Publications by authors named "Wolfgang Machold"

4 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Epidemiology, treatment and outcome after compartment syndrome of the thigh in 69 cases - Experiences from a level I trauma centre.

Injury 2019 Jun 5;50(6):1242-1246. Epub 2019 Apr 5.

Medical University of Vienna, Department of Orthopaedics and Trauma Surgery, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090, Vienna, Austria. Electronic address:

Background: Compartment syndrome of the thigh (CST) is a rare condition, and its delayed diagnosis and therapy may lead to devastating adverse effects. Thus, the aim of this study was to present the amassed clinical experiences, regarding diagnosis and treatment of CST at a level I trauma centre.

Materials And Methods: The database was reviewed for all patients with a manifest CST treated surgically between 1995 and 2014.

Results: 69 patients (61 males and 8 females) met the inclusion criteria, with a mean age of 42.9 years (range: 11-87 years). Forty-four patients (64%) presented with an isolated CST. There was a significant association between complication rates and high impact vs. blunt trauma (12/32, 38% vs. 0/20, 0%; p = 0.0022; Fisher's exact test). The number of surgeries in patients with a concomitant femur fracture was significantly increased (in mean: 2.8 vs. 4.9 surgical interventions; p < 0.001; U test).

Conclusion: Patients after high impact trauma showed the highest complication rate. Concomitant femur fractures were associated with an increased number of surgical interventions. The synopsis of trauma mechanism, clinical presentation, age, anticoagulation status and clinical experience of the trauma surgeon seem to be the best tools to correctly diagnose CST.
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June 2019

Post-operative retransfusion of unwashed filtered shed blood reduces allogenic blood demand in hip hemiarthroplasty in traumatic femoral neck fractures-a prospective randomized trial.

Int Orthop 2016 Dec 1;40(12):2575-2579. Epub 2016 Mar 1.

Department for Trauma Surgery, Medical University Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

Purpose: Patients who undergo hip hemiarthroplasty (HHA) due to traumatic femoral neck fracture frequently require red blood cell (RBC) transfusion. Although post-operative autologous blood transfusion (ABT) is well established in elective arthroplasty, its role in trauma patients remains unclear.

Methods: Two hundred twenty-nine patients with a traumatic femoral neck fracture that underwent HHA at our level-I trauma centre between 2005 and 2009 were prospectively randomized to a high-vacuum drainage or an ABT device. In this single-institution analysis, the number of RBC units as well as the amount of retransfused shed blood were recorded and compared according to study groups. Additionally, the significance of confounding factors for allogenic blood demand such as age, gender, pre-operative Hb level, surgical approach, type of prosthesis and amount of intra-operative RBC units were evaluated using multivariate analysis.

Results: One hundred thirty-five patients were randomized in the high-vacuum group while 94 patients received an ABT device. Intention to treat analysis revealed no significant difference in post-operative RBC demand (ABT: 0.87 RBC, high-vacuum drainage: 1.01 RBC; P = 0.374). However, patients that actually received retransfusion (N = 35) had a reduced post-operative RBC demand (0.49 RBC units, P = 0.014).

Conclusion: While only one third of trauma patients treated with an ABT device during HHA actually receive retransfusion, retransfused patients seem to significantly benefit from this treatment as reflected by a reduced pos-toperative RBC demand.
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December 2016

Risk factors indicating the need for cranial CT scans in elderly patients with head trauma: an Austrian trial and comparison with the Canadian CT Head Rule.

J Neurosurg 2014 Feb 6;120(2):447-52. Epub 2013 Dec 6.

Departments of Trauma Surgery and.

Object: This study presents newly defined risk factors for detecting clinically important brain injury requiring neurosurgical intervention and intensive care, and compares it with the Canadian CT Head Rule (CCHR).

Methods: This prospective cohort study was conducted in a single Austrian Level-I trauma center and enrolled a consecutive sample of mildly head-injured adults who presented to the emergency department with witnessed loss of consciousness, disorientation, or amnesia, and a Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score of 13-15. The studied population consisted of a large number of elderly patients living in Vienna. The aim of the study was to investigate risk factors that help to predict the need for immediate cranial CT in patients with mild head trauma.

Results: Among the 12,786 enrolled patients, 1307 received a cranial CT scan. Four hundred eighty-nine patients (37.4%) with a mean age of 63.9 ± 22.8 years had evidence of an acute traumatic intracranial lesion on CT. Three patients (< 0.1%) were admitted to the intensive care unit for neurological observation and received oropharyngeal intubation. Seventeen patients (0.1%) underwent neurosurgical intervention. In 818 patients (62.6%), no evidence of an acute trauma-related lesion was found on CT. Data analysis showed that the presence of at least 1 of the following factors can predict the necessity of cranial CT: amnesia, GCS score, age > 65 years, loss of consciousness, nausea or vomiting, hypocoagulation, dementia or a history of ischemic stroke, anisocoria, skull fracture, and development of a focal neurological deficit. Patients requiring neurosurgical intervention were detected with a sensitivity of 90% and a specificity of 67% by using the authors' analysis. In contrast, the use of the CCHR in these patients detected the need for neurosurgical intervention with a sensitivity of only 80% and a specificity of 72%.

Conclusions: The use of the suggested parameters proved to be superior in the detection of high-risk patients who sustained a mild head trauma compared with the CCHR rules. Further validation of these results in a multicenter setting is needed. Clinical trial registration no.: NCT00451789 ( .).
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February 2014

Reduction of severe wrist injuries in snowboarding by an optimized wrist protection device: a prospective randomized trial.

J Trauma 2002 Mar;52(3):517-20

Clinic for Traumatology, General Hospital, University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

Background: The benefits of sport are well recognized, but many activities carry a sport-specific injury risk. Snowboarding has become an increasingly popular winter sport in Austria in recent years, with an estimated 900,000 participants annually. Roughly 6,000 of these suffer from injury and up to 2,000 sustain moderate or severe wrist injuries (mainly fractures of the distal radius and epiphysiolyses).

Methods: We conducted a prospective, randomized, controlled trial to test the protective effect of a wrist protector, which differs in position, stiffness, length, and fixation from conventional protectors. Seven hundred twenty-one snowboarders were randomized into two groups. The risk factors and the injuries that occurred were registered by questionnaires and, in case of medical treatment, by medical reports. Time until injury (in half-days) was compared by the proportional hazards model.

Results: Nine severe wrist injuries were sustained in the unprotected control group and only one in the protected group (hazard ratio, 0.13; 95% confidence limits, 0.02, 1.04). Twelve snowboarders of the protector group secretly discarded their protectors during the trial (including the snowboarder who suffered the one and only severe wrist injury of this group). A per-protocol analysis was therefore performed, which demonstrated a more accentuated result (p = 0.003). There was no statistically significant increase in the incidence of other types of injury. Experience was shown to be a further protective factor.

Conclusion: We recommend the use of a wrist protector, particularly for novices participating in this sport. As in other domains of medicine, preventive measures can decrease morbidity also in terms of sport injuries.
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March 2002