Publications by authors named "Wojciech Jurczak"

102 Publications

Efficacy and Safety of Avatrombopag in Patients with Chronic Immune Thrombocytopenia: A Systematic Literature Review and Network Meta-Analysis.

Adv Ther 2021 06 1;38(6):3113-3128. Epub 2021 May 1.

National Research Institute of Oncology, Kraków, Poland.

Introduction: A network meta-analysis (NMA) was performed to assess the efficacy and safety of avatrombopag, relative to eltrombopag, romiplostim, and fostamatinib, for patients with chronic immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) not responding adequately to corticosteroids.

Methods: A systematic search of publication and clinical trial databases was conducted to identify relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and observational studies. Data from eligible studies were extracted and analyzed in a Bayesian framework using relative effect sizes vs placebo. Outcomes included durable platelet response; need for rescue therapy; reduction in use of concomitant ITP medication; incidence of any or World Health Organization (WHO) grade 2-4 bleeding events, and any adverse events. Results were reported as odds ratios or incidence rate ratios (IRR) with 95% credible intervals (CrIs).

Results: The NMA included seven phase 3 RCTs. Compared with placebo, avatrombopag was associated with statistically significant improvements in durable platelet response, reduction in use of concomitant ITP medication, and incidence of any bleeding events. Statistically significant differences vs placebo were also observed for durable platelet response and need for rescue therapy (eltrombopag, romiplostim, and fostamatinib); reduction in use of concomitant ITP medication (eltrombopag and romiplostim); incidence of any bleeding events (fostamatinib); and incidence of WHO grade 2-4 bleeding events (romiplostim and fostamatinib). No statistically significant differences were observed for any adverse events. Avatrombopag was associated with a statistically significant lower incidence of any bleeding events vs eltrombopag (IRR 0.38 [95% CrI 0.19, 0.75]) and romiplostim (IRR 0.38 [95% Crl 0.17, 0.86]); no other between-treatment differences were observed.

Conclusion: In this NMA, avatrombopag significantly increased the chance of achieving durable platelet response and reducing the use of concomitant ITP medication vs placebo, and significantly reduced the incidence of any bleeding events compared with placebo, eltrombopag, and romiplostim. The study aims to help guide clinicians managing patients with chronic ITP and insufficient response to previous treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12325-021-01752-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8189936PMC
June 2021

Pooled analysis of safety data from clinical trials evaluating acalabrutinib monotherapy in mature B-cell malignancies.

Leukemia 2021 Apr 27. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Willamette Valley Cancer Institute/US Oncology, Eugene, OR, USA.

Bruton tyrosine kinase (BTK) inhibition is an effective therapy for many B-cell malignancies. Acalabrutinib is a next-generation, potent, highly selective, covalent BTK inhibitor. To characterize acalabrutinib tolerability, we pooled safety data from 1040 patients with mature B-cell malignancies treated with acalabrutinib monotherapy in nine clinical studies (treatment-naïve: n = 366 [35%], relapsed/refractory: n = 674 [65%]; median [range] age: 67 [32-90] years; median [range] prior treatments: 1 [0-13]; median [range] duration of exposure: 24.6 [0.0-58.5] months). The most common adverse events (AEs) were headache (38%), diarrhea (37%), upper respiratory tract infection (22%), contusion (22%), nausea (22%), fatigue (21%), and cough (21%). Serious AEs (SAEs) occurred in 39% of patients; pneumonia (6%) was the only SAE that occurred in ≥2%. Deaths due to AEs occurred in 52 patients (5%); pneumonia (n = 8) was the only fatal AE to occur in ≥3 patients. AEs led to treatment discontinuation in 9%. Rates for the AEs of interest (all grades) included infections (67%), hemorrhages (46%), neutropenia (16%), anemia (14%), second primary malignancies (12%), thrombocytopenia (9%), hypertension (8%), and atrial fibrillation (4%). This pooled analysis confirmed acalabrutinib's tolerability and identified no newly emerging late toxicities, supporting acalabrutinib as a long-term treatment for patients with mature B-cell malignancies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41375-021-01252-yDOI Listing
April 2021

Phase I, first-in-human trial of Bruton's tyrosine kinase inhibitor M7583 in patients with B-cell malignancies.

Leuk Lymphoma 2021 Apr 24:1-8. Epub 2021 Apr 24.

Institute of Haematology "Seràgnoli" University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy.

M7583 is a potent, highly selective, covalent BTK inhibitor in development. In this phase I, first-in-human, open label, multicenter dose-escalation trial, M7583 was given at 80 mg (three days)/160 mg (full 28-day cycle), then 300 mg/day, 600 mg/day, 900 mg/day, and 300 mg twice daily to 18 patients (median age 63 years) with refractory/resistant, stage III/IV B-cell malignancies who failed prior therapy (NCT02825836). No dose-limiting toxicities were reported. Treatment-emergent adverse events (AEs) occurred in 89% of patients, treatment-related AEs in 78%, and treatment-related grade ≥3 AEs in 17%. Common AEs were diarrhea (33%), fatigue (22%), and vomiting (17%). M7583 was rapidly absorbed and exposure was dose-proportional. BTK occupancy was >95% in the 300 mg twice daily and 900 mg/day cohorts. Objective response rate was 50% and disease control rate 78%, supporting a favorable benefit:risk profile. Fasted doses up to 900 mg once daily and 300 mg twice daily were well tolerated and may be tested in future clinical studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10428194.2021.1913139DOI Listing
April 2021

Copanlisib plus rituximab versus placebo plus rituximab in patients with relapsed indolent non-Hodgkin lymphoma (CHRONOS-3): a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial.

Lancet Oncol 2021 05 10;22(5):678-689. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

IRCCS Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria di Bologna, Istituto di Ematologia "Seràgnoli", and Dipartimento di Medicina Specialistica, Diagnostica e Sperimentale, Università di Bologna, Bologna, Italy.

Background: Copanlisib, an intravenous pan-class I PI3K inhibitor, showed efficacy and safety as monotherapy in patients with relapsed or refractory indolent non-Hodgkin lymphoma who had received at least two therapies. The CHRONOS-3 study aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of copanlisib plus rituximab in patients with relapsed indolent non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

Methods: CHRONOS-3 was a multicentre, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled, phase 3 study in 186 academic medical centres across Asia, Australia, Europe, New Zealand, North America, Russia, South Africa, and South America. Patients aged 18 years and older with an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of no more than 2 and histologically confirmed CD20-positive indolent B-cell lymphoma relapsed after the last anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody-containing therapy and progression-free and treatment-free for at least 12 months, or at least 6 months for patients unwilling or unfit to receive chemotherapy, were randomly assigned (2:1) with an interactive voice-web response system via block randomisation (block size of six) to copanlisib (60 mg given as a 1-h intravenous infusion on an intermittent schedule on days 1, 8, and 15 [28-day cycle]) plus rituximab (375 mg/m given intravenously weekly on days 1, 8, 15, and 22 during cycle 1 and day 1 of cycles 3, 5, 7, and 9) or placebo plus rituximab, stratified on the basis of histology, progression-free and treatment-free interval, presence of bulky disease, and previous treatment with PI3K inhibitors. The primary outcome was progression-free survival in the full analysis set (all randomised patients) by masked central review. Safety was assessed in all patients who received at least one dose of any study drug. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02367040 and is ongoing.

Findings: Between Aug 3, 2015, and Dec 17, 2019, 652 patients were screened for eligibility. 307 of 458 patients were randomly assigned to copanlisib plus rituximab and 151 patients were randomly assigned to placebo plus rituximab. With a median follow-up of 19·2 months (IQR 7·4-28·8) and 205 total events, copanlisib plus rituximab showed a statistically and clinically significant improvement in progression-free survival versus placebo plus rituximab; median progression-free survival 21·5 months (95% CI 17·8-33·0) versus 13·8 months (10·2-17·5; hazard ratio 0·52 [95% CI 0·39-0·69]; p<0·0001). The most common grade 3-4 adverse events were hyperglycaemia (173 [56%] of 307 patients in the copanlisib plus rituximab group vs 12 [8%] of 146 in the placebo plus rituximab group) and hypertension (122 [40%] vs 13 [9%]). Serious treatment-emergent adverse events were reported in 145 (47%) of 307 patients receiving copanlisib plus rituximab and 27 (18%) of 146 patients receiving placebo plus rituximab. One (<1%) drug-related death (pneumonitis) occurred in the copanlisib plus rituximab group and none occurred in the placebo plus rituximab group.

Interpretation: Copanlisib plus rituximab improved progression-free survival in patients with relapsed indolent non-Hodgkin lymphoma compared with placebo plus rituximab. To our knowledge, copanlisib is the first PI3K inhibitor to be safely combined with rituximab and the first to show broad and superior efficacy in combination with rituximab in patients with relapsed indolent non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

Funding: Bayer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1470-2045(21)00145-5DOI Listing
May 2021

Surface Finish Analysis in Single Point Incremental Sheet Forming of Rib-Stiffened 2024-T3 and 7075-T6 Alclad Aluminium Alloy Panels.

Materials (Basel) 2021 Mar 27;14(7). Epub 2021 Mar 27.

Faculty of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Polish Naval Academy, ul. Śmidowicza 69, 81-127 Gdynia, Poland.

The article presents the results of the analysis of the interactions between the single point incremental forming (SPIF) process parameters and the main roughness parameters of stiffened ribs fabricated in Alclad aluminium alloy panels. EN AW-7075-T6 and EN AW-2024-T3 Alclad aluminium alloy sheets were used as the research material. Panels with longitudinal ribs were produced with different values of incremental vertical step size and tool rotational speed. Alclad is formed of high-purity aluminium surface layers metallurgically bonded to aluminium alloy core material. The quality of the surface roughness and unbroken Alclad are key problems in SPIF of Alclad sheets destined for aerospace applications. The interactions between the SPIF process parameters and the main roughness parameters of the stiffened ribs were determined. The influence of forming parameters on average roughness and the 10-point peak-valley surface roughness was determined using artificial neural networks. The greater the value of the incremental vertical step size, the more prominent the ridges found in the inner surface of stiffened ribs, especially in the case of both Alclad aluminium alloy sheets. The predictive models of ANNs for the and the were characterised by performance measures with R values lying between 0.657 and 0.979. A different character of change in surface roughness was found for sheets covered with and not covered with a soft layer of technically pure aluminium. In the case of Alclad sheets, increasing the value of the incremental vertical step size increases the value of the surface roughness parameters and . In the case of the sheets not covered by Alclad, reduction of the tool rotational speed increases the parameter and decreases the parameter. An obvious increase in the parameter was observed with an increase in the incremental vertical step size.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma14071640DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8038002PMC
March 2021

Umbralisib, a Dual PI3Kδ/CK1ε Inhibitor in Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Indolent Lymphoma.

J Clin Oncol 2021 May 8;39(15):1609-1618. Epub 2021 Mar 8.

IRCCS Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria di Bologna Istituto di Ematologia "Seràgnoli," Bologna, Italy.

Purpose: Phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitors have shown activity in relapsed or refractory (R/R) indolent non-Hodgkin lymphoma (iNHL). PI3K inhibitors have been hampered by poor long-term tolerability and toxicity, which interfere with continuous use. Umbralisib, a dual inhibitor of PI3Kδ/casein kinase-1ε, exhibits improved selectivity for PI3Kδ compared with other PI3K inhibitors. This phase IIb trial was designed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of umbralisib in patients with R/R iNHL.

Patients And Methods: In this multicohort, open-label, phase IIb study, 208 patients with R/R marginal zone, follicular, or small lymphocytic lymphoma (MZL, FL, or SLL) unresponsive to prior treatments (≥ 1 MZL; ≥ 2 FL/SLL), including ≥ 1 anti-CD20-based therapy, were administered umbralisib 800 mg orally once daily until disease progression, unacceptable toxicity, or study withdrawal. Primary end point is overall response rate; secondary end points include time to response, duration of response, progression-free survival, and safety.

Results: The median follow-up is 27.7 months (efficacy) and 21.4 months (safety). The overall response rate was 47.1%, and tumor reduction occurred in 86.4% of patients. The median time to response was 2.7-4.6 months. The median duration of response was not reached for MZL, 11.1 months for FL, and 18.3 months for SLL. Median progression-free survival was not reached for MZL, 10.6 months for FL, and 20.9 months for SLL. At least one grade ≥ 3 treatment-emergent adverse event (TEAE) was reported in 53.4% of patients. TEAEs led to umbralisib discontinuation in 32 patients (15.4%). A total of 31 patients (14.9%) discontinued because of a treatment-related adverse event. Grade ≥ 3 TEAEs reported in ≥ 10% of patients: neutropenia (11.5%) and diarrhea (10.1%). Increased ALT/AST (grade ≥ 3) occurred in 6.7%/7.2% of patients.

Conclusion: Umbralisib achieved meaningful clinical activity in heavily pretreated patients with iNHL. The safety profile was manageable, with a relatively low incidence of immune-mediated toxicities and adverse event-related discontinuations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.20.03433DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8148421PMC
May 2021

Pirtobrutinib in relapsed or refractory B-cell malignancies (BRUIN): a phase 1/2 study.

Lancet 2021 Mar;397(10277):892-901

Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, USA.

Background: Covalent Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) inhibitors are efficacious in multiple B-cell malignancies, but patients discontinue these agents due to resistance and intolerance. We evaluated the safety and efficacy of pirtobrutinib (working name; formerly known as LOXO-305), a highly selective, reversible BTK inhibitor, in these patients.

Methods: Patients with previously treated B-cell malignancies were enrolled in a first-in-human, multicentre, open-label, phase 1/2 trial of the BTK inhibitor pirtobrutinib. The primary endpoint was the maximum tolerated dose (phase 1) and overall response rate (ORR; phase 2). This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03740529.

Findings: 323 patients were treated with pirtobrutinib across seven dose levels (25 mg, 50 mg, 100 mg, 150 mg, 200 mg, 250 mg, and 300 mg once per day) with linear dose-proportional exposures. No dose-limiting toxicities were observed and the maximum tolerated dose was not reached. The recommended phase 2 dose was 200 mg daily. Adverse events in at least 10% of 323 patients were fatigue (65 [20%]), diarrhoea (55 [17%]), and contusion (42 [13%]). The most common adverse event of grade 3 or higher was neutropenia (32 [10%]). There was no correlation between pirtobrutinib exposure and the frequency of grade 3 treatment-related adverse events. Grade 3 atrial fibrillation or flutter was not observed, and grade 3 haemorrhage was observed in one patient in the setting of mechanical trauma. Five (1%) patients discontinued treatment due to a treatment-related adverse event. In 121 efficacy evaluable patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) or small lymphocytic lymphoma (SLL) treated with a previous covalent BTK inhibitor (median previous lines of treatment 4), the ORR with pirtobrutinib was 62% (95% CI 53-71). The ORR was similar in CLL patients with previous covalent BTK inhibitor resistance (53 [67%] of 79), covalent BTK inhibitor intolerance (22 [52%] of 42), BTK C481-mutant (17 [71%] of 24) and BTK wild-type (43 [66%] of 65) disease. In 52 efficacy evaluable patients with mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) previously treated with covalent BTK inhibitors, the ORR was 52% (95% CI 38-66). Of 117 patients with CLL, SLL, or MCL who responded, all but eight remain progression-free to date.

Interpretation: Pirtobrutinib was safe and active in multiple B-cell malignancies, including patients previously treated with covalent BTK inhibitors. Pirtobrutinib might address a growing unmet need for alternative therapies for these patients.

Funding: Loxo Oncology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(21)00224-5DOI Listing
March 2021

ROBUST: A Phase III Study of Lenalidomide Plus R-CHOP Versus Placebo Plus R-CHOP in Previously Untreated Patients With ABC-Type Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma.

J Clin Oncol 2021 Apr 23;39(12):1317-1328. Epub 2021 Feb 23.

Division of Hematology, A.O.U. Città della Salute e della Scienza Hospital and University, Torino, Italy.

Purpose: Patients with the activated B-cell-like (ABC) subtype of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) historically showed inferior survival with standard rituximab plus cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (R-CHOP). Phase II studies demonstrated that adding the immunomodulatory agent lenalidomide to R-CHOP improved outcomes in ABC-type DLBCL. The goal of the global, phase III ROBUST study was to compare lenalidomide plus R-CHOP (R2-CHOP) with placebo/R-CHOP in previously untreated, ABC-type DLBCL.

Methods: Histology and cell-of-origin type were prospectively analyzed by central pathology prior to random assignment and study treatment. Patients with ABC-DLBCL received lenalidomide oral 15 mg/d, days 1-14/21 plus standard R-CHOP21 versus placebo/R-CHOP21 for six cycles. The primary end point was progression-free survival (PFS) per independent central radiology review.

Results: A total of 570 patients with ABC-DLBCL (n = 285 per arm) were stratified by International Prognostic Index score, age, and bulky disease, and randomly assigned to R2-CHOP or placebo/R-CHOP. Baseline demographics were similar between arms. Most patients completed six cycles of treatment: 74% R2-CHOP and 84% placebo/R-CHOP. The most common grade 3/4 adverse events for R2-CHOP versus placebo/R-CHOP were neutropenia (60% 48%), anemia (22% 14%), thrombocytopenia (17% 11%), and leukopenia (14% 15%). The primary end point of PFS was not met, with a hazard ratio of 0.85 (95% CI, 0.63 to 1.14) and = .29; median PFS has not been reached for either arm. PFS trends favoring R2-CHOP over placebo/R-CHOP were seen in patients with higher-risk disease.

Conclusion: ROBUST is the first DLBCL phase III study to integrate biomarker-driven identification of eligible ABC patients. Although the ROBUST trial did not meet the primary end point of PFS in all patients, the safety profile of R2-CHOP was consistent with individual treatments with no new safety signals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.20.01366DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8078325PMC
April 2021

Tafasitamab for the treatment of relapsed or refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.

Expert Opin Biol Ther 2021 Apr 15;21(4):455-463. Epub 2021 Feb 15.

Department of Clinical Oncology, Maria Sklodowska-Curie National Research Institute of Oncology, Kraków, Poland.

Introduction: Patients with relapsed or refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (R/R DLBCL) require further treatment options, especially in cases that cannot tolerate stem cell transplant or cytotoxic chemotherapy. CD19 has emerged as an attractive target in B-cell malignancy and is the subject of several therapeutic strategies. The anti-CD19, humanized, monoclonal antibody tafasitamab (MOR208) has an engineered, modified Fc region with increased affinity for Fcγ receptors, leading to increased cytotoxicity via natural killer cells and macrophages (antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity and antibody-dependent cell-mediated phagocytosis) in a promising approach.

Areas Covered: The development of tafasitamab is reviewed, together with the pharmacokinetics and clinical experience of tafasitamab in R/R DLBCL; clinical data have led to FDA approval and inclusion in NCCN treatment guidelines for tafasitamab in combination with lenalidomide in this indication.

Expert Opinion: Patients with R/R DLBCL who have failed rituximab-containing regimens may be resistant to CD20-directed therapies; therefore, therapies with an alternative mode of action are of great interest in this setting. Tafasitamab, an anti-CD19 monoclonal antibody, in combination with lenalidomide has demonstrated promising efficacy for patients with R/R DLBCL who are ineligible for autologous stem cell transplantation. This could provide an alternative approach to classical chemotherapy-based regimens in the relapsed setting.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14712598.2021.1884677DOI Listing
April 2021

Acalabrutinib: a highly selective, potent Bruton tyrosine kinase inhibitor for the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

Leuk Lymphoma 2021 05 11;62(5):1066-1076. Epub 2021 Jan 11.

Department of Lymphoid Malignancies, Maria Skłodowska-Curie National Research Institute of Oncology, Kraków, Poland.

Inhibiting the activity of Bruton tyrosine kinase (BTK) prevents the activation of the B-cell receptor (BCR) signaling pathway, which in turn prevents both B-cell activation and BTK-mediated activation of downstream survival pathways. Acalabrutinib is an orally available, highly selective, next-generation inhibitor of BTK. Based on the results of two key phase 3 trials (ELEVATE-TN in patients with previously untreated chronic lymphocytic leukemia [CLL] and ASCEND in patients with relapsed or refractory CLL), which demonstrated superior progression-free survival while maintaining favorable tolerability, acalabrutinib was granted US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval in 2019 for the treatment of patients with CLL. Acalabrutinib appears to offer similar efficacy but a significantly improved tolerability profile to first-generation agents. Acalabrutinib is a good candidate to combine with other anti-cancer therapies, including B-cell lymphoma 2 inhibitors and monoclonal antibodies, a factor that may help to further improve clinical outcomes in CLL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10428194.2020.1864352DOI Listing
May 2021

Biomarkers of response to ibrutinib plus nivolumab in relapsed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, follicular lymphoma, or Richter's transformation.

Transl Oncol 2021 Jan 6;14(1):100977. Epub 2020 Dec 6.

Oncology Translational Research, Janssen Research & Development, Spring House, PA 19477, United States. Electronic address:

We analyzed potential biomarkers of response to ibrutinib plus nivolumab in biopsies from patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), follicular lymphoma (FL), and Richter's transformation (RT) from the LYM1002 phase I/IIa study, using programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) immunohistochemistry, whole exome sequencing (WES), and gene expression profiling (GEP). In DLBCL, PD-L1 elevation was more frequent in responders versus nonresponders (5/8 [62.5%] vs. 3/16 [18.8%]; p = 0.065; complete response 37.5% vs. 0%; p = 0.028). Overall response rates for patients with WES and GEP data, respectively, were: DLBCL (38.5% and 29.6%); FL (46.2% and 43.5%); RT (76.5% and 81.3%). In DLBCL, WES analyses demonstrated that mutations in RNF213 (40.0% vs. 6.2%; p = 0.055), KLHL14 (30.0% vs. 0%; p = 0.046), and LRP1B (30.0% vs. 6.2%; p = 0.264) were more frequent in responders. No responders had mutations in EBF1, ADAMTS20, AKAP9, TP53, MYD88, or TNFRSF14, while the frequency of these mutations in nonresponders ranged from 12.5% to 18.8%. In FL and RT, genes with different mutation frequencies in responders versus nonresponders were: BCL2 (75.0% vs. 28.6%; p = 0.047) and ROS1 (0% vs. 50.0%; p = 0.044), respectively. Per GEP, the most upregulated genes in responders were LEF1 and BTLA (overall), and CRTAM (germinal center B-cell-like DLBCL). Enriched pathways were related to immune activation in responders and resistance-associated proliferation/replication in nonresponders. This preliminary work may help to generate hypotheses regarding genetically defined subsets of DLBCL, FL, and RT patients most likely to benefit from ibrutinib plus nivolumab.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tranon.2020.100977DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7723809PMC
January 2021

Outcomes of patients with up to 6 years of follow-up from a phase 2 study of idelalisib for relapsed indolent lymphomas.

Leuk Lymphoma 2021 05 10;62(5):1077-1087. Epub 2020 Dec 10.

University of Washington/Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA, USA.

The phase 2 study of idelalisib monotherapy for indolent non-Hodgkin lymphomas (iNHLs) was completed in 2018; final efficacy and safety data with up to 6.7 years long-term follow-up are reported. Patients with iNHL refractory to both rituximab and an alkylating agent were enrolled and received 150 mg idelalisib twice daily ( = 125). Idelalisib resulted in an overall response rate of 57.6% with 34.4% continuing therapy for ≥12 months. The median progression-free survival and duration of response were 11.0 and 11.8 months for follicular lymphoma, 22.2 and 20.4 months for lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma/Waldenström's macroglobulinemia (LPL/WM), and 6.6 and 18.4 months for marginal zone lymphoma (MZL). Median overall survival after extended follow-up was 48.6 (95% CI 33.9, 71.7) months. Long-term follow-up did not reveal new safety concerns. These data indicate beneficial outcomes with longer follow-up after idelalisib for treatment of iNHL including in patients with LPL/WM and MZL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10428194.2020.1855344DOI Listing
May 2021

Tazemetostat for patients with relapsed or refractory follicular lymphoma: an open-label, single-arm, multicentre, phase 2 trial.

Lancet Oncol 2020 11 6;21(11):1433-1442. Epub 2020 Oct 6.

Department of Hematology, Lyon-Sud Hospital, University of Lyon, Pierre-Bénite, France.

Background: Activating mutations of EZH2, an epigenetic regulator, are present in approximately 20% of patients with follicular lymphoma. We investigated the activity and safety of tazemetostat, a first-in-class, oral EZH2 inhibitor, in patients with follicular lymphoma.

Methods: This study was an open-label, single-arm, phase 2 trial done at 38 clinics or hospitals in France, the UK, Australia, Canada, Poland, Italy, Ukraine, Germany, and the USA. Eligible patients were adults (≥18 years) with histologically confirmed follicular lymphoma (grade 1, 2, 3a, or 3b) that had relapsed or was refractory to two or more systemic therapies, had an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0-2, and had sufficient tumour tissue for central testing of EZH2 mutation status. Patients were categorised by EZH2 status: mutant (EZH2) or wild-type (EZH2). Patients received 800 mg of tazemetostat orally twice per day in continuous 28-day cycles. The primary endpoint was objective response rate based on the 2007 International Working Group criteria for non-Hodgkin lymphoma, assessed by an independent radiology committee. Activity and safety analyses were done in patients who received one dose or more of tazemetostat. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01897571, and follow-up is ongoing.

Findings: Between July 9, 2015, and May 24, 2019, 99 patients (45 in the EZH2 cohort and 54 in the EZH2 cohort) were enrolled in the study. At data cutoff for the analysis (Aug 9, 2019), the median follow-up was 22·0 months (IQR 12·0-26·7) for the EZH2 cohort and 35·9 months (24·9-40·5) for the EZH2 cohort. The objective response rate was 69% (95% CI 53-82; 31 of 45 patients) in the EZH2 cohort and 35% (23-49; 19 of 54 patients) in the EZH2 Median duration of response was 10·9 months (95% CI 7·2-not estimable [NE]) in the EZH2 cohort and 13·0 months (5·6-NE) in the EZH2 cohort; median progression-free survival was 13·8 months (10·7-22·0) and 11·1 months (3·7-14·6). Among all 99 patients, treatment-related grade 3 or worse adverse events included thrombocytopenia (three [3%]), neutropenia (three [3%]), and anaemia (two [2%]). Serious treatment-related adverse events were reported in four (4%) of 99 patients. There were no treatment-related deaths.

Interpretation: Tazemetostat monotherapy showed clinically meaningful, durable responses and was generally well tolerated in heavily pretreated patients with relapsed or refractory follicular lymphoma. Tazemetostat is a novel treatment for patients with follicular lymphoma.

Funding: Epizyme.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1470-2045(20)30441-1DOI Listing
November 2020

Ibrutinib does not have clinically relevant interactions with oral contraceptives or substrates of CYP3A and CYP2B6.

Pharmacol Res Perspect 2020 10;8(5):e00649

Clinical Research Oncology, Janssen Research & Development LLC, Beerse, Belgium.

Ibrutinib may inhibit intestinal CYP3A4 and induce CYP2B6 and/or CYP3A. Secondary to potential induction, ibrutinib may reduce the exposure and effectiveness of oral contraceptives (OCs). This phase I study evaluated the effect of ibrutinib on the pharmacokinetics of the CYP2B6 substrate bupropion, CYP3A substrate midazolam, and OCs ethinylestradiol (EE) and levonorgestrel (LN). Female patients (N = 22) with B-cell malignancies received single doses of EE/LN (30/150 μg) and bupropion/midazolam (75/2 mg) during a pretreatment phase on days 1 and 3, respectively (before starting ibrutinib on day 8), and again after ibrutinib 560 mg/day for ≥ 2 weeks. Intestinal CYP3A inhibition was assessed on day 8 (single-dose ibrutinib plus single-dose midazolam). Systemic induction was assessed at steady-state on days 22 (EE/LN plus ibrutinib) and 24 (bupropion/midazolam plus ibrutinib). The geometric mean ratios (GMRs; test/reference) for maximum plasma concentration (C ) and area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) were derived using linear mixed-effects models (90% confidence interval within 80%-125% indicated no interaction). On day 8, the GMR for midazolam exposure with ibrutinib coadministration was ≤ 20% lower than the reference, indicating lack of intestinal CYP3A4 inhibition. At ibrutinib steady-state, the C and AUC of EE were 33% higher than the reference, which was not considered clinically relevant. No substantial changes were noted for LN, midazolam, or bupropion. No unexpected safety findings were observed. A single dose of ibrutinib did not inhibit intestinal CYP3A4, and repeated administration did not induce CYP3A4/2B6, as assessed using EE, LN, midazolam, and bupropion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/prp2.649DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7506988PMC
October 2020

Phase 1/2a study of 177Lu-lilotomab satetraxetan in relapsed/refractory indolent non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

Blood Adv 2020 09;4(17):4091-4101

Department of Oncology, Oslo University Hospital, Radiumhospitalet, Oslo, Norway.

For patients with indolent non-Hodgkin lymphoma who fail initial anti-CD20-based immunochemotherapy or develop relapsed or refractory disease, there remains a significant unmet clinical need for new therapeutic approaches to improve outcomes and quality of life. 177Lu-lilotomab satetraxetan is a next-generation single-dose CD37-directed radioimmunotherapy (RIT) which was investigated in a phase 1/2a study in 74 patients with relapsed/refractory indolent non-Hodgkin B-cell lymphoma, including 57 patients with follicular lymphoma (FL). To improve targeting of 177Lu-lilotomab satetraxetan to tumor tissue and decrease hematologic toxicity, its administration was preceded by the anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody rituximab and the "cold" anti-CD37 antibody lilotomab. The most common adverse events (AEs) were reversible grade 3/4 neutropenia (31.6%) and thrombocytopenia (26.3%) with neutrophil and platelet count nadirs 5 to 7 weeks after RIT. The most frequent nonhematologic AE was grade 1/2 nausea (15.8%). With a single administration, the overall response rate was 61% (65% in patients with FL), including 30% complete responses. For FL with ≥2 prior therapies (n = 37), the overall response rate was 70%, including 32% complete responses. For patients with rituximab-refractory FL ≥2 prior therapies (n = 21), the overall response rate was 67%, and the complete response rate was 24%. The overall median duration of response was 13.6 months (32.0 months for patients with a complete response). 177Lu-lilotomab satetraxetan may provide a valuable alternative treatment approach in relapsed/refractory non-Hodgkin lymphoma, particularly in patients with comorbidities unsuitable for more intensive approaches. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT01796171.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2020002583DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7479948PMC
September 2020

A randomized phase 3 trial of zanubrutinib vs ibrutinib in symptomatic Waldenström macroglobulinemia: the ASPEN study.

Blood 2020 10;136(18):2038-2050

BeiGene USA, Inc, San Mateo, CA; and.

Bruton tyrosine kinase (BTK) inhibition is an effective treatment approach for patients with Waldenström macroglobulinemia (WM). The phase 3 ASPEN study compared the efficacy and safety of ibrutinib, a first-generation BTK inhibitor, with zanubrutinib, a novel highly selective BTK inhibitor, in patients with WM. Patients with MYD88L265P disease were randomly assigned 1:1 to treatment with ibrutinib or zanubrutinib. The primary end point was the proportion of patients achieving a complete response (CR) or a very good partial response (VGPR) by independent review. Key secondary end points included major response rate (MRR), progression-free survival (PFS), duration of response (DOR), disease burden, and safety. A total of 201 patients were randomized, and 199 received ≥1 dose of study treatment. No patient achieved a CR. Twenty-nine (28%) zanubrutinib patients and 19 (19%) ibrutinib patients achieved a VGPR, a nonstatistically significant difference (P = .09). MRRs were 77% and 78%, respectively. Median DOR and PFS were not reached; 84% and 85% of ibrutinib and zanubrutinib patients were progression free at 18 months. Atrial fibrillation, contusion, diarrhea, peripheral edema, hemorrhage, muscle spasms, and pneumonia, as well as adverse events leading to treatment discontinuation, were less common among zanubrutinib recipients. Incidence of neutropenia was higher with zanubrutinib, although grade ≥3 infection rates were similar in both arms (1.2 and 1.1 events per 100 person-months). These results demonstrate that zanubrutinib and ibrutinib are highly effective in the treatment of WM, but zanubrutinib treatment was associated with a trend toward better response quality and less toxicity, particularly cardiovascular toxicity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood.2020006844DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7596850PMC
October 2020

Efficacy of high-dose corticosteroid-based treatment for chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients with p53 abnormalities in the era of B-cell receptor inhibitors.

Adv Med Sci 2020 Sep 10;65(2):371-377. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

Department of Hematology, Institute of Hematology and Transfusion Medicine, Warsaw, Poland.

Purpose: High-dose methylprednisolone (HDMP) with or without anti-CD20 antibody treatment in the pre B-cell receptor inhibitor (BCRi) era was used as potential salvage therapy for relapsed/refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma (r/r CLL/SLL) patients bearing the 17p deletion.

Patients And Methods: Outcomes were compared in retrospect between r/r patients treated with HDMP (n = 20), ibrutinib (n = 39) and idelalisib with rituximab (n = 14).

Results: Higher overall response rates were found in those patients undergoing BCRi therapy compared to HDMP (79.2% vs. 0%; p < 0.0001), along with longer median progression-free survival (not reached vs. 24.1 months; p < 0.01). Nevertheless, there were no differences in the overall survival (HDMP 35.87 months vs. not reached; p = 0.58).

Conclusion: HDMP treatment was significantly inferior in terms of response rate and progression-free survival in r/r CLL/SLL patients with the 17p deletion, and may only be used whenever novel compounds are unavailable.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.advms.2020.06.002DOI Listing
September 2020

Rituximab biosimilars in clinical practice.

Leuk Lymphoma 2020 07 6;61(7):1523-1524. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Department of Clinical Oncology, Maria Sklodowska-Curie National Research Institute of Oncology Krakow Branch, Krakow, Poland.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10428194.2020.1788016DOI Listing
July 2020

Long-term Efficacy of Ibrutinib in Relapsed or Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia: Results of the Polish Adult Leukemia Study Group Observational Study.

Anticancer Res 2020 Jul;40(7):4059-4066

Department of Hematology, Institute of Hematology and Transfusion Medicine, Warsaw, Poland.

Background/aim: To study the long-term clinical efficacy and tolerability of ibrutinib monotherapy in real-world relapsed and refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia (RR-CLL) patients outside clinical trials.

Patients And Methods: Clinical data of 171 RR-CLL patients treated with ibrutinib were collected within the observational study of the Polish Adult Leukemia Study Group.

Results: Median patient age was 64 years. Patients were pretreated with 3 (1-10) median lines of therapy, while 42 (24.6%) had 17p deletion. The median observation time was 40 months (range=1-59 months), while median ibrutinib monotherapy reached 37.5 months (range=0.4-59.2 months). Response was noted in 132 (77.2%) patients. The estimated 5-year progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) rates were 61.1% (95%CI=49.3-70.9%) and 56.8% (95%CI=45.6-66.6%), respectively. At the time of analysis 97 (56.7%) remained under ibrutinib monotherapy.

Conclusion: Ibrutinib is clinically effective and tolerable as a monotherapy in real-world RR-CLL patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21873/anticanres.14403DOI Listing
July 2020

Tafasitamab plus lenalidomide in relapsed or refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (L-MIND): a multicentre, prospective, single-arm, phase 2 study.

Lancet Oncol 2020 07 5;21(7):978-988. Epub 2020 Jun 5.

Department of Internal Medicine, Arthur G James Comprehensive Cancer Center, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA.

Background: Patients with relapsed or refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma who are ineligible for autologous stem-cell transplantation have poor outcomes and few treatment options. Tafasitamab (MOR208) is an Fc-enhanced, humanised, anti-CD19 monoclonal antibody that has shown preclinical and single-agent activity in patients with relapsed or refractory B-cell malignancies. Preclinical data suggested that tafasitamab might act synergistically with lenalidomide. We aimed to assess the antitumour activity and safety of tafasitamab plus lenalidomide in patients with relapsed or refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma who were ineligible for autologous stem-cell transplantation.

Methods: In this multicentre, open-label, single-arm, phase 2 study (L-MIND), patients older than 18 years with histologically confirmed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, who relapsed or had refractory disease after previous treatment with one to three systemic regimens (with at least one anti-CD20 therapy), were not candidates for high-dose chemotherapy and subsequent autologous stem-cell transplantation, had an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0-2, and had measurable disease at baseline were recruited from 35 academic and community hospitals in ten countries. Patients received coadministered intravenous tafasitamab (12 mg/kg) and oral lenalidomide (25 mg/day) for up to 12 cycles (28 days each), followed by tafasitamab monotherapy (in patients with stable disease or better) until disease progression. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients with an objective response (centrally assessed), defined as a complete or partial response according to the 2007 International Working Group response criteria for malignant lymphoma. Antitumour activity analyses are based on all patients who received at least one dose of both tafasitamab and lenalidomide; safety analyses are based on all patients who received at least one dose of either study medication. Recruitment is complete, and the trial is in follow-up. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02399085.

Findings: Between Jan 18, 2016, and Nov 15, 2017, 156 patients were screened: 81 were enrolled and received at least one dose of either study medication, and 80 received at least one dose of both tafasitamab and lenalidomide. Median follow-up was 13·2 months (IQR 7·3-20·4) as of data cutoff on Nov 30, 2018. 48 (60%; 95% CI 48-71) of 80 patients who received tafasitamab plus lenalidomide had an objective response: 34 (43%; 32-54) had a complete response and 14 (18%; 10-28) had a partial response. The most common treatment-emergent adverse events of grade 3 or worse were neutropenia (39 [48%] of 81 patients), thrombocytopenia (14 [17%]), and febrile neutropenia (ten [12%]). Serious adverse events occurred in 41 (51%) of 81 patients. The most frequently reported serious adverse events (in two or more patients) were pneumonia (five [6%]), febrile neutropenia (five [6%]), pulmonary embolism (three [4%]), bronchitis (two [2%]), atrial fibrillation (two [2%]), and congestive cardiac failure (two [2%]).

Interpretation: Tafasitamab in combination with lenalidomide was well tolerated and resulted in a high proportion of patients with relapsed or refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma ineligible for autologous stem-cell transplantation having a complete response, and might represent a new therapeutic option in this setting.

Funding: MorphoSys.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1470-2045(20)30225-4DOI Listing
July 2020

ASCEND: Phase III, Randomized Trial of Acalabrutinib Versus Idelalisib Plus Rituximab or Bendamustine Plus Rituximab in Relapsed or Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia.

J Clin Oncol 2020 09 27;38(25):2849-2861. Epub 2020 May 27.

Maria Sklodowska-Curie National Institute of Oncology, Kraków, Poland.

Purpose: Acalabrutinib, a highly selective, potent, Bruton tyrosine kinase inhibitor, was evaluated in this global, multicenter, randomized, open-label, phase III study in patients with relapsed/refractory (R/R) chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL).

Methods: Eligible patients, aged ≥ 18 years with R/R CLL, were randomly assigned 1:1 centrally and stratified by del(17p) status, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status score, and number of prior lines of therapy. Patients received acalabrutinib monotherapy or investigator's choice (idelalisib plus rituximab [I-R] or bendamustine plus rituximab [B-R]). The primary end point was progression-free survival (PFS) assessed by an independent review committee (IRC) in the intent-to-treat population. Key secondary end points included IRC-assessed overall response rate, overall survival, and safety.

Results: From February 21, 2017, to January 17, 2018, a total of 398 patients were assessed for eligibility; 310 patients were randomly assigned to acalabrutinib monotherapy (n = 155) or investigator's choice (n = 155; I-R, n = 119; B-R, n = 36). Patients had received a median of two prior therapies (range, 1-10). After a median follow-up of 16.1 months (range, 0.03-22.4 months), median PFS was significantly longer with acalabrutinib monotherapy (PFS not reached) compared with investigator's choice (16.5 months [95% CI, 14.0 to 17.1 months]; hazard ratio, 0.31 [95% CI, 0.20 to 0.49]; < .0001). Estimated 12-month PFS was 88% (95% CI, 81% to 92%) for acalabrutinib and 68% (95% CI, 59% to 75%) for investigator's choice. Serious adverse events occurred in 29% of patients (n = 44 of 154) treated with acalabrutinib monotherapy, 56% (n = 66 of 118) with I-R, and 26% (n = 9 of 35) with B-R. Deaths occurred in 10% (n = 15 of 154), 11% (n = 13 of 118), and 14% (n = 5 of 35) of patients receiving acalabrutinib monotherapy, I-R, and B-R, respectively.

Conclusion: Acalabrutinib significantly improved PFS compared with I-R or B-R and has an acceptable safety profile in patients with R/R CLL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.19.03355DOI Listing
September 2020

The Rapeseed Oil Based Organofunctional Silane for Stainless Steel Protective Coatings.

Materials (Basel) 2020 May 12;13(10). Epub 2020 May 12.

Faculty of Chemistry, Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznan, Uniwersytetu Poznańskiego 8, 61-614 Poznan, Poland.

The earlier obtained organosilicon derivatives of rapeseed oil were used for the production of coatings protecting steel surface against corrosion. Vegetable oils have been hitherto used for temporary protection of metals against corrosion, while thanks to the synthesis of appropriate organosilicon derivatives, it is now possible to create durable protective coatings. Due to the presence of alkoxysilyl groups and the use of the sol-gel process, the coatings obtained were bonded to the steel surface. The effectiveness of the coatings was checked by electrochemical methods and steel surface analysis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma13102212DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7287667PMC
May 2020

Acalabrutinib with or without obinutuzumab versus chlorambucil and obinutuzmab for treatment-naive chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (ELEVATE TN): a randomised, controlled, phase 3 trial.

Lancet 2020 04;395(10232):1278-1291

The Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center and Division of Hematology, Columbus, OH, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Acalabrutinib is a selective, covalent Bruton tyrosine-kinase inhibitor with activity in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia. We compare the efficacy of acalabrutinib with or without obinutuzumab against chlorambucil with obinutuzumab in patients with treatment-naive chronic lymphocytic leukaemia.

Methods: ELEVATE TN is a global, phase 3, multicentre, open-label study in patients with treatment-naive chronic lymphocytic leukaemia done at 142 academic and community hospitals in 18 countries. Eligible patients had untreated chronic lymphocytic leukaemia and were aged 65 years or older, or older than 18 years and younger than 65 years with creatinine clearance of 30-69 mL/min (calculated by use of the Cockcroft-Gault equation) or Cumulative Illness Rating Scale for Geriatrics score greater than 6. Additional criteria included an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status score of 2 or less and adequate haematologic, hepatic, and renal function. Patients with significant cardiovascular disease were excluded, and concomitant treatment with warfarin or equivalent vitamin K antagonists was prohibited. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1:1) centrally via an interactive voice or web response system to receive acalabrutinib and obinutuzumab, acalabrutinib monotherapy, or obinutuzumab and oral chlorambucil. Treatments were administered in 28-day cycles. To reduce infusion-related reactions, acalabrutinib was administered for one cycle before obinutuzumab administration. Oral acalabrutinib was administered (100 mg) twice a day until progressive disease or unacceptable toxic effects occurred. In the acalabrutinib-obinutuzumab group, intravenous obinutuzumab was given on days 1 (100 mg), 2 (900 mg), 8 (1000 mg), and 15 (1000 mg) of cycle 2 and on day 1 (1000 mg) of cycles 3-7. In the obinutuzumab-chlorambucil group, intravenous obinutuzumab was given on days 1 (100 mg), 2 (900 mg), 8 (1000 mg), and 15 (1000 mg) of cycle 1 and on day 1 (1000 mg) of cycles 2-6. Oral chlorambucil was given (0·5 mg/kg) on days 1 and 15 of each cycle, for six cycles. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival between the two combination-therapy groups, assessed by independent review committee. Crossover to acalabrutinib was allowed in patients who progressed on obinutuzumab-chlorambucil. Safety was assessed in all patients who received at least one dose of treatment. Enrolment for this trial is complete, and the study is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02475681.

Findings: Between Sept 14, 2015, and Feb 8, 2017, we recruited 675 patients for assessment. 140 patients did not meet eligibility criteria, and 535 patients were randomly assigned to treatment. 179 patients were assigned to receive acalabrutinib-obinutuzumab, 179 patients were assigned to receive acalabrutinib monotherapy, and 177 patients were assigned to receive obinutuzumab-chlorambucil. At median follow-up of 28·3 months (IQR 25·6-33·1), median progression-free survival was longer with acalabrutinib-obinutuzumab and acalabrutinib monotherapy, compared with obinutuzumab-chlorambucil (median not reached with acalabrutinib and obinutuzumab vs 22·6 months with obinutuzumab, hazard ratio [HR] 0·1; 95% CI 0·06-0·17, p<0·0001; and not reached with acalabrutinib monotherapy vs 22·6 months with obinutuzumab, 0·20; 0·13-0·3, p<0·0001). Estimated progression-free survival at 24 months was 93% with acalabrutinib-obinutuzumab (95% CI 87-96%), 87% with acalabrutinib monotherapy (81-92%), and 47% with obinutuzumab-chlorambucil (39-55%). The most common grade 3 or higher adverse event across groups was neutropenia (53 [30%] of 178 patients in the acalabrutinib-obinutuzumab group, 17 [9%] of 179 patients in the acalabrutinib group, and 70 [41%] of 169 patients in the obinutuzumab-chlorambucil group). All-grade infusion reactions were less frequent with acalabrutinib-obinutuzumab (24 [13%] of 178 patients) than obinutuzumab-chlorambucil (67 [40%] of 169 patients). Grade 3 or higher infections occurred in 37 (21%) patients given acalabrutinib-obinutuzumab, 25 (14%) patients given acalabrutinib monotherapy, and 14 (8%) patients given obinutuzumab-chlorambucil. Deaths occurred in eight (4%) patients given acalabrutinib-obinutuzumab, 12 (7%) patients given acalabrutinib, and 15 (9%) patients given obinutuzumab-chlorambucil.

Interpretation: Acalabrutinib with or without obinutuzumab significantly improved progression-free survival over obinutuzumab-chlorambucil chemoimmunotherapy, providing a chemotherapy-free treatment option with an acceptable side-effect profile that was consistent with previous studies. These data support the use of acalabrutinib in combination with obinutuzumab or alone as a new treatment option for patients with treatment-naive symptomatic chronic lymphocytic leukaemia.

Funding: Acerta Pharma, a member of the AstraZeneca Group, and R35 CA198183 (to JCB).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30262-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8151619PMC
April 2020

Cardio-oncology for better lymphoma therapy outcomes.

Lancet Haematol 2020 04 2;7(4):e273-e275. Epub 2020 Mar 2.

Department of Pulmonary Circulation, Thromboembolic Diseases and Cardiology, Centre of Postgraduate Medical Education, European Health Centre, Otwock, Poland.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2352-3026(20)30066-1DOI Listing
April 2020

Radioimmunotherapy for mantle cell lymphoma: 5-year follow-up of 90 patients from the international RIT registry.

Ann Hematol 2020 May 3;99(5):1073-1079. Epub 2020 Mar 3.

Department of Hematology and Oncology, Vivantes Klinikum Am Urban, Berlin, Germany.

To assess the efficacy of radioimmunotherapy (RIT) with yttrium-ibrutinib-tiuxetan (90Y-IT) in mantle cell lymphoma, data from 90 patients registered in the RIT Network with a median follow-up (FU) of 5.5 years after RIT were evaluated. 90Y-IT was given as first-line therapy in 45 (50%) and for relapse in 45 (50%) patients. Most patients received 90Y-IT as consolidation after chemoimmunotherapy in first line (98%) and in relapse (53%). As a first-line treatment, 30 patients (pts.) (67%) achieved CR, 10 pts. (22%) PR%. and 1 pt. (2%) PD, and for 4 pts. (9%), no response data was available. At relapse, CR was achieved in 17 pts. (38%), PR in 6 pts. (13%), SD in 2 pts. (4%), and 6 pts. (13%) had PD, while the response was not documented for 14 pts. (31%). After a median FU of 5.5 years, median PFS for all patients was 2.11 (95% CI, 1.03-2.32) years, and median OS was 4.05 (95% CI, 2.79-7.21) years. Eleven pts. (12.2%) developed second malignancy. In conclusion, this is the largest report of MCL pts. treated with 90Y-IT to date. 90Y-IT was most often used as consolidation after first- and second-line chemotherapy and may improve the results achieved using chemoimmunotherapy alone. However, the results are less encouraging compared to treatment with small molecules such as ibrutinib.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00277-020-03956-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7196943PMC
May 2020

Type 2 diabetes mellitus compromises the survival of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma patients treated with (R)-CHOP - the PLRG report.

Sci Rep 2020 02 26;10(1):3517. Epub 2020 Feb 26.

Department of Hematology, Jagiellonian University, Mikołaja Kopernika 17 Str., 30-501, Krakow, Poland.

Comorbidities impair the prognosis of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DMT2) increases the risk of other comorbidities, e.g., heart failure (HF). Thus, we hypothesized that pre-existing DMT2 may negatively affect the outcome of DLBCL. To verify this, DLBCL patients treated with (R)-CHOP were enrolled. 469 patients were eligible, with a median age of 57 years; 356 patients had advanced-stage DLBCL. 126 patients had high-intermediate and 83 high-risk international prognostic index (IPI). Seventy-six patients had DMT2, 46 HF; 26 patients suffered from both DMT2 and HF. In the analyzed group DMT2 or HF significantly shortened overall survival (OS) and progression free survival (PFS): the 5-year OS for patients with DMT2 was 64% vs 79% and for those with HF: 49% vs 79%. The 5-year PFS for DMT2 was 50.6% vs 62.5% and for HF 39.4% vs 63.2%. The relapse/progression incidence was comparable between groups; the non-relapse/progression mortality (NRPM) was significantly higher solely in DMT2 patients (5-year NRPM 22.5% vs 8.4%). The risk of death was higher in patients with higher IPI (HR = 1.85) and with DMT2 (HR = 1.87). To conclude, pre-existing DMT2, in addition to a higher IPI and HF, was a negative predictor for OS and PFS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-60565-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7044262PMC
February 2020

First-line R-CVP versus R-CHOP induction immunochemotherapy for indolent lymphoma with rituximab maintenance. A multicentre, phase III randomized study by the Polish Lymphoma Research Group PLRG4.

Br J Haematol 2020 03 2;188(6):898-906. Epub 2019 Dec 2.

Maria Sklodowska-Curie Institute - Oncology Center in Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland.

R-CVP (cyclophosphamide, vincristine, prednisone) and R-CHOP (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, prednisone + rituximab) are immunochemotherapy regimens frequently used for remission induction of indolent non-Hodgkin lymphomas (iNHLs). Rituximab maintenance (RM) significantly improves progression-free survival (PFS) in patients with complete/partial remission (CR/PR). Here we report the final results of a randomized study comparing R-CVP to R-CHOP both followed by RM. Untreated patients in need of systemic therapy with symptomatic and progressive iNHLs including follicular (FL) and marginal zone lymphoma (MZL), mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT), small lymphocytic (SLL), and lymphoplasmacytic (LPL) lymphoma were eligible. Patients were randomized to receive R-CVP or R-CHOP for eight cycles or until complete response (CR). All patients with CR/PR (partial response) received RM 375 mg/m q 2 months for 12 cycles. Primary endpoint was event-free survival (EFS). Two-hundred and fifty patients [FL 42%, MZL/MALT 38%, LPL/ Waldenström Macroglobulinaemia (WM) 11%, SLL 9%] were enrolled and randomized (R-CHOP: 127, R-CVP: 123). Median age was 56 years (21-85), 44% were male, 90% were in stage III-IV, 43% of FL patients had a Follicular Lymphoma International Prognostic Index (FLIPI) score ≥3, and 33·4% of all patients had an IPI score ≥3. At the end of induction treatment, the CR/PR rate was 43·6/50·9% and 36·3/60·8% in the R-CHOP and R-CVP groups (P = 0·218) respectively. After a median follow-up of 67, 66, and 70 months, five-year EFS was 61% vs. 56% (not significant), progression-free survival (PFS) was 71% vs. 69% (not significant) and overall survival (OS) was 84% vs. 89% in the R-CHOP vs. the R-CVP arm respectively. Grade III/IV adverse events (65 vs. 22) occurred in 40 (33·1%) and 18 (15·3%) patients, P = 0·001; neutropenia in 16 (11·6%) and 4 (3·4%) patients, P = 0·017; infection in 14 (10·7%) and 3 (2·5%) patients,; P = 0·011; and a second neoplasm in three versus seven patients., in the R-CHOP and the R-CVP groups respectively. This multicentre randomized study with >five-year follow-up shows similar outcome in patients with indolent lymphoma in need of systemic therapy treated with R-CVP or R-CHOP immunochemotherapy and rituximab maintenance in both arms. The minor toxicity of the R-CVP regimen makes it a reasonable choice for induction treatment, leaving other active agents like doxorubicin or bendamustin for second-line therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjh.16264DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7154735PMC
March 2020

Helping the cardio-oncologist: from real life to guidelines.

Semin Oncol 2019 12 20;46(6):433-436. Epub 2019 Nov 20.

MD Anderson Cancer Center and University of Texas, Houston, TX.

Guidelines for the diagnosis, management, and surveillance of cancer patients have evolved with the single goal of improving patient care based on established data when available, or in the absence of firm data, on the standard practices of those with broad experience in actual hands-on patient care. Two initiatives intended to disseminate information to cardio-oncologists, were discussed in this session: the first, from the American Society of Clinical Oncology was focused on available data and the confidence level of that data; the second, from The European Society of Cardiology was a position paper. Interestingly, notwithstanding the somewhat different focus, there is considerable agreement between these two initiatives. Nevertheless, guidelines my not be applicable to all afflicted patients, and may raise questions as to when deviations from published standards should be considered. Such deviations may result in allegations of failure to meet standards of care or legal liability.
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December 2019

Mechanisms and clinical course of cardiovascular toxicity of cancer treatment II. Hematology.

Semin Oncol 2019 12 11;46(6):403-407. Epub 2019 Nov 11.

Department of Medicine, Campus Bio-Medico University, Rome, Italy. Electronic address:

Session II of the Second International Colloquium on Cardio-Oncology, chaired by Dr Breccia (Rome, Italy) and Dr Jurczak (Krakòw, Poland), focused on mechanisms and clinical course of cardiovascular toxicity of cancer treatment. Whereas the venerable anthracyclines keep challenging patients and clinicians with risk of left ventricular dysfunction and heart failure, other newer drugs cause substantially different clinical phenotypes of cardiovascular toxicity. In particular, Session II not only focused on arterial thrombosis and venous thromboembolism, but also hypertension or cardiomyopathy or atrial fibrillation induced by many otherwise life-saving drugs. Dr Breccia (Rome, Italy) reviewed incidence, mechanisms, risk factors, and principles for prevention of cardiovascular events induced by tyrosine kinase inhibitors of hematologic interest, such as those used to treat chronic myeloid leukemia. Dr Carver (Philadelphia) reviewed the incidence, predisposing factors, and principles for proactive management of cardiovascular events in patients treated by conventional chemotherapy or new drugs for treatment of multiple myeloma. Dr Szmit (Warsaw, Poland) discussed on how coagulation disorders should be classified according to patient- or drug-related factors and how they should be diagnosed and treated in patients with solid or hematologic tumors. Dr Minotti (Rome. Italy) illustrated some potential pitfalls of accelerated drug development and approval and their possible impact on clinical incidence of cardiovascular events induced by tyrosine kinase inhibitors of hematologic interest. Session II therefore offered a broad perspective of the risk-benefit ratio of new drugs that are plagued with concerns about cardiovascular events.
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December 2019

Idelalisib addition has neutral to beneficial effects on quality of life in bendamustine/rituximab-treated patients: results of a phase 3, randomized, controlled trial.

Health Qual Life Outcomes 2019 Nov 15;17(1):173. Epub 2019 Nov 15.

Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, USA.

Background: In a phase 3 randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, treatment with idelalisib, a phosphoinositol-3 kinase δ inhibitor, + bendamustine/rituximab improved progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in adult patients with relapsed/refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia (R/R CLL). Here we report the results of health-related quality of life (HRQL) analyses from this study.

Methods: From June 15, 2012 to August 21, 2014, 416 patients with R/R CLL were enrolled; 207 patients were randomized to the idelalisib arm and 209 to the placebo arm. In the 416 patients randomized to receive bendamustine/rituximab and either oral idelalisib 150 mg twice-daily or placebo, HRQL was assessed at baseline and throughout the blinded part of the study using the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Leukemia (FACT-Leu) and EuroQoL Five-Dimension (EQ-5D) visual analogue scale (VAS) questionnaires. The assessments were performed at scheduled patient visits; every 4 weeks for the first 6 months from the initiation of treatment, then every 8 weeks for the next 6 months, and every 12 weeks thereafter until end of study. Least-squares mean changes from baseline were estimated using a mixed-effects model by including treatment, time, and treatment-by-time interaction, and stratification factors as fixed effects. Time to first symptom improvement was assessed by Kaplan-Meier analysis.

Results: In mixed-effects model analysis, idelalisib + bendamustine/rituximab treatment led to clinically meaningful improvements from baseline in leukemia-associated symptoms. Moreover, per Kaplan-Meier analysis, the proportion of patients with symptom improvement was higher and time to improvement was shorter among patients in the idelalisib-containing arm compared with those who did not receive idelalisib. The physical and social/family FACT-Leu subscale scores, along with the self-rated health assessed by EQ-VAS, showed improvement with idelalisib over placebo, but the difference did not reach statistical significance. The functional and emotional FACT-Leu subscale scores remained similar to placebo.

Conclusions: Addition of idelalisib to bendamustine/rituximab, apart from improving PFS and OS, had a neutral to beneficial impact on HRQL in patients with R/R CLL, particularly by reducing leukemia-specific disease symptoms.

Trial Registration: Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01569295. Registered April 3, 2012.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12955-019-1232-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6858733PMC
November 2019