Publications by authors named "Wolfgang Kummer"

160 Publications

Development of epithelial cholinergic chemosensory cells of the urethra and trachea of mice.

Cell Tissue Res 2021 Feb 22. Epub 2021 Feb 22.

Institute for Anatomy and Cell Biology, German Center for Lung Research (DZL), Excellence Cluster Cardiopulmonary Institute (CPI), Justus-Liebig-University Giessen, Giessen, Germany.

Cholinergic chemosensory cells (CCC) are infrequent epithelial cells with immunosensor function, positioned in mucosal epithelia preferentially near body entry sites in mammals including man. Given their adaptive capacity in response to infection and their role in combatting pathogens, we here addressed the time points of their initial emergence as well as their postnatal development from first exposure to environmental microbiota (i.e., birth) to adulthood in urethra and trachea, utilizing choline acetyltransferase (ChAT)-eGFP reporter mice, mice with genetic deletion of MyD88, toll-like receptor-2 (TLR2), TLR4, TLR2/TLR4, and germ-free mice. Appearance of CCC differs between the investigated organs. CCC of the trachea emerge during embryonic development at E18 and expand further after birth. Urethral CCC show gender diversity and appear first at P6-P10 in male and at P11-P20 in female mice. Urethrae and tracheae of MyD88- and TLR-deficient mice showed significantly fewer CCC in all four investigated deficient strains, with the effect being most prominent in the urethra. In germ-free mice, however, CCC numbers were not reduced, indicating that TLR2/4-MyD88 signaling, but not vita-PAMPs, governs CCC development. Collectively, our data show a marked postnatal expansion of CCC populations with distinct organ-specific features, including the relative impact of TLR2/4-MyD88 signaling. Strong dependency on this pathway (urethra) correlates with absence of CCC at birth and gender-specific initial development and expansion dynamics, whereas moderate dependency (trachea) coincides with presence of first CCC at E18 and sex-independent further development.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00441-021-03424-9DOI Listing
February 2021

Multilineage murine stem cells generate complex organoids to model distal lung development and disease.

EMBO J 2020 11 28;39(21):e103476. Epub 2020 Sep 28.

Department of Internal Medicine II and Cardio-Pulmonary Institute (CPI), Universities of Giessen and Marburg Lung Center (UGMLC), Member of the German Center for Lung Research (DZL) and The Institute of Lung Health (ILH), Giessen, Germany.

Organoids derived from mouse and human stem cells have recently emerged as a powerful tool to study organ development and disease. We here established a three-dimensional (3D) murine bronchioalveolar lung organoid (BALO) model that allows clonal expansion and self-organization of FACS-sorted bronchioalveolar stem cells (BASCs) upon co-culture with lung-resident mesenchymal cells. BALOs yield a highly branched 3D structure within 21 days of culture, mimicking the cellular composition of the bronchioalveolar compartment as defined by single-cell RNA sequencing and fluorescence as well as electron microscopic phenotyping. Additionally, BALOs support engraftment and maintenance of the cellular phenotype of injected tissue-resident macrophages. We also demonstrate that BALOs recapitulate lung developmental defects after knockdown of a critical regulatory gene, and permit modeling of viral infection. We conclude that the BALO model enables reconstruction of the epithelial-mesenchymal-myeloid unit of the distal lung, thereby opening numerous new avenues to study lung development, infection, and regenerative processes in vitro.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.15252/embj.2019103476DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7604576PMC
November 2020

Advillin is a tuft cell marker in the mouse alimentary tract.

J Mol Histol 2020 Aug 2;51(4):421-435. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Institute for Anatomy and Cell Biology, Philipps-University, Robert-Koch-Straße 8, 35037, Marburg, Germany.

Tuft cells are a rare population of chemosensory cells at the mucosal surface epithelia of hollow organs. Their name-giving morphological feature is an apical tuft of stiff microvilli. Accordingly, the actin-binding protein, villin, was identified as one of the first tuft cell markers in immunohistochemical analysis. Unfortunately, villin expression is not restricted to tuft cells, but is also prominent e.g. in enterocytes, which limits the use of this gene as a marker and as an experimental tool to genetically target tuft cells. Here, we report that the villin-related protein, advillin, is a specific tuft cell marker in the gastro-intestinal and biliary tract epithelia. In situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry revealed that advillin expression, unlike villin, was restricted to solitary cholinergic tuft cells in the mucosal linings of the small and large intestine, and in the gall bladder. In the glandular stomach, villin and advillin mRNA were present in all epithelial cells, while detectable protein levels were confined to solitary tuft cells. Advillin expression was no longer detectable in the mucosa of the intestinal and biliary tract from Pou2f3 deficient mice that lack tuft cells. Finally, crossing Avil-Cre transgenic mice with a double-fluorescent reporter mouse line resulted in specific targeting of gastro-intestinal and biliary tuft cells. Our analysis introduces advillin as a selective marker and tool in histological and functional analysis of the alimentary tract tuft cell system.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10735-020-09893-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7368872PMC
August 2020

Acute nicotine administration stimulates ciliary activity via α3β4 nAChR in the mouse trachea.

Int Immunopharmacol 2020 Jul 15;84:106496. Epub 2020 Apr 15.

Institute of Anatomy and Cell Biology, German Center for Lung Research, Justus-Liebig-University Giessen, Giessen, Germany; Present address: Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Saarland University, Homburg/Saar, Germany.

Mucociliary clearance, the continuous removal of mucus-trapped particles by cilia-driven directed transport of the airway lining fluid, is the primary innate defense mechanism of the airways. It is potently activated by acetylcholine (ACh) addressing muscarinic receptors with a currently less defined role of nicotinic ACh receptors (nAChR). We here set out to determine their contribution in driving ciliary activity in an explanted mouse trachea preparation utilizing selected agonists and antagonists and nAChR-subunit deficient mice. Nicotine (100 µM) induced an increase in ciliary beat frequency, accompanied by a sharp, but not long lasting increase in particle transport speed (PTS) on the mucosal surface showing marked desensitization within the next 30 min. Nicotine-induced PTS acceleration was sensitive to the general nAChR inhibitors mecamylamine and d-tubocurarine as well as to the α3β4-nAChR antagonist α-conotoxin AulB, but not to other antagonists primarily addressing α3β2-nAChR or α4-, α7- and α9-containing nAChR. Agonists at α3β*-nAChR (epibatidine, cytisine), but not cotinine mimicked the effect. Tracheas from mice with genetic deletion of nAChR subunits α5, α7, α9, α10, α9/10, and β2 retained full PTS response to nicotine, whereas this was entirely lost in tracheas from mice lacking the β4-subunit. Collectively, our data show that nicotinic stimulation of α3β4-nAChR acutely increases PTS to the same extent as the established strong activator ATP. In view of the marked desensitization observed in the present setting, the physiological relevance of these receptors in adapting mucociliary clearance to rapidly changing endogenous or environmental stimuli remains open.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.intimp.2020.106496DOI Listing
July 2020

Chemosensory Cell-Derived Acetylcholine Drives Tracheal Mucociliary Clearance in Response to Virulence-Associated Formyl Peptides.

Immunity 2020 04;52(4):683-699.e11

Institute for Anatomy and Cell Biology, German Center for Lung Research, Justus Liebig University, 35385 Giessen, Germany. Electronic address:

Mucociliary clearance through coordinated ciliary beating is a major innate defense removing pathogens from the lower airways, but the pathogen sensing and downstream signaling mechanisms remain unclear. We identified virulence-associated formylated bacterial peptides that potently stimulated ciliary-driven transport in the mouse trachea. This innate response was independent of formyl peptide and taste receptors but depended on key taste transduction genes. Tracheal cholinergic chemosensory cells expressed these genes, and genetic ablation of these cells abrogated peptide-driven stimulation of mucociliary clearance. Trpm5-deficient mice were more susceptible to infection with a natural pathogen, and formylated bacterial peptides were detected in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Optogenetics and peptide stimulation revealed that ciliary beating was driven by paracrine cholinergic signaling from chemosensory to ciliated cells operating through muscarinic M3 receptors independently of nerves. We provide a cellular and molecular framework that defines how tracheal chemosensory cells integrate chemosensation with innate defense.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.immuni.2020.03.005DOI Listing
April 2020

Hypoxia-induced pulmonary vasoconstriction of intra-acinar arteries is impaired in NADPH oxidase 4 gene-deficient mice.

Pulm Circ 2018 Oct-Dec;8(4):2045894018808240. Epub 2018 Oct 4.

1 Institute of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Justus-Liebig-University, Giessen, Germany.

We show that genetic deficiency of the reactive oxygen species generating enzyme NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4) impairs hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction in small (25-40 µm) intra-acinar, but not pre-acinar, arteries in murine precision cut lung slices. These data suggest an involvement of NOX4 in ventilation-perfusion matching at the acinar level.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2045894018808240DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6236867PMC
October 2018

ENaC in Cholinergic Brush Cells.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2018 15;6:89. Epub 2018 Aug 15.

Institute for Anatomy and Cell Biology, Justus-Liebig-University Giessen, Giessen, Germany.

Cholinergic polymodal chemosensory cells in the mammalian urethra (urethral brush cells = UBC) functionally express the canonical bitter and umami taste transduction signaling cascade. Here, we aimed to determine whether UBC are functionally equipped for the perception of salt through ENaC (epithelial sodium channel). Cholinergic UBC were isolated from ChAT-eGFP reporter mice (ChAT = choline acetyltransferase). RT-PCR showed mRNA expression of ENaC subunits , and in urethral epithelium and isolated UBC. could also be detected by next generation sequencing in 4/6 (66%) single UBC, two of them also expressed the bitter receptor Tas2R108. Strong expression of was seen in some urothelial umbrella cells and in 65% of UBC (30/46 cells) in a reporter mouse strain. Intracellular [Ca] was recorded in isolated UBC stimulated with the bitter substance denatonium benzoate (25 mM), ATP (0.5 mM) and NaCl (50 mM, on top of 145 mM Na and 153 mM Cl baseline in buffer); mannitol (150 mM) served as osmolarity control. NaCl, but not mannitol, evoked an increase in intracellular [Ca] in 70% of the tested UBC. The NaCl-induced effect was blocked by the ENaC inhibitor amiloride (IC = 0.47 μM). When responses to both NaCl and denatonium were tested, all three possible positive response patterns occurred in a balanced distribution: 42% NaCl only, 33% denatonium only, 25% to both stimuli. A similar reaction pattern was observed with ATP and NaCl as test stimuli. About 22% of the UBC reacted to all three stimuli. Thus, NaCl evokes calcium responses in several UBC, likely involving an amiloride-sensitive channel containing α-ENaC. This feature does not define a new subpopulation of UBC, but rather emphasizes their polymodal character. The actual function of α-ENaC in cholinergic UBC-salt perception, homeostatic ion transport, mechanoreception-remains to be determined.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcell.2018.00089DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6103785PMC
August 2018

C-Reactive Protein Stimulates Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors to Control ATP-Mediated Monocytic Inflammasome Activation.

Front Immunol 2018 30;9:1604. Epub 2018 Jul 30.

Laboratory of Experimental Surgery, Department of General and Thoracic Surgery, Justus-Liebig-University Giessen, German Centre for Lung Research (DZL), Giessen, Germany.

Blood levels of the acute phase reactant C-reactive protein (CRP) are frequently measured as a clinical marker for inflammation, but the biological functions of CRP are still controversial. CRP is a phosphocholine (PC)-binding pentraxin, mainly produced in the liver in response to elevated levels of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and of the IL-1β-dependent cytokine IL-6. While both cytokines play important roles in host defense, excessive systemic IL-1β levels can cause life-threatening diseases such as trauma-associated systemic inflammation. We hypothesized that CRP acts as a negative feedback regulator of monocytic IL-1β maturation and secretion. Here, we demonstrate that CRP, in association with PC, efficiently reduces ATP-induced inflammasome activation and IL-1β release from human peripheral blood mononuclear leukocytes and monocytic U937 cells. Effective concentrations are in the range of marginally pathologic CRP levels (IC = 4.9 µg/ml). CRP elicits metabotropic functions at nicotinic acetylcholine (ACh) receptors (nAChRs) containing subunits α7, α9, and α10 and suppresses the function of ATP-sensitive P2X7 receptors in monocytic cells. Of note, CRP does not induce ion currents at conventional nAChRs, suggesting that CRP is a potent nicotinic agonist controlling innate immunity without entailing the risk of adverse effects in the nervous system. In a prospective study on multiple trauma patients, IL-1β plasma concentrations negatively correlated with preceding CRP levels, whereas inflammasome-independent cytokines IL-6, IL-18, and TNF-α positively correlated. In conclusion, PC-laden CRP is an unconventional nicotinic agonist that potently inhibits ATP-induced inflammasome activation and might protect against trauma-associated sterile inflammation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2018.01604DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6077200PMC
January 2019

Substance P Receptor in the Rat Heart and Regulation of Its Expression in Long-Term Diabetes.

Front Physiol 2018 13;9:918. Epub 2018 Jul 13.

Biomedical Centre, Faculty of Medicine in Pilsen, Charles University, Pilsen, Czechia.

Substance P (SP) is a neuropeptide engaged in the signal transmission of neural C fibers afferents in the myocardium. The actions of SP in the heart are extensive and they are mediated by the neurokinin 1 receptor (NK1R), a member of the tachykinin subfamily of G-protein coupled receptors. The receptors have been found in the heart, but to our knowledge, their exact localization in the heart has not been described yet. Here, we investigated the presence of NK1R protein in separate rat heart compartments by means of western blot and its tissue distribution by means of immunofluorescence. Specificity of NK1R immunolabeling was controlled by preabsorption of the antiserum with its corresponding peptide. Additionally, we investigated abundance of gene for NK1R in separated heart chambers by means of quantitative real-time PCR (RT-PCR). Relative abundance of NK1R mRNA was expressed as a ratio of target gene Cq value to Cq value of control gene - beta-actin. Finally, we studied abundance of NK1R mRNA in different cell types of heart isolated by laser capture microdissection. Immunofluorescence showed NK1R immunoreactivity on the surface of some intracardiac neurons and smooth muscle cells of coronary vessels. The results of quantitative RT-PCR indicate abundance of mRNA for NK1R in all heart chambers with highest level in the left atrium. The presence of NK1R mRNA was detected in some samples of dissected intracardiac neurons, but not in cardiomyocytes or smooth muscle cells of coronary vessels. In the course of long-term diabetes, a significant downregulation of the NK1R mRNA was seen in the right atrium and upregulation in the right ventricle 53 weeks after the induction of diabetes. Our results indicate localization of NK1R in some intracardiac neurons and smooth muscle cells. Impaired transcription of the NK1R gene in the diabetic heart may be induced by unidentified genes or factors involved in the development of diabetic cardiomyopathy.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2018.00918DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6053525PMC
July 2018

β-Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide (β-NAD) Inhibits ATP-Dependent IL-1β Release from Human Monocytic Cells.

Int J Mol Sci 2018 Apr 10;19(4). Epub 2018 Apr 10.

Laboratory of Experimental Surgery, Department of General and Thoracic Surgery, Justus-Liebig-University Giessen, German Centre for Lung Research (DZL), Feulgen-Str. 10-12, D-35385 Giessen, Germany.

While interleukin-1β (IL-1β) is a potent pro-inflammatory cytokine essential for host defense, high systemic levels cause life-threatening inflammatory syndromes. ATP, a stimulus of IL-1β maturation, is released from damaged cells along with β-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (β-NAD). Here, we tested the hypothesis that β-NAD controls ATP-signaling and, hence, IL-1β release. Lipopolysaccharide-primed monocytic U937 cells and primary human mononuclear leukocytes were stimulated with 2'(3')--(4-benzoyl-benzoyl)ATP trieethylammonium salt (BzATP), a P2X7 receptor agonist, in the presence or absence of β-NAD. IL-1β was measured in cell culture supernatants. The roles of P2Y receptors, nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), and Ca-independent phospholipase A2 (iPLA2β, PLA2G6) were investigated using specific inhibitors and gene-silencing. Exogenous β-NAD signaled via P2Y receptors and dose-dependently (IC = 15 µM) suppressed the BzATP-induced IL-1β release. Signaling involved iPLA2β, release of a soluble mediator, and nAChR subunit α9. Patch-clamp experiments revealed that β-NAD inhibited BzATP-induced ion currents. In conclusion, we describe a novel triple membrane-passing signaling cascade triggered by extracellular β-NAD that suppresses ATP-induced release of IL-1β by monocytic cells. This cascade links activation of P2Y receptors to non-canonical metabotropic functions of nAChRs that inhibit P2X7 receptor function. The biomedical relevance of this mechanism might be the control of trauma-associated systemic inflammation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms19041126DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5979475PMC
April 2018

Bordetella pseudohinzii targets cilia and impairs tracheal cilia-driven transport in naturally acquired infection in mice.

Sci Rep 2018 04 9;8(1):5681. Epub 2018 Apr 9.

Institute of Anatomy and Cell Biology, German Center for Lung Research (DZL), Excellence Cluster Cardio-Pulmonary System (ECCPS), Justus-Liebig-University Giessen, Giessen, Germany.

Several species of the Gram-negative genus Bordetella are the cause of respiratory infections in mammals and birds, including whooping cough (pertussis) in humans. Very recently, a novel atypical species, Bordetella pseudohinzii, was isolated from laboratory mice. These mice presented no obvious clinical symptoms but elevated numbers of neutrophils in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and inflammatory signs in histopathology. We noted that this species can occur at high prevalence in a mouse facility despite regular pathogen testing according to the FELASA-recommendations. Affected C57BL/6 J mice had, in addition to the reported pulmonary alterations, tracheal inflammation with reduced numbers of ciliated cells, slower ciliary beat frequency, and largely (>50%) compromised cilia-driven particle transport speed on the mucosal surface, a primary innate defence mechanism. In an in vitro-model, Bordetella pseudohinzii attached to respiratory kinocilia, impaired ciliary function within 4 h and caused epithelial damage within 24 h. Regular testing for this ciliotropic Bordetella species and excluding it from colonies that provide mice for lung research shall be recommended. On the other hand, controlled colonization and infection with Bordetella pseudohinzii may serve as an experimental model to investigate mechanisms of mucociliary clearance and microbial strategies to escape from this primary innate defence response.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-23830-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5890243PMC
April 2018

The sympathetic nervous system: malignancy, disease, and novel functions.

Cell Tissue Res 2018 05;372(2):163-170

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Tufts Medical Center and Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, 02111, USA.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00441-018-2831-0DOI Listing
May 2018

Muscarinic receptors 2 and 5 regulate bitter response of urethral brush cells via negative feedback.

FASEB J 2018 06 17;32(6):2903-2910. Epub 2018 Jan 17.

Institute for Anatomy and Cell Biology, Justus-Liebig-University Giessen, Giessen, Germany.

We have recently identified a cholinergic chemosensory cell in the urethral epithelium, urethral brush cell (UBC), that, upon stimulation with bitter or bacterial substances, initiates a reflex detrusor activation. Here, we elucidated cholinergic mechanisms that modulate UBC responsiveness. We analyzed muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (M1-5 mAChR) expression by using RT-PCR in UBCs, recorded [Ca] responses to a bitter stimulus in isolated UBCs of wild-type and mAChR-deficient mice, and performed cystometry in all involved strains. The bitter response of UBCs was enhanced by global cholinergic and selective M2 inhibition, diminished by positive allosteric modulation of M5, and unaffected by M1, M3, and M4 mAChR inhibitors. This effect was not observed in M2 and M5 mAChR-deficient mice. In cystometry, M5 mAChR-deficient mice demonstrated signs of detrusor overactivity. In conclusion, M2 and M5 mAChRs attenuate the bitter response of UBC via a cholinergic negative autocrine feedback mechanism. Cystometry suggests that dysfunction, particularly of the M5 receptor, may lead to such symptoms as bladder overactivity.-Deckmann, K., Rafiq, A., Erdmann, C., Illig, C., Durschnabel, M., Wess, J., Weidner, W., Bschleipfer, T., Kummer, W. Muscarinic receptors 2 and 5 regulate bitter response of urethral brush cells via negative feedback.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1096/fj.201700582RDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6137718PMC
June 2018

Sphingosine Kinase 1 Regulates Inflammation and Contributes to Acute Lung Injury in Pneumococcal Pneumonia via the Sphingosine-1-Phosphate Receptor 2.

Crit Care Med 2018 03;46(3):e258-e267

Department of Infectious Diseases and Pulmonary Medicine, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, corporate member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, and Berlin Institute of Health, Berlin, Germany.

Objectives: Severe pneumonia may evoke acute lung injury, and sphingosine-1-phosphate is involved in the regulation of vascular permeability and immune responses. However, the role of sphingosine-1-phosphate and the sphingosine-1-phosphate producing sphingosine kinase 1 in pneumonia remains elusive. We examined the role of the sphingosine-1-phosphate system in regulating pulmonary vascular barrier function in bacterial pneumonia.

Design: Controlled, in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo laboratory study.

Subjects: Female wild-type and SphK1-deficient mice, 8-10 weeks old. Human postmortem lung tissue, human blood-derived macrophages, and pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells.

Interventions: Wild-type and SphK1-deficient mice were infected with Streptococcus pneumoniae. Pulmonary sphingosine-1-phosphate levels, messenger RNA expression, and permeability as well as lung morphology were analyzed. Human blood-derived macrophages and human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells were infected with S. pneumoniae. Transcellular electrical resistance of human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cell monolayers was examined. Further, permeability of murine isolated perfused lungs was determined following exposition to sphingosine-1-phosphate and pneumolysin.

Measurements And Main Results: Following S. pneumoniae infection, murine pulmonary sphingosine-1-phosphate levels and sphingosine kinase 1 and sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 2 expression were increased. Pneumonia-induced lung hyperpermeability was reduced in SphK1 mice compared with wild-type mice. Expression of sphingosine kinase 1 in macrophages recruited to inflamed lung areas in pneumonia was observed in murine and human lungs. S. pneumoniae induced the sphingosine kinase 1/sphingosine-1-phosphate system in blood-derived macrophages and enhanced sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 2 expression in human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cell in vitro. In isolated mouse lungs, pneumolysin-induced hyperpermeability was dose dependently and synergistically increased by sphingosine-1-phosphate. This sphingosine-1-phosphate-induced increase was reduced by inhibition of sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 2 or its downstream effector Rho-kinase.

Conclusions: Our data suggest that targeting the sphingosine kinase 1-/sphingosine-1-phosphate-/sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 2-signaling pathway in the lung may provide a novel therapeutic perspective in pneumococcal pneumonia for prevention of acute lung injury.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CCM.0000000000002916DOI Listing
March 2018

Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor α9 and α10 Subunits Are Expressed in the Brain of Mice.

Front Cell Neurosci 2017 12;11:282. Epub 2017 Sep 12.

Laboratory of Cell Receptors Immunology, Palladin Institute of Biochemistry (NAS Ukraine)Kiev, Ukraine.

The α9 and α10 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunits are likely to be the evolutionary precursors to the entire cys-loop superfamily of ligand-gated ion channels, which includes acetylcholine, GABA, glycine and serotonin ionotropic receptors. nAChRs containing α9 and α10 subunits are found in the inner ear, dorsal root ganglia and many non-excitable tissues, but their expression in the central nervous system has not been definitely demonstrated. Here we show the presence of both α9 and α10 nAChR subunits in the mouse brain by RT-PCR and immunochemical approaches with a range of nAChR subunit-selective antibodies, which selectivity was demonstrated in the brain preparations of α7-/-, α9-/- and α10-/- mice. The α9 and α10 RNA transcripts were found in medulla oblongata (MO), cerebellum, midbrain (MB), thalamus and putamen (TP), somatosensory cortex (SC), frontal cortex (FC) and hippocampus. High α9-selective signal in ELISA was observed in the FC, SC, MO, TP and hippocampus and α10-selective signal was the highest in MO and FC. The α9 and α10 proteins were found in the brain mitochondria, while their presence on the plasma membrane has not been definitely confirmed The α7-, α9- and α10-selective antibodies stained mainly neurons and hypertrophied astrocytes, but not microglia. The α9- and α10-positive cells formed ordered structures or zones in cerebellum and superior olive (SO) and were randomly distributed among α7-positive cells in the FC; they were found in CA1, CA3 and CA4, but not in CA2 region of the hippocampus. The α9 and α10 subunits were up-regulated in α7-/- mice and both α7 and α9 subunits were down-regulated in α10-/- mice. We conclude that α9 and α10 nAChR subunits are expressed in distinct neurons of the mouse brain and in the brain mitochondria and are compensatory up-regulated in the absence of α7 subunits.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fncel.2017.00282DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5601054PMC
September 2017

Caveolin-1: Functional Insights into Its Role in Muscarine- and Serotonin-Induced Smooth Muscle Constriction in Murine Airways.

Front Physiol 2017 15;8:295. Epub 2017 May 15.

Institute of Anatomy and Cell Biology, School of Medicine, Saarland UniversityHomburg/Saar, Germany.

An increased bronchoconstrictor response is a hallmark in the progression of obstructive airway diseases. Acetylcholine and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT, serotonin) are the major bronchoconstrictors. There is evidence that both cholinergic and serotonergic signaling in airway smooth muscle (ASM) involve caveolae. We hypothesized that caveolin-1 (cav-1), a structural protein of caveolae, plays an important regulatory role in ASM contraction. We analyzed airway contraction in different tracheal segments and extra- and intrapulmonary bronchi in cav-1 deficient (cav-1-/-) and wild-type mice using organ bath recordings and videomorphometry of methyl-beta-cyclodextrin (MCD) treated and non-treated precision-cut lung slices (PCLS). The presence of caveolae was investigated by electron microscopy. Receptor subtypes driving 5-HT-responses were studied by RT-PCR and videomorphometry after pharmacological inhibition with ketanserin. Cav-1 was present in tracheal epithelium and ASM. Muscarine induced a dose dependent contraction in all airway segments. A significantly higher Emax was observed in the caudal trachea. Although, caveolae abundancy was largely reduced in cav-1-/- mice, muscarine-induced airway contraction was maintained, albeit at diminished potency in the middle trachea, in the caudal trachea and in the bronchus without changes in the maximum efficacy. MCD-treatment of PLCS from cav-1-/- mice reduced cholinergic constriction by about 50%, indicating that cholesterol-rich plasma domains account for a substantial portion of the muscarine-induced bronchoconstriction. Notably, cav-1-deficiency fully abrogated 5-HT-induced contraction of extrapulmonary airways. In contrast, 5-HT-induced bronchoconstriction was fully maintained in cav-1-deficient intrapulmonary bronchi, but desensitization upon repetitive stimulation was enhanced. RT-PCR analysis revealed 5-HT1B, 5-HT2A, 5-HT6, and 5-HT7 receptors as the most prevalent subtypes in the airways. The 5-HT-induced-constriction in PCLS could be antagonized by ketanserin, a 5-HT2A receptor inhibitor. In conclusion, the role of cav-1, caveolae, and cholesterol-rich plasma domains in regulation of airway tone are highly agonist-specific and dependent on airway level. Cav-1 is indispensable for serotonergic contraction of extrapulmonary airways and modulates cholinergic constriction of the trachea and main bronchus. Thus, cav-1/caveolae shall be considered in settings such as bronchial hyperreactivity in common airway diseases and might provide an opportunity for modulation of the constrictor response.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2017.00295DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5430063PMC
May 2017

TASK-1 potassium channel is not critically involved in mediating hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction of murine intra-pulmonary arteries.

PLoS One 2017 16;12(3):e0174071. Epub 2017 Mar 16.

Institute of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Justus-Liebig-University, Giessen, Germany.

The two-pore domain potassium channel KCNK3 (TASK-1) is expressed in rat and human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells. There, it is associated with hypoxia-induced signalling, and its dysfunction is linked to pathogenesis of human pulmonary hypertension. We here aimed to determine its role in hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV) in the mouse, and hence the suitability of this model for further mechanistic investigations, using appropriate inhibitors and TASK-1 knockout (KO) mice. RT-PCR revealed expression of TASK-1 mRNA in murine lungs and pre-acinar pulmonary arteries. Protein localization by immunohistochemistry and western blot was unreliable since all antibodies produced labelling also in TASK-1 KO organs/tissues. HPV was investigated by videomorphometric analysis of intra- (inner diameter: 25-40 μm) and pre-acinar pulmonary arteries (inner diameter: 41-60 μm). HPV persisted in TASK-1 KO intra-acinar arteries. Pre-acinar arteries developed initial HPV, but the response faded earlier (after 30 min) in KO vessels. This HPV pattern was grossly mimicked by the TASK-1 inhibitor anandamide in wild-type vessels. Hypoxia-provoked rise in pulmonary arterial pressure (PAP) in isolated ventilated lungs was affected neither by TASK-1 gene deficiency nor by the TASK-1 inhibitor A293. TASK-1 is dispensable for initiating HPV of murine intra-pulmonary arteries, but participates in sustained HPV specifically in pre-acinar arteries. This does not translate into abnormal rise in PAP. While there is compelling evidence that TASK-1 is involved in the pathogenesis of pulmonary arterial hypertension in humans, the mouse does not appear to serve as a suitable model to study the underlying molecular mechanisms.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0174071PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5354433PMC
September 2017

Avertin®, but Not Volatile Anesthetics Addressing the Two-Pore Domain K+ Channel, TASK-1, Slows Down Cilia-Driven Particle Transport in the Mouse Trachea.

PLoS One 2016 8;11(12):e0167919. Epub 2016 Dec 8.

Institute of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Justus-Liebig-University and German Center for Lung Research (DZL), Excellence Cluster Cardio-Pulmonary System (ECCPS), Giessen, Germany.

Rationale: Volatile anesthetics inhibit mucociliary clearance in the airways. The two-pore domain K+ channel, TASK-1, represents one of their molecular targets in that they increase its open probability. Here, we determine whether particle transport speed (PTS) at the mucosal surface of the mouse trachea, an important factor of the cilia-driven mechanism in mucociliary clearance, is regulated by TASK-1.

Methodology/results: RT-PCR analysis revealed expression of TASK-1 mRNA in the manually dissected and laser-assisted microdissected tracheal epithelium of the mouse. Effects of anesthetics (isoflurane and Avertin®) and TASK-1 inhibitors (anandamide and A293) on ciliary activity were investigated by assessment of PTS at the mucosal surface of the explanted and opened murine trachea. Neither TASK-1 inhibitors nor isoflurane had any impact on basal and ATP-stimulated PTS. Avertin® reduced basal PTS, and ATP-stimulated PTS decreased in its presence in wild-type (WT) mice. Avertin®-induced decrease in basal PTS persisted in WT mice in the presence of TASK-1 inhibitors, and in two different strains of TASK-1 knockout mice.

Conclusions/significance: Our findings indicate that TASK-1 is expressed by the tracheal epithelium but is not critically involved in the regulation of tracheal PTS in mice. Avertin® reduces PTS independent of TASK-1.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0167919PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5145217PMC
July 2017

Brush cells, the newly identified gatekeepers of the urinary tract.

Curr Opin Urol 2017 03;27(2):85-92

Institute of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Justus-Liebig-University Giessen, Giessen, Germany.

Purpose Of Review: A specialized epithelial cell with chemosensory properties of taste cells known from the mouth has been newly identified in the urethra and linked to pathogen recognition. We here describe its properties and its link to defence mechanisms, showing parallels to similar sentinel cells in the respiratory and gastrointestinal tract.

Recent Findings: In the urethra, slender epithelial cells with apical microvilli ('brush cells') express bitter and umami taste receptors and the downstream signalling cascade known from oropharyngeal gustation, utilizing it to monitor for bacterial products and bacterial growth facilitating conditions. Upon stimulation, they release acetylcholine, and their sensitivity is subjected to cholinergic feedback. They are approached by cholinoceptive sensory nerve fibres, and intraurethral bitter application evokes reflex detrusor activity. Similar cells in the respiratory and gastrointestinal mucosa additionally regulate immune function through local neurogenic inflammation and cytokine release, triggered by bacterial products and parasites.

Summary: This cell is interpreted to serve as chemosensory sentinel for potential hazardous compounds in the urethral lumen, triggering a protective mechanism (flushing through micturition) against further ascent. Dysfunction may be related to higher risk of infection or inadequate detrusor activity, pharmacological intervention may be considered to combat infection or detrusor overactivity.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MOU.0000000000000361DOI Listing
March 2017

Calcitonin Peptide Family Members Are Differentially Regulated by LPS and Inhibit Functions of Rat Alveolar NR8383 Macrophages.

PLoS One 2016 13;11(10):e0163483. Epub 2016 Oct 13.

Institute for Anatomy and Cell Biology, Justus Liebig University, Giessen, Germany.

Members of the calcitonin peptide family-calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), adrenomedullin (AM), and adrenomedullin2/intermedin (IMD)-exert modulatory effects upon monocytes and macrophages of various extrapulmonary origins. Utilizing the rat alveolar macrophage (AMφ) cell line NR8383, we here set out to determine to which extent these three peptides and their receptors are differentially regulated in AMφ and what specific effects they have on AMφ key functions. LPS treatment differentially up-regulated expression of the peptides and receptors. Among the three peptides, IMD mRNA content was lowest both in primary rat AMφ and NR8383 cells, whereas IMD peptide dominated in basal and LPS-stimulated secretion from NR8383 cells. Fcγ receptor-mediated phagocytosis and TNF-α production were inhibited by AM, IMD, and CGRP, whereas pro-IL-1β mRNA was slightly down-regulated exclusively by CGRP. Neither of these peptides affected IL-6 or IL-10 production. None increased intracellular calcium concentration, but AM significantly inhibited store-operated calcium entry. In conclusion, the rat AMφ cell line NR8383 is both a source and a target of the calcitonin peptide family members AM, IMD, and CGRP. Despite sharing proteins of the receptor complexes, AM, IMD, and CGRP each showed a characteristic pattern of effects and regulation, suggesting that these closely related peptides are not just redundant members of one common signaling pathway but act in concert by addressing parallel signaling cascades. Since peptide and receptor expression are up-regulated by LPS, these signaling pathways might act as inhibitory feedback mechanisms in pulmonary bacterial infection.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0163483PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5063294PMC
May 2017

Chemosensory epithelial cells in the urethra: sentinels of the urinary tract.

Histochem Cell Biol 2016 Dec 29;146(6):673-683. Epub 2016 Sep 29.

Institute for Anatomy and Cell Biology, Justus-Liebig-University Giessen, Aulweg 123, 35385, Giessen, Germany.

A peculiar cell type of the respiratory and gastrointestinal epithelia, originally termed "brush cell" or "tuft cell" by electron microscopists because of its apical tuft of microvilli, utilizes the canonical bitter taste transduction cascade known from oropharyngeal taste buds to detect potential hazardous compounds, e.g. bacterial products. Upon stimulation, this cell initiates protective reflexes and local inflammatory responses through release of acetylcholine and chemokines. Guided by the understanding of these cells as sentinels, they have been newly discovered at previously unrecognized anatomical locations, including the urethra. Solitary cholinergic urethral cells express canonical taste receptors and are polymodal chemosensors for certain bitter substances, glutamate (umami) and uropathogenic Escherichia coli. Intraurethral bitter stimulation triggers cholinergic reflex activation of bladder detrusor activity, which is interpreted as cleaning flushing of the urethra. The currently known scenario suggests the presence of at least two more urethral chemosensory cell types: non-cholinergic brush cells and neuroendocrine serotonergic cells. The potential implications are enormous and far reaching, as these cells might be involved in monitoring and preventing ascending urinary tract infection and triggering of inappropriate detrusor activity. However, although appealing, this is still highly speculative, since the actual number of distinct chemosensory cell types needs to be finally clarified, as well as their embryological origin, developmental dynamics, receptor equipment, modes of signalling to adjacent nerve fibres and other cells, repertoire of chemo- and cytokines, involvement in pathogenesis of diseases and many other aspects.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00418-016-1504-xDOI Listing
December 2016

Spatial expression of components of a calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CRL) signalling system (CRL, calcitonin gene-related peptide, adrenomedullin, adrenomedullin-2/intermedin) in mouse and human heart valves.

Cell Tissue Res 2016 Dec 23;366(3):587-599. Epub 2016 Aug 23.

Institute for Anatomy and Cell Biology, Excellence Cluster Cardio-Pulmonary System, German Center for Lung Research (DZL), Justus-Liebig University, Giessen, Germany.

Heart valves are highly organized structures determining the direction of blood flow through the heart. Smooth muscle cells within the valve are thought to play an active role during the heart cycle, rather than being just passive flaps. The mature heart valve is composed of extracellular matrix (ECM), various differentiations of valvular interstitial cells (VIC), smooth muscle cells and overlying endothelium. VIC are important for maintaining the structural integrity of the valve, thereby affecting valve function and ECM remodelling. Accumulating evidence suggests an important role of calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CRL) signalling in preventing heart damage under several pathological conditions. Thus we investigate the existence of a putative CRL signalling system in mouse and human heart valves by real-time RT-PCR, laser-assisted microdissection, immunofluorescence and NADPH-diaphorase histochemistry. Mouse and human heart valves expressed mRNAs for the CRL ligands adrenomedullin (AM), adrenomedullin-2 (AM-2) and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and for their receptor components, i.e., CRL and receptor-activity-modifying proteins 1-3. Immunofluorescence analysis revealed AM-, AM-2- and CRL-immunolabelling in endothelial cells and VIC, whereas CGRP immunoreactivity was restricted to nerve fibres and some endothelial cells. Nitric oxide synthase activity, as demonstrated by NADPH-diaphorase histochemistry, was shown mainly in valvular endothelial cells in mice, whereas in human aortic valves, VIC and smooth muscle cells were positive. Our results showed the presence of an intrinsic AM/AM-2/CGRP signalling system in murine and human heart valves with distinct cellular localization, suggesting its involvement in the regulation of valve stiffness and ECM production and turnover.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00441-016-2473-zDOI Listing
December 2016

Expression and localization of GPR91 and GPR99 in murine organs.

Cell Tissue Res 2016 May 21;364(2):245-62. Epub 2015 Nov 21.

Institute of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Excellence Cluster Cardiopulmonary System, Justus-Liebig-University, Aulweg 123, 35385, Giessen, Germany.

Energy substrates and metabolic intermediates are proven ligands of a growing number of G-protein coupled receptors. In 2004, GPR91 and GPR99 were identified as receptors for the citric acid cycle intermediates, succinate and α-ketoglutarate, respectively. GPR91 seems to act as a first responder to local stress and GPR99 participates in the regulation of the acid-base balance through an intrarenal paracrine mechanism. However, a systematic analysis of the distribution of both receptors in mouse organs is still missing. The aim of this study was to examine the expression of GPR91 and GPR99 in a large number of different murine organs both at mRNA and protein level. Whereas GPR91 mRNA was detectable in almost all organs, GPR99 mRNA was mainly expressed in neuronal tissues. Widespread expression of GPR91 was also detected at the protein level by western blotting and immunohistochemistry. In addition to neuronal cells, GPR99 protein was found in renal intercalated cells and epididymal narrow cells. Double-labeling immunohistochemistry demonstrated the colocalization of GPR99 with the B1 subunit isoform of vacuolar H(+)-ATPases which is expressed only by a very limited number of cell types. In summary, our detailed expression analysis of GPR91 and GPR99 in murine tissues will allow a more directed search for additional functions of both receptors.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00441-015-2318-1DOI Listing
May 2016

Recent progress in revealing the biological and medical significance of the non-neuronal cholinergic system.

Int Immunopharmacol 2015 Nov 8;29(1):1-7. Epub 2015 Sep 8.

Institute of Pathology, University Medical Center, Johannes Gutenberg-University, Mainz D-55101, Germany.

This special issue of International Immunopharmacology is the proceedings of the Fourth International Symposium on Non-neuronal Acetylcholine that was held on August 28-30, 2014 at the Justus Liebig University of Giessen in Germany. It contains original contributions of meeting participants covering the significant progress in understanding of the biological and medical significance of the non-neuronal cholinergic system extending from exciting insights into molecular mechanisms regulating this system via miRNAs over the discovery of novel cholinergic cellular signaling circuitries to clinical implications in cancer, wound healing, immunity and inflammation, cardiovascular, respiratory and other diseases.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.intimp.2015.08.023DOI Listing
November 2015

Luminal acetylcholine does not affect the activity of the CFTR in tracheal epithelia of pigs.

Int Immunopharmacol 2015 Nov 15;29(1):166-72. Epub 2015 Aug 15.

Department of Physiology, University of Otago, P.O. Box 913, Dunedin 9054, New Zealand. Electronic address:

Fluid homeostasis mediated by the airway epithelium is required for proper lung function, and the CFTR (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator) Cl(-) channel is crucial for these processes. Luminal acetylcholine (ACh) acts as an auto-/paracrine mediator to activate Cl(-) channels in airway epithelia and evidence exists showing that nicotinic ACh receptors activate CFTR in murine airway epithelia. The present study investigated whether or not luminal ACh regulates CFTR activity in airway epithelia of pigs, an emerging model for investigations of human airway disease and cystic fibrosis (CF) in particular. Transepithelial ion currents of freshly dissected pig tracheal preparations were measured with Ussing chambers. Application of luminal ACh (100 μM) induced an increase of the short-circuit current (I(SC)). The ACh effect was mimicked by muscarine and pilocarpine (100 μM each) and was sensitive to muscarinic receptor antagonists (atropine, 4-DAMP, pirenzepine). No changes of the I(SC) were observed by nicotine (100 μM) and ACh responses were not affected by nicotine or mecamylamine (25 μM). Luminal application of IBMX (I, 100 μM) and forskolin (F, 10 μM), increase the I(SC) and the I/F-induced current were decreased by the CFTR inhibitor GlyH-101 (GlyH, 50 μM) indicating increased CFTR activity by I/F. In contrast, GlyH did not affect the ACh-induced current, indicating that the ACh response does not involve the activation of the CFTR. Results from this study suggest that luminal ACh does not regulate the activity of the CFTR in tracheal epithelia of pigs which opposes observation from studies using mice airway epithelium.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.intimp.2015.08.010DOI Listing
November 2015

Cholinergic activation of the murine trachealis muscle via non-vesicular acetylcholine release involving low-affinity choline transporters.

Int Immunopharmacol 2015 Nov 13;29(1):173-80. Epub 2015 Aug 13.

Institute for Anatomy and Cell Biology, Justus-Liebig-University, Universities of Giessen and Marburg Lung Center (UGMLC) and German Center for Lung Research (DZL), Excellence Cluster Cardio-Pulmonary System, 35385 Giessen, Germany.

In addition to quantal, vesicular release of acetylcholine (ACh), there is also non-quantal release at the motor endplate which is insufficient to evoke postsynaptic responses unless acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is inhibited. We here addressed potential non-quantal release in the mouse trachea by organ bath experiments and (immuno)histochemical methods. Electrical field stimulation (EFS) of nerve terminals elicited tracheal constriction that is largely due to ACh release. Classical enzyme histochemistry demonstrated acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in nerve fibers in the muscle and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) activity in the smooth muscle cells. Acute inhibition of both esterases by eserine significantly raised tracheal tone which was fully sensitive to atropine. This effect was reduced, but not abolished, in AChE, but not in BChE gene-deficient mice. The eserine-induced increase in tracheal tone was unaffected by vesamicol (10(-5)M), an inhibitor of the vesicular acetylcholine transporter, and by corticosterone (10(-4)M), an inhibitor of organic cation transporters. Hemicholinium-3, in low concentrations an inhibitor of the high-affinity choline transporter-1 (CHT1), completely abrogated the eserine effects when applied in high concentrations (10(-4)M) pointing towards an involvement of low-affinity choline transporters. To evaluate the cellular sources of non-quantal ACh release in the trachea, expression of low-affinity choline transporter-like family (CTL1-5) was evaluated by RT-PCR analysis. Even though these transporters were largely abundant in the epithelium, denudation of airway epithelial cells had no effect on eserine-induced tracheal contraction, indicating a non-quantal release of ACh from non-epithelial sources in the airways. These data provide evidence for an epithelium-independent non-vesicular, non-quantal ACh release in the mouse trachea involving low-affinity choline transporters.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.intimp.2015.08.007DOI Listing
November 2015

Phosphocholine-Modified Macromolecules and Canonical Nicotinic Agonists Inhibit ATP-Induced IL-1β Release.

J Immunol 2015 Sep 22;195(5):2325-34. Epub 2015 Jul 22.

Laboratory of Experimental Surgery, Department of General and Thoracic Surgery, Justus-Liebig-University Giessen, D-35385 Giessen, Germany;

IL-1β is a potent proinflammatory cytokine of the innate immune system that is involved in host defense against infection. However, increased production of IL-1β plays a pathogenic role in various inflammatory diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, gout, sepsis, stroke, and transplant rejection. To prevent detrimental collateral damage, IL-1β release is tightly controlled and typically requires two consecutive danger signals. LPS from Gram-negative bacteria is a prototypical first signal inducing pro-IL-1β synthesis, whereas extracellular ATP is a typical second signal sensed by the ATP receptor P2X7 that triggers activation of the NLRP3-containing inflammasome, proteolytic cleavage of pro-IL-1β by caspase-1, and release of mature IL-1β. Mechanisms controlling IL-1β release, even in the presence of both danger signals, are needed to protect from collateral damage and are of therapeutic interest. In this article, we show that acetylcholine, choline, phosphocholine, phosphocholine-modified LPS from Haemophilus influenzae, and phosphocholine-modified protein efficiently inhibit ATP-mediated IL-1β release in human and rat monocytes via nicotinic acetylcholine receptors containing subunits α7, α9, and/or α10. Of note, we identify receptors for phosphocholine-modified macromolecules that are synthesized by microbes and eukaryotic parasites and are well-known modulators of the immune system. Our data suggest that an endogenous anti-inflammatory cholinergic control mechanism effectively controls ATP-mediated release of IL-1β and that the same mechanism is used by symbionts and misused by parasites to evade innate immune responses of the host.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.1400974DOI Listing
September 2015

A novel cholinergic epithelial cell with chemosensory traits in the murine conjunctiva.

Int Immunopharmacol 2015 Nov 26;29(1):45-50. Epub 2015 Jun 26.

Institute for Anatomy and Cell Biology, Justus-Liebig-University Giessen, Aulweg 123, 35385, Giessen, Germany. Electronic address:

We recently identified a specialized cholinergic cell type in tracheal and urethral epithelium that utilizes molecules of the canonical taste transduction signaling cascade to sense potentially harmful substances in the luminal content. Upon stimulation, this cell initiates protective reflexes. Assuming a sentinel role of such cells at mucosal surfaces exposed to bacteria, we hypothesized their occurrence also in ocular mucosal surfaces. Utilizing a mouse strain expressing eGFP under the promoter of the acetylcholine synthesizing enzyme, choline acetyltransferase (ChAT-eGFP), we observed a cholinergic cell in the murine conjunctiva. Singular cholinergic cells reaching the epithelial surface with slender processes were detected in fornical, but neither in bulbar nor palpebral epithelia. These cells were found neither in the lacrimal canaliculi, nor in the lacrimal sac and the nasolacrimal duct. Cholinergic conjunctival epithelial cells were immunoreactive for components of the canonical taste transduction signaling cascade, i.e. α-gustducin, phospholipase Cβ2 and the monovalent cation channel TRPM5. Calcitonin gene-related peptide- and substance P-immunoreactive sensory nerve fibers were observed extending into the conjunctival epithelium approaching slender ChAT-eGFP-positive cells. In addition, we noted both ChAT-eGFP expression and α-gustducin-immunoreactivity, albeit in different cell populations, in occasionally occurring lymphoid follicles of the nictitating membrane. The data show a previously unidentified cholinergic cell in murine conjunctiva with chemosensory traits that presumably utilizes acetylcholine for signaling. In analogy to similar cells described in the respiratory and urethral epithelium, it might serve to detect bacterial products and to initiate protective reflexes.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.intimp.2015.06.027DOI Listing
November 2015

Cholinergic chemosensory cells of the thymic medulla express the bitter receptor Tas2r131.

Int Immunopharmacol 2015 Nov 20;29(1):143-7. Epub 2015 Jun 20.

Institute for Anatomy and Cell Biology, Justus-Liebig-University Giessen, German Center for Lung Research, Giessen, Germany.

The thymus is the site of T cell maturation which includes positive selection in the cortex and negative selection in the medulla. Acetylcholine is locally produced in the thymus and cholinergic signaling influences the T cell development. We recently described a distinct subset of medullary epithelial cells in the murine thymus which express the acetylcholine-synthesizing enzyme choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) and components of the canonical taste transduction cascade, i.e. transient receptor potential melastatin-like subtype 5 channel (TRPM5), phospholipase Cβ(2), and Gα-gustducin. Such a chemical phenotype is characteristic for chemosensory cells of mucosal surfaces which utilize bitter receptors for detection of potentially hazardous compounds and cholinergic signaling to initiate avoidance reflexes. We here demonstrate mRNA expression of bitter receptors Tas2r105, Tas2r108, and Tas2r131 in the murine thymus. Using a Tas2r131-tauGFP reporter mouse we localized the expression of this receptor to cholinergic cells expressing the downstream elements of the taste transduction pathway. These cells are distinct from the medullary thymic epithelial cells which promiscuously express tissue-restricted self-antigens during the process of negative selection, since double-labeling immunofluorescence showed no colocalization of autoimmune regulator (AIRE), the key mediator of negative selection, and TRPM5. These data demonstrate the presence of bitter taste-sensing signaling in cholinergic epithelial cells in the thymic medulla and opens a discussion as to what is the physiological role of this pathway.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.intimp.2015.06.005DOI Listing
November 2015

Cholinergic urethral brush cells are widespread throughout placental mammals.

Int Immunopharmacol 2015 Nov 1;29(1):51-6. Epub 2015 Jun 1.

Institute for Anatomy and Cell Biology, Justus-Liebig-University, 35385 Giessen, Germany; German Center for Lung Research (DZL), Germany.

We previously identified a population of cholinergic epithelial cells in murine, human and rat urethrae that exhibits a structural marker of brush cells (villin) and expresses components of the canonical taste transduction signaling cascade (α-gustducin, phospholipase Cβ2 (PLCβ2), transient receptor potential cation channel melanostatin 5 (TRPM5)). These cells serve as sentinels, monitoring the chemical composition of the luminal content for potentially hazardous compounds such as bacteria, and initiate protective reflexes counteracting further ingression. In order to elucidate cross-species conservation of the urethral chemosensory pathway we investigated the occurrence and molecular make-up of urethral brush cells in placental mammals. We screened 11 additional species, at least one in each of the five mammalian taxonomic units primates, carnivora, perissodactyla, artiodactyla and rodentia, for immunohistochemical labeling of the acetylcholine synthesizing enzyme, choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), villin, and taste cascade components (α-gustducin, PLCβ2, TRPM5). Corresponding to findings in previously investigated species, urethral epithelial cells with brush cell shape were immunolabeled in all 11 mammals. In 8 species, immunoreactivities against all marker proteins and ChAT were observed, and double-labeling immunofluorescence confirmed the cholinergic nature of villin-positive and chemosensory (TRPM5-positive) cells. In cat and horse, these cells were not labeled by the ChAT antiserum used in this study, and unspecific reactions of the secondary antiserum precluded conclusions about ChAT-expression in the bovine epithelium. These data indicate that urethral brush cells are widespread throughout the mammalian kingdom and evolved not later than about 64.5millionyears ago.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.intimp.2015.05.038DOI Listing
November 2015