Publications by authors named "Won Kyung Lee"

75 Publications

mHealth Interventions for Lifestyle and Risk Factor Modification in Coronary Heart Disease: Randomized Controlled Trial.

JMIR Mhealth Uhealth 2021 Sep 24;9(9):e29928. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

Department of Prevention and Management, School of Medicine, Inha University Hospital, Inha University, Incheon, Republic of Korea.

Background: Self-management of lifestyle and cardiovascular disease risk factors is challenging in older patients with coronary heart disease (CHD). SMS text messaging could be a potential support tool for self-management and the most affordable and accessible method through a mobile phone. High-quality evidence had been lacking, and previous studies evaluated the effects of SMS text messaging on the subjective measures of short-term outcomes. Recently, a large-sized randomized controlled trial in Australia reported promising findings on the objective measures upon 6-month follow-up. However, an examination of the effectiveness of such interventions in an Asian population with unique demographic characteristics would be worthwhile.

Objective: This study examined the effectiveness of a 1-way SMS text messaging program to modify the lifestyle and cardiovascular disease risk factors of patients who underwent the first percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).

Methods: A parallel, single-blinded, 1:1 random allocation clinical trial was conducted with 879 patients treated through PCI. They were recruited during hospital admission from April 2017 to May 2020 at 2 university hospitals in the Republic of Korea. In addition to standard care, the intervention group received access to a supporting website and 4 SMS text messages per week for 6 months regarding a healthy diet, physical activity, smoking cessation, and cardiovascular health. Random allocation upon study enrollment and SMS text messaging after hospital discharge were performed automatically using a computer program. The coprimary outcomes were low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), systolic blood pressure (SBP), and BMI. The secondary outcomes were change in lifestyle and adherence to the recommended health behaviors.

Results: Of the eligible population, 440 and 439 patients who underwent PCI were assigned to the intervention and control groups, respectively. The 1-way SMS text messaging program significantly enhanced physical activity (P=.02), healthy diet (P<.01), and medication adherence (P<.04) among patients with CHD. Hence, more people were likely to control their cardiovascular disease risk factors per the recommendations. The intervention group was more likely to control all 5 risk factors by 62% (relative risk 1.62, 95% CI 1.05-2.50) per the recommendations. On the other hand, physiological measures of the primary outcomes, including LDL-C levels, SBP, and BMI, were not significant. Most participants found the SMS text messaging program useful and helpful in motivating lifestyle changes.

Conclusions: Lifestyle-focused SMS text messages were effective in the self-management of a healthy diet, exercise, and medication adherence, but their influence on the physiological measures was not significant. One-way SMS text messages can be used as an affordable adjuvant method for lifestyle modification to help prevent the recurrence of cardiovascular disease.

Trial Registration: Clinical Research Information Service (CRiS) KCT0005087; https://cris.nih.go.kr/cris/search/detailSearch.do/19282.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2196/29928DOI Listing
September 2021

Did inter-hospital transfer reduce mortality in patients with acute myocardial infarction in the real world? A nationwide patient cohort study.

PLoS One 2021 5;16(8):e0255839. Epub 2021 Aug 5.

Department of Prevention and Management, Inha University Hospital, School of Medicine, Inha University, Incheon, Korea.

Introduction: Inter-hospital transfer (IHT) and primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) are preferred over onsite thrombolysis when provided expeditiously. On the other hand, its benefit has not been evaluated in a real-world situation. This study examined the effects of IHT on the short- and long-term mortality in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and compared the reperfusion treatments and resources between the referring and receiving hospitals.

Methods: Patients newly diagnosed with AMI and admitted to hospital were selected from the national health insurance database from 2004 to 2018. The 30-day and one-year mortality in the transferred and non-transferred patients were estimated and compared using stabilized inverse probability of treatment weighting to account for confounding bias.

Results: Of the 258,291 participants, 10,158 were transferred to one or more hospitals. IHT was more likely to occur to older or more comorbid people, patients in rural areas, and those whose insurance was medical aid. The 30-day and one-year mortality of the non-IHT group was 9.7% and 15.8%, respectively, whereas the figure was 11.4% and 20.5% in the IHT group. After balancing the baseline characteristics, the transferred patients were 1.12 (95% CI: 1.06-1.20) and 1.25 (95% CI: 1.20-1.31) times more likely to die during the subsequent 30 days and one year, respectively, than those treated solely at the presenting hospital. In ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), the hazard ratios of the 30-day and 1-year mortality were 1.14 (95% CI: 0.97-1.35) and 1.31 (95% CI: 1.15-1.49) in the transferred patients after balancing cardiogenic shock and cardiac arrest. On-site thrombolysis was rarely performed in the referring hospitals.

Conclusion: Patients transferred for the treatment of AMI experienced higher short- and long-term mortality. Therefore, onsite thrombolysis and the estimated time delay to PCI should be considered in regional hospitals to reduce mortality with the organization of STEMI treatment networks.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0255839PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8341481PMC
August 2021

Machine learning enhances the performance of short and long-term mortality prediction model in non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction.

Sci Rep 2021 06 18;11(1):12886. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Department of Prevention and Management, School of Medicine, Inha University Hospital, Inha University, 27 Inhang-Ro, Jung-Gu, Incheon, Republic of Korea.

Machine learning (ML) has been suggested to improve the performance of prediction models. Nevertheless, research on predicting the risk in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) has been limited and showed inconsistency in the performance of ML models versus traditional models (TMs). This study developed ML-based models (logistic regression with regularization, random forest, support vector machine, and extreme gradient boosting) and compared their performance in predicting the short- and long-term mortality of patients with AMI with those of TMs with comparable predictors. The endpoints were the in-hospital mortality of 14,183 participants and the three- and 12-month mortality in patients who survived at discharge. The performance of the ML models in predicting the mortality of patients with an ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) was comparable to the TMs. In contrast, the areas under the curves (AUC) of the ML models for non-STEMI (NSTEMI) in predicting the in-hospital, 3-month, and 12-month mortality were 0.889, 0.849, and 0.860, respectively, which were superior to the TMs, which had corresponding AUCs of 0.873, 0.795, and 0.808. Overall, the performance of the predictive model could be improved, particularly for long-term mortality in NSTEMI, from the ML algorithm rather than using more clinical predictors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-92362-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8213755PMC
June 2021

Diversity and characterization of bacterial communities of five co-occurring species at a hydrothermal vent on the Tonga Arc.

Ecol Evol 2021 May 10;11(9):4481-4493. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Genome Editing Research Center Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology Daejeon Korea.

Host-symbiont relationships in hydrothermal vent ecosystems, supported by chemoautotrophic bacteria as primary producers, have been extensively studied. However, the process by which densely populated co-occurring invertebrate hosts form symbiotic relationships with bacterial symbionts remains unclear. Here, we analyzed gill-associated symbiotic bacteria (gill symbionts) of five co-occurring hosts, three mollusks ("" , . , and ) and two crustaceans ( and ), collected together at a single vent site in the Tonga Arc. We observed both different compositions of gill symbionts and the presence of unshared operational taxonomic units (OTUs). In addition, the total number of OTUs was greater for crustacean hosts than for mollusks. The phylogenetic relationship trees of gill symbionts suggest that γ-proteobacterial gill symbionts have coevolved with their hosts toward reinforcement of host specificity, while campylobacterial species found across various hosts and habitats are opportunistic associates. Our results confirm that gill symbiont communities differ among co-occurring vent invertebrates and indicate that hosts are closely related with their gill symbiont communities. Considering the given resources available at a single site, differentiation of gill symbionts seems to be a useful strategy for obtaining nutrition and energy while avoiding competition among both hosts and gill symbionts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ece3.7343DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8093707PMC
May 2021

The mitochondrial genome of hydrothermal vent barnacle (Cirripedia: Thoracica) from the Indian Ocean.

Mitochondrial DNA B Resour 2021 Mar 15;6(3):710-712. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Genome Editing Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Daejeon, Korea.

Balanomorph species are hydrothermal vent endemic barnacles. In the genus , three species are known to date and they distribute at three different vent fields in Pacific and Indian Oceans, in the Southwest Pacific Ocean, in the East Pacific Ocean, and in the Indian Ocean. Therefore, species are considered to be a meaningful model taxon to elucidate the evolutionary history of vent organism in relation to geotectonic events. Here, we characterized the partial mitogenome of a newly described vent barnacle Chan et al., 2020 from the Solitaire vent field in the Indian Ocean. The length of mitogenome was 16,804 bp with 64.0% AT content. Its gene content and organization was identical to those of . There was one significant part in the mitogenome of , which was a long intergenic region over 2 kb found between tRNA and tRNA. The phylogenetic tree suggested the monophyly of and with high supporting values. In the future, additional mitogenome analysis of the last species, , could expand our understanding about the speciation and global distribution of species.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23802359.2020.1851153DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7971211PMC
March 2021

Inactivation of the β (1, 2)-xylosyltransferase and the α (1, 3)-fucosyltransferase gene in rice (Oryza sativa) by multiplex CRISPR/Cas9 strategy.

Plant Cell Rep 2021 Jun 6;40(6):1025-1035. Epub 2021 Feb 6.

Department of Life Science, Sogang University, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Key Message: CRISPR/Cas9-mediated OsXylT and OsFucT mutation caused the elimination of plant-specific β1,2-xylose and α1,3-fucose residues on glycoproteins in rice, which is the first report of OsXylT/OsFucT double KO mutation in rice. N-glycosylation pathway is the one of post-translational mechanism and is known as highly conserved in eukaryotes. However, the process for complex-N-glycan modification is different between mammals and plants. In plant-specific manner, β1,2-xylose and α1,3-fucose residues are transferred to N-glycan core structure on glycoproteins by β1,2-xylosyltransferase (β1,2-XylT) and α1,3-fucosyltransferase (α1,3-FucT), respectively. As an effort to use plants as a platform to produce biopharmaceuticals, the plant-specific N-glycan genes of rice (Oryza sativa), β1,2-xylT (OsXylT) and α1,3-FucT (OsFucT), were knocked out using multiplex CRISPR/Cas9 technology. The double knock-out lines were found to have frameshift mutations by INDELs. Both β1,2-xylose and α1,3-fucose residues in the lines were not detected in Western blot analysis. Consistently, there was no peak corresponding to the N-glycans in MALDI-TOF/MS analysis. Although α1,3-fucose and β1,2-xylose residues were not detected in the line, other plant-specific residues of β1,3-galactose and α1,4-fucose were detected. Thus, we suggest that each enzymes working on the process for complex N-glycan biosynthesis might independently act in rice, hence the double knock-out of both OsXylT and OsFucT might be not enough to humanize N-glycan structure in rice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00299-021-02667-8DOI Listing
June 2021

Inheritance of chloroplast and mitochondrial genomes in cucumber revealed by four reciprocal F hybrid combinations.

Sci Rep 2021 01 28;11(1):2506. Epub 2021 Jan 28.

Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Bioresources, Plant Genomics and Breeding Institute, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Seoul National University, 1 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul, 08826, Republic of Korea.

Both genomes in chloroplasts and mitochondria of plant cell are usually inherited from maternal parent, with rare exceptions. To characterize the inheritance patterns of the organelle genomes in cucumber (Cucumis sativus var. sativus), two inbred lines and their reciprocal F hybrids were analyzed using an next generation whole genome sequencing data. Their complete chloroplast genome sequences were de novo assembled, and a single SNP was identified between the parental lines. Two reciprocal F hybrids have the same chloroplast genomes with their maternal parents. Meanwhile, 292 polymorphic sites were identified between mitochondrial genomes of the two parental lines, which showed the same genotypes with their paternal parents in the two reciprocal F hybrids, without any recombination. The inheritance patterns of the chloroplast and mitochondria genomes were also confirmed in four additional cucumber accessions and their six reciprocal F hybrids using molecular markers derived from the identified polymorphic sites. Taken together, our results indicate that the cucumber chloroplast genome is maternally inherited, as is typically observed in other plant species, whereas the large cucumber mitochondrial genome is paternally inherited. The combination of DNA markers derived from the chloroplast and mitochondrial genomes will provide a convenient system for purity test of F hybrid seeds in cucumber breeding.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-81988-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7843999PMC
January 2021

Effectiveness of bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation in improving the survival and neurological recovery of patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: A nationwide patient cohort study.

PLoS One 2020 16;15(12):e0243757. Epub 2020 Dec 16.

Department of Prevention and Management, Inha University Hospital, School of Medicine, Inha University, Incheon, South Korea.

Introduction: Few studies have focused on enhancing causality and yielding unbiased estimates on the effectiveness of bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (BCPR) on the outcomes of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) in a real-world setting. Therefore, this study evaluated the effect of BCPR on the outcomes of OHCA and its differences according to the characteristics of OHCA.

Methods: This study enrolled all patients with OHCA of cardiac etiology treated by emergency medical services (EMS) in Korea from 2012 to 2015. The endpoints were survival and neurological recovery at discharge, and the main exposure was BCPR conducted by a layperson. The effect of BCPR was analyzed after adjusting for confounders, determined using a directed acyclic graph, by inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW) and model-based standardization (STR). Moreover, differences in subgroups and time trends were evaluated.

Results: Among 10,505 eligible patients after excluding those with missing data on BCPR, 7,721 patients received BCPR, accounting for 74.3% of EMS-treated OHCA patients. BCPR increased the odds of survival and good neurological recovery at discharge by 1.67- (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.44-1.93) and 1.93- (95% CI: 1.56-2.39) fold, respectively, in the IPTW analysis. These findings were comparable to those obtained with STR. The odds ratios were 2.39 (95% CI: 1.91-2.94) and 2.70 (95% CI: 1.94-3.41), respectively, in the sensitivity analysis of the missing BCPR information considering confounders and the outcome variable. However, the effect of qualified BCPR was not evenly distributed, and it did not increase with time. BCPR was likely to be more effective in male patients aged <65 years, those who experienced an OHCA in a private place or non-capital region, and those with shockable rhythm at the scene.

Conclusion: Based on data from a nationwide registry, the estimated effect of BCPR on survival and neurological recovery was moderate and did not improve from 2012 to 2015.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0243757PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7744051PMC
January 2021

Erratum: Correction of the Text in the Article "Funding": Incidence-Based versus Prevalence-Based Approaches on Measuring Disability-Adjusted Life Years for Injury.

J Korean Med Sci 2019 Nov 11;34(43):e296. Epub 2019 Nov 11.

Department of Preventive Medicine, Ewha Womans University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

This corrects the article on e69 in vol. 34, PMID: 30923486.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3346/jkms.2019.34.e296DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6838610PMC
November 2019

Complete mitochondrial genome of the hydrothermal vent shrimp (Decapoda: Caridea: Alvinocarididae) from the North Fiji basin.

Mitochondrial DNA B Resour 2019 Oct 11;4(2):3475-3476. Epub 2019 Oct 11.

Genome Editing Research Center, Korea Research Institute Bioscience and Biotechnology, Daejeon, Korea.

The family Alvinocarididae is the monophyletic taxon which lives restrictively at chemosynthesis-based environments in the deep-sea. Here, for the first time, we report the complete mitogenome of the alvinocaridid vent shrimp from the North Fiji Basin. The mitogenome was 15,909 bp in length, with 65.6% AT content. Its protein-coding gene organization was typical of other alvinocaridid shrimps. Based on the phylogenetic tree, was most closely related to , rather than with other species. To resolve this incongruence between traditional morphological classification and molecular analyses, further mitogenomic analysis of undetermined alvinocaridid taxa is necessary.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23802359.2019.1674717DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7707337PMC
October 2019

Graph convolutional network approach applied to predict hourly bike-sharing demands considering spatial, temporal, and global effects.

PLoS One 2019 16;14(9):e0220782. Epub 2019 Sep 16.

Department of Industrial Engineering, Yonsei University, Shinchon-dong, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Solving the supply-demand imbalance is the most crucial issue for stable implementation of a public bike-sharing system. This gap can be reduced by increasing the accuracy of demand prediction by considering spatial and temporal properties of bike demand. However, only a few attempts have been made to account for both features simultaneously. Therefore, we propose a prediction framework based on graph convolutional networks. Our framework reflects not only spatial dependencies among stations, but also various temporal patterns over different periods. Additionally, we consider the influence of global variables, such as weather and weekday/weekend to reflect non-station-level changes. We compare our framework to other baseline models using the data from Seoul's bike-sharing system. Results show that our approach has better performance than existing prediction models.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0220782PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6746382PMC
March 2020

Complete mitochondrial genome of the hydrothermal vent stalked barnacle (Cirripedia, Scalpelliforms, Eolepadidae).

Mitochondrial DNA B Resour 2019 Jul 22;4(2):2725-2726. Epub 2019 Jul 22.

Genome Editing Research Center, Korea Research Institute Bioscience and Biotechnology, Daejeon, Korea.

The family Eolepadidae is the only stalked barnacle in hydrothermal vent regions. Here, we determined the mitogenome of the eolepadid . The mitogenome was 17,374 bp long, with 76.6% AT content. Its protein-coding gene organization was identical to that of the deep-sea scalpellid . On the mitogenomic tree, two scalpellomorphan families (Eolepadidae and Scalpellidae) were monophyletic while the other scalpellomorphan family Pollicipedidae did not form the monophyletic group with them. Further mitogenomic analysis of undetermined taxa in hydrothermal vents is required to deepen our understanding of their phylogenetic relationships.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23802359.2019.1644564DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7706898PMC
July 2019

Population genetic differentiation of the hydrothermal vent crab Austinograea alayseae (Crustacea: Bythograeidae) in the Southwest Pacific Ocean.

PLoS One 2019 24;14(4):e0215829. Epub 2019 Apr 24.

Global Ocean Resources Research Center, Korea Institute of Ocean Science & Technology, Busan Metropolitan City, Republic of Korea.

To understand the origin, migration, and distribution of organisms across disjunct deep-sea vent habitats, previous studies have documented the population genetic structures of widely distributed fauna, such as gastropods, bivalves, barnacles, and squat lobsters. However, a limited number of investigations has been conducted in the Southwest Pacific Ocean, and many questions remain. In this study, we determined the population structure of the bythograeid crab Austinograea alayseae from three adjacent vent systems (Manus Basin, North Fiji Basin, and Tonga Arc) in the Southwest Pacific Ocean using the sequences of two mitochondrial genes (COI and 16S rDNA) and one nuclear gene (28S rDNA). Populations were divided into a Manus clade and a North Fiji-Tonga clade, with sequence divergence values in the middle of the barcoding gap for bythograeids. We inferred that hydrographic and/or physical barriers act on the gene flow of A. alayseae between the Manus and North Fiji basins. Austinograea alayseae individuals interact freely between the North Fiji Basin and the Lau Basin (Tonga Arc). Although further studies of genetic differentiation over a geological time scale, life-history attributes, and genome-based population genetics are needed to improve our understanding of the evolutionary history of A. alayseae, our results contribute to elucidating the phylogeny, evolution, and biogeography of bythograeids.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0215829PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6481846PMC
January 2020

Incidence-Based versus Prevalence-Based Approaches on Measuring Disability-Adjusted Life Years for Injury.

J Korean Med Sci 2019 Mar 27;34(Suppl 1):e69. Epub 2019 Feb 27.

Department of Preventive Medicine, Ewha Womans University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Background: Injury represents an important aspect of disease that affects everyone at some point in their lives. To better understand and prevent these injuries, various analytical methods have been developed to assess both the magnitude and features of injury burden. In this study, we attempted to estimate the injury burden of Korea in 2014 by comparing the prevalence-based approach used by the Global Burden of Diseases (GBD) team and the World Health Organization against an alternative incidence-based approach, and to assess the different implications of these measurements.

Methods: The 10th Korean National Hospital Discharge survey data and causes of death statistics in 2014 were used as data sources. Years of life lost (YLL), years lived with disability (YLD) and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) were calculated using both the incidence- and prevalence-based approaches. The Korean Classification of Diseases (KCD) version 5 diagnostic codes were used to classify the mechanism of injury.

Results: The prevalence-based injury burden tended to be higher (1,670,229 DALYs) than the incidence-based injury burden (1,544,467 DALYs). The elderly population exhibited a higher prevalence-based YLD and DALY relative to incidence-based outcomes. In order of significance, the three most common causes of injury as calculated using an incidence-based approach were road injury, fall, and self-harm, compared with a prevalence-based method, which identified self-harm, road injury, and falls as the most common injuries.

Conclusion: An appropriate prevention program is needed for injuries with potential to cause long-lasting morbidity. Accordingly, a tailored injury-prevention strategy should be developed for each high-risk group.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3346/jkms.2019.34.e69DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6434153PMC
March 2019

Epigenetic aspects of telomeric chromatin in Arabidopsis thaliana.

BMB Rep 2019 Mar;52(3):175-180

Department of Systems Biology, Yonsei University, Seoul 03722, Korea.

Telomeres are nucleoprotein complexes at the physical ends of linear eukaryotic chromosomes. They protect the chromosome ends from various external attacks to avoid the loss of genetic information. Telomeres are maintained by cellular activities associated with telomerase and telomerebinding proteins. In addition, epigenetic regulators have pivotal roles in controlling the chromatin state at the telomeres and the subtelomeric regions, contributing to the maintenance of chromosomal homeostasis in yeast, animals, and plants. Here, we review the recent findings on chromatin modifications possibly associated with the dynamic states of telomeres in Arabidopsis thaliana. [BMB Reports 2019; 52(3): 175-180].
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6476486PMC
March 2019

A Diabetes-Related Dietary Pattern Is Associated with Incident Diabetes in Obese Men in the Korean Genome Epidemiology Study.

J Nutr 2019 02;149(2):323-329

Preventive Medicine, School of Medicine, Ewha Womans University, Seoul, Korea.

Background: Diet plays an important role in both the development and management of diabetes.

Objective: Using data from the Korean Genome Epidemiology Study, we assessed dietary patterns associated with the clinical indicators of diabetes.

Methods: This study included 7255 subjects aged 40-69 y. Individuals with chronic diseases were excluded. The daily intakes of specific food items were assessed using a dish-based semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaire comprising 103 items; the food items were then grouped into 26 food groups. Dietary patterns were analyzed by the reduced rank regression method using glycated hemoglobin, the homeostasis model of insulin resistance, and fasting glucose concentrations as dependent variables. We investigated the associations between dietary patterns and incident diabetes using the Cox proportional hazards model.

Results: During an 11.5-y follow-up, the incidence of diabetes was 11.8/1000 person-years. The dietary pattern related to selected biomarkers of diabetes was characterized by a relatively high intake of kimchi, beef, other meat, fish, and coffee in men and a high intake of rice, kimchi, and fruit in women. In men, the association of dietary patterns with incident diabetes was significant only in the obese group, and those in the top quartile of the dietary pattern score had a 1.72 times (95% CI: 1.15, 2.56 times) greater risk of incident diabetes than those in the bottom quartile. Conversely, dietary patterns in women were not associated with incident diabetes.

Conclusion: Using reduced rank regression, we identified dietary patterns related to selected biomarkers of diabetes in a long-term study with follow-up data in Korea.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jn/nxy274DOI Listing
February 2019

Factors influencing the incidence and treatment of intracranial aneurysm and subarachnoid hemorrhage: time trends and socioeconomic disparities under an universal healthcare system.

J Neurointerv Surg 2019 Feb 22;11(2):159-165. Epub 2018 Jun 22.

Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, School of Medicine, Inha University, Incheon, Republic of Korea.

Background: Despite increasing usage of endovascular treatments for intracranial aneurysms, few research studies have been conducted on the incidence of unruptured aneurysm (UA) and subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), and could not show a decrease in the incidence of SAH. Moreover, research on socioeconomic disparities with respect to the diagnosis and treatment of UA and SAH is lacking.

Method: Trends in the incidences of newly detected UA and SAH and trends in the treatment modalities used were assessed from 2005 to 2015 using the nationwide database of the Korean National Health Insurance Service in South Korea. We also evaluated the influence of demographic characteristics including socioeconomic factors on the incidence and treatment of UA and SAH.

Result: The rates of newly detected UA and SAH were 28.3 and 13.7 per 100 000 of the general population, respectively, in 2015. The incidence of UA increased markedly over the 11-year study period, whereas that of SAH decreased slightly. UA patients were more likely to be female, older, employee-insured, and to have high incomes than SAH patients. In 2015, coiling was the most common treatment modality for both UA and SAH patients. Those who were female, employee-insured, or self-employed, with high income were likely to have a higher probability to be treated for UA and SAH.

Conclusion: The marked increase in the detection and treatment of UA might have contributed to the decreasing incidence of SAH, though levels of contribution depend on socioeconomic status despite universal medical insurance coverage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/neurintsurg-2018-013799DOI Listing
February 2019

Relationships among medication adherence, lifestyle modification, and health-related quality of life in patients with acute myocardial infarction: a cross-sectional study.

Health Qual Life Outcomes 2018 May 22;16(1):100. Epub 2018 May 22.

Department of Preventive Medicine, College of Medicine and Institute of Health Science, Gyeongsang National University, 15 Jinju-daero, 816 Beon-gil, Jinju, 52727, South Korea.

Background: The healthy adherer effect is a phenomenon in which patients who adhere to medical therapies tend to pursue health-seeking behaviors. Although the healthy adherer effect is supposed to affect health outcomes in patients with coronary artery disease, evaluation of its presence and extent is not easy. This study aimed to assess the relationship between medication adherence and lifestyle modifications and health-related quality of life among post-acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 417 post-AMI patients who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Patients were recruited from 11 university hospitals from December 2015 to March 2016 in South Korea. Details regarding socio-demographic factors, six health behaviors (low-salt intake, low-fat diet and/or weight-loss diet, regular exercise, stress reduction in daily life, drinking in moderation, and smoking cessation), medication adherence using the Modified Morisky Scale (MMS), and HRQoL using the Coronary Revascularization Outcome Questionnaire (CROQ) were surveyed in a one-on-one interview.

Results: In the univariate logistic analysis, sex (female), age (≥70 years), MMS score (≥5), and CROQ score were associated with adherence to lifestyle modification. In the multiple logistic analysis, a high MMS score (≥5) was associated with adherence to lifestyle modification after adjusting for sex, age, marital status, education, and family income (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 11.7, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.5-91.3). After further adjusting for the CROQ score, the association between high MMS score and adherence to lifestyle modification was significant (adjusted OR = 11.5, 95% CI = 1.4-93.3).

Conclusions: Adherence to medication was associated with adherence to lifestyle modification, suggesting the possible presence of the healthy adherer effect in post-AMI patients. After further adjusting for HRQoL, the association remained. To improve health outcome in post-AMI patients, early detection of patients with poor adherence to medication and lifestyle modification and motivational education programs to improve adherence are important. In addition, the healthy adherer effect should be considered in clinical research, in particular, in studies evaluating the effects of therapies on health outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12955-018-0921-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5964665PMC
May 2018

Requirements for Cerebrovascular Surgery in Comprehensive Stroke Centers in South Korea.

J Korean Neurosurg Soc 2018 Jul 10;61(4):478-484. Epub 2018 Apr 10.

Center for Preventive Medicine and Public Health, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam, Korea.

Objective: Cerebrovascular disease (CVD) was the third most common cause of death in South Korea in 2014. Evidence from abroad suggests that comprehensive stroke centers play an important role in improving the mortality rate of stroke. However, surgical treatment for CVD is currently slightly neglected by national policy, and there is still regional imbalance in this regard. For this reason, we conducted a survey on the necessity of, and the requirements for, establishing regional comprehensive cerebrovascular surgery centers (CCVSCs).

Methods: This investigation was performed using the questionnaire survey method. The questionnaire was consisted with two sections. The first concerned the respondent's opinion regarding the current status of demand and the regional imbalance of cerebrovascular surgery in South Korea. The second section asked about the requirements for establishing regional CCVSCs. We sent the questionnaire to 100 board members of the Korean Society of Cerebrovascular Surgeons.

Results: Most experts agreed that cerebrovascular surgery patients were concentrated in large hospitals in the capital area, and 83.6% of respondents agreed that it was necessary to alleviate the regional imbalance of cerebrovascular surgery. With regards to personnel, over 90% of respondents answered that at least two neuro-vascular surgeons and two neuro-interventionists are necessary to establish a CCVSC. Regarding facilities, almost all respondents stated that each CCVSC would require a neuro-intensive care unit and hybrid operating room. The survey asked the respondents about 13 specific neurovascular surgical procedures and whether they were necessary for a regional CCVSC. In the questions about the necessity of cerebrovascular surgical equipment, all seven pieces of equipment were considered essential by all respondents. A further five pieces of equipment were considered necessary on site: computed tomographic angiography, magnetic resonance angiography, conventional angiography, surgical microscope, and surgical navigation. Our results may provide a basis for future policy regarding treatment of cerebrovascular disease, including surgery.

Conclusion: Raising the comprehensiveness of treatment at a regional level would lower the national disease burden. Policies should be drafted regarding comprehensive treatment including surgery for cerebrovascular disease, and related support plans should be implemented.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3340/jkns.2017.0227DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6046569PMC
July 2018

A new yeti crab phylogeny: Vent origins with indications of regional extinction in the East Pacific.

PLoS One 2018 16;13(3):e0194696. Epub 2018 Mar 16.

Department of Life Science, Division of EcoScience, Ewha Womans University, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

The recent discovery of two new species of kiwaid squat lobsters on hydrothermal vents in the Pacific Ocean and in the Pacific sector of the Southern Ocean has prompted a re-analysis of Kiwaid biogeographical history. Using a larger alignment with more fossil calibrated nodes than previously, we consider the precise relationship between Kiwaidae, Chirostylidae and Eumunididae within Chirostyloidea (Decapoda: Anomura) to be still unresolved at present. Additionally, the placement of both new species within a new "Bristly" clade along with the seep-associated Kiwa puravida is most parsimoniously interpreted as supporting a vent origin for the family, rather than a seep-to-vent progression. Fossil-calibrated divergence analysis indicates an origin for the clade around the Eocene-Oligocene boundary in the eastern Pacific ~33-38 Ma, coincident with a lowering of bottom temperatures and increased ventilation in the Pacific deep sea. Likewise, the mid-Miocene (~10-16 Ma) rapid radiation of the new Bristly clade also coincides with a similar cooling event in the tropical East Pacific. The distribution, diversity, tree topology and divergence timing of Kiwaidae in the East Pacific is most consistent with a pattern of extinctions, recolonisations and radiations along fast-spreading ridges in this region and may have been punctuated by large-scale fluctuations in deep-water ventilation and temperature during the Cenozoic; further affecting the viability of Kiwaidae populations along portions of mid-ocean ridge.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0194696PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5856415PMC
July 2018

The effect of contextual factors on unintentional injury hospitalization: from the Korea National Hospital Discharge Survey.

BMC Public Health 2018 03 13;18(1):349. Epub 2018 Mar 13.

Department of Preventive Medicine, College of Medicine, Ewha Womans University, 1071, Anyangcheon-ro, Yangcheon-ku, Seoul, 158-710, Republic of Korea.

Background: It has been suggested that health risks are affected by geographical area, but there are few studies on contextual effects using multilevel analysis, especially regarding unintentional injury. This study investigated trends in unintentional injury hospitalization rates over the past decade in Korea, and also examined community-level risk factors while controlling for individual-level factors.

Methods: Using data from the 2004 to 2013 Korea National Hospital Discharge Survey (KNHDS), trends in age-adjusted injury hospitalization rate were conducted using the Joinpoint Regression Program. Based on the 2013 KNHDS, we collected community-level factors by linking various data sources and selected dominant factors related to injury hospitalization through a stepwise method. Multilevel analysis was performed to assess the community-level factors while controlling for individual-level factors.

Results: In 2004, the age-adjusted unintentional injury hospitalization rate was 1570.1 per 100,000 population and increased to 1887.1 per 100,000 population in 2013. The average annual percent change in rate of hospitalizations due to unintentional injury was 2.31% (95% confidence interval: 1.8-2.9). It was somewhat higher for females than for males (3.25% vs. 1.64%, respectively). Both community- and individual-level factors were found to significantly influence unintentional injury hospitalization risk. As community-level risk factors, finance utilization capacity of the local government and neighborhood socioeconomic status, were independently associated with unintentional injury hospitalization after controlling for individual-level factors, and accounted for 19.9% of community-level variation in unintentional injury hospitalization.

Conclusion: Regional differences must be considered when creating policies and interventions. Further studies are required to evaluate specific factors related to injury mechanism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-018-5249-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5851069PMC
March 2018

Leucine and glycine dipeptides of porcine placenta ameliorate physical fatigue through enhancing dopaminergic systems.

Mol Med Rep 2018 Mar 20;17(3):4120-4130. Epub 2017 Dec 20.

Department of Food Science and Technology and Research Institute for Basic Science, Hoseo University, Asan, Chungcheongnam‑do 31499, Republic of Korea.

Fatigue is a common and serious health problem, and various dietary interventions have previously been employed to ameliorate fatigue. The aim of the current study was to investigate the anti‑fatigue effects of Danish porcine placenta (DPP) and its major dipeptides, including leucine‑glycine (LG) and glycine‑leucine (GL). The anti‑fatigue effects of orally administered DPP, LG and GL were determined using a treadmill exercise test and a forced swimming test (FST) in mice. Additionally, the anti‑inflammatory effects of DPP, LG and GL were investigated in activated splenocytes. The results demonstrated that oral treatment of mice with DPP, LG and GL increased the time to exhaustion during treadmill exercise. Furthermore, DPP, LG and GL enhanced the levels of dopamine, brain‑derived neurotrophic factor and phosphorylated-extracellular signal‑regulated kinase in the brains of mice with treadmill exercise‑induced exhaustive fatigue, and decreased levels of certain proinflammatory cytokines in the serum and spleen, as determined by ELISA and western blot analysis. Following treadmill exercise, commercial kits were employed to demonstrate that DPP, LG and GL reduced the levels of lactate dehydrogenase, lactate, creatine kinase, blood urea nitrogen, alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase in the muscle and/or serum of mice. In addition, DPP, LG and GL enhanced the muscle and liver glycogen levels, catalase activity in the liver and serum superoxide dismutase activity. DPP, LG and GL also increased the proliferation of splenocytes and inhibited proinflammatory cytokine production by reducing the activation of caspase‑1 and nuclear factor‑κB in activated splenocytes, as determined by MTT assays, ELISA and western blotting, respectively. Furthermore, DPP, LG and GL reduced immobility time in the FST in mice. In conclusion, DPP may limit intensive exercise‑induced fatigue by increasing dopaminergic systems and inhibiting inflammatory responses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/mmr.2017.8335DOI Listing
March 2018

Complete mitochondrial genome of the hydrothermal vent barnacle (Cirripedia, Thoracica).

Mitochondrial DNA B Resour 2017 Dec 22;3(1):46-47. Epub 2017 Dec 22.

Deep-sea and Seabed Mineral Resources Research Center, Korea Institute of Ocean Science & Technology, Ansan, Korea.

Thoracican barnacles are common in hydrothermal vent fields. Here, we characterized the first mitogenome of a hydrothermal vent barnacle. The mitogenome of was 15,585 bp in length and had the typical pancrustacean gene arrangement. Its protein-coding genes (PCGs) were very similar in terms of length, AT content, and start and stop codons to those of other thoracican species. The phylogenetic tree constructed with 13 PCGs divided balanomorph barnacles, including . , into two clades. This will further our understanding of the evolution of hydrothermal vent barnacles using mitogenomes, although further mitogenomic analysis of undetermined taxa is required.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23802359.2017.1419089DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7800951PMC
December 2017

Complete mitochondrial genome of the deep-sea asymmetrical barnacle (Cirripedia, Thoracica, Verrucumorpha).

Mitochondrial DNA B Resour 2017 Dec 8;2(2):934-935. Epub 2017 Dec 8.

Deep-Sea and Seabed Mineral Resources Research Center, Korea Institute of Ocean Science & Technology, Ansan, South Korea.

The hitherto suborder Verrucomorpha contains asymmetrical barnacles of two groups: the true Verrucomorpha ( + Verrucidae) and the Neoverrucidae. Here, we determined the mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of , a true Verrucomorpha species. The mitogenome was 15,976 base pairs in length and had the typical pancrustacean gene arrangement. Its protein-coding genes were very similar to those of other thoracican species in terms of length, AT content, and start and stop codons. In phylogenetic trees constructed with 13 protein-coding genes, . was positioned at an ancestral node of sessile barnacles, consistent with the findings of previous studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23802359.2017.1413297DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7800000PMC
December 2017

The complete chloroplast genome sequence with a novel 24-bp deletion of a Korean solid green-type cucumber variety ( var. ).

Mitochondrial DNA B Resour 2017 Nov 6;2(2):755-756. Epub 2017 Nov 6.

Department of Bioresources Engineering College of Life Sciences, Sejong University, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Cucumber ( var. ) is one of the economically important vegetable crops. In this study, we characterized the complete chloroplast genome sequence of inbred line ID YHB bred from Korean solid green-type cucumber variety, through assembly using next-generation sequencing. The chloroplast genome is 155,501 bp long and has typical quadripartite structures and gene contents as found in reported cucumber chloroplast genomes. Interestingly, sequence comparison revealed a novel 24-bp deletion present only in the chloroplast genome of the inbred line. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed that the inbred line was closely grouped with cucumber cultivars.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23802359.2017.1398604DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7800926PMC
November 2017

Oral Administration of Glycine and Leucine Dipeptides Improves Skin Hydration and Elasticity in UVB-Irradiated Hairless Mice.

Biomol Ther (Seoul) 2017 Sep;25(5):528-534

Department of Genetic Engineering & Graduate School of Biotechnology, College of Life Sciences, Kyung Hee University, Yongin 17104, Republic of Korea.

Placenta is a special organ that contains many nutrients such as growth factors, minerals, and bioactive peptides. Dipeptides of glycine and leucine are major components of porcine placenta extracts (PPE) that has been used as an alternative of human placenta extracts. In this study, we investigated whether major peptides of PPE, Glycyl-L-Leucine (Gly-Leu), L-Leucyl-Glycine (Leu-Gly), and L-Leucyl-L-Leucine (Leu-Leu), affect skin hydration and elasticity and . We found that Gly-Leu and Leu-Gly dipeptides induced the expression of transglutaminase 1 in normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEKs) whereas Leu-Leu dipeptides did not. Treatment with Gly-Leu or Leu-Gly significantly increased hyaluronan (HA) synthesis in NHEKs and the upregulation of hyaluronan synthase 2 (HAS2) mRNA level was confirmed. In addition, elastase activity was inhibited in NHEKs treated with Gly-Leu or Leu-Gly dipeptides. Oral administration of Gly-Leu or Leu-Gly dipeptides increased skin hydration and elasticity in UVB-irradiated hairless mice. The significant upregulation of HA in UVB-irradiated hairless mice was observed in response to oral administration of Gly-Leu or Leu-Gly. These results suggest that the major dipeptides of porcine placenta, Gly-Leu and Leu-Gly, are potentially active ingredients for skin moisturization formulations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4062/biomolther.2017.089DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5590797PMC
September 2017

Impact of human activities on changes of ichthyofauna in Dongjin River of Korea in the past 30 years.

Anim Cells Syst (Seoul) 2017 25;21(3):207-216. Epub 2017 May 25.

Division of EcoScience, Ewha Womans University, Seoul, South Korea.

Ichthyofauna and fish community were investigated at 17 representative stations of the Dongjin River drainage system from spring to fall in 2014. The survey resulted in a list of 53 species belonging to 14 families structured into 4 distinctive parts along the river: uppermost-stream, upper-stream, mid-stream, and lower-stream. Comparison of species lists with 30-year interval exhibited significant decreases in peripheral freshwater fishes, Acheilognathinae, endemic, and indigeneity species, but increases in exotic, epipelagic, and lentic species. Moreover, in the estuary of the Dongjin River drainage system, peripheral freshwater fish species were replaced by pure freshwater fish species due to the Saemangeum sea-wall project. In the upper region of the river, introduced eight alien species from Seomjin River via water diversion tunnels. In the mid-lower region, the construction of floodgates and numerous small weirs caused expansion of lentic water areas, facilitating the spread of problematic exotic species such as , , and . Also, water deterioration in this region resulted in an increase of tolerant species and a decrease of sensitive and endemic species. Our results suggest that a recovery strategy for a healthy ecosystem in the Dongjin River drainage system should reflect this compartmentalized cause and effect on the changes of icthyofauna.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/19768354.2017.1330223DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6138316PMC
May 2017

Optimal location selection for the installation of urban green roofs considering honeybee habitats along with socio-economic and environmental effects.

J Environ Manage 2017 Mar 22;189:125-133. Epub 2016 Dec 22.

Department of Information and Industrial Engineering, Yonsei University, 134 Shinchon-dong, Seoul 120-749, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

This study proposes a new framework for the selection of optimal locations for green roofs to achieve a sustainable urban ecosystem. The proposed framework selects building sites that can maximize the benefits of green roofs, based not only on the socio-economic and environmental benefits to urban residents, but also on the provision of urban foraging sites for honeybees. The framework comprises three steps. First, building candidates for green roofs are selected considering the building type. Second, the selected building candidates are ranked in terms of their expected socio-economic and environmental effects. The benefits of green roofs are improved energy efficiency and air quality, reduction of urban flood risk and infrastructure improvement costs, reuse of storm water, and creation of space for education and leisure. Furthermore, the estimated cost of installing green roofs is also considered. We employ spatial data to determine the expected effects of green roofs on each building unit, because the benefits and costs may vary depending on the location of the building. This is due to the heterogeneous spatial conditions. In the third step, the final building sites are proposed by solving the maximal covering location problem (MCLP) to determine the optimal locations for green roofs as urban honeybee foraging sites. As an illustrative example, we apply the proposed framework in Seoul, Korea. This new framework is expected to contribute to sustainable urban ecosystems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2016.12.022DOI Listing
March 2017

Shear-Wave Elastography for the Differential Diagnosis of Breast Papillary Lesions.

PLoS One 2016 28;11(11):e0167118. Epub 2016 Nov 28.

Department of Nuclear Medicine, Yonsei University, College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Objective: To evaluate the diagnostic performance of shear-wave elastography (SWE) for the differential diagnosis of breast papillary lesions.

Methods: This study was an institutional review board-approved retrospective study, with a waiver of informed consent. A total of 79 breast papillary lesions in 71 consecutive women underwent ultrasound and SWE prior to biopsy. Ultrasound features and quantitative SWE parameters were recorded for each lesion. All lesions were surgically excised or excised using an ultrasound-guided vacuum-assisted method. The diagnostic performances of the quantitative SWE parameters were compared using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC).

Results: Of the 79 lesions, six (7.6%) were malignant and 12 (15.2%) were atypical. Orientation, margin, and the final BI-RADS ultrasound assessments were significantly different for the papillary lesions (p < 0.05). All qualitative SWE parameters were significantly different (p < 0.05). The AUC values for SWE parameters of benign and atypical or malignant papillary lesions ranged from 0.707 to 0.757 (sensitivity, 44.4-94.4%; specificity, 42.6-88.5%). The maximum elasticity and the mean elasticity showed the highest AUC (0.757) to differentiate papillary lesions.

Conclusion: SWE provides additional information for the differential diagnosis of breast papillary lesions. Quantitative SWE features were helpful to differentiate breast papillary lesions.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0167118PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5125677PMC
August 2017

Population subdivision of hydrothermal vent polychaete Alvinella pompejana across equatorial and Easter Microplate boundaries.

BMC Evol Biol 2016 Oct 28;16(1):235. Epub 2016 Oct 28.

Interdisciplinary Program of EcoCreative, The Graduate School, Ewha Womans University, Seoul, South Korea.

Background: The Equator and Easter Microplate regions of the eastern Pacific Ocean exhibit geomorphological and hydrological features that create barriers to dispersal for a number of animals associated with deep-sea hydrothermal vent habitats. This study examined effects of these boundaries on geographical subdivision of the vent polychaete Alvinella pompejana. DNA sequences from one mitochondrial and eleven nuclear genes were examined in samples collected from ten vent localities that comprise the species' known range from 23°N latitude on the East Pacific Rise to 38°S latitude on the Pacific Antarctic Ridge.

Results: Multi-locus genotypes inferred from these sequences clustered the individual worms into three metapopulation segments - the northern East Pacific Rise (NEPR), southern East Pacific Rise (SEPR), and northeastern Pacific Antarctic Ridge (PAR) - separated by the Equator and Easter Microplate boundaries. Genetic diversity estimators were negatively correlated with tectonic spreading rates. Application of the isolation-with-migration (IMa2) model provided information about divergence times and demographic parameters. The PAR and NEPR metapopulation segments were estimated to have split roughly 4.20 million years ago (Mya) (2.42-33.42 Mya, 95 % highest posterior density, (HPD)), followed by splitting of the SEPR and NEPR segments about 0.79 Mya (0.07-6.67 Mya, 95 % HPD). Estimates of gene flow between the neighboring regions were mostly low (2 Nm < 1). Estimates of effective population size decreased with southern latitudes: NEPR > SEPR > PAR.

Conclusions: Highly effective dispersal capabilities allow A. pompejana to overcome the temporal instability and intermittent distribution of active hydrothermal vents in the eastern Pacific Ocean. Consequently, the species exhibits very high levels of genetic diversity compared with many co-distributed vent annelids and mollusks. Nonetheless, its levels of genetic diversity in partially isolated populations are inversely correlated with tectonic spreading rates. As for many other vent taxa, this pioneering colonizer is similarly affected by local rates of habitat turnover and by major dispersal filters associated with the Equator and the Easter Microplate region.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12862-016-0807-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5084463PMC
October 2016
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