Publications by authors named "Wlodzimierz Wieckiewicz"

34 Publications

Biological Response Induced in Primary Human Gingival Fibroblasts upon Exposure to Various Types of Injectable Astringent Retraction Agents.

Materials (Basel) 2021 Apr 20;14(8). Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Wroclaw Medical University, 50-556 Wroclaw, Poland.

Traditional chemo-mechanical retraction/displacement materials can impact the gingival margin tissues. This study was undertaken to analyze biological responses induced in human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs) upon application of injectable astringent-based agents used in the cordless retraction technique. HGFs were exposed to hemostatic agents (five gels, three pastes, and one foam) based on aluminium chloride, aluminium sulphate and ferric sulphate. Changes in cell viability and proliferation were evaluated using an MTT assay and a BrdU assay. The cytoskeleton structure organization (zyxin and F-actin) was visualized by confocal laser scanning microscopy. Oxidative stress was determined using the Griess Reagent System. The RNA expression levels of antioxidant enzymes were quantified by real-time RT-PCR. The statistical significance was evaluated using Student's t-test and one-way ANOVA with post-hoc Tukey HSD test. The evaluated agents did not downregulate fibroblast viability or proliferation. No significant cytoskeleton reorganization was observed. Only one agent (Expasyl) induced oxidative stress, demonstrated by the increased level of nitrites. Incubation with the studied agents significantly increased the RNA expression of some antioxidant enzymes (SOD1, SOD3, GPX1). However, no significant influence on the expression of SOD2 and HMOX1 was detected. The injectable forms of chemical retraction agents revealed biocompatibility with HGFs, suggesting their potential clinical usefulness in gingival margin retraction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma14082081DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8074361PMC
April 2021

Release and Recharge of Fluoride Ions from Acrylic Resin Modified with Bioactive Glass.

Polymers (Basel) 2021 Mar 27;13(7). Epub 2021 Mar 27.

Department of Prosthodontics, Wroclaw Medical University, 50-425 Wroclaw, Poland.

Background: Oral hygiene is essential for maintaining residual dentition of partial denture wearers. The dental material should positively affect the oral environment. Fluoride-releasing dental materials help to inhibit microbial colonization and formation of plaque as well as to initiate the remineralization process in the early cavity area.

Aim: To evaluate fluoride ion release and recharge capacity, sorption, and solubility of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) dental resin modified with bioactive glass addition.

Materials And Methods: Two bioactive glass materials (5 wt% Kavitan, 10 wt% Kavitan, and 10 wt% Fritex) and pure 10 wt% NaF were added to dental acrylic resin. After polymerization of the modified resins, the release levels of fluoride anions were measured based on color complex formation by using a spectrophotometer after 7, 14, 28, and 35 days of storage in distilled water at 37 °C. Subsequently, specimens were brushed with a fluoride-containing tooth paste on each side for 30 s, and the fluoride recharge and release potential was investigated after 1, 7, and 14 days. Sorption and solubility after 7 days of storage in distilled water was also investigated.

Results: The acrylic resins with addition of 10% bioactive glass materials released fluoride ions for over 4 weeks (from 0.14 to 2.27 µg/cm). The amount of fluoride ions released from the PMMA resin with addition of 10 wt% Fritex glass was higher than that from the resin with addition of 10 wt% Kavitan. The acrylic resin containing 10 wt% NaF released a high amount of ions over a period of 1 week (1.58 µg/cm), but the amount of released ions decreased rapidly after 14 days of storage. For specimens containing 5 wt% Kavitan glass, the ion-releasing capacity also lasted only for 14 days. Fluoride ion rechargeable properties were observed for the PMMA resin modified with addition of 10 wt% Fritex glass. The ion release levels after recharge ranged from 0.32 to 0.48 µg/cm. Sorption values ranged from 10.23 μm/mm for unmodified PMMA resin to 12.11 μm/mm for specimens modified with 10 wt% Kavitan glass. No significant differences were found regarding solubility levels after 7 days.

Conclusions: The addition of 10 wt% Fritex and 10 wt% Kavitan bioactive glass materials to heat-cured acrylic resin may improve its material properties, with bioactive fluoride ion release ability lasting for over 4 weeks. The resin modified with 10 wt% Fritex glass could absorb fluoride ions from the toothpaste solution and then effectively release them. Addition of fluoride releasing fillers have a small effect on sorption and solubility increase of the modified PMMA resin.

Clinical Significance: The addition of bioactive glass may be promising in the development of the novel bioactive heat-cured denture base resin.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/polym13071054DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8037481PMC
March 2021

Update on acrylic resins used in dentistry.

Mini Rev Med Chem 2021 Feb 26. Epub 2021 Feb 26.

Department of Prosthodontics, Wroclaw Medical University, Wrocław. Poland.

Acrylic resins are the most commonly used materials in prosthetics and orthodontics until now. They have a well-documented history of use as biomaterials in the manufacture of different types of dental appliances. The objective of this study was to describe the properties of acrylic resins and the processing methods used for these materials in dentistry. The review depicts the most important achievements in this area, indicating that the resin technology evolved in different directions. The mechanical and biological properties of acrylic resins were improved by the addition of mineral or natural fibers, and/or fillers including nanofillers, as well as by poly(methyl methacrylate) surface modification. The presence of residual monomer was reduced as a result of postpolymerization activity. New types of acrylic resins were developed for processing Computer-Aided Design/Computer-Aided Manufacturing systems and three-dimensional printing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1389557521666210226151214DOI Listing
February 2021

The three-point bending test of fiber-reinforced composite root canal posts.

Adv Clin Exp Med 2020 Sep;29(9):1111-1116

Department of Dental Prosthetics, Wroclaw Medical University, Poland.

Background: The primary reason for using a post is to retain the core with the objective to restore the missing coronal tooth structure. To achieve optimum results, the materials that are used to restore endodontically treated teeth should have physical and mechanical properties that are similar to that of dentin.

Objectives: To characterize the strength parameters of fiber-reinforced composite (FRC) posts with the application of a three-point test. The mean fracture load, flexural strength and flexural modulus were taken into consideration.

Material And Methods: For the three-point strength tests, 5 kinds of fiberglass root-posts were used: GC Fiber Post (GC America, Alsip, USA), Mirafit White (Hager Werken, Duisburg, Germany), Innopost (InnoTech, Verona, Italy), Rebilda Post (Voco, Cuxhaven, Germany), and EverStick Post (GC Europe, Leuven, Belgium). For each system, 15 FRC posts were tested. All posts had the same diameter, length and shape. The three-point test was carried out in accordance with ISO 10477:2004, using the Instron-5944 testing machine (Instron, Norwood, USA). The test was carried out until the sample was broken.

Results: The highest force values (67.6 N) were recorded for the GC posts, and the lowest force required to break the sample (29.6 N) was noted for the EverStick Posts. In the case of bending strength, the highest values were also recorded for GC posts (912.4 MPa). Low bending strengths were obtained for the Mirafit White posts (537.2 MPa); however, the EverStick Posts were the weakest (436.2 MPa). Rebilda posts showed the highest modulus of elasticity - 31.1 GPa. The lowest values of the elastic modulus were registered for EverStick Posts - 12.5 GPa.

Conclusions: There were statistically significant differences in fracture loads, flexural strengths and flexural modulus of the FRC-post systems tested. Individually polymerized FRC material showed lower flexural properties than compared prefabricated FRC posts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.17219/acem/125426DOI Listing
September 2020

Polish Propolis-Chemical Composition and Biological Effects in Tongue Cancer Cells and Macrophages.

Molecules 2020 May 22;25(10). Epub 2020 May 22.

Department of Engineering and Technology of Chemical Processes, Wroclaw University of Science and Technology, 50-370 Wroclaw, Poland.

The purpose of this study was to compare the chemical composition and biological properties of Polish propolis. Ethanol, ethanol-hexane, hexane and hexane-ethanol extracts of propolis from three different regions of Poland were prepared. On the basis of the evaluation of their chemical composition as well as the extraction yield and free radical scavenging activity, the ethanol and hexane-ethanol extractions were proposed as the most effective methods. Subsequently, the biological properties of the extracts were evaluated to investigate the selectivity of an anticancer effect on tongue cancer cells in comparison to normal gingival fibroblasts. The obtained products demonstrated anticancer activity against tongue cancer cells. Additionally, when the lowest extract concentration (100 µg/mL) was applied, they were not cytotoxic to gingival fibroblasts. Finally, a possible anti-inflammatory potential of the prepared products was revealed, as reduced mitochondrial activity and proliferation of macrophages exposed to the extracts were observed. The results obtained indicate a potential of Polish propolis as a natural product with cancer-selective toxicity and anti-inflammatory effect. However, further studies are still needed to thoroughly explain the molecular mechanisms of its action and to obtain the promising health benefits of this versatile natural product.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules25102426DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7287845PMC
May 2020

Influence of silanized silica and silanized feldspar addition on the mechanical behavior of polymethyl methacrylate resin denture teeth.

J Prosthet Dent 2020 Apr 28;123(4):647.e1-647.e7. Epub 2020 Feb 28.

Professor, Department of Prosthodontics, Wroclaw Medical University, Wrocław, Poland.

Statement Of Problem: Artificial denture teeth made of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) resin have good adhesion to the denture base but are relatively soft and have limited wear resistance during function.

Purpose: The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the influence of the addition of 2 inorganic nanofillers on the flexural strength, maximal displacement, elastic modulus, Isolde impact resistance, and Brinell hardness of acrylic resin denture teeth.

Material And Methods: Heat polymerizing polymethyl methacrylate resin was mixed with silanized silica or silanized feldspar in concentrations of 5 wt%, 10 wt%, and 15 wt%. The first test was conducted after 24 hours of storage in laboratory conditions, and the second assessment was conducted after 3 months of storage in distilled water at 37 °C. The Brinell hardness was evaluated, and the elastic modulus and maximal displacement at fracture were calculated. The flexural strength and Isolde impact resistance were measured with a 3-point flexural test. Acrylic resin specimens without filler addition were used as a control group. Statistical analysis included 2-way ANOVA for independent variables (α=.05) and the Student t test for time-dependent changes (α=.05). These were performed with Statistica 12 software.

Results: The acrylic resin specimens modified with the addition of silanized feldspar had significantly higher Brinell hardness, elastic modulus, maximal displacement, and flexural strength and also had no adverse effect on Isolde impact resistance compared with the conventional acrylic resin. Silica filler increased the Brinell hardness and elastic modulus of acrylic resins but significantly reduced the flexural strength and Isolde impact resistance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.prosdent.2019.12.007DOI Listing
April 2020

effects of vasoconstrictive retraction agents on primary human gingival fibroblasts.

Exp Ther Med 2020 Mar 20;19(3):2037-2044. Epub 2020 Jan 20.

Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Wroclaw Medical University, Wroclaw 50-556, Poland.

The biological activity of chemical retraction/displacement agents in surrounding periodontal tissues is of unquestionable importance, but the activity of these agents has not been completely elucidated. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the effects of vasoconstrictive retraction agents on primary human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs). A total of six commercial adrenergic solutions (0.05 and 0.01% HCl-epinephrine, two based on 0.05% HCl-tetrahydrozoline, 0.05% HCl-oxymetazoline, and 10% HCl-phenylephrine) and three experimental gel formulations (EG-1, EG-2, and EG-3) were used to treat primary HGFs. The biological effect of the retraction treatment on the expression of collagen types I and III was detected by performing immunocytochemical analysis. The generation of reactive oxygen species triggered by the retraction agents were evaluated by using the dichlorofluorescein (DCF) fluorescent probe. The effect of retraction agents on the expression of fibronectin was visualized by confocal laser scanning microscopy. According to the results, experimental retraction gels did not limit the expression of collagen types I and III. EG-3 even induced the synthesis of both types of collagen. The DCF assay indicated oxidative stress similar to the control cells for most of the selected retraction agents. Experimental gels did not cause degradation of the cellular shape and morphology of the primary HGFs. The proposed experimental retraction gels in the present study demonstrated higher biocompatibility with primary HGFs, suggesting their use as clinical vasoconstrictive agents for the application of gingival retraction with minimal damage to periodontal tissues.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/etm.2020.8462DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7027151PMC
March 2020

Analysis of the electrolytically polished skeletal dentures surfaces using various nano- and microscopic technologies.

Acta Bioeng Biomech 2019 ;21(4):123-129

Faculty of Microsystem Electronics and Photonics, Wrocław University of Science and Technology, Wrocław, Poland.

Purpose: The surface roughness of the dental restorations is significant to the denture plaque adhesion.

Methods: In this work, we present the complex analysis of the electropolished CoCrW alloy remanium® star (Dentaurum, Germany) samples with laserengraved fiducial marks performed using complementary set of micro- and nanoscopic techniques: optical profilometry (OP), atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and focused ion beam (FIB) milling.

Results: Both mean and RMS roughness of the samples were reduced by electopolishing process, however, the results obtained using OP and AFM exhibited some discrepancies. This was caused by the relatively high local protruding defects developed on the processed surface. The cross-sections of the protrusions were made to analyze the cause of their formation as the EDS elemental content maps revealed that their composition was uniform. We also analyzed the local roughness in the smaller areas free from the defects.

Conclusions: In that case, both OP and AFM techniques delivered the same results. Analysis of results showed that various methods used for the surface roughness evaluation have to be used simultaneously to obtain complete and true analysis of the technological CoCrW samples.
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July 2020

Modifications of Polymeric Membranes Used in Guided Tissue and Bone Regeneration.

Polymers (Basel) 2019 May 2;11(5). Epub 2019 May 2.

Department of Experimental Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, Wroclaw Medical University, 50-367 Wroclaw, Poland.

Guided tissue/bone regeneration (GTR/GBR) is a widely used procedure in contemporary dentistry. To achieve the required results of tissue regeneration, soft tissues that reproduce quickly are separated from the slow-growing bone tissue by membranes. Many types of membranes are currently in use, but none of them fulfil all of the desired features. To address this issue, further research on developing new membranes with better separation characteristics, such as membrane modification, is needed. Many of the current innovative modified materials are still in the phase of in vitro and experimental studies. A collective review on new trends in membrane modification to GTR/GBR is needed due to the widespread use of polymeric membranes and the constant development in the field of dentistry. Therefore, the aim of this review was to present an overview of polymeric membrane modifications to the GTR/GBR reported in the literature. The authors searched databases, including PubMed, SCOPUS, Web of Science, and OVID, for relevant studies that were published during 1999-2019. The following keywords were used: guided tissue regeneration, membranes, coating, and modification. A total of 17 papers were included in this review. Furthermore, the articles were divided into three groups that were based on the type of membrane modification: antibiotic coating, ion-use modifications, and others modifications, thus providing an overview of current existing knowledge in the field and encouraging further research. The results of included studies on modified barrier membranes seem to be promising, both in terms of safety and benefits for patients. However, modifications result in a large spectrum of effects. Further clinical studies are needed on a large group of patients to clearly confirm the effects that were observed in animal and in vitro studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/polym11050782DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6572646PMC
May 2019

Spectrophotometric evaluation of 5-layer acrylic teeth hyperpigmentation caused by selected food colors: In vitro study.

Dent Med Probl 2018 Apr-Jun;55(2):167-171

Department of Dental Prosthetics, Faculty of Dentistry, Wroclaw Medical University, Poland.

Background: Prosthetic treatment restores proper chewing function and facial aesthetics, and enhances the quality of life. The overall aesthetic result of the use of removable prostheses is correlated with the type of artificial teeth used and with the maintenance of aesthetic effect and color stability.

Objectives: The aim of the study was to evaluate the formation and intensity of discoloration caused by the dyes present in selected 5-layer acrylic teeth.

Material And Methods: The study material was a group of 90 5-layer acrylic teeth. Samples were immersed in black tea and dry red wine for 6 months. The control group was immersed in distilled water and consisted of 30 samples. The teeth were subjected to spectrophotometric examination at the start of the study, after 24 h, 7 days, 14 days, 1 month, 4 months, and 6 months.

Results: Among the teeth examined, in about 85% of the samples the color corresponded with the order. Teeth immersed in black tea became darker. From the 7th day to the 6th month, none of the samples changed their brightness. The teeth had the same degree of brightness. The teeth did not change tone during the experiment. Teeth immersed in dry red wine changed their shade to A starting on the 14th day, and by the 4th month all samples had changed shade to A or C. The 5-layer teeth had quite high shade stability until the 14th day of observation. In the control group, the teeth did not change tone and individual brightness changed more in the direction of brighter shades and less in the darker direction. In the study group, 93% of the samples did not change their brightness.

Conclusions: Both black tea and dry red wine cause tooth discoloration, more intensely in the case of the 2nd fluid. Acrylic teeth with a 5-layer structure ensure good color stability over time. It improves the quality and aesthetics of the restorations used.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.17219/dmp/87116DOI Listing
August 2019

Changes in hardness of addition-polymerizing silicone-resilient denture liners after storage in artificial saliva.

J Prosthet Dent 2019 Feb 7;121(2):317-321. Epub 2018 Aug 7.

Professor, Department of Prosthodontics, Wroclaw Medical University, Wrocław, Poland.

Statement Of Problem: The hardness of silicone resilient denture liners was reported to be more stable than that of acrylic resin resilient denture liners. However, the changes in hardness of these materials in artificial saliva are unclear.

Purpose: The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate changes in the hardness of addition-polymerizing silicone-resilient denture liners for long-term use after storage in artificial saliva.

Material And Methods: Four addition-polymerizing silicone resilient denture liners were tested: GC Reline Soft, Elite Soft Relining, Megabase, and Mucopren Soft. All were long-term relining materials of the soft type. Fifteen disk-shaped specimens were prepared for each of the tested materials (40 mm in base diameter, 8 mm in thickness). Their initial hardness was assessed with a Shore A durometer, after which they were stored in artificial saliva at a temperature of 37°C. Hardness was examined after 7, 30, and 90 days. Statistical analysis was performed using parametric ANOVA for dependent and independent variables and Tukey honest significant difference (HSD) post hoc tests (α=.05).

Results: All resilient denture liners increased in hardness during the experiment. The change was least for Elite Soft Relining, and GC Reline Soft was the hardest material. Initially, Megabase and Mucopren Soft were significantly softer than the other 2 materials, but their hardness increased rapidly after the first 7 days of specimen conditioning, achieving values close to Elite Soft Relining.

Conclusions: Within the limitations of the study, room temperature vulcanizing addition-polymerizing polyvinyl siloxanes of the soft type have different initial hardness, and this changes with storage time in artificial saliva at the temperature of the oral cavity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.prosdent.2018.05.002DOI Listing
February 2019

Electromyographic Analysis of Masticatory Muscles in Cleft Lip and Palate Children with Pain-Related Temporomandibular Disorders.

Pain Res Manag 2018 13;2018:4182843. Epub 2018 May 13.

Department of Orthodontics, Pomeranian Medical University of Szczecin, Al. Powstańców Wlkp. 72, Szczecin 70111, Poland.

Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the electrical activity of temporalis and masseter muscles in children with cleft lip and palate (CLP) and pain-related temporomandibular disorders (TMD-P).

Methods: The sample consisted of 31 CLP patients with a TMD-P (mean age 9.5 ± 1.8 years) and 32 CLP subjects with no TMD (mean age 9.2 ± 1.7 years). The children were assessed for the presence of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) using Axis I of the Research Diagnostic Criteria for TMD (RDC/TMD). Electromyographical (EMG) recordings were performed using a DAB-Bluetooth Instrument (Zebris Medical GmbH, Germany) in the mandibular rest position and during maximum voluntary contraction (MVC).

Results: The rest activity of the temporalis and masseter muscles was significantly higher in TMD-P group compared with non-TMD children. A significant decrease in temporalis muscle activity during MVC was observed in TMD-P patients. There was a significant increase in the Asymmetry Index for temporalis and masseter muscle rest activity in the TMD-P group.

Conclusion: Cleft children diagnosed with TMD-P have altered masticatory muscle activity, and this can affect their muscle function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2018/4182843DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5971269PMC
November 2018

The bond shear strength of methacrylate materials used to reduce dental and alveolar undercuts.

Adv Clin Exp Med 2018 Apr;27(4):477-480

Center for Dental Techniques and Technologies at the Department of Biomaterials and Experimental Dentistry, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Poland.

Background: The reduction of dental and alveolar undercuts on plaster models is an important issue in the process of planning partial and complete prostheses. In recent years, new materials such as methacrylate resins that can be used to reduce undercuts have emerged. Their great advantage is high temperature insensitivity and relatively high ease of use.

Objectives: The study aimed at determining the factors that affect the shear bond strength, and which material can be better used at the laboratory stage of preparing the plaster model to facilitate the denture bearing area and reduce the traumatizing impact of the prosthesis.

Material And Methods: In the study, 2 composite materials Block-Out Gel LC (VOCO GmbH, Cuxhaven, Germany) and LC Block-Out Resin (Ultradent Products Inc., South Jordan, USA) were used for tests on the Tewerock and Stodent plaster. Specimens consisted of 20 mm × 10 mm × 10 mm plaster blocks as a base, and composite cylinders of 3 mm diameter and 5 mm height, attached to the blocks. The base of the sample was combined with a composite cylinder in the Individo Light Box halogen lamp (VOCO GmbH, Cuxhaven, Germany). A total of 120 samples were studied. The shear bond strength (SBS) test was performed using the Hounsfield H5KS model HTE S/N D83281 fitted with a 5.000-N head using a cutting knife speed of 5 mm/ min.

Results: LC Block-Out Resin and Block-Out Gel LC materials deposited on class III plaster and polymerized at temperatures of up to 100°C had the best SBS (5.59 MPa and 4.0 MPa, respectively). Samples made of LC Block-Out Resin and class IV plaster showed no statistically significant differences between all the groups. Additional polymerization under 2.4 bar was the most effective in improving SBS among Block-Out Gel LC and class IV plaster samples.

Conclusions: The results of the studies show that both the plaster type and the polymerization process have a significant effect on the SBS of light-cured methacrylate material to plaster.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.17219/acem/77082DOI Listing
April 2018

The assessment of prosthetic needs of ESRD patients and the general population in Poland on the basis of the Eichner classification and teeth number: A brief, preliminary report.

Adv Clin Exp Med 2017 Aug;26(5):777-780

Department of Prosthetic Dentistry, Wroclaw Medical University, Poland.

Background: End-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients are considered as a group of high risk of oral cavity diseases. One of the determinants of alveolar bone loss and increased teeth mobility in ESRD patients might be the bone abnormalities associated with chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD).

Objectives: The aim of the study was to compare the general health condition, number and location of teeth in a group of ESRD patients with the group of peers from general population and revealing the risk factors of tooth loss.

Material And Methods: The ESRD group included 63 patients, 23 females and 40 males, undergoing dialysis with a mean age of 62.4 ± 15.6. The general population sample consisted of 37 people, 20 females and 17 males, applying for general practitioner visit, with a mean age of 65.5 ± 11.1. All the participants were using just public health care insurance. The data analysis was based on anamnesis, history of CKD, selected biochemical parameters of blood tests and clinical examination.

Results: There was no statistical difference in the prosthetic needs of patients undergoing dialysis and the general population. In both groups the situation is alarming.

Conclusions: The new procedures are needed to develop complex health care for ESRD and general population patients, emphasizing prophylaxis of tooth-loss and prosthetic treatment in order to maintain good level of life quality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.17219/acem/63155DOI Listing
August 2017

The analysis of cytotoxicity of an experimental preparation used for the reduction of dentin hypersensitivity.

Adv Clin Exp Med 2017 Jan-Feb;26(1):15-22

Department of Microbiology and Embryology, Medical University of Silesia, Zabrze Rokitnica, Poland.

Background: The problem of effective treatment of dentin hypersensitivity is still valid and not fully resolved.

Objectives: The aim of the study was to evaluate the potential toxicity against body tissues of an experimental preparation which is supposed to reduce dentin hypersensitivity and to compare it to a commercial formulation Seal & Protect (Dentsply) by means of measuring the activity of mitochondrial dehydrogenases (the MTT assay).

Material And Methods: The study used an original protective formulation which is supposed to eliminate hypersensitivity of dentin. A commercial preparation Seal & Protect (Dentsply) was used as the comparative material. Cytotoxic activity of the tested preparations (experimental and commercial) on murine lymphocyte cells CCL-1™ (NCTC clone 929) was determined in indirect contact with the use of the MTT test that measured the activity of the mitochondrial dehydrogenase enzyme.

Results: A comparison of the results obtained in the MTT assay for the commercial preparation Seal & Protect (Dentsply) and the experimental formulation indicates that an experimental formulation has considerably lower cytotoxicity before polymerization, when compared to the commercial formulation, regardless of its dilution. However, after the polymerization of the commercial formulation was completed, its parameters improved significantly, especially for higher dilution values (1 : 10 and 1 : 15). Results for the experimental formulation are higher, particularly for the dilution value of 1 : 5. The overall summary of the results obtained from the MTT assay for the commercial preparation Seal & Protect (Dentsply) and the experimental formulation indicates that the experimental formulation had a significantly lower cytotoxicity before polymerization in comparison with the commercial formulation, regardless of dilution.

Conclusions: Estimating the biocompatibility of a given material is not simple, and measurement methods are rapidly evolving, as more and more is known about the interaction between dental materials and oral tissues, and also as a result of improvements in testing techniques.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.17219/acem/61438DOI Listing
June 2017

Evaluation of the Elastic Properties of Thirteen Silicone Interocclusal Recording Materials.

Biomed Res Int 2016 26;2016:7456046. Epub 2016 Sep 26.

Department of Prosthetic Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, Wroclaw Medical University, 26 Krakowska St., 50425 Wroclaw, Poland.

Addition silicones are popular as dental impression materials and are used in bite registration procedures. This study aimed to compare the postsetting elasticities and other mechanical properties of thirteen addition silicone interocclusal recording materials. The following materials were investigated: Colorbite D, Futar D, Genie Bite, Jet Blue Bite fast, Memoreg 2, O-Bite, Occlufast Rock, Omni-Bite Plus, Regidur i, Registrado X-tra, Regofix transparent, StoneBite, and Variotime Bite. Thirty specimens of each material were tested. The elasticities and strengths of the materials were measured with a universal testing machine, and computer software was used to determine the -moduli, ultimate tensile strengths, and ultimate elongations of the specimens. The results were subjected to statistical analysis using the Kruskal-Wallis test ( ≤ 0.05). The statistics revealed that the mean -modulus values varied significantly across the materials ( = 0.000) and were highest for the StoneBite and Registrado X-tra and lowest for the Regofix transparent. The ultimate tensile strengths were highest for the Regofix transparent and Registrado X-tra ( = 0.000) and lowest for the Jet Blue Bite fast and Memoreg 2 ( = 0.000). The elongation percentages at the point of breaking varied significantly across the materials ( = 0.000); the lowest value was observed for the StoneBite, whereas the Regofix transparent nearly doubled original length. The authors concluded that materials with the high -moduli and great ultimate tensile strengths may be most useful clinically. Registrado X-tra and StoneBite best met these criteria.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/7456046DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5056310PMC
February 2017

The Setting Time of Polyether Impression Materials after Contact with Conventional and Experimental Gingival Margin Displacement Agents.

J Prosthodont 2018 Feb 22;27(2):182-188. Epub 2016 Jun 22.

Department of Prosthodontics, Wroclaw Medical University, Wroclaw, Poland.

Purpose: The compatibility of chemical gingival margin displacement agents with polyether impression materials has not been determined. The aim of this study was to evaluate the setting time of polyether impression elastomers after contact with conventional and experimental gingival displacement agents.

Materials And Methods: The study compared the setting time of two polyether impression materials: medium body (Impregum Penta Soft) and light body (Impregum Garant L DuoSoft) after contact with 10 gingival displacement agents, including 5 conventional astringents (10%, 20%, and 25% aluminum chloride, 25% aluminum sulfate, and 15.5% ferric sulfate) and 5 experimental adrenergics (0.1% and 0.01% HCl-epinephrine, 0.05% HCl-tetrahydrozoline, 0.05% HCl-oxymetazoline, and 10% HCl-phenylephrine). As many as 120 specimens (60 light body and 60 medium body) were mixed with 20 μl of each of 10 gingival displacement agents, and the time to achieve maximum viscosity was measured with a viscometer. The setting times of these specimens were compared with the control group of 12 specimens, which were polymerized without contact with the displacement agents. The experiments were performed in two environments: 23°C and 37°C (± 0.1°C). Individual and average polymerization time compatibility indices (PTCI) were calculated. Data were analyzed by 2-way ANOVA (α = 0.05).

Results: The evaluated chemical displacement agents from both groups changed the setting time of light- and medium-body PE. The negative individual PTCI values achieved astringent (20% aluminum chloride) with two PE in both temperature environments. The average PTCI values of the experimental displacement agents at laboratory and intraoral temperatures were significantly higher than the conventional agents.

Conclusions: The present findings suggest that experimental retraction agents can be recommended clinically as gingival margin displacement agents with minimal effects on the setting time of medium- and light-body polyether impression materials; however, direct contact of chemical displacement agents and polyether impression materials can be avoided.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jopr.12471DOI Listing
February 2018

Color change of soft silicone relining materials after storage in artificial saliva.

J Prosthet Dent 2016 Mar 6;115(3):377-80. Epub 2015 Nov 6.

Professor, Department of Prosthodontics, Wroclaw Medical University, Wroclaw, Poland.

Statement Of Problem: The interaction between artificial saliva and color change of silicone soft liners has not been clarified.

Purpose: The purpose of this in vitro study was to investigate the effect of artificial saliva storage on the color stability of soft silicone liners.

Material And Methods: Four silicone-based liners (Elite Soft Relining, GC Reline Soft, Megabase, and Mucopren Soft) (n=10) were tested after 7, 30, and 90 days of storage in artificial saliva at 37°C in darkness. The color of each specimen was measured with a spectrophotometer using the CIELab color scale. Statistical analysis was performed with the nonparametric ANOVA for dependent variables and nonparametric ANOVA for independent variables (α=.05).

Results: The storage in artificial saliva significantly affected the color integrity of 3 of the 4 tested materials. For GC Reline Soft material, the time of storage had no significant effect on color.

Conclusions: Significant differences were found in the color changes of silicone-based denture liners after storage in artificial saliva. With regard to color stability, GC Reline Soft may be recommended for use in dental practices as a silicone soft relining material for long-term applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.prosdent.2015.08.022DOI Listing
March 2016

The Basic Conservative Treatment of Temporomandibular Joint Anterior Disc Displacement Without Reduction--Review.

Adv Clin Exp Med 2015 Jul-Aug;24(4):731-5

Department of Prosthetic Dentistry, Wroclaw Medical University, Poland.

Temporomandibular joint derangement is a common disorder of the stomatognathic system. One type of these disorders is disc displacement without reduction with limited mouth opening, characterized by pain in affected TMJ and a decreased range of mouth opening. The natural course of closed lock is self-limiting. However, if there is no significant improvement after 12 weeks of following natural course of disc displacement without reduction, this is an indication that the therapy should be implemented. The article presents a review of the most commonly applied methods of basic conservative closed lock treatment. The most commonly applied methods of closed lock conservative management are: education and counseling, mandibular manipulation, splint therapy, exercise therapy and pharmacotherapy. The first choice method of treatment should be minimally invasive. The surgical management should be considered after unsuccessful conservative therapy. All presented methods of closed lock treatment seem to be effective in decreasing pain and reestablishing physiological range of motion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.17219/acem/35165DOI Listing
November 2015

The diagnostic value of pressure algometry for temporomandibular disorders.

Biomed Res Int 2015 26;2015:575038. Epub 2015 Mar 26.

Department of Preclinical Conservative Dentistry and Preclinical Endodontics, Pomeranian Medical University of Szczecin, 70111 Szczecin, Poland.

The aim of this study is to determine the diagnostic value of pressure algometry in temporomandibular disorders. Two hundred volunteers aged 19.3 to 27.8 (mean 21.50, SD 0.97) participated in this study. An analogue pressure algometer was used for the evaluation of muscle tenderness of the following masticatory muscles: superficial and deep parts of the masseter muscle; anterior and posterior parts of the temporal muscle; and the tissues adjacent to the lateral and dorsal part of the temporomandibular joint capsule. Each patient described the algometry result for the individual components of the masticatory motor system, by selecting each time the intensity of pain on a 100 mm Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) ruler. The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, indicating the discriminatory efficiency for asymptomatic subjects and patients with temporomandibular dysfunction according to the dysfunction Di index, was the largest for the mean pain value (AUC = 0.8572; SEM = 0.0531). The 7.4 VAS cut-off point marked 95.3% specificity for this variable in identifying healthy subjects and 58.4% sensitivity in identifying patients with symptoms of dysfunctions (accuracy 68.1%). Assuming comparable sensitivity (74.9%) and specificity (74.2%) for a diagnostic test, there was test accuracy of 74.5% at the 4.2 VAS cut-off point.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/575038DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4391694PMC
January 2016

Identification of mastication organ muscle forces in the biocybernetic perspective.

Biomed Res Int 2015 26;2015:436595. Epub 2015 Mar 26.

Department of Prosthetic Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, Wroclaw Medical University, 26 Krakowska Street, 50425 Wroclaw, Poland.

Unlabelled: PURPOSE OF THE PAPER: This paper is an attempt to mathematically describe the mastication organ muscle functioning, taking into consideration the impact of the central nervous system.

Material: To conduct model tests, three types of craniums were prepared: short, normal, and long. The necessary numeric data, required to prepare the final calculation models of different craniofacial types, were used to identify muscle and occlusion forces generated by muscles in the area of incisors and molars. The mandible in model tests was treated as a nondeformable stiff form.

Methods: The formal basis for the formulated research problem was reached using the laws and principles of mechanics and control theory. The proposed method treats muscles as "black boxes," whose properties automatically adapt to the nature of the occlusion load. The identified values of occlusion forces referred to measurements made in clinical conditions.

Results: The conducted verification demonstrated a very good consistency of model and clinical tests' results. The proposed method is an alternative approach to the so far applied methods of muscle force identification. Identification of muscle forces without taking into account the impact of the nervous system does not fully reflect the conditions of mastication organ muscle functioning.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/436595DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4391721PMC
January 2016

The use of light-cured resin as an alternative method of occlusal splints manufacturing--in vitro study.

Adv Clin Exp Med 2014 Nov-Dec;23(6):977-85

Department of Prosthetic Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, Wroclaw Medical University, Poland.

Background: Temporomandibular disorders are very common nowadays. One of the methods to treat these problems is occlusal splint therapy. Modern materials should be introduced to this treatment.

Objectives: The aim of this paper was to evaluate the properties of light-activated urethane dimethacrylate and the quality of the bonds it creates with thermoforming foils.

Material And Methods: Thermoforming foils were covered with light-cured resin. A bond was formed between the materials using an adhesive. A coating lacquer was used on the resin as a final preparatory step. Three laboratory tests were run: dye penetrant inspection, a Vickers microhardness test and a linear polymerization shrinkage test. The materials were layered and then cured with a polymerizing lamp emitting light of a wavelength of 400 Nm, according to the manufacturer's instructions. All the occlusal splints were fitted to upper dental arch. The devices had been made in an articulator on specially prepared gypsum models. The results were analyzed statistically using a one-sided binomial test, Spearman's rank-order correlation coefficient and the Friedman ANOVA (p=0.05).

Results: In the dye penetrant inspection, only one sample out of sixty showed the effects of color penetration to the adhesive connection. The dye only penetrated the layer of lacquer coating the resin. The average value of the Vickers microhardness test with a load of F=50 g applied to the material surface for 30 s was HV0.05=7.43 N/mm2. The average linear shrinkage of the resin observed after polymerization was 1.175%.

Conclusions: Light-cured resin and an adhesive connection between the resin and thermoforming foil do not show susceptibility even to strong dye. The maximum polymerization shrinkage occurs immediately after curing. The light-cured resin that was tested seems to be a good alternative method for occlusal splints manufacturing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.17219/acem/37354DOI Listing
April 2015

The adhesion of modern soft relining materials to acrylic dentures.

Adv Clin Exp Med 2014 Jul-Aug;23(4):621-5

Department of Microbiology and Immunology in Zabrze, Medical University of Silesia in Katowice, Poland.

Background: Silicone-based liners are widespread materials in prosthetic dentistry. Their mechanical properties have to meet several key requirements such as adequate adhesion to denture base polymers in order to provide right function of masticatory system and oral hygiene.

Objectives: The aim of this paper was to evaluate and compare tensile and shear bond strengths values of three modern autopolimeryzed silicone relining materials bonded to acrylic plates.

Material And Methods: Three silicone-based soft relining materials were investigated in this study (A-Soft Line 30, Bosworth Dentusil and Elite Super Soft). A total of 78 specimens were prepared: 13 of each material (total: 39) for testing tensile bond strength and 13 of each material for testing shear bond strength (total: 39). The obtained data were analyzed statistically.

Results: The average tensile bond strength results were 0.86 MPa for Bosworth Dentusil, 1.00 MPa for Elite Super Soft and 1.25 MPa for A-Soft Line 30. The silicone-based relining materials had different average values of shear bond strength: 0.67 MPa Elite Super Soft; 1.32 MPa A-Soft Line 30 and 1.57 MPa Bosworth Dentusil.

Conclusions: As the result of the study it can be concluded that all tested materials have acceptable adhesion values to acrylic resin. According to tensile and shear bond strengths tests the best adhesive properties has A-Soft Line 30.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.17219/acem/37242DOI Listing
November 2014

Psychosocial aspects of bruxism: the most paramount factor influencing teeth grinding.

Biomed Res Int 2014 13;2014:469187. Epub 2014 Jul 13.

Department of Prosthetic Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, Wroclaw Medical University, 26 Krakowska Street, 50425 Wroclaw, Poland.

In clinical practice, patients suffering from an occlusal parafunctional activity have increased. It can be observed that a negative influence of environment aggravates patient's health. The aim of this paper is to present the impact of environment and development of human civilization on the prevalence of bruxism and the correlation between them. The authors grasp the most relevant aspects of psychological and anthropological factors changing over time as well as their interactions and describe a relationship between chronic stress and bruxism. Current literature shows how contemporary lifestyle, working environment, diet, and habits influence the patient's psychoemotional situation and the way these factors affect the occluso-muscle condition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/469187DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4119714PMC
April 2015

Effect of thermocycling on the shear bond strength of different resins bonded to thermoplastic foil applied in occlusal splint therapy.

J Prosthodont 2015 Apr 3;24(3):220-4. Epub 2014 Jul 3.

Assistant, Division of Dental Materials, Faculty of Dentistry, Wroclaw Medical University, Wroclaw, Poland.

Purpose: Temporomandibular disorders are a group of symptoms related to the impaired function of the temporomandibular joints and associated muscles. Occlusal splint therapy is a common treatment in the aforementioned syndrome. One of the methods of manufacturing occlusal splints is to place a polymer on thermoplastic foil. The aim of this study was to evaluate the shear bond strength of light- and self-cured resins bonded to thermoplastic foil dependent on artificial aging.

Materials And Methods: Thirty cylinders composed of light-cured resin and 30 cylinders made of self-cured resin were attached to 60 rectangular thermoplastic plates. All specimens were divided into six groups. A control study was conducted for groups 1 and 2. The other preparation groups were subjected to thermocycling by setting appropriately 1000 cycles for groups 3 and 4 and 3000 cycles for groups 5 and 6 in distilled water. Bond strength was measured in a universal testing machine. The results were subjected to statistical analysis using the Mann-Whitney U test (p ≤ 0.05).

Results: The statistics revealed that the values of the shear bond strength for specimens composed of self-cured resin after 1000 and 3000 thermocycles were significantly higher than on those made of light-cured resin (p = 0.003 and p = 0.002).

Conclusion: The shear bond strength between the self-cured resin and the thermoplastic foil was higher and more resistant to aging than the shear bond strength between the light-cured resin and the thermoplastic foil.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jopr.12190DOI Listing
April 2015

Comparison of selected kinematic facebows applied to mandibular tracing.

Biomed Res Int 2014 7;2014:818694. Epub 2014 May 7.

Department of Prosthetic Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, Wroclaw Medical University, 50425 Wroclaw, Poland.

The study focused on the comparison between mechanical and computerized registration methods used by the two selected kinematic facebows. The material consisted of 35 women aged 18 to 35, studied using the Gerber Dynamic Facebow and the computerized ARCUSdigma II axiograph. To compare the devices the condylar path inclination (CPI) was recorded according to the Camper's line, enabling the acquisition of easily comparable values based on which the devices were objectively and subjectively analyzed. Statistics was performed for the obtained data. The study showed that the values for the CPI registrated by the ARCUSdigma II are significantly higher than those obtained by using the Gerber Dynamic Facebow. The significant difference in the records of the CPI is most likely a result of the differences in the registration techniques assumptions. ARCUSdigma II provides the user with more diagnostic options than Gerber Dynamic Facebow. Mechanical facebow handling has a higher risk of hand-measuring errors in tracing procedure. Due to high discrepancy of achieved results from different systems the authors recommend to use articulator compatible with facebow whose measurement has been done.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/818694DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4033495PMC
November 2015

Polymerization time compatibility index of polyvinyl siloxane impression materials with conventional and experimental gingival margin displacement agents.

J Prosthet Dent 2014 Aug 23;112(2):168-75. Epub 2014 Jan 23.

Professor, Department of Prosthodontics, Wroclaw Medical University, Poland.

Statement Of Problem: No consensus exists as to the compatibility of chemical agents used with gingival displacement methods with different impression materials.

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of conventional and experimental gingival displacement agents on the polymerization time of polyvinyl siloxane impression elastomers.

Material And Methods: The study comprised 10 gingival displacement agents, including 5 conventional astringents (10%, 20%, and 25% aluminum chloride, 25% aluminum sulfate, and 15.5% ferric sulfate) and 5 experimental adrenergics (0.1% and 0.01% HCl-epinephrine, 0.05% HCl-tetrahydrozoline, 0.05% HCl-oxymetazoline, and 10% HCl-phenylephrine). The polymerization time of 240 specimens (weight 3.3 g) of 4 polyvinyl siloxane (PVS) impression elastomers, type 3 (Colorise Thermochromic, Hydrorise, Express, and Take 1 Advanced), after mixing with 20 μL of each displacement agent, was measured with a viscometer. The 24 specimens from the control group were polymerized without contact with the displacement agents. The studies were performed at 23°C and 37°C (± 0.1°C).

Results: A polymerization time compatibility index (PTCI) was devised, where the polymerization time of PVS mixed with the displacement agents was expressed as the percentage of the standard polymerization time of the impression material. The PTCI values at 23°C were higher than those at 37°C for both groups of displacement agents. At 37°C, the experimental displacement agents achieved higher PTCI values than the conventional agents.

Conclusions: All of the evaluated displacement agents at laboratory and intraoral temperatures induced changes in the polymerization time of PVS. Therefore, chemical displacement agents should not come into direct contact with PVS impression materials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.prosdent.2013.09.024DOI Listing
August 2014

The biological activity of propolis-containing toothpaste on oral health environment in patients who underwent implant-supported prosthodontic rehabilitation.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2013 14;2013:704947. Epub 2013 May 14.

Department of Oral Surgery, Medical University of Silesia, Plac Akademicki 17, 41-902 Bytom, Poland.

The soft and periodontal tissues surrounding dental implants are particularly susceptible to bacteria invasion and inflammatory reactions due to complex histological structures. This study was carried out to investigate the influence of a propolis-containing hygienic agent on selected oral health parameters, oral microflora, and the condition of periodontal health. Sixteen subjects who underwent an oral rehabilitation with dental implants were selected and randomly assigned into two groups, which received a newly formulated propolis-containing toothpaste (3% (CA)) or a negative control without an active ingredient (CC). Approximal plaque index (API), oral hygiene index (OHI, debris component), and sulcus bleeding index (SBI) were assessed in three subsequent stages. During the first and last examinations, the swabs were employed for microbiological inoculation. Propolis-containing toothpaste was found to be distinctively effective in improving oral health and the occurrence of gingivitis triggered by dental plaque. The qualitative and quantitative changes in oral bacteria spectrum were observed. Antibacterial measures containing propolis might be used as a natural adjuvant to other active substances in individuals with a high risk of periodontal problems against pathogenic oral microflora.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/704947DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3666428PMC
June 2013

Interdisciplinary treatment of BCC located on the nose - review of literature.

Adv Clin Exp Med 2013 Mar-Apr;22(2):289-93

Department of Prosthetic Dentistry, Wroclaw Medical University, Wroclaw, Poland.

Skin cancers are a large group of all diagnosed face cancers. Surgical treatment of tumours with a margin of healthy tissue around the face is a challenge for dermatology, oral and maxillofacial surgery, plastic surgery and reconstructive prosthetics. The location of cancer in an exposed location has significant effects on the psyche of the patients. Removal of a part or all of the nose and multi-stage reconstruction requires the cooperation of many professionals throughout the treatment period. This paper describes the procedure of treatment from diagnosis to definitive surgery. The aim of this article is intended to present the method of interdisciplinary cure of basal cell carcinoma located on the wing of the nose.
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July 2013