Publications by authors named "Wolfgang Marktl"

28 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

General and Disease-Specific Health Indicator Changes Associated with Inpatient Rehabilitation.

J Am Med Dir Assoc 2020 12 28;21(12):2017.e10-2017.e27. Epub 2020 Jul 28.

Division of Physiology, Otto Loewi Research Center, Medical University of Graz, Graz, Austria; Human Research Institute, Weiz, Austria.

Objectives: Rehabilitation plays a vital role in the mitigation and improvement of functional limitations associated with aging and chronic conditions. Moderating factors such as sex, age, the medical diagnosis, and rehabilitation timing for admission status, as well as the expected change related to inpatient rehabilitation, are examined to provide a valid basis for the routine assessment of the quality of medical outcomes.

Design: An observational study was carried out, placing a focus on general and disease-specific health measurements, to assess representative results of multidisciplinary inpatient rehabilitation. Aspects that were possibly confounding and introduced bias were controlled based on data from a quasi-experimental (waiting) control group.

Measures: Existing data or general health indicators were extracted from medical records. The indicators included blood pressure, resting heart rate, self-assessed health, and pain, as well as more disease-specific indicators of physical function and performance (eg, activities of daily living, walking tests, blood lipids). These are used to identify moderating factors related to health outcomes.

Setting And Participants: A standardized collection of routine data from 16,966 patients [61.5 ± 12.5 years; 7871 (46%) women, 9095 (54%) men] with different medical diagnoses before and after rehabilitation were summarized using a descriptive evaluation in terms of a content and factor analysis.

Results: Without rehabilitation, general health indicators did not improve independently and remained stable at best [odds ratio (OR) = 0.74], whereas disease-specific indicators improved noticeably after surgery (OR = 3.20). Inpatient rehabilitation was shown to reduce the risk factors associated with certain lifestyles, optimize organ function, and improve well-being in most patients (>70%; cutoff: z-difference >0.20), with a standardized mean difference (SMD) seen in overall medical quality outcome of -0.48 ± 0.37 [pre- vs post-rehabilitation: η = 0.622; d = -1.22; 95% confidence interval (95% CI) -1.24 to -1.19]. The baseline medical values obtained at the beginning of rehabilitation were influenced by indication, age, and sex (all P < .001); however, these factors have less significant effects on improvements in general health indicators (η < 0.01). According to the disease-specific results, the greatest improvements were found in older patients (SMD for patients >60 vs ≤60 years: 95% CI 0.08-0.11) and during the early rehabilitation stage (η = 0.063).

Conclusions And Implications: Compared with those who received no inpatient rehabilitation, patients who received rehabilitation showed greater improvements in 2 independent areas, general and disease-specific health measures, regardless of their diagnosis, age, and sex. Due to the study design and the use of a nonrandomized waiting group, causal conclusions must be drawn with caution. However, the comparability and stability of the presented results strongly support the validity of the observed improvements associated with inpatient rehabilitation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jamda.2020.05.034DOI Listing
December 2020

The treatment experience questionnaire: development and validation of a questionnaire assessing the individual's emotional, perceptual, and cognitive reactions to alternative, physical, and dental treatments.

Forsch Komplementmed 2013 21;20(3):205-12. Epub 2013 Jun 21.

Department of Environmental Hygiene, Center for Public Health, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

Background: The aim of this study was to develop and validate a questionnaire designed to assess the patient's affective, cognitive, and perceptual state during treatment administration.

Methods: 362 individuals (214 females, 148 males, mean age 54.6 years) with predominantly musculoskeletal or dental problems participated in the study. Patients responded to the questionnaire immediately following a treatment. The questionnaire included items of 9 proposed scales devised to assess mood, psychological tension, sleepiness, mental absorption, treatment appraisal, perceived cooperation during treatment administration, perceived somatosensory intensity of treatment as well as negative and positive bodily sensations during treatment. Treatments were administered in 2 spa centers, a clinic for physical medicine and rehabilitation and a clinic for dentistry. Treatments investigated were among others dental treatment, massage, packs, baths, relaxation training, exercise, and acupuncture.

Results: The proposed scales were confirmed. Scales had adequate to good reliability and validity. All scales significantly distinguished between treatments.

Conclusion: The devised questionnaire has adequate properties to assess patients' experiences during treatment administration.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000351456DOI Listing
May 2014

Travel-related change of residence leads to a transitory stress reaction in humans.

J Travel Med 2012 Jul;19(4):243-9

Department of Environmental Hygiene, Centre for Public Health of the Medical University of Vienna, Kinderspitalgasse 15, Vienna, Austria.

Objective: It is well known that animals show a stress response when confronted with a novel environment. The aim of the this study was to investigate whether humans show a similar response by studying the reaction to a travel-related transitory change of residence.

Method: Forty-eight individuals (32 women, 16 men, age 40-83 years) traveling to a health resort approximately 120 km from their home town participated in the study. Individuals monitored their blood pressure (BP) twice a day 3 weeks before (baseline) and during the stay and filled out a diary stating their mood and sleep. The change of the variables relative to baseline on the day before departure, the travel day, and the day after arrival as well as 5 days after arrival were determined.

Results: Systolic and diastolic BPs were increased on the day before travel and diastolic BP remained increased on the travel day and the day after arrival. Sleep was poorer during the first night at the new residence. All three variables had returned to baseline level 5 days into the stay. Mood was not affected by the change of residence.

Conclusion: The results indicate that not only the change of residence but also its anticipation affects individuals in a transient way. The findings are relevant not only for the basic understanding of the reaction to novel environments but also to travel, tourism as well as rehabilitation, and spa-research.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1708-8305.2012.00624.xDOI Listing
July 2012

Recovery intention: its association with fatigue in the working population.

Int Arch Occup Environ Health 2011 Dec 9;84(8):859-65. Epub 2011 Jun 9.

Department of Environmental Hygiene, Centre for Public Health, Medical University of Vienna, Kinderspitalgasse 15, 1090, Vienna, Austria.

Purpose: To investigate the association of the intention to recover from work with fatigue and its moderating effect on the link between occupational characteristics and fatigue.

Methods: Three hundred and eighty Austrian employees (nurses, teachers and administrative staff) participated in a survey assessing fatigue, the intention to create and engage in recovery activities and effort-reward imbalance as a measure of job characteristics. Data were analysed by regression analysis.

Results: Recovery intention was negatively associated with fatigue. This association was especially pronounced under conditions of high effort-reward imbalance, thus suggesting a buffering effect. Effort-reward imbalance, in return, was positively related to prolonged fatigue, indicating that fatigue was partly work related in the present sample.

Conclusions: Individuals differ in their intent to engage in recovery activities. Those high in recovery intention are less exhausted, especially under conditions of more demanding and less rewarding work characteristics. Thus, a promotion of recovery intentions could contribute to the prevention of work-related fatigue.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00420-011-0651-6DOI Listing
December 2011

Association of spa therapy with improvement of psychological symptoms of occupational burnout: a pilot study.

Forsch Komplementmed 2010 16;17(3):132-6. Epub 2010 Jun 16.

Department of Environmental Hygiene, Center for Public Health, Medical University of Vienna, Bad Tatzmannsdorf, Austria.

Objectives: The aim of the present study was to investigate effects of a 3-week resort-based spa therapy (a combination of balneotherapy, massages, exercise etc., including a respite from work) on psychological symptoms associated with occupational burnout.

Patients And Methods: In a longitudinal design, a group of 65 actively working individuals (45 women, 20 men, mean age 50.4 +/- 6.7 years) of various occupations selected on the basis of their level of burnout and undergoing spa therapy primarily for musculoskeletal pain were studied in regard to the change in fatigue, distress, reduced motivation, and quality of sleep. Variables were assessed at the beginning and at the end of spa therapy as well as 4 weeks and 3 months after treatment. Two levels of burnout were distinguished: individuals with mild burnout (i.e. increased emotional exhaustion) and individuals with a full burnout syndrome (i.e. increased exhaustion plus social detachment and/or performance dissatisfaction).

Results: At the end of the treatment, all four symptoms of burnout showed a significant improvement in both groups compared to their pre-treatment level. This improvement was sustained up to 3 months post-treatment for both burnout groups.

Conclusion: Spa therapy may be a helpful measure for treating the symptoms of occupational burnout.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000315301DOI Listing
December 2010

Time dependence of estrogen receptor expression in human hearts.

Biomed Pharmacother 2010 Mar 5;64(3):154-9. Epub 2009 Nov 5.

Department of Physiology, Center of Physiology and Pharmacology, Medical University Vienna, Schwarzspanierstrasse 17, Vienna, Austria.

Objectives And Aims: Transcriptional effects of estrogens are primarily mediated by the two nuclear estrogen receptors (ER), ERalpha and ERbeta. Both receptors are present in the vasculature and in the human heart and have been shown to act antiatherogenic and to be protective against the development of cardiac hypertrophy. The aim was to quantify ER mRNA expression in left ventricular specimens from patients with coronary heart disease (CHD, n=15) and dilated cardiomyopathy (CMP, n=38) and compare their levels with those from healthy heart donors (n=9). Additionally, a possible variation of ERmRNA expression in human hearts in respect to time of day was studied.

Methods And Results: mRNA expression of both ER receptors was detected by real-time PCR in all of the human specimens. There was no difference in the relative quantity of the receptors between CHD and CMP patients. However, control specimens showed significant lower levels of either receptor in the healthy myocardium (p<.001 each). Analyzing the time dependency of receptor expression with a cosinor analysis showed a significant 8-hour period rhythm for ERbeta in CMP- but no rhythm in CHD patients. Due to the low patient number, rhythmic analysis was not possible in controls.

Conclusions: The increased ERalpha and ERbeta mRNA expression in left ventricular specimens from CHD and CMP patients might reflect a compensatory mechanism to counteract the decline in ventricular function. Furthermore, we provided evidence for a time dependent variation of ERbeta receptor expression in the human heart.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2009.09.010DOI Listing
March 2010

[Health-related effects of natural mineral waters].

Authors:
Wolfgang Marktl

Wien Klin Wochenschr 2009 ;121(17-18):544-50

Zentrum für Biomolekulare Medizin und Pharmakologie der Medizinischen Universität Wien, Institut für Physiologie, Wien, Austria.

The medical importance of mineral waters depends on the contained amount of minerals and trace elements. Calcium and magnesium in mineral waters are of greatest interest with respect to their potential relevance for the health status; iodine, fluorine and lithium are the most important trace elements. The bioavailability of minerals from mineral water is good and can be compared with the values derived from milk. A positive effect of the minerals in mineral water on health status is especially apparent in the case of insufficient intake by nutrition. The apprehension that there might be an undesired hypertensinogenic effect due to the sodium content in mineral waters is not justified. Sodium is present in mineral water in small amounts only, and mainly as sodium bicarbonate, which has no effect on blood pressure. A certain advantage of a delivery of minerals and trace elements by regular drinking of mineral waters is the simultaneous intake of water, without supply of energy. Studies giving direct evidence of the health value of a regular consumption of mineral waters are, however, up to now rather scarce.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00508-009-1244-1DOI Listing
February 2010

Clock genes display rhythmic expression in human hearts.

Chronobiol Int 2009 May;26(4):621-36

Center of Physiology and Pharmacology, University Vienna, Austria.

Thus far, clock genes in the heart have been described only in rodents, and alterations of these genes have been associated with various myocardial malfunctions. In this study, we analyzed the expression of clock genes in human hearts. Left papillary muscles of 16 patients with coronary heart disease, 39 subjects with cardiomyopathy, and 9 healthy donors (52 males and 12 females, mean age 55.7+/-11.2; 16-70 yrs) were obtained during orthotopic heart transplantation. We assessed the mRNA levels of PER1, PER2, BMAL1, and CRY1 by real time PCR and analyzed their rhythmic expression by sliding means and Cosinor functions. Furthermore, we sought for differences between the three groups (by ANOVAs) for both the total 24 h period and separate time bins. All four clock genes were expressed in human hearts. The acrophases (circadian rhythm peak time) of the PER mRNAs occurred in the morning (PER1: 07:44 h [peak level 187% higher than trough, p = .008]; PER2: 09:42 h [peak 254% higher than trough, p < .0001], and BMAL1 mRNA in the evening at 21:44 h [peak 438% higher than trough; p < .0001]. No differences were found in the rhythmic patterns between the three groups. No circadian rhythm was detected in CRY1 mRNA in any group. PER1, PER2, and BMAL1 mRNAs revealed clear circadian rhythms in the human heart, with their staging being in antiphase to those in rodents. The circadian amplitudes of the mRNA clock gene levels in heart tissue are more distinct than in any other human tissue so far investigated. The acrophase of the myocardial PER mRNAs and the trough of the myocardial BMAL1 coincide to the time of day of most frequent myocardial incidents.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07420520902924939DOI Listing
May 2009

Personality does not predict treatment preference, treatment experience does: a study of four complementary pain treatments.

Forsch Komplementmed 2007 Oct 25;14(5):274-80. Epub 2007 Oct 25.

Department of Physiology, University of Vienna, Schwarzspanierstrasse 17, 1090 Vienna, Austria.

Introduction: The aim of the present study was to determine the extent to which personality and treatment experience affect patients' appraisals of 4 complementary treatments for chronic pain.

Patients And Methods: A total of 232 chronic pain patients (164 females, 68 males, average age 56.6 years) visiting a spa clinic in Austria returned a questionnaire on patient characteristics and personality (autonomy, depressiveness, assertiveness, self-control) as well as attitudes towards (i.e. appealing, effective, pleasant) and experience of the treatments. Results were analysed by use of linear regression analysis and confidence intervals.

Results: Although all treatments were appraised positively, the passive treatments (thermal water tub baths, classical massage) were favoured more than the active treatments (relaxation training or exercise therapy). Treatment appraisal was not predicted by any of the personality traits but to a large extent by treatment experience. Relaxing, not unpleasant treatments were the most highly esteemed treatments. How strenuous or tiring a treatment was only had a minor effect on its appraisal.

Conclusions: Neither do dependent, passive patients prefer passive treatments, nor do conscientious patients prefer active treatments. Instead, the appraisal of treatments that induce specific somatosensory sensations is largely determined by treatment experiences, i.e. what the treatment feels like. Despite the popularity of CAM which encompasses many experientially intensive treatments, treatment experience has to date been a neglected topic of treatment research.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000108010DOI Listing
October 2007

Does aerobic training enhance effects of spa therapy in back pain patients? A randomized, controlled clinical trial.

Forsch Komplementmed 2007 Aug 16;14(4):202-6. Epub 2007 Jul 16.

Ludwig-Boltzmann-Institut zur Erforschung physiologischer Rhythmen, Bad Tatzmannsdorf, Abteilung für Umweltphysiologie, Medizinische Universität Wien, Schwarzspanierstrasse 17, 1090 Vienna, Austria.

Objectives: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of 3 weeks of individualized aerobic exercise training combined with conventional spa therapy on patients' assessment of chronic pain and quality of life.

Patients And Methods: 44 patients of either sex and advanced age (50-70 years) with chronic pain underwent an inpatient spa therapy in Bad Tatzmannsdorf, Austria. Participants were randomized into 2 groups, a control group receiving spa therapy alone, and a training group carrying out an additional aerobic training. Every participant performed an exhaustive bicycle exercise test at the beginning of the study. Subsequently, participants of the training group performed individualized training programs, controlled and documented by ambulatory heart rate monitors. At the beginning and the end of the study the following outcome measures were assessed by use of questionnaires: positive and negative mood, general depression, health satisfaction, general pain, exhaustion, abdominal complaints, and cardiac pain. The results of the questionnaires were analyzed by use of a MANOVA to evaluate differences between the two groups.

Results: We observed positive effects in all participants and on all parameters investigated after 3 weeks of spa therapy. However, no significant differences could be demonstrated between the two groups (all p > 0.05).

Conclusion: Individualized aerobic training does not seem to enhance beneficial effects of a 3-week spa therapy on chronic pain and quality of life.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000104686DOI Listing
August 2007

[Can the effects of radon therapy be scientifically substantiated?].

Authors:
Wolfgang Marktl

Wien Klin Wochenschr 2006 May;118(9-10):253-4

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00508-006-0579-0DOI Listing
May 2006

Combined inpatient rehabilitation and spa therapy for breast cancer patients: effects on quality of life and CA 15-3.

Cancer Nurs 2005 Sep-Oct;28(5):390-8

Center of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Medical University of Vienna, Schwarzspanierstrasse 17, 1090 Vienna, Austria.

The present study investigated the changes of quality of life, mood, and the tumor marker CA 15-3 associated with a 3-week inpatient breast cancer rehabilitation program incorporating spa therapy. One hundred forty-nine women, 32 to 82 years, participated in the study 3 to 72 months after breast cancer surgery. Quality of life (QoL, EORTC QLQ-C30), anxiety, and depression (HADS) were measured 2 weeks before, at the end, and 6 months after rehabilitation; CA 15-3 at the beginning, end, and at 6 months follow-up. Patients received an individualized rehabilitation program incorporating manual lymph drainage, exercise therapy, massages, psychological counseling, relaxation training, carbon dioxide baths, and mud packs. Quality of life and mood improved significantly, the greatest short-term improvements found for mood-related aspects of quality of life, the most lasting improvements found for physical complaints (eg, fatigue). Also, the tumor marker CA 15-3 declined significantly to follow-up. Patient characteristics, as well as the time since surgery, moderated rehabilitation outcome to a limited extent. Older patients, nonobese patients, patients with a greater lymphedema, and patients with an active coping style showed slightly greater improvements. Hot mud packs inducing hyperthermia did not affect CA 15-3. In conclusion, the combination of inpatient rehabilitation with spa therapy provides a promising approach for breast cancer rehabilitation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00002820-200509000-00009DOI Listing
December 2005

Effect of vacation on health: moderating factors of vacation outcome.

J Travel Med 2005 Mar-Apr;12(2):94-101

Department of Physiology, Medical University of Vienna, Austria.

Background: Vacation has recently become a topic of interest in health research as both beneficial and adverse health effects have been documented. The present study was aimed at identifying vacation characteristics predicting health-related vacation outcome.

Methods: One hundred ninety-one predominantly white-collar employees (109 female, 82 males; mean age 37.8 yr, range 16-62 yr) received a questionnaire in the week after vacation assessing subject characteristics, physical vacation characteristics, the individual structuring of the day, health and social behavior, and stress during vacation as well as the perceived change of recuperation and exhaustion from before to after a vacation. Regression analysis was used to identify variables predicting vacation outcome.

Results: Twenty-seven percent of the variance of the change of recuperation and 15% of the change of exhaustion could be explained. Recuperation was facilitated by free time for one's self, warmer (and sunnier) vacation locations, exercise during vacation, good sleep, and making new acquaintances, especially among vacationers reporting higher levels of prevacation work strain. Exhaustion was increased by vacation-related health problems and a greater time-zone difference to home, and was reduced by warmer vacation locations.

Conclusion: Health-related vacation outcome is significantly affected by the way an individual organizes his or her vacation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.2310/7060.2005.12206DOI Listing
August 2005

Determination of Iron in Caco-2 cells by ET-AAS.

Anal Bioanal Chem 2005 May 22;382(1):239-42. Epub 2005 Mar 22.

Institute of Analytical Chemistry, University of Vienna, Währingerstr. 38, 1090, Vienna, Austria.

An electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometric method (ET-AAS) was developed for the direct determination of iron in intestinal Caco-2 cells after studying cell viability and proliferation using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazole-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT test). Zeeman background correction and end-capped graphite tubes with L'vov platforms were used. Samples were dissolved in dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) and pipetted directly into the graphite tube. The preashing, pretreatment and atomization steps were optimized. The temperatures selected were 600, 1200, and 2100 degrees C, respectively. Stability measurements were performed using iron standard solutions in DMSO on the one hand and acidified cell solutions on the other. Direct measurement and standard addition were compared in order to determine possible influences of the matrix. The low detection limit of the ET-AAS method (1.3 microg/L or 3.3 microg/g) combined with the small sample quantities required are ideal for the determination of iron in cells due to the low iron content and the limited growth area of the cells. The method was developed for iron uptake studies for toxicological purposes.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00216-005-3172-xDOI Listing
May 2005

Vacation at moderate and low altitude improves perceived health in individuals with metabolic syndrome.

J Travel Med 2004 Sep-Oct;11(5):300-4

Department of Physiology, University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

Background: Recent data suggest that vacation may improve cardiovascular health, an effect possibly moderated by altitude. The aim of the present study was to study the effect of a 3-week vacation at moderate and low altitude on perceived health in individuals with increased cardiovascular risk.

Methods: Seventy-two overweight males, both occupationally active and retired (mean age=56.6 +/- 7.2 years), with signs of metabolic syndrome were randomly assigned to identical sojourns at either moderate (1,700 m) or low (300 m) altitude and engaged in four 3- to 4-h heart-rate-controlled hiking tours per week. Perceived health was measured 2 weeks before vacation, at the beginning and end of vacation, and 7 weeks after vacation.

Results: Fitness, recreational ability, positive and negative mood and social activities improved during vacation, independent of altitude and occupational status, although the day-to-day improvement in quality of sleep was delayed at moderate altitude. During the follow-up examinations, improvements in all reported aspects of health except for social activities were maintained. In comparison to retired individuals, active individuals showed a greater long-term improvement in social activities.

Conclusion: Vacation positively affects perceived health independent of altitude or occupational status in generally inactive overweight males.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.2310/7060.2004.19106DOI Listing
December 2004

Toxicological effects of iron on intestinal cells.

Cell Biochem Funct 2004 May-Jun;22(3):143-7

Department of Physiology, University of Vienna, Faculty of Medicine, Vienna, Austria.

The aim of the present study was to investigate whether iron, which is involved in the formation of free radicals in vitro, can initiate cellular injury in human intestinal cells. The effects of various concentrations of iron were studied in preconfluent, colonic-cancerogenous cells, and also in postconfluent, differentiating cells. Cellular damage was assessed using cell proliferation (serial cell counting), tetrazolium dye (MTT) uptake, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release and apoptosis studies based on caspase-3 activities. Also the activities of the major antioxidative enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were measured after the cells had been exposed to iron. Our results indicated that preconfluent cells were more susceptible to iron toxicity, as assessed by a significant reduction in cell proliferation and MTT uptake in a concentration-dependent manner compared to the control. However, no evidence for MTT uptake was observed in postconfluent cells. Caspase-3 activity, an indicator of cell apoptosis, considerably increased in preconfluent cells at high iron levels compared to the control (p < 0.05), whereas postconfluent cells were not significantly affected. LDH release was similar for both groups and was significantly higher than the control at 900 microM iron and above. SOD activities were not affected by iron in either group, whereas GPx was considerably higher in iron-treated cells in both groups compared with the control (because of relatively high standard deviations this effect was not significant). In conclusion we suggest that iron exerts its toxic effects intracellularly especially in preconfluent Caco-2 cells, whereas only high iron doses were able to alter the viability of differentiating, enterocyte-like cells.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cbf.1065DOI Listing
November 2004

Improving homocysteine levels through balneotherapy: effects of sulphur baths.

Clin Chim Acta 2004 May;343(1-2):105-11

Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Vienna, Schwarzspanierstrasse 17, Vienna A-1090, Austria.

Background: Plasma homocysteine (tHcy) is a risk factor for cardio-vascular diseases. Furthermore it has been associated with antioxidative status. Additionally balneotherapeutic sulphur baths have been shown to influence antioxidative status.

Methods: 40 patients with degenerative osteoarthrosis were randomised into two equal groups, a treatment group, receiving stationary spa therapy plus daily sulphur baths (sulphur group) and a control group receiving spa therapy alone (control group). Blood tHcy levels and urinary 8-OHdG (an indicator for oxidative stress) were measured at the beginning and the end of spa therapy.

Results: tHcy (micromol/l) was significantly reduced from 11.41 (+/-2.91) to 10.55 (+/-2.28) in the sulphur group (p=0.016) and rose insignificantly from 12.93 (+/-2.28) to 13.80 (+/-3.87) in the control group. 8-OHdG (ng 8-OHdG/mg creatinine) declined from 18.00 (+/-18.28) to 11.16 (+/-5.33) in the sulphur group (n.s.) and from 17.91 (+/-5.87) to 18.17 (+/-5.70) in the control group (n.s.). Differences between the two groups showed significant effects of sulphur baths for tHcy (p=0.006) but not for 8-OHdG (p=0.106).

Conclusions: Sulphur baths exert beneficial effects on plasma tHcyt whereas effects on 8-OHdG seem to be unlikely.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cccn.2003.12.024DOI Listing
May 2004

Pharmacological levels of copper exert toxic effects in Caco-2 cells.

Biol Trace Elem Res 2003 ;96(1-3):143-52

Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Vienna, A-1090 Vienna, Austria.

Copper might be toxic to human intestinal cells because of its ability to catalyze the formation of free radicals. The aim of the present study was to quantify toxicological effects of increasing copper concentrations in preconfluent, colonic cancerous cells as well as in postconfluent, differentiating Caco-2 cells. Our results indicate that postconfluent cells might be more sensitive to copper toxicity. A significant rise of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release (150 microM or above) and decrease of cell proliferation (100 microM or above) with increasing copper levels was found, as compared to the control. To the contrary, preconfluent cells were not significantly affected by copper (LDH release) or, if so, only at a concentration of 250 microM (proliferation). Loss of viability and morphological changes, including loss of adherence and cell rounding, were visible after incubation with 250 microM copper in both groups. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities were not affected by copper. Glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and catalase activities were higher in copper-treated cells, especially in the postconfluent ones (nevertheless, the results were not significant because of high standard deviations). In conclusion, we demonstrated that copper exerts intracellular, toxicological effects on both groups of Caco-2 cells, although the effects seem to be more evident in the postconfluent (enterocytelike) group. Risk assessment, especially for high concentrations, might be of special interest.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1385/BTER:96:1-3:143DOI Listing
September 2004

Quantitative analysis of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) expression in arteries and hearts of patients with ischaemic or dilated cardiomyopathy.

Eur J Heart Fail 2003 Dec;5(6):733-9

Department of Cardiology, General Hospital (AKH), Währinger Gürtel 18-20, Vienna 1090, Austria.

PPARgamma, a nuclear transcription factor, is expressed in various cells within the vasculature and in cardiomyocytes. It has been suggested that PPARgamma is involved in atherogenesis and in cardiac hypertrophy. Therefore, we sought to quantify PPARgamma mRNA in coronary arteries, the aorta and left ventricular specimens from patients with ischaemic (CHD) and dilated cardiomyopathy (CMP). Using real-time PCR, we were able to demonstrate the expression of PPARgamma in all of the human specimens. The lowest expression of PPARgamma was detected in the aorta specimens of both groups (this was set to one). In comparison, the expression in coronary arteries was 2.32-fold in CHD- and 3.78-fold in CMP specimens and in the left ventricle specimens, 2.12-fold in CHD- and 3.51-fold in CMP. Samples from CHD patients showed a higher expression of PPARgamma in all of the samples compared to those from CMP patients (aorta: 1.99-fold; coronary arteries: 1.35; left ventricles: 1.23). PPARgamma levels were not significantly correlated to CD 36 expression values in any group, suggesting that higher levels of PPARgamma are not principally due to increased PPARgamma expression in macrophages. This was confirmed by immunohistochemical analysis, which showed that PPARgamma is also located in the smooth muscle layer and in cardiomyocytes. In conclusion, our observations of increased PPAR mRNA expression in the coronary arteries and left ventricles from CHD and CMP patients suggest an important function of this nuclear receptor in the pathogenesis of heart disease.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s1388-9842(03)00148-xDOI Listing
December 2003

The melatonin receptor subtype MT1 is expressed in human gallbladder epithelia.

J Pineal Res 2004 Jan;36(1):43-8

Department of Pathophysiology, University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

Based on the fact that human bile and, particularly gallbladder bile, contains high physiological levels of the antioxidant melatonin, the aim of this study was to investigate whether the melatonin receptor MT1 is present in human gallbladder. Expression and localization of MT1 was assessed by RT-PCR, Western blotting and immunofluorescence analysis in gallbladder samples from patients with cholelithiasis and with advanced gallbladder carcinoma. Additionally, we monitored mRNA expression of the two key enzymes of melatonin synthesis, i.e. arylalkylamine-N-acetyltransferase (AANAT) and hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase (HIOMT). MT1 mRNA and protein were present in all cholelithiasis (n = 10) and gallbladder carcinoma (n = 5) samples. As indicated from RT-PCR and Western blot studies, MT1 is located in gallbladder epithelia. Epithelial expression was further proven by immunofluorescence staining of MT1 in paraffin-embedded cholelithiasis and gallbladder carcinoma sections. Analysis of AANAT and HIOMT mRNA expression showed that HIOMT mRNA is present in gallbladder. Surprisingly, AANAT was not detectable under conditions where it was found in a human colon specimen. The absence of AANAT suggests that in human gallbladder, HIOMT might be involved in the formation of 5-hydroxytryptamine products other than melatonin. In summary, our results provide the first evidence for the presence of MT1 in human gallbladder epithelia. Therefore, in addition to its profound antioxidative effects in the biliary system, melatonin might also act through MT1-mediated signal transduction pathways. Thereby, it might be involved in the regulation of gallbladder function.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1600-079x.2003.00095.xDOI Listing
January 2004

Serum lipids responses to a respite from occupational and domestic demands in subjects with varying levels of stress.

J Psychosom Res 2003 Dec;55(6):521-4

Department of Physiology, University of Vienna, Schwarzspanierstrasse 17, A-1090, Vienna, Austria.

Objectives: To investigate the effect of a temporary respite from domestic and job demands on serum lipid concentrations in subjects with high and low levels of perceived demands.

Methods: 111 females and 42 males (mean age 57.1+/-9.8) staying at a health resort for 3 weeks and receiving spa treatments participated in the study. Serum cholesterol (CHOL), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), triglycerides (TG) and LDL/HDL were measured at the beginning and end of the stay. In addition, levels of perceived demands were assessed. Data were analysed with MANCOVA for repeated measures with known confounding variables as covariates.

Results: Subjects with a higher level of perceived demands had higher levels of CHOL, LDL/HDL and TG and lower levels of HDL-c. In response to the respite, subjects experiencing more demands showed a greater decrease of LDL-c (P<.01) and LDL/HDL (P<.001). Sex moderated these stress-related respite effects for HDL-c (P<.01) and LDL/HDL (P<.005), high demand males showing a smaller decrease in HDL and a greater decrease in LDL/HDL than females in response to the respite.

Conclusions: The results indicate that a respite from chronic demands may reduce LDL-c and LDL/HDL in chronically stressed individuals.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0022-3999(03)00017-5DOI Listing
December 2003

Toxic and biochemical effects of zinc in Caco-2 cells.

J Inorg Biochem 2003 Dec;97(4):324-30

Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Vienna, Schwarzspanierstrasse 17, A-1090, Vienna, Austria.

Zinc (in relatively high concentrations) can be toxic to intestinal cells. The aim of the present study was to quanitfy cellular injury in preconfluent, colonic cancerous cells and in postconfluent, differentiating human intestinal Caco-2 cells. Cellular damage was measured by using cell proliferation, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)-release, and apoptosis studies. Furthermore, the activities of the major antioxidative enzymes [superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and catalase] and differentiation markers (alkaline phosphatase and aminopeptidase-N) were determined after exposure of the cells to increasing amounts of zinc sulfate. Proliferation and viability decreased in a concentration-dependent manner. A noticeable increase of LDH-release correlated to cell rounding and detachment at relatively high zinc levels (200 muM) was observed in both groups of cells. Above 100 muM of zinc, significant apoptotic activity was found in the preconfluent cells. Zinc supplementation did not alter SOD activities. However, GPx and, in part, catalase activities tended to be higher in zinc-treated cells (nevertheless the results were not significant). Differentiation markers were noticeably induced by increasing amounts of zinc, especially in the preconfluent cells. In conclusion, we suggest that the susceptibility to zinc induced damage is equal in both confluentation groups of Caco-2 cells. Risk assessment for high concentrations seems recommendable.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0162-0134(03)00312-xDOI Listing
December 2003

The melatonin receptor subtype MT2 is present in the human cardiovascular system.

J Pineal Res 2003 Aug;35(1):40-4

Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Vienna, Vienna.

We showed that the melatonin receptor subtype, MT1, is expressed in healthy and diseased human coronary arteries. As studies in experimental animals suggest that the MT2 melatonin receptor subtype is also present in the vasculature, we investigated whether the MT2 is expressed in human aorta and coronary arteries. Additionally, MT2 expression in human ventricular specimens was analysed, as melatonin was shown to affect myocyte function. Expression of the MT2-receptor was studied in sections of isolated coronary arteries, aorta and left ventricular specimens from healthy heart donors (control) and patients with dilated or ischemic cardiomyopathy. MT2 expression was found by reverse transcriptase (RT)-nested-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in all of the specimens (aorta, left ventricle and coronary arteries) derived from controls. Also, visible evidence for receptor expression was found in 12 of 15 samples from cardiomyopathy patients and 10 of 15 of coronary heart disease patients. Additionally, the expression of MT2-receptor between aorta, left ventricle and coronary arteries varied among the individuals, some of them showing highest expression in the aorta while in others principal expression sites were coronary arteries or left ventricles. In conclusion, the MT2-receptor subtype is present in human arteries and left ventricles and it is suggested that in coronary heart disease MT2-receptor expression is altered. Furthermore, there is evidence for heterogeneous MT2 expression patterns in individual patients.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1034/j.1600-079x.2003.00051.xDOI Listing
August 2003

The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) is highly expressed in human heart ventricles.

Biomed Pharmacother 2002 Oct;56(8):407-10

Department of Cardiology, General Hospital, Vienna, Austria.

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) is a ligand activated transcription factor which regulates gene expression in various tissues. PPARgamma was primarily found to be associated with lipid and glucose metabolism. Recent experimental studies provided evidence that PPARgamma is also expressed in the arterial wall and in cardiomyocytes and described PPARgamma as a transducer of antihypertropic signaling in the heart. This comparative study sought to investigate whether PPARgamma is differently expressed in the aorta, coronary arteries and left ventricle specimens derived from healthy heart donors (n = 5). By using quantitative PCR, we found that PPARgamma is expressed in all of the human specimens with the by far highest expression (5.01-fold) in the left ventricles compared to aorta, whereas no significant difference was detected between coronary arteries (0.93-fold) vs. aorta. Furthermore, especially great interindividual variations were observed in PPARgamma expression in aorta, and to a lesser extent, in coronary arteries and left ventricle specimens. In conclusion, our data argue for the prominent role of PPARgamma in the human heart, particularly in the normal left ventricle.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0753-3322(02)00251-2DOI Listing
October 2002

Contribution of individual spa therapies in the treatment of chronic pain.

Clin J Pain 2002 Sep-Oct;18(5):302-9

Department of Physiology, University of Vienna, Australia.

Objectives: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the contribution of individual spa therapies administered during a period of 3 weeks on measures of well being and pain in a sample of patients with chronic back pain.

Design: One hundred fifty-three patients with chronic back pain undergoing inpatient spa therapy in Bad Tatzmannsdorf, Austria, participated in the study. According to the prescription of their spa physician, patients underwent two or more of the following treatments: mud packs, carbon dioxide baths, massages, exercise therapies, spinal traction, and electrotherapy. The outcome measures were general pain, back pain, negative mood, and health satisfaction. Regression analyses were conducted to predict the 4 outcome measures at the end of spa therapy and at 6 weeks' follow-up for all therapies applied. The pretreatment outcome measure, age, and sex were controlled for by entering them into the analysis.

Results: Patients showed significant improvements in all 4 outcome measures. The prediction of improvement was generally small: only 1% to 11% of the change of the outcome measures could be explained by the type and number of therapies received. On a short-term basis, mud packs and exercise were found to be associated with a greater improvement in mood, whereas a greater frequency of massage therapy and carbon dioxide baths was associated with a smaller improvement in health satisfaction. On a long-term basis, exercise therapy and spinal traction were associated with a greater reduction in back pain.

Conclusions: The results indicate that, in addition to the individual therapies, other factors relating to spa therapy as a whole must contribute to overall treatment outcome. In addition, the results support the efficacy of exercise therapy for chronic back pain.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00002508-200209000-00005DOI Listing
November 2002

Urinary excretion of 8-iso-PGF(2 alpha) in three patients during sepsis, recovery and state of health.

Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 2002 Apr;66(4):441-2

Department of Physiology, Medical School, University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

Sepsis is known to be associated with oxidative stress. Novel markers of oxidative stress are now believed to be F2-isoprostanes which are produced in situ in phospholipids and subsequently released into circulation and excreted in the urine. This study, therefore, sought to investigate whether the excretion of the isoprostane, 8-iso-PGF(2 alpha), is elevated during sepsis. The excretion of 8-iso-PGF(2 alpha), in the 24 h urine of three patients was studied in the septic stage, during mobilisation and in the state of health by a radioimmunological method. Extrapolating the urinary excretion of 8-iso-PGF(2 alpha) over time showed an insignificant variation in the excretion values during 24 h. The amount of mean 24 h urinary 8-iso-PGF(2 alpha) was about similar in the septic stage and in the state of health but increased remarkably during mobilisation in two of the patients. We suggest that mobilisation of septic patients can be associated with an increase of oxidative stress which may stem from an increase in oxygen consumption and/or from a depletion of antioxidants leading to the enhanced formation of free radicals.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1054/plef.2002.0371DOI Listing
April 2002

Seasonal variation in effect of spa therapy on chronic pain.

Chronobiol Int 2002 Mar;19(2):483-95

Department of Physiology, University of Vienna, Austria.

This study sought to investigate whether the effects of spa therapy are subject to seasonal variation as suggested by conventional spa therapy research. A total of 268 female (age 31-90 yr) and 119 male (age 35-85 yr) patients with noninflammatory chronic pain were studied. Patients stayed at an Austrian spa for 3 wk and received 2-4 treatments per day, including mudpacks, massages, and exercise therapy. In different groups of patients for 2 yr, pain (self-assessed by questionnaire and Likert scales) and associated variables (mood, fatigue) were measured at the beginning, end, and 6 wk after spa therapy. Data were analyzed by multivariate analysis of covariance controlling for possible group differences between seasons and cosinor analysis. The effect of spa therapy on pain was seasonally dependent; short-term decrease of pain was best between April and June and medium-term decrease of pain was best between October and November, with a second minor peak in fall and spring, respectively. The magnitude of the seasonal variation was greater for back (approximately 30%) than for joint (approximately 20%) pain. Positive mood also improved most between April and June. The observed semi-annual variations of pain do not correspond to the well-known annual change in many physiological and psychological variables. The results suggest that the effects of spa therapy and possibly other related treatments, such as physical and alternative therapies, are subject to seasonal variation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1081/cbi-120002878DOI Listing
March 2002

Impaired circadian rhythm of melatonin secretion in sedated critically ill patients with severe sepsis.

Crit Care Med 2002 Mar;30(3):536-40

Department of Internal Medicine, University of Vienna, Austria.

Objective: Melatonin is involved in the regulation of the sleep-wake cycle and exhibits multiple interactions with the neuroendocrine and the immune system. Melatonin secretion in healthy individuals follows a stable circadian rhythm. Critical illness, continuous administration of drugs, and loss of external zeitgeber might impair the circadian rhythm of melatonin secretion in the intensive care unit (ICU), thereby compromising the physiologic stress-induced immune response.

Design: Prospective, controlled clinical study.

Setting: Medical intensive care unit in a university hospital.

Patients: Seventeen septic, sedated ICU patients (group A); 7 nonseptic ICU patients (group B); and 21 control patients (group C) were studied.

Measurements And Main Results: 6-Sulfatoxymelatonin (aMT6s) was determined from urine samples taken at 4-hr intervals over a total period of 24 hrs. aMT6s was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Circadian mesors, phase amplitudes, and timing of the acrophase were assessed by cosinor analysis. Differences between groups were calculated by contingency data analysis and by analysis of variance. Circadian mesors of urinary aMT6s were 3904 +/- 1597, 2622 +/- 927, and 3183 +/- 1514 ng/4 hrs in groups A, B, and C, respectively (p = NS). aMT6s exhibited significant circadian periodicity in only 1/17 (6%) patients of group A but in 6/7 (86%) patients of group B and in 18/23 (78%) patients of group C (group A vs. groups B and C: p = .0001) Phase amplitudes were markedly lower in group A (1071 +/- 1005 ng/4 hrs) compared with group B (2284 +/- 581 ng/4 hrs, p = .009) and C (2838 +/- 2255 ng/4 hrs, p = .006). The acrophase was significantly delayed in patients of group A (10:35 am +/- 255 mins) compared with group B (05:43 am +/- 114 mins, p = .01) and group C (4:20 am +/- 107 mins, p < .0001). In sepsis survivors, aMT6s excretion profiles tended to normalize, but still lacked a significant circadian rhythm at ICU discharge.

Conclusion: The present study revealed striking abnormalities in urinary aMT6s excretion in septic ICU patients. In contrast, circadian rhythm was preserved in nonseptic ICU patients, indicating that impaired circadian melatonin secretion in septic patients is mainly related to the presence of severe sepsis and/or concomitant medication. Further investigations are required to examine the underlying pathophysiologic mechanism and the clinical implications of this finding.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00003246-200203000-00007DOI Listing
March 2002
-->