul, 02559, Republic of Korea.

Airflow obstruction is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. However, the causal mechanisms linking airflow obstruction with higher incidence of cardiovascular events remain elusive. We evaluated the relationship between airflow obstruction, a key feature of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and prevalence, extent, and severity of coronary atherosclerosis in a large cohort of asymptomatic subjects. Participants were recruited from those undergoing spirometry and coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) as part of a general health evaluation from March 2009 to February 2011. Subjects were required to be over 40 years of age with no known CAD. Airflow obstruction was defined as forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1)/forced vital capacity (FVC) < 70%. Obstructive CAD, as measured by CCTA, was defined as maximum intra-luminal stenosis ≥ 50%. Participants with airflow obstruction or normal lung function were compared in terms of obstructive CAD prevalence, the extent and severity of coronary atherosclerosis; including coronary artery calcium score (CACS), atheroma burden score (ABS), atheroma burden obstructive score (ABOS), segment involvement score (SIS), and segment stenosis score (SSS). A total of 1888 subjects were eligible for study inclusion. Compared with participants with normal lung function, those exhibiting airflow obstruction were more likely to have obstructive CAD (p = 0.002). Airflow obstruction was associated with higher CACS (p = 0.043), ABS (p = 0.002), ABOS (p = 0.017), SIS (p = 0.003), and SSS (p = 0.002). Multivariable analyses adjusted for conventional cardiovascular risk factors revealed that airflow obstruction was independently associated with presence of CAD (odds ratio 1.673, confidence intervals [CI] 1.002-2.789, p = 0.048). In this asymptomatic population, the presence of airflow obstruction was associated with a greater prevalence, extent, and severity of coronary atherosclerosis and was seen to be an independent predictor of the presence of CAD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10554-017-1259-zDOI Listing
April 2018

Clinical and Angiographic Outcomes of the First Korean-made Sirolimus-Eluting Coronary Stent with Abluminal Bioresorbable Polymer.

Korean Circ J 2017 Nov 18;47(6):898-906. Epub 2017 Sep 18.

Department of Cardiology, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon, Korea.

Background And Objectives: This trial evaluated the safety and efficacy of the Genoss drug-eluting coronary stent.

Methods: This study was a prospective, multicenter, randomized trial with a 1:1 ratio of Genoss drug-eluting stent (DES)™ and Promus Element™. Inclusion criteria were the presence of stable angina, unstable angina, or silent ischemia. Angiographic inclusion criteria were de novo coronary stenotic lesion with diameter stenosis >50%, reference vessel diameter of 2.5-4.0 mm, and lesion length ≤40 mm. The primary endpoint was in-stent late lumen loss at 9-month quantitative coronary angiography follow-up. Secondary endpoints were in-segment late lumen loss, binary restenosis rate, death, myocardial infarction (MI), target lesion revascularization (TLR), target vessel revascularization (TVR), and stent thrombosis during 9 months of follow-up.

Results: We enrolled 38 patients for the Genoss DES™ group and 39 patients for the Promus Element™ group. In-stent late lumen loss at 9 months was not significantly different between the 2 groups (0.11±0.25 vs. 0.16±0.43 mm, p=0.567). There was no MI or stent thrombosis in either group. The rates of death (2.6% vs. 0%, p=0.494), TLR (2.6% vs. 2.6%, p=1.000), and TVR (7.9% vs. 2.6%, p=0.358) at 9 months were not significantly different.

Conclusion: This first-in-patient study of the Genoss DES™ stent showed excellent angiographic outcomes for in-stent late lumen loss and major adverse cardiac events over a 9-month follow-up.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4070/kcj.2017.0094DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5711682PMC
November 2017

Impact of Postprocedural TIMI Flow on Long-Term Clinical Outcomes in Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction.

Int Heart J 2017 Oct 30;58(5):674-685. Epub 2017 Sep 30.

Division of Cardiology, Seoul St. Paul's Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

This study aimed to evaluate the clinical prognostic implications of postprocedural Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) flow in acute myocardial infarction patients. A total of 2796 ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and 1720 non ST-elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) patients treated in 8 hospitals affiliated with the Catholic University of Korea and Chonnam National University Hospital were analyzed. The study populations were divided according to the final TIMI flow. The primary outcome were the major adverse cardiac events (MACE), defined as a composite of cardiac deaths (CD), nonfatal myocardial infarctions (MI), and target lesion revascularization (TLR). Over a median follow-up of 3.3 years (minimum 2 to maximum 5 years), MACE and CD occurred more frequently in STEMI patients with TIMI ≤ 2 group than those with TIMI 3 (MACE: adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 1.962; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.513 to 2.546, P < 0.001, CD: aHR, 3.154, CI 2.308 to 4.309, P < 0.001). However, there was no significant difference between the two subgroups in NSTEMI (aHR, 0.932; 95% CI 0.586 to 1.484, P = 0.087). In STEMI patients, good postprocedural TIMI flow after PCI was associated with favorable clinical outcomes. And the effect of poor TIMI flow in STEMI was on death, not the components of MACE. Meanwhile, postprocedural TIMI flow had no effect on long-term outcomes in NSTEMI patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1536/ihj.16-448DOI Listing
October 2017

The stress hyperglycemia ratio, an index of relative hyperglycemia, as a predictor of clinical outcomes after percutaneous coronary intervention.

Int J Cardiol 2017 Aug 22;241:57-63. Epub 2017 Feb 22.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul St. Mary's Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Background: We aimed to investigate the outcome-predicting value of a novel index of stress hyperglycemia in coronary artery disease (CAD) patients who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).

Methods: This was a retrospective observational study. Four-thousand-three-hundred-sixty-two subjects from the COACT registry were used to estimate the risk of major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events (MACCE), which are defined as composites of all-cause death, non-fatal myocardial infarction (MI) and non-fatal stroke. The stress hyperglycemia ratio (SHR) was calculated by dividing the random serum glucose at admission with the estimated average glucose derived from HbA1c.

Results: Over a median follow-up of 2.5years, 344 (7.9%), 43 (1.0%), and 89 (2.0%) cases of death, non-fatal MI, and non-fatal stroke occurred, respectively. Compared with the subjects in the lower three quartiles of SHR, the HR (95% CI) for the highest SHR quartile (Q4) group for MACCE was 1.31 (1.05, 1.64) in the total population and 1.45 (1.02, 2.06) in the non-diabetic population after adjusting for potential covariables. The risk of MACCE in the SHR Q4 group was significantly higher in patients presenting with ST-elevation MI (STEMI), which was not the case for patients presenting with other CAD types. The prognostic impact of SHR was more prominent for the 30-day MACCE. Similar results were observed in another cohort consisting of patients who only presented with acute MI.

Conclusions: SHR is a useful predictive marker of MACCE after PCI, especially in non-diabetic patients with STEMI, which could be utilized to identify high-risk patients for adverse outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcard.2017.02.065DOI Listing
August 2017

Sirolimus-eluting stent is superior to paclitaxel-eluting stent for coronary intervention in patients with renal insufficiency: Long-term clinical outcomes.

Cardiol J 2016 26;23(6):637-646. Epub 2016 Sep 26.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Gangneung Asan Hospital, Gangneung, Republic of Korea.

Background: Renal insufficiency (RI) is an independent risk factor for the adverse cardiovascular events. Long-term clinical outcome of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in patients with RI is unknown especially in the era of first generation drug-eluting stents (DES). This study aims at comparing clinical outcomes between sirolimus-eluting stents (SES) and paclitaxel-eluting stents (PES) based on large scaled registry.

Methods: Patients who underwent PCI with DES from January 2004 to December 2009 in the Catholic University of Korea-PCI (COACT) registry were prospectively enrolled. A group of 1,033 patients with RI, defined as estimated glomerular filtration rate under 60 mL/min, were analyzed. Major adverse cardiac events (MACE), including all-cause death, non-fatal myocardial infarction (MI), target lesion revascularization (TLR), and target vessel revascularization (TVR) according to the type of stents were compared.

Results: Median follow-up period was 810 days (interquartile range: from 361 to 1,354 days). A group of 612 (59.2%) patients were treated with SES and 421 (40.8%) patients were treated with PES. The PES vs. SES group had significantly higher rate of MACE (35.9% vs. 28.3%, p = 0.01). In multivariate Cox hazard regression analysis, PES vs. SES group had significantly higher rate of MACE (adjusted hazard ratio [AHR] 1.29, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02-1.64, p = 0.033), particularly pronounced by all-cause death (AHR 1.34, 95% CI 1.008-1.770; p = 0.044). In further analysis with propensity score matching, overall findings were consistent.

Conclusions: In patients with RI, PCI using PES provides poorer clinical outcomes than SES in terms of MACE and all-cause death.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5603/CJ.a2016.0065DOI Listing
March 2017

Impact of Cardiorenal Anemia Syndrome on Short- and Long-Term Clinical Outcomes in Patients Hospitalized with Heart Failure.

Cardiorenal Med 2016 Aug 28;6(4):269-78. Epub 2016 Apr 28.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul St. Mary's Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Background: Dysfunctional interplay between the heart and kidneys may lead to the development of anemia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of cardiorenal anemia syndrome (CRAS) on short- and long-term outcomes among patients hospitalized with heart failure (HF).

Methods: We enrolled 303 patients hospitalized with HF. We divided the patients into two groups: a CRAS group (n = 64) and a non-CRAS group (n = 239). We defined CRAS as HF accompanied by (1) an estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 ml/min/1.73 m(2) calculated by the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease at admission and (2) a hemoglobin level <12 g/dl for females and <13 g/dl for males at admission. The primary outcome was a composite of cardiac death, non-fatal myocardial infarction and rehospitalization for HF.

Results: During a median follow-up period of 25.6 months (range 0.1-35.3 months), the patients with CRAS had a significantly increased risk for the primary outcome (27.5 vs. 10.7%, p < 0.001) compared with the patients in the non-CRAS group. Using Cox proportional hazard analyses, the hazard ratio (HR) for the presence of CRAS was found to be 1.874 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.011-3.475, p = 0.046); HRs were also computed for the presence of diabetes mellitus (HR = 2.241, 95% CI 1.221-4.112, p = 0.009), New York Heart Association class III or IV HF (HR = 2.948, 95% CI 1.206-7.205, p = 0.018) and the use of intravenous loop diuretics (HR = 2.286, 95% CI 0.926-5.641, p = 0.073).

Conclusions: Renal dysfunction and anemia are a fatal combination and are associated with poor prognosis in patients with HF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000443339DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5020385PMC
August 2016

CYP2C19 loss-of-function alleles are not associated with clinical outcome of clopidogrel therapy in patients treated with newer-generation drug-eluting stents.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2016 Jun;95(26):e4049

aDivision of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, College of Medicine, Catholic University of Korea, Seoul bIncheon St. Mary's Hospital cSeoul St. Mary's Hospital, Incheon dDaejeon St. Mary's Hospital, Daejeon eYeouido St. Mary's Hospital, Seoul fDepartment of Clinical Pharmacology, Inje University Busan Paik Hospital, Busan, Republic of Korea.

CYP2C19 loss-of-function (LOF) alleles adversely affect clinical outcome of clopidogrel therapy. Recent introduction of a newer-generation drug-eluting stent (DES) has significantly reduced the occurrence of stent thrombosis.The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of CYP2C19 LOF alleles on clinical outcome in patients treated with the newer-generation DES.The effects of CYP2C19 genotypes were evaluated on clinical outcome of clopidogrel therapy in 2062 patients treated with percutaneous coronary intervention using either first-generation DES (sirolimus- and paclitaxel-eluting stent, n = 1349) or newer-generation DES (everolimus- and zotarolimus-eluting stent, n = 713). The primary clinical outcome was major cardiac and cerebrovascular event (MACCE) including cardiac death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, stroke, and stent thrombosis during 1 year of follow-up.CYP2C19 LOF alleles were significantly associated with a higher risk of MACCE in patients treated with first-generation DES (hazard ratio [HR] 2.599, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.047-6.453; P = 0.034). In contrast, CYP2C19 LOF alleles were not associated with primary outcome in newer-generation DES (HR 0.716, 95% CI 0.316-1.622; P = 0.522). In the further multivariate analysis, CYP2C19 LOF alleles were not associated with MACCE in patients receiving newer-generation DES (adjusted HR 0.540, 95% CI 0.226-1.291; P = 0.166), whereas they were demonstrated to be an independent risk factor for MACCE in those implanted with first-generation DES (adjusted HR 3.501, 95% CI 1.194-10.262; P = 0.022).In contradiction to their clinical impact in first-generation DES era, CYP2C19 LOF alleles may not affect clinical outcome of clopidogrel therapy in patients treated with newer-generation DES.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000004049DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4937952PMC
June 2016

Serum Osteoprotegerin Is Associated With Calcified Carotid Plaque: A Strobe-Compliant Observational Study.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2016 Apr;95(15):e3381

From the Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Cardiology, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Korea.

Osteoprotegerin (OPG) is a kind of tumor necrosis factor, which is related to bone metabolism and vascular calcification. The increase of Osteoprotegerin concentration in serum is related to cardiovascular diseases in humans. The purpose of this study was to figure out the relevance between osteoprotegerin in serum and carotid calcification. Serum OPG concentrations were compared in 145 patients who underwent carotid sonography (average age: 68 ± 9 years old, male: female = 81:64). A calcified plaque (CP) (37 people [27%]), a noncalcified plaque (NCP) (54 people [37%]), and a nonplaque (NP) (54 people [37%]) were classified for this study. No significant differences among 3 groups were demonstrated in the distribution of age, diabetes, high blood pressure, and hyperlipidemia. Serum osteoprotegerin concentrations were significantly increased in CP group rather than NCP group or NP group; (median [interquartile range], 4016 [1410] vs 3210 [1802] pg/mL, P < 0.05 and 4016 [1410] vs 3204 [1754] pg/mL, P < 0.05). Serum osteoprotegerin concentrations did not indicate a significant difference between NCP Group or NP Group. This study had proved that patient group accompanied with carotid calcification in carotid artery disease had an increased serum OPG concentration, so it could consider that OPG plays an important function on calcification related to arteriosclerosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000003381DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4839849PMC
April 2016

Impact of Percutaneous Coronary Intervention for Chronic Total Occlusion in Non-Infarct-Related Arteries in Patients With Acute Myocardial Infarction (from the COREA-AMI Registry).

Am J Cardiol 2016 Apr 14;117(7):1039-46. Epub 2016 Jan 14.

Cardiology Division, Cardiovascular Center, Seoul St. Mary's Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Korea. Electronic address:

Chronic total occlusion (CTO) in a non-infarct-related artery (IRA) is an independent predictor of clinical outcomes in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). This study evaluated the impact of successful percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for CTO of a non-IRA on the long-term clinical outcomes in patients with AMI. A total of 4,748 patients with AMI were consecutively enrolled in the Convergent Registry of Catholic and Chonnam University for AMI registry from January 2004 to December 2009. We enrolled 324 patients with CTO in a non-IRA. To adjust for baseline differences, propensity matching (96 matched pairs) was used to compare successful PCI and occluded CTO for the treatment of CTO in non-IRA. The primary clinical end points were all-cause mortality and a composite of the major adverse cardiac events, including cardiac death, MI, stroke, and any revascularization during the 5-year follow-up. Patients who received successful PCI for CTO of non-IRA had lower rates of all-cause mortality (16.7% vs 32.3%, hazard ratio 0.459, 95% CI 0.251 to 0.841, p = 0.012) and major adverse cardiac events (21.9% vs 55.2%, hazard ratio 0.311, 95% CI 0.187 to 0.516, p <0.001) compared with occluded CTO group. Subgroup analyses revealed that successful PCI resulted in a better mortality rate in patients with normal renal function compared to patients with chronic kidney disease (p = 0.010). In conclusion, successful PCI for CTO of non-IRA is associated with improved long-term clinical outcomes in patients with AMI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjcard.2015.12.049DOI Listing
April 2016

Carotid intima-media thickness is not related with clinical outcomes in young hypertensives.

Clin Hypertens 2015 22;21:15. Epub 2015 Jul 22.

Department of Internal Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Yuksamro 10, Seoul, 150-713 South Korea.

Introduction: Careful observations of long- and short-term outcomes associated with carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) are relatively limited.

Methods: A total of 2,972 patients (male:female = 1,960:1,012; mean age = 62 ± 12 years) who underwent carotid IMT measurements from September 2003 to March 2009 were divided into four groups. Group I (n = 271; mean age, 42 ± 7.8 years) included normotensive younger subjects (males, <45 years and females <55 years), group II (n = 992; mean age, 63 ± 9 years) included normotensive elderly subjects, group III (n = 177; mean age, 46 ± 7.8 years) was hypertensive younger subjects, and group IV (n = 1,532; mean age, 63 ± 10.2 years) was hypertensive elderly subjects. We analyzed the clinical and cardiovascular events in the younger hypertensive subjects based on IMT measurements.

Results: The baseline characteristics of the subjects showed that carotid IMT increased in the elderly subjects and in patients with hypertension. Poor clinical outcomes, such as all-cause death and major adverse cardiac events, were related with age, not with hypertension. Among the conventional risk factors, age and the highest quartile level of right maximum carotid IMT were related with major adverse events (young: odds ratio [OR], 0.47; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.25 to 0.9 vs. OR, 1.73; 95% CI, 1.20 to 2.49). The patients in the highest quartile of carotid IMT had worse survival outcomes than those with the lowest IMT (p = 0.03).

Discussion: Subjects with hypertension had increased carotid IMT levels. Controlling hypertension and carefully evaluating carotid IMT are important to prevent cardiovascular events even in younger subjects with hypertension.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40885-015-0021-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4750788PMC
February 2016
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