Publications by authors named "Wojciech Franus"

19 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Natural Extracts with Proven Antioxidant Activity.

Molecules 2021 Aug 17;26(16). Epub 2021 Aug 17.

Department of Biology and Genetics, Medical University of Lublin, Chodźki 4A, 20-093 Lublin, Poland.

Natural extracts are a rich source of biomolecules that are useful not only as antioxidant drugs or diet supplements but also as complex reagents for the biogenic synthesis of metallic nanoparticles. The natural product components can act as strong reducing and capping substrates guaranteeing the stability of formed NPs. The current work demonstrates the suitability of extracts of , , , , , , , , , and marine algae for green synthesis of AgNPs. The antioxidant power of methanolic extracts was estimated at the beginning according to their free radical scavenging activity by the DPPH method and reducing power activity by CUPRAC and SNPAC (silver nanoparticle antioxidant capacity) assays. The results obtained by the CUPRAC and SNAPC methods exhibited excellent agreement (R~0.9). The synthesized AgNPs were characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), dynamic light scattering (DLS) particle size, and zeta potential. The UV-vis absorption spectra showed a peak at 423 nm confirming the presence of AgNPs. The shapes of extract-mediated AgNPs were mainly spherical, spheroid, rod-shaped, agglomerated crystalline structures. The NPs exhibited a high negative zeta potential value in the range from -49.8 mV to -56.1 mV, proving the existence of electrostatic stabilization. FTIR measurements indicated peaks corresponding to different functional groups such as carboxylic acids, alcohol, phenol, esters, ethers, aldehydes, alkanes, and proteins, which were involved in the synthesis and stabilization of AgNPs. Among the examined extracts, green tea showed the highest activity in all antioxidant tests and enabled the synthesis of the smallest nanoparticles, namely 62.51, 61.19, and 53.55 nm, depending on storage times of 30 min, 24 h, and 72 h, respectively. In turn, the extract was distinguished by the lowest zeta potential, decreasing with storage time from -66.0 up to -88.6 mM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules26164986DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8398508PMC
August 2021

Zeolite NaP1 Functionalization for the Sorption of Metal Complexes with Biodegradable -(1,2-dicarboxyethyl)-D,L-aspartic Acid.

Materials (Basel) 2021 May 12;14(10). Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Geotechnics, Civil Engineering and Architecture Faculty, Lublin University of Technology, Nadbystrzycka 40, 20-618 Lublin, Poland.

The possibility of application of chitosan-modified zeolite as sorbent for Cu(II), Zn(II), Mn(II), and Fe(III) ions and their mixtures in the presence of -(1,2-dicarboxyethyl)-D,L-aspartic acid, IDHA) under different experimental conditions were investigated. Chitosan-modified zeolite belongs to the group of biodegradable complexing agents used in fertilizer production. NaP1CS as a carrier forms a barrier to the spontaneous release of the fertilizer into soil. The obtained materials were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR); surface area determination (ASAP); scanning electron microscopy (SEM-EDS); X-ray fluorescence (XRF); X-ray diffraction (XRD); and carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen (CHN), as well as thermogravimetric (TGA) methods. The concentrations of Cu(II), Zn(II), Mn(II), and Fe(III) complexes with IDHA varied from 5-20 mg/dm for Cu(II), 10-40 mg/dm for Fe(III), 20-80 mg/dm for Mn(II), and 10-40 mg/dm for Zn(II), respectively; pH value (3-6), time (1-120 min), and temperature (293-333 K) on the sorption efficiency were tested. The Langmuir, Freundlich, Dubinin-Radushkevich, and Temkin adsorption models were applied to describe experimental data. The pH 5 proved to be appropriate for adsorption. The pseudo-second order and Langmuir models were consistent with the experimental data. The thermodynamic parameters indicate that adsorption is spontaneous and endothermic. The highest desorption percentage was achieved using the HCl solution, therefore, proving that method can be used to design slow-release fertilizers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma14102518DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8151505PMC
May 2021

SO sorption properties of fly ash zeolites.

Turk J Chem 2020 11;44(1):155-167. Epub 2020 Feb 11.

Department of Coal Chemistry and Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Energy and Fuels, AGH University of Science and Technology, Kraków Poland.

In the presented study, the sulfur dioxide sorption properties of fly ash zeolite X were investigated. Sorption tests were performed on fly ash zeolite samples that were not prepared specially for sorption, in addition to dried samples and samples in the presence of water vapor. The samples saturated with water vapor showed the highest sorption capacity. The sorption capacity of the samples additionally dried prior to the sorption experiment was higher than that of the samples that were not specially prepared for the sorption test. Regeneration tests indicated relatively good regeneration properties. The obtained results were described with the use of Langmuir, Sips, and Dubinin-Astakhov models, with the Dubinin-Astakhov model providing the best fit.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3906/kim-1905-50DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7751809PMC
February 2020

Brick Debris Dust as an Ecological Filler and Its Effect on the Durability of Asphalt Mix.

Materials (Basel) 2020 Nov 7;13(21). Epub 2020 Nov 7.

Department of Geotechnical Engineering, Faculty of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Lublin University of Technology, Nadbystrzycka 40, 20-618 Lublin, Poland.

Brick debris is one of the main construction wastes obtained from demolition of buildings. However, this material can be successfully used in the recycling process. The purpose of the study was to determine the brick dust addition effect on asphalt surface service life. An asphalt concrete reference mix was designed for bonding layer and prepared using a Marshall compacting device. In addition, three mixes with combined lime-brick filler were prepared as well as one mix containing only brick filler. The samples were tested for their volumetric properties-density, bulk density, air void content, resistance to water and frost and stiffness modulus with varying test temperatures. It was found that 25% of brick dust addition to the filler did not considerably change the properties of the tested samples, while in the case of 50% filler the replacement stiffness and frost resistance decrease; however, the minimum required value is maintained. It can be concluded that the lime filler can be replaced with up to 50% of brick dust without a negative impact on the properties of asphalt mix. The proposed solution fits into the idea of sustainable development indicating a way of brick debris management.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma13215023DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7664420PMC
November 2020

Laboratory Methods for Assessing the Influence of Improper Asphalt Mix Compaction on Its Performance.

Materials (Basel) 2020 May 29;13(11). Epub 2020 May 29.

Department of Geotechnical Engineering, Faculty of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Lublin University of Technology, Nadbystrzycka 40, 20-618 Lublin, Poland.

Compaction index is one of the most important technological parameters during asphalt pavement construction which may be negatively affected by wrong asphalt paving machine set, weather conditions, or the mix temperature. Presented laboratory study analyzes the asphalt mix properties in case of inappropriate compaction. The reference mix was designed for AC 11 S wearing layer (asphalt concrete for wearing layer with maximum grading of 11 mm). Asphalt mix samples used in the tests were prepared using Marshall device with the compaction energy of 2 × 20, 2 × 35, 2 × 50, and 2 × 75 blows as well as in a roller compactor where the slabs were compacted to various heights: 69.3 mm (+10% of nominal height), 66.2 mm (+5%), 63 mm (nominal), and 59.9 mm (-5%) which resulted in different compaction indexes. Afterwards the samples were cored from the slabs. Both Marshall samples and cores were tested for air void content, stiffness modulus in three temperatures, indirect tensile strength, and resistance to water and frost indicated by ITSR value. It was found that either insufficient or excessive level of compaction can cause negative effect on the road surface performance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma13112476DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7321419PMC
May 2020

Behavior of Ag species in presence of aquatic sediment minerals - In context of aquatic environmental safety.

J Contam Hydrol 2020 Jun 22;232:103606. Epub 2020 Jan 22.

Faculty of Geology, Geophysics and Environmental Protection of the University of Science and Technology, 30 Mickiewicza St., 30-059 Krakow, Poland. Electronic address:

In recent years, there has been a growth in the number of products containing Ag nanoparticles (AgNPs) in many areas and their use suggests that the water-soil environment may be exposed to the contaminant with different Ag species. Therefore, the sorption of two Ag forms (i.e. Ag(I) ions and nanoparticles - AgNPs) on clay minerals (montmorillonite and kaolinite) and iron (oxyhydr)oxides (ferrihydrite) as a function of solution:mineral ratio (100:1, 250:1, 500:1), solution pH (3.0, 5.5 and 7.0) and initial Ag concentration (0.1-100 mg/dm) was studied using batch method. In addition the binding strength/mobility of the bonded Ag species was researched. The results show a great sorption potential of clay minerals for both Ag forms and lower sorption capacity of ferrihydrite, in particular for Ag(I) ions. The maximum sorption capacities of montmorillonite, kaolinite and ferrihydrite estimated from three-parameter isotherm model of Sips were 94.39 mg/g, 117.8 mg/g and 26.48 mg/g for AgNPs and 17.92 mg/g, 21.14 mg/g and 3.072 mg/g for Ag(I) ions, respectively. Aggregation process plays an important role in sorption and mobility of AgNPs. The sequential extraction study indicated different binding mechanisms of the Ag forms onto the clay minerals and ferrihydrite, which depended on the active sites of minerals as well as the Ag species nature in the solution. Ag(I) was weakly bound by clay minerals but presence of iron (oxyhydr)oxides decreased the Ag(I) mobility and bioavailability. On the other hand, AgNPs bound with the active centers of minerals in a very strong way and were not able to release into water. The study of the binding of Ag forms by clay minerals and (oxyhydr)oxides allows to determine the influence of their physicochemical and structural properties, including e.g. pore size on Ag sorption. These results allow these properties to be taken into account in the study of environmental samples, including waters and soils. Moreover, the results showed that in the study of behavior of Ag forms in contact with the minerals, in addition to the sorption capacity, the susceptibility to their release is very important. Studies on sorption/desorption of AgNPs and Ag(I) ions as a form of oxidation of AgNPs is important for understanding the transport and fate of the Ag species in soil, sediments and surface water because of different their behavior in contact with the minerals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jconhyd.2020.103606DOI Listing
June 2020

Application of Zeolite Tuffs as Mineral Filler in Warm Mix Asphalt.

Materials (Basel) 2019 Dec 19;13(1). Epub 2019 Dec 19.

Department of Geotechnics, Faculty of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Lublin University of Technology, Nadbystrzycka 40, 20-618 Lublin, Poland.

Zeolite materials are used in the warm mix asphalt technology as an asphalt foaming additive, which partially replaces the filler. This article analyzes the influence of the zeolite and other fillers addition on the properties of mastic asphalt. In the research, 35/50 penetration grade asphalt and three types of fillers were used: lime filler (L), zeolite tuff (clinoptilolite) (C), hydrated lime (H) and their mixed combinations (C:L in 1:1 and 1:3 proportions as well as C:L:H in 2:2:1 ratio). The characteristics of the materials included: chemical analysis, phase composition and particle size distribution. The following properties were determined on the asphalt mastic samples: penetration, softening point, penetration index, dynamic viscosity and stiffening measured by softening point increase. It was found that clinoptilolite could partially replace the traditional lime filler, without a negative impact on the asphalt mastic properties. Additionally, the hydrated lime inclusion should have a positive effect on the frost resistance of an asphalt mix.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma13010019DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6982116PMC
December 2019

Environmental-Friendly Modifications of Zeolite to Increase Its Sorption and Anion Exchange Properties, Physicochemical Studies of the Modified Materials.

Materials (Basel) 2019 Sep 30;12(19). Epub 2019 Sep 30.

Institute of Agrophysics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Doswiadczalna 4, 20-290 Lublin, Poland.

Zeolites, naturally possessing a high negative surface charge and large specific surface, are used in agriculture as cationic fertilizers, water holders, heavy metals, and organic pollutants sorbents. Since some nutrients occur in anionic forms, there is a need to modify the zeolite surface to hold anions. In this study, hydrogen (hydrochloric acid), iron (Fe and Fe), and aluminum cations as well as the influence of sodium hydroxide modifiers on the specific surface area, water vapor, adsorption energy, fractal dimension, mesopore volumes and radii, electrokinetic (zeta) potential, and isoelectric point were investigated. The use of alkali solution did not affect the zeolite properties significantly, whereas hydrogen, iron, and treatments with aluminum cations resulted in an increase in the specific surface area, mesopore volumes, and radii, and a decrease in the water-binding forces. Aluminum cations were the most effective in recharging the zeolite surface from negative to positive, shifting the isoelectric point toward the highest values. Calcination enlarged the negative surface charge and mesopore radius, and diminished the surface area and mesopore volume. The modified zeolites are promising carriers of anionic nutrients, large surface area sorbents, and suppliers of water for plant roots in soil.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma12193213DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6803845PMC
September 2019

Utilization of Recycled Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) Panel Waste in Concrete.

Materials (Basel) 2019 Sep 11;12(18). Epub 2019 Sep 11.

Department of Geotechnical Engineering, Faculty of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Lublin University of Technology, Nadbystrzycka 40, 20-618 Lublin, Poland.

The paper presents the possibility of using the liquid crystal display (LCD) waste as a partial substitute of fine aggregate. Concretes with two types of cement, CEM I 42.5 R and CEM II/B-S 42.5 N, with and without LCD addition, were investigated. The properties that influence the structures exposed to severe environments were examined. The results and analyses pertaining to their micro-structure, including interfacial transition zone (ITZ), were presented as well. All concretes exhibited good freeze-thaw (F-T) resistance after 150 F-T cycles. The water-tightness was established as 0.8 MPa. All concretes both with and without LCD achieved the same class C50/60.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma12182941DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6766253PMC
September 2019

Influence of Waste Engine Oil Addition on the Properties of Zeolite-Foamed Asphalt.

Materials (Basel) 2019 Jul 15;12(14). Epub 2019 Jul 15.

Department of Geotechnics, Faculty of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Lublin University of Technology, Nadbystrzycka 40, 20-618 Lublin, Poland.

The previous studies on asphalt mix and asphalt with waste engine oil addition indicate the possibility of using this type of waste material for the construction of road pavements. The research presented in this paper aimed at the preliminary assessment of possible waste engine oil (WEO) addition to the asphalts foamed with water-soaked zeolites. In this research, synthetic zeolite Na-P1 and natural clinoptilolite were used. In order to improve the foaming effect, the zeolites were soaked with water before dispensing to the asphalt, in the amount of 75% asphalt weight for Na-P1 and 25% for clinoptilolite. The tests were performed for one type of waste engine oil-5W40 and two type of binders: 20/30 and polymer modified 25/55-60. The asphalt parameters such as the dynamic viscosity, penetration and softening point were determined with the addition of WEO and zeolites in the concentration of 0%, 3%, 5%, 7% for both materials. It was found that the WEO addition lowers the viscosity and softening point of asphalt but increases penetration. The zeolite addition affected the change of these parameters to a minor extent or was statistically irrelevant. The chemical analysis of the asphalt samples with WEO addition performed with the X-ray Fluorescence method did not show a significant amount of heavy metals which would increase the probability of low-temperature cracking. The analysis of the results indicates the possibility of using zeolite-foamed asphalt technology with WEO addition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma12142265DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6678213PMC
July 2019

Evaluation of Hydrocarbon Soil Pollution Using E-Nose.

Sensors (Basel) 2018 Jul 30;18(8). Epub 2018 Jul 30.

Faculty of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Lublin University of Technology, Nadbystrzycka 40, 20-618 Lublin, Poland.

The possibility of detecting low levels of soil pollution by petroleum fuel using an electronic nose (e-nose) was studied. An attempt to distinguish between pollution caused by petrol and diesel oil, and its relation to the time elapsed since the pollution event was simultaneously performed. Ten arable soils, belonging to various soil groups from the World Reference Base (WRB), were investigated. The measurements were performed on soils that were moistened to field capacity, polluted separately with both hydrocarbons, and then allowed to dry slowly over a period of 180 days. The volatile fingerprints differed throughout the course of the experiment, and, by its end, they were similar to those of the unpolluted soils. Principal component analysis (PCA) and artificial neural network (ANN) analysis showed that the e-nose results could be used to detect soil contamination and distinguish between pollutants and contamination levels.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s18082463DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6111446PMC
July 2018

The Wastes of Sanitary Ceramics as Recycling Aggregate to Special Concretes.

Materials (Basel) 2018 Jul 24;11(8). Epub 2018 Jul 24.

Lublin University of Technology, Faculty of Civil Engineering and Architecture, 40 Nadbystrzycka Str., 20-618 Lublin, Poland.

This article presents the results of research on the wastes of sanitary ceramics as an aggregate to concretes. The case of high temperature load was taken into account. Six concrete mixes were designed on Portland and calcium aluminate cement with various content of aerating admixture. Only the ground waste ceramics were used as an aggregate from one of the Polish sanitary ceramics plants. The abrasion test by Boehme blade of the designed concrete was conducted within the frame of study and compression strength tests on the cylindrical samples were performed as well. Some samples were initially annealed at 400 or 800 °C prior to strength tests. In order to determine the impact of annealing on the phase content and the concrete sample structure, the analyses on phase content (XRD-X-ray diffraction) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were conducted. The tests on compression strength demonstrated that there is considerable resistance of concrete containing ceramic aggregate and calcium aluminate cement to high temperatures. Abrasion tests confirmed that selected mixes have a high resistance to abrasion and they can be applied as a concrete coating. The possibility of ceramic cullet use as an aggregate to special concretes has been confirmed by the conducted research on specific features. Taking into consideration the available literature, the article presents widely conducted research in the area of the internal structure of concrete designed on the basis of recycled ceramic aggregate, the phase content of individual components, and basic mechanical tests both in normal temperatures and under thermal stress.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma11081275DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6117689PMC
July 2018

Microstructural Differences in Response of Thermoresistant (Ceramic) and Standard (Granite) Concretes on Heating. Studies Using SEM and Nonstandard Approaches to Microtomography and Mercury Intrusion Porosimetry Data.

Materials (Basel) 2018 Jul 2;11(7). Epub 2018 Jul 2.

Department of Physical Chemistry of Porous Materials, Institute of Agrophysics, Doswiadczalna 4, 20-290 Lublin, Poland.

The microstructure of concretes containing ceramic sanitary ware waste and granite aggregates was studied using scanning electron microscopy, mercury intrusion porosimetry and computer microtomography, before and after cyclic heating of the concretes to 1000 °C. All methods showed an increase in porosities in the concretes after heating. The proposed new approach to microtomography data analysis detected a much higher increase in the number of cracks in granite than in ceramic concrete after heating. This new approach to combining mercury intrusion and microtomography data showed that heating led to the narrowing of throats connecting smaller pore voids and a broadening of throats connecting larger pore voids, in both concretes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma11071126DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6073717PMC
July 2018

Removal of phosphate from water by lanthanum-modified zeolites obtained from fly ash.

J Colloid Interface Sci 2018 Mar 10;513:72-81. Epub 2017 Nov 10.

Department of Geotechnics, Lublin University of Technology, Nadbystrzycka 40, 20-618 Lublin, Poland.

The possibility and effectiveness of removal of phosphate from aqueous solutions with the use of new low-cost synthetic zeolites obtained from fly ash and modified with lanthanum, was studied. Physicochemical properties of the zeolites were characterized by different techniques such as X-ray diffraction, low-temperature nitrogen sorption and scanning electron microscopy. It has been established that lanthanum is preferentially located in the zeolites channels and cages, which is related to the ion-exchange method of modification. Introduction of lanthanum cations leads to a reduction in BET surface area, mainly due to a decrease in the area of micropores and reduction in the pore volume. The key element of the study was a series of tests of phosphate adsorption from aqueous solutions. The efficiency of adsorption process was found to depend on the concentration of adsorbate, pH of its solution and temperature. The sorption capacity of zeolites obtained from fly ashes (La-P1, La-A) towards phosphate was compared with that of a natural zeolite - clinoptilolite, modified with lanthanum (La-CLP). The sorption capacities of the particular samples were as follows: La-P1 - 58.2 mg/g, La-A - 44.0 mg/g and La-CLP - 24.6 mg/g. The experimental data were well fitted by the Langmuir isotherm model. The sorption capacities of all samples towards phosphate increased with temperature increasing from 25 to 60 °C. The values of the thermodynamic parameters ΔH and ΔG revealed that the adsorption was spontaneous and endothermic.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2017.11.003DOI Listing
March 2018

Modification of Lightweight Aggregates' Microstructure by Used Motor Oil Addition.

Materials (Basel) 2016 Oct 18;9(10). Epub 2016 Oct 18.

Department of Geotechnical Engineering, Faculty of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Lublin University of Technology, Nadbystrzycka 40, 20-618 Lublin, Poland.

An admixture of lightweight aggregate substrates (beidellitic clay containing 10 wt % of natural clinoptilolite or Na-P1 zeolite) with used motor oil (1 wt %-8 wt %) caused marked changes in the aggregates' microstructure, measured by a combination of mercury porosimetry (MIP), microtomography (MT), and scanning electron microscopy. Maximum porosity was produced at low (1%-2%) oil concentrations and it dropped at higher concentrations, opposite to the aggregates' bulk density. Average pore radii, measured by MIP, decreased with an increasing oil concentration, whereas larger (MT) pore sizes tended to increase. Fractal dimension, derived from MIP data, changed similarly to the MIP pore radius, while that derived from MT remained unaltered. Solid phase density, measured by helium pycnometry, initially dropped slightly and then increased with the amount of oil added, which was most probably connected to changes in the formation of extremely small closed pores that were not available for He atoms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma9100845DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5456622PMC
October 2016

Evaluating Soil Moisture Status Using an e-Nose.

Sensors (Basel) 2016 Jun 22;16(6). Epub 2016 Jun 22.

Faculty of Environmental Engineering, Lublin University of Technology, Nadbystrzycka 40B Str., Lublin 20-618, Poland.

The possibility of distinguishing different soil moisture levels by electronic nose (e-nose) was studied. Ten arable soils of various types were investigated. The measurements were performed for air-dry (AD) soils stored for one year, then moistened to field water capacity and finally dried within a period of 180 days. The volatile fingerprints changed during the course of drying. At the end of the drying cycle, the fingerprints were similar to those of the initial AD soils. Principal component analysis (PCA) and artificial neural network (ANN) analysis showed that e-nose results can be used to distinguish soil moisture. It was also shown that different soils can give different e-nose signals at the same moistures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s16060886DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4934312PMC
June 2016

Coal fly ash as a resource for rare earth elements.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2015 Jun 24;22(12):9464-74. Epub 2015 Jan 24.

Department of Geotechnics, Civil Engineering and Architecture Faculty, Lublin University of Technology, Nadbystrzycka 40, 20-618, Lublin, Poland.

Rare earth elements (REE) have been recognised as critical raw materials, crucial for many clean technologies. As the gap between their global demand and supply increases, the search for their alternative resources becomes more and more important, especially for the countries which depend highly on their import. Coal fly ash (CFA), which when not utilised is considered waste, has been regarded as the possible source of many elements, including REE. Due to the increase in the energy demand, CFA production is expected to grow, making research into the use of this material a necessity. As Poland is the second biggest coal consumer in the European Union, the authors have studied different coal fly ashes from ten Polish power plants for their rare earth element content. All the fly ashes have a broadly similar distribution of rear earth elements, with light REE being dominant. Most of the samples have REE content relatively high and according to Seredin and Dai (Int J Coal Geol 94: 67-93, 2012) classification can be considered promising REE raw materials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-015-4111-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4473018PMC
June 2015

Synthesis and characterization of zeolites prepared from industrial fly ash.

Environ Monit Assess 2014 Sep 18;186(9):5721-9. Epub 2014 May 18.

Department of Geotechnics, Lublin University of Technology, Lublin, Poland.

In this paper, we present the possibility of using fly ash to produce synthetic zeolites. The synthesis class F fly ash from the Stalowa Wola SA heat and power plant was subjected to 24 h hydrothermal reaction with sodium hydroxide. Depending on the reaction conditions, three types of synthetic zeolites were formed: Na-X (20 g fly ash, 0.5 dm(3) of 3 mol · dm(-3) NaOH, 75 °C), Na-P1 (20 g fly ash, 0.5 dm(3) of 3 mol · dm(-3) NaOH, 95 °C), and sodalite (20 g fly ash, 0.8 dm(3) of 5 mol · dm(-3) NaOH + 0.4 dm(3) of 3 mol · dm(-3) NaCl, 95 °C). As synthesized materials were characterized to obtain mineral composition (X-ray diffractometry, Scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive spectrometry), adsorption properties (Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area, N2 isotherm adsorption/desorption), and ion exchange capacity. The most effective reaction for zeolite preparation was when sodalite was formed and the quantitative content of zeolite from X-ray diffractometry was 90 wt%, compared with 70 wt% for the Na-X and 75 wt% for the Na-P1. Residues from each synthesis reaction were the following: mullite, quartz, and the remains of amorphous aluminosilicate glass. The best zeolitic material as characterized by highest specific surface area was Na-X at almost 166 m(2) · g(-1), while for the Na-P1 and sodalite it was 71 and 33 m(2) · g(-1), respectively. The ion exchange capacity decreased in the following order: Na-X at 1.8 meq · g(-1), Na-P1 at 0.72 meq · g(-1), and sodalite at 0.56 meq · g(-1). The resulting zeolites are competitive for commercially available materials and are used as ion exchangers in industrial wastewater and soil decontamination.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10661-014-3815-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4112053PMC
September 2014

Application of zeolites for radium removal from mine water.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2013 Nov 24;20(11):7900-6. Epub 2013 Jul 24.

Central Mining Institute, Pl. Gwarkow 1, 40-166, Katowice, Poland,

For removal of radium from saline waters in Upper Silesian mines, several methods of purification have been developed. The most efficient one is based on application of barium chloride, which was implemented in full technical scale in two Polish coal mines several years ago. Very good results of purification have been achieved-the removal efficiency exceeding 95% of the initial activity. Another possibility for the removal of different ions from salty waters and brines is the application of zeolites. We found that technique as a very promising method for removal of not only radium isotopes from mine waters but also other ions (barium, iron, manganese). Treatment of several various water samples has been done to assess the removal efficiency for natural radionuclides. Preliminary results show very good effects for radium isotopes as well as for barium ions. In the paper, a short description of laboratory results of the purification of mine waters with application of synthetic zeolites is presented.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-013-1877-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3824228PMC
November 2013
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