Publications by authors named "Wolfgang Breitwieser"

14 Publications

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Targeted nanopore sequencing for the identification of ABCB1 promoter translocations in cancer.

BMC Cancer 2020 Nov 10;20(1):1075. Epub 2020 Nov 10.

Leukaemia Biology Laboratory, Cancer Research UK Manchester Institute, Oglesby Cancer Research Building, The University of Manchester, Manchester, M20 4GJ, UK.

Background: Resistance to chemotherapy is the most common cause of treatment failure in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and the drug efflux pump ABCB1 is a critical mediator. Recent studies have identified promoter translocations as common drivers of high ABCB1 expression in recurrent, chemotherapy-treated high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSC) and breast cancer. These fusions place ABCB1 under the control of a strong promoter while leaving its open reading frame intact. The mechanisms controlling high ABCB1 expression in AML are largely unknown. We therefore established an experimental system and analysis pipeline to determine whether promoter translocations account for high ABCB1 expression in cases of relapsed human AML.

Methods: The human AML cell line THP-1 was used to create a model of chemotherapy resistance in which ABCB1 expression was driven by a promoter fusion. The THP-1 model was used to establish a targeted nanopore long-read sequencing approach that was then applied to cases of ABCB1 HGSC and AML. H3K27Ac ChIP sequencing was used to assess the activity of native promoters in cases of ABCB1 AML.

Results: Prolonged in vitro daunorubicin exposure induced activating ABCB1 promoter translocations in human THP-1 AML cells, similar to those recently described in recurrent high-grade serous ovarian and breast cancers. Targeted nanopore sequencing proved an efficient method for identifying ABCB1 structural variants in THP-1 AML cells and HGSC; the promoter translocations identified in HGSC were both previously described and novel. In contrast, activating ABCB1 promoter translocations were not identified in ABCB1 AML; instead H3K27Ac ChIP sequencing demonstrated active native promoters in all cases studied.

Conclusions: Despite frequent high level expression of ABCB1 in relapsed primary AML we found no evidence of ABCB1 translocations and instead confirmed high-level activity of native ABCB1 promoters, consistent with endogenous regulation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12885-020-07571-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7654162PMC
November 2020

ATF2 and ATF7 Are Critical Mediators of Intestinal Epithelial Repair.

Cell Mol Gastroenterol Hepatol 2020 17;10(1):23-42. Epub 2020 Jan 17.

Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Amsterdam Gastroenterology & Metabolism, Tytgat Institute for Liver and Intestinal Research, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Background & Aims: Activation factor-1 transcription factor family members activating transcription factors 2 and 7 (ATF2 and ATF7) have highly redundant functions owing to highly homologous DNA binding sites. Their role in intestinal epithelial homeostasis and repair is unknown. Here, we assessed the role of these proteins in these conditions in an intestine-specific mouse model.

Methods: We performed in vivo and ex vivo experiments using Villin-CreAtf2Atf7 mice. We investigated the effects of intestinal epithelium-specific deletion of the Atf2 DNA binding region in Atf7 mice on cellular proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, and epithelial barrier function under homeostatic conditions. Subsequently, we exposed mice to 2% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) for 7 days and 12 Gy whole-body irradiation and assessed the response to epithelial damage.

Results: Activating phosphorylation of ATF2 and ATF7 was detected mainly in the crypts of the small intestine and the lower crypt region of the colonic epithelium. Under homeostatic conditions, no major phenotypic changes were detectable in the intestine of ATF mutant mice. However, on DSS exposure or whole-body irradiation, the intestinal epithelium showed a clearly impaired regenerative response. Mutant mice developed severe ulceration and inflammation associated with increased epithelial apoptosis on DSS exposure and were less able to regenerate colonic crypts on irradiation. In vitro, organoids derived from double-mutant epithelium had a growth disadvantage compared with wild-type organoids, impaired wound healing capacity in scratch assay, and increased sensitivity to tumor necrosis factor-α-induced damage.

Conclusions: ATF2 and ATF7 are dispensable for epithelial homeostasis, but are required to maintain epithelial regenerative capacity and protect against cell death during intestinal epithelial damage and repair.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcmgh.2020.01.005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7210476PMC
May 2021

PD-L1 expression and presence of TILs in small intestinal neuroendocrine tumours.

Oncotarget 2018 Mar 12;9(19):14922-14938. Epub 2018 Feb 12.

Department of Medical Oncology, The Christie NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester, UK.

Background: The extent of resistance to immune surveillance in patients with well-differentiated (Wd) (grade 1/2) small-intestinal neuroendocrine tumours (Si-NETs) is unknown.

Methods: Patients diagnosed with Wd Si-NETs (excluding appendix, which are considered to have a different biology to other midgut NETs) were eligible. Tumoural programmed death (PD)-ligand(L) 1 (PD-L1)/PD-L2/PD-1 and tumour infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) [presence and phenotype] were analysed in archival tissue by immunohistochemistry (IHC); reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) was used for confirmation of IHC results.

Results: Of 109 patients screened, 62 were eligible: 54.8% were male; median age was 63.7 years (95%-CI 59.7-67.2); disease stage II: 4.8%, III: 40.3% and IV: 54.8%; 41.9% were functional. Analysed samples (67.1% from primary tumours, 32.9% from metastases) were of grade 1 (67.1%) or 2 (32.86%) with a median Ki-67 of 2%. From the total of 62 eligible patients, 70 and 63 samples were suitable for IHC and RT-qPCR analysis, respectively. PD-L1 expression within tumour cells and TILs were identified in 12.8% and 24.3% of samples respectively; 30% of samples showed PD-L1 expression within tumour cells and/or TILs. PD-1 was present in TILs in 22.8% of samples. Majority of samples showed significant presence of CD4 (focal 42.86%; moderate 2.86%) and CD8 (focal 92.86%; moderate 4.29%) TILs. IHC findings were confirmed with RT-qPCR; which showed higher expression levels of PD-L1 (p-value 0.007) and PD-1 (p-value 0.001) in samples positive for IHC compared to negative-IHC.

Conclusions: Thirty-percent of patients express PD-L1 within tumour cells and/or TILs. Identification of presence of TILs was also significant and warrant the investigation of immunotherapy in this setting.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.24464DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5871087PMC
March 2018

A novel prospective isolation of murine fetal liver progenitors to study in utero hematopoietic defects.

PLoS Genet 2018 01 4;14(1):e1007127. Epub 2018 Jan 4.

Cancer Research UK Stem Cell Biology Group, Cancer Research UK Manchester Institute, Manchester Cancer Research Centre, The University of Manchester, Manchester, United Kingdom.

In recent years, highly detailed characterization of adult bone marrow (BM) myeloid progenitors has been achieved and, as a result, the impact of somatic defects on different hematopoietic lineage fate decisions can be precisely determined. Fetal liver (FL) hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) are poorly characterized in comparison, potentially hindering the study of the impact of genetic alterations on midgestation hematopoiesis. Numerous disorders, for example infant acute leukemias, have in utero origins and their study would therefore benefit from the ability to isolate highly purified progenitor subsets. We previously demonstrated that a Runx1 distal promoter (P1)-GFP::proximal promoter (P2)-hCD4 dual-reporter mouse (Mus musculus) model can be used to identify adult BM progenitor subsets with distinct lineage preferences. In this study, we undertook the characterization of the expression of Runx1-P1-GFP and P2-hCD4 in FL. Expression of P2-hCD4 in the FL immunophenotypic Megakaryocyte-Erythroid Progenitor (MEP) and Common Myeloid Progenitor (CMP) compartments corresponded to increased granulocytic/monocytic/megakaryocytic and decreased erythroid specification. Moreover, Runx1-P2-hCD4 expression correlated with several endogenous cell surface markers' expression, including CD31 and CD45, providing a new strategy for prospective identification of highly purified fetal myeloid progenitors in transgenic mouse models. We utilized this methodology to compare the impact of the deletion of either total RUNX1 or RUNX1C alone and to determine the fetal HPCs lineages most substantially affected. This new prospective identification of FL progenitors therefore raises the prospect of identifying the underlying gene networks responsible with greater precision than previously possible.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1007127DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5754050PMC
January 2018

JNK-mediated activation of ATF2 contributes to dopaminergic neurodegeneration in the MPTP mouse model of Parkinson's disease.

Exp Neurol 2016 Mar 26;277:296-304. Epub 2015 Oct 26.

Department of Pharmacology, Zhongshan School of Medicine, Sun Yat-sen University, 74 Zhongshan 2nd Road, Guangzhou 510080, China; Guangdong Province Key Laboratory of Brain Function and Disease, Zhongshan School of Medicine, Sun Yat-sen University, 74 Zhongshan 2nd Road, Guangzhou 510080, China. Electronic address:

The c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)/c-Jun pathway is a known critical regulator of dopaminergic neuronal death in Parkinson's disease (PD) and is considered a potential target for neuroprotective therapy. However, whether JNK is activated within dopaminergic neurons remains controversial, and whether JNK acts through downstream effectors other than c-Jun to promote dopaminergic neuronal death remains unclear. In this study, we confirm that JNK but not p38 is activated in dopaminergic neurons after 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-intoxication. Furthermore, within the dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra in MPTP-treated mice, JNK2/3 phosphorylates threonine 69 (Thr69) of Activating transcription factor-2 (ATF2), a transcription factor of the ATF/CREB family, whereas the phosphorylation of Thr71 is constitutive and remains unchanged. The increased phosphorylation of ATF2 on Thr69 by JNK in the MPTP mouse model suggests a functional relationship between the transcriptional activation of ATF2 and dopaminergic neuron death. By using dopaminergic neuron-specific conditional ATF2 mutant mice, we found that either partial or complete deletion of the ATF2 DNA-binding domain in dopaminergic neurons markedly alleviates the MPTP-induced dopaminergic neurodegeneration, indicating that the activation of ATF2 plays a detrimental role in neuropathogenesis in PD. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that JNK-mediated ATF2 activation contributes to dopaminergic neuronal death in an MPTP model of PD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.expneurol.2015.10.010DOI Listing
March 2016

JNK suppresses tumor formation via a gene-expression program mediated by ATF2.

Cell Rep 2014 Nov 13;9(4):1361-74. Epub 2014 Nov 13.

Department of Cell Regulation, CRUK Manchester Institute, Paterson Building, University of Manchester, Manchester M20 4BX, UK. Electronic address:

JNK and p38 phosphorylate a diverse set of substrates and, consequently, can act in a context-dependent manner to either promote or inhibit tumor growth. Elucidating the functions of specific substrates of JNK and p38 is therefore critical for our understanding of these kinases in cancer. ATF2 is a phosphorylation-dependent transcription factor and substrate of both JNK and p38. Here, we show ATF2 suppresses tumor formation in an orthotopic model of liver cancer and cellular transformation in vitro. Furthermore, we find that suppression of tumorigenesis by JNK requires ATF2. We identify a transcriptional program activated by JNK via ATF2 and provide examples of JNK- and ATF2-dependent genes that block cellular transformation. Significantly, we also show that ATF2-dependent gene expression is frequently downregulated in human cancers, indicating that amelioration of JNK-ATF2-mediated suppression may be a common event during tumor development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2014.10.043DOI Listing
November 2014

Mixed lineage kinases activate MEK independently of RAF to mediate resistance to RAF inhibitors.

Nat Commun 2014 May 22;5:3901. Epub 2014 May 22.

Signalling Networks in Cancer Group, Cancer Research UK Manchester Institute, The University of Manchester, Manchester M20 4BX, UK.

RAF inhibitor therapy yields significant reductions in tumour burden in the majority of V600E-positive melanoma patients; however, resistance occurs within 2-18 months. Here we demonstrate that the mixed lineage kinases (MLK1-4) are MEK kinases that reactivate the MEK/ERK pathway in the presence of RAF inhibitors. Expression of MLK1-4 mediates resistance to RAF inhibitors and promotes survival in V600E-positive melanoma cell lines. Furthermore, we observe upregulation of the MLKs in 9 of 21 melanoma patients with acquired drug resistance. Consistent with this observation, MLKs promote resistance to RAF inhibitors in mouse models and contribute to acquired resistance in a cell line model. Lastly, we observe that a majority of MLK1 mutations identified in patients are gain-of-function mutations. In summary, our data demonstrate a role for MLKs as direct activators of the MEK/ERK pathway with implications for melanomagenesis and resistance to RAF inhibitors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ncomms4901DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4046110PMC
May 2014

The roles of ATF2 (activating transcription factor 2) in tumorigenesis.

Biochem Soc Trans 2012 Feb;40(1):230-4

Cell Regulation Department, Paterson Institute for Cancer Research, University of Manchester, Wilmslow Road, Withington, Manchester M20 4BX, UK.

MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) pathways are among the most frequently deregulated signalling events in cancer. Among the critical targets of MAPK activities are members of the AP-1 (activator protein 1) transcription factor, a dimeric complex consisting of Jun, Fos, Maf and ATF (activating transcription factor) family DNA-binding proteins. Depending on the cellular context, the composition of the dimeric complexes determines the regulation of growth, survival or apoptosis. JNK (c-Jun N-terminal kinase), p38 and a number of Jun and Fos family proteins have been analysed for their involvement in oncogenic transformation and tumour formation. These data are also emerging for the ATF components of the AP-1 factor. The aim of the present review is to provide an overview of the functions of two ATF family proteins, ATF2 and ATF7, in mammalian development and their potential functions in tumour formation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1042/BST20110630DOI Listing
February 2012

Loss of ATF2 function leads to cranial motoneuron degeneration during embryonic mouse development.

PLoS One 2011 Apr 21;6(4):e19090. Epub 2011 Apr 21.

Cell Regulation Department, Paterson Institute for Cancer Research, University of Manchester, Manchester, United Kingdom.

The AP-1 family transcription factor ATF2 is essential for development and tissue maintenance in mammals. In particular, ATF2 is highly expressed and activated in the brain and previous studies using mouse knockouts have confirmed its requirement in the cerebellum as well as in vestibular sense organs. Here we present the analysis of the requirement for ATF2 in CNS development in mouse embryos, specifically in the brainstem. We discovered that neuron-specific inactivation of ATF2 leads to significant loss of motoneurons of the hypoglossal, abducens and facial nuclei. While the generation of ATF2 mutant motoneurons appears normal during early development, they undergo caspase-dependent and independent cell death during later embryonic and foetal stages. The loss of these motoneurons correlates with increased levels of stress activated MAP kinases, JNK and p38, as well as aberrant accumulation of phosphorylated neurofilament proteins, NF-H and NF-M, known substrates for these kinases. This, together with other neuropathological phenotypes, including aberrant vacuolisation and lipid accumulation, indicates that deficiency in ATF2 leads to neurodegeneration of subsets of somatic and visceral motoneurons of the brainstem. It also confirms that ATF2 has a critical role in limiting the activities of stress kinases JNK and p38 which are potent inducers of cell death in the CNS.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0019090PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3080913PMC
April 2011

A role for ATF2 in regulating MITF and melanoma development.

PLoS Genet 2010 Dec 23;6(12):e1001258. Epub 2010 Dec 23.

Sanford-Burnham Medical Research Institute, La Jolla, California, United States of America.

The transcription factor ATF2 has been shown to attenuate melanoma susceptibility to apoptosis and to promote its ability to form tumors in xenograft models. To directly assess ATF2's role in melanoma development, we crossed a mouse melanoma model (Nras(Q61K)::Ink4a⁻/⁻) with mice expressing a transcriptionally inactive form of ATF2 in melanocytes. In contrast to 7/21 of the Nras(Q61K)::Ink4a⁻/⁻ mice, only 1/21 mice expressing mutant ATF2 in melanocytes developed melanoma. Gene expression profiling identified higher MITF expression in primary melanocytes expressing transcriptionally inactive ATF2. MITF downregulation by ATF2 was confirmed in the skin of Atf2⁻/⁻ mice, in primary human melanocytes, and in 50% of human melanoma cell lines. Inhibition of MITF transcription by MITF was shown to be mediated by ATF2-JunB-dependent suppression of SOX10 transcription. Remarkably, oncogenic BRAF (V600E)-dependent focus formation of melanocytes on soft agar was inhibited by ATF2 knockdown and partially rescued upon shMITF co-expression. On melanoma tissue microarrays, a high nuclear ATF2 to MITF ratio in primary specimens was associated with metastatic disease and poor prognosis. Our findings establish the importance of transcriptionally active ATF2 in melanoma development through fine-tuning of MITF expression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1001258DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3009656PMC
December 2010

Radiation Sensitivity and Tumor Susceptibility in ATM Phospho-Mutant ATF2 Mice.

Genes Cancer 2010 Apr;1(4):316-330

Signal Transduction Program, Sanford-Burnham Institute for Medical Research, La Jolla, CA, USA.

The transcription factor ATF2 was previously shown to be an ATM substrate. Upon phosphorylation by ATM, ATF2 exhibits a transcription-independent function in the DNA damage response through localization to DNA repair foci and control of cell cycle arrest. To assess the physiological significance of this phosphorylation, we generated ATF2 mutant mice in which the ATM phosphoacceptor sites (S472/S480) were mutated (ATF2(KI)). ATF2(KI) mice are more sensitive to ionizing radiation (IR) than wild-type (ATF2 (WT)) mice: following IR, ATF2(KI) mice exhibited higher levels of apoptosis in the intestinal crypt cells and impaired hepatic steatosis. Molecular analysis identified impaired activation of the cell cycle regulatory protein p21(Cip/Waf1) in cells and tissues of IR-treated ATF2(KI) mice, which was p53 independent. Analysis of tumor development in p53(KO) crossed with ATF2(KI) mice indicated a marked decrease in amount of time required for tumor development. Further, when subjected to two-stage skin carcinogenesis process, ATF2(KI) mice developed skin tumors faster and with higher incidence, which also progressed to the more malignant carcinomas, compared with the control mice. Using 3 mouse models, we establish the importance of ATF2 phosphorylation by ATM in the acute cellular response to DNA damage and maintenance of genomic stability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1947601910370700DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2926982PMC
April 2010

Suppressor role of activating transcription factor 2 (ATF2) in skin cancer.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2008 Feb 28;105(5):1674-9. Epub 2008 Jan 28.

Burnham Institute for Medical Research, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA.

Activating transcription factor 2 (ATF2) regulates transcription in response to stress and growth factor stimuli. Here, we use a mouse model in which ATF2 was selectively deleted in keratinocytes. Crossing the conditionally expressed ATF2 mutant with K14-Cre mice (K14.ATF2(f/f)) resulted in selective expression of mutant ATF2 within the basal layer of the epidermis. When subjected to a two-stage skin carcinogenesis protocol [7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene/phorbol 12-tetradecanoate 13-acetate (DMBA/TPA)], K14.ATF2(f/f) mice showed significant increases in both the incidence and prevalence of papilloma development compared with the WT ATF2 mice. Consistent with these findings, keratinocytes of K14.ATF2(f/f) mice exhibit greater anchorage-independent growth compared with ATF2 WT keratinocytes. Papillomas of K14.ATF2(f/f) mice exhibit reduced expression of presenilin1, which is associated with enhanced beta-catenin and cyclin D1, and reduced Notch1 expression. Significantly, a reduction of nuclear ATF2 and increased beta-catenin expression were seen in samples of squamous and basal cell carcinoma, as opposed to normal skin. Our data reveal that loss of ATF2 transcriptional activity serves to promote skin tumor formation, thereby indicating a suppressor activity of ATF2 in skin tumor formation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0706057105DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2234203PMC
February 2008

Feedback regulation of p38 activity via ATF2 is essential for survival of embryonic liver cells.

Genes Dev 2007 Aug;21(16):2069-82

Cell Regulation Department, Paterson Institute for Cancer Research, University of Manchester, Manchester M20 4BX, United Kingdom.

The ATF2 transcription factor is phosphorylated by the stress-activated mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) JNK and p38. We show that this phosphorylation is essential for ATF2 function in vivo, since a mouse carrying mutations in the critical phosphorylation sites has a strong phenotype identical to that seen upon deletion of the DNA-binding domain. In addition, combining this mutant with a knockout of the ATF2 homolog, ATF7, results in embryonic lethality with severe abnormalities in the developing liver and heart. The mutant fetal liver is characterized by high levels of apoptosis in developing hepatocytes and haematopoietic cells. Furthermore, we observe a significant increase in active p38 due to loss of a negative feedback loop involving the ATF2-dependent transcriptional activation of MAPK phosphatases. In embryonic liver cells, this increase drives apoptosis, since it can be suppressed by chemical inhibition of p38. Our findings demonstrate the importance of finely regulating the activities of MAPKs during development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/gad.430207DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1948861PMC
August 2007

ATF2 is required for amino acid-regulated transcription by orchestrating specific histone acetylation.

Nucleic Acids Res 2007 31;35(4):1312-21. Epub 2007 Jan 31.

UMR 1019, Unité de Nutrition Humaine, INRA de Theix, 63122 Saint Genès Champanelle, France.

The transcriptional activation of CHOP (a CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-related gene) by amino acid deprivation involves the activating transcription factor 2 (ATF2) and the activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) binding the amino acid response element (AARE) within the promoter. Using a chromatin immunoprecipitation approach, we report that in vivo binding of phospho-ATF2 and ATF4 to CHOP AARE are associated with acetylation of histones H4 and H2B in response to amino acid starvation. A time course analysis reveals that ATF2 phosphorylation precedes histone acetylation, ATF4 binding and the increase in CHOP mRNA. We also show that ATF4 binding and histone acetylation are two independent events that are required for the CHOP induction upon amino acid starvation. Using ATF2-deficient mouse embryonic fibroblasts, we demonstrate that ATF2 is essential in the acetylation of histone H4 and H2B in vivo. The role of ATF2 on histone H4 acetylation is dependent on its binding to the AARE and can be extended to other amino acid regulated genes. Thus, ATF2 is involved in promoting the modification of the chromatin structure to enhance the transcription of a number of amino acid-regulated genes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/nar/gkm038DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1851658PMC
April 2007
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