Publications by authors named "Witold Chudzinski"

16 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Multiple occlusions in extracranial arteries in patients with aortic arch syndrome: is minimally invasive treatment still possible? Technical aspects of the treatment based on our own experience and a review of the literature.

Wideochir Inne Tech Maloinwazyjne 2021 Mar 20;16(1):183-190. Epub 2020 Apr 20.

Department of General, Endocrine, and Vascular Surgery, Medical University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland.

Takayasu arteritis is a large vessel vasculitis of granulomatous nature and unknown aetiology affecting predominantly the aorta and its major branches, which may lead to ischaemic symptoms of many organs including the central nervous system. To decrease the risk of neurological complications and improve the quality of life, an arterial revascularisation may be necessary. The treatment options include pharmacotherapy as well as both open surgical and endovascular procedures, which has to be carefully chosen to obtain clinical success. There is an ongoing debate on the advantages, possibilities, and indications for implementing endovascular and open surgical methods, especially in high-risk patients. In this article we present our own experience in the treatment of an unusually complex and high-risk patient with multiple occlusion of supra-aortic branches, focusing on the technical aspects of the procedures and the decision-making process, as well as to confront with contemporary medical knowledge.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5114/wiitm.2020.94517DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7991926PMC
March 2021

A Woman with a 27-Year History of Hyperparathyroidism and Hypercalcemia Who Was Diagnosed with Low-Grade Parathyroid Carcinoma.

Am J Case Rep 2021 Mar 11;22:e930301. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Department of General, Endocrine and Vascular Surgery, Medical University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland.

BACKGROUND Parathyroid carcinoma (PC), accounting for 0.005% of all cancers, is responsible for less than 1% of all cases of primary hyperparathyroidism, and equally affects males and females, usually in 4th or 5th decades of life. PC can occur sporadically and can be associated with congenital genetic syndromes such as hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor syndrome (HPT-JT), isolated familial hyperparathyroidism, or multiple endocrine neoplasia 1 and 2 syndromes. Surgery is the main treatment, with a limited role of radio- and chemotherapy, which allows 49-77% of patients to survive 10 years. In this work we report the case of a patient with parathyroid carcinoma, whose treatment required 13 surgeries over a period of 27 years, together with radiotherapy and pharmacological treatment. CASE REPORT A 51-year-old woman was first diagnosed with primary hyperparathyroidism in 1993 at the age of 23. From 1993 to present, she underwent 13 surgeries and 33 courses of radiotherapy due to recurrent lesions, which initially had a character of parathyroid adenomas, then parathyromatosis, and finally were diagnosed as parathyroid carcinoma. The patient also required and currently requires complex pharmacological treatment to control the calcemia and manage the complications of the primary disease. Supervision by the multidisciplinary professional medical team allows the patient to lead a normal life with good control of the disease. CONCLUSIONS Parathyroid carcinoma is a rare disease with a number of complications; however, obtaining satisfactory long-term survival with acceptable quality of life is achievable.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12659/AJCR.930301DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7957837PMC
March 2021

Combined Treatment of Multiple Splanchnic Artery Aneurysms Secondary to Median Arcuate Ligament Syndrome: A Case Study and Review of the Literature.

Am J Case Rep 2020 Aug 11;21:e926074. Epub 2020 Aug 11.

Department of General, Endocrine and Vascular Surgery, Medical University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland.

BACKGROUND Median arcuate ligament syndrome (MALS) is a rare and often misdiagnosed condition affecting about 0.4% of the population, typically ages 20-50 years old, and more frequently females. Caused by the compression of the celiac artery and adjacent nervous structures by the median arcuate ligament, it is typically manifested by postprandial abdominal pain, nausea or vomiting, and loss of weight. This condition also results in compensatory increased blood flow in peripancreatic arcades, facilitating formation of true aneurysms of the visceral vessels. CASE REPORT A 45-year-old woman with hypertension and left inferior renal pole cysts was referred to our department due to chronic, recurrent postprandial abdominal pains, nausea, and weight loss of approximately 15 kg in 1 year. A computed tomography (CT) scan demonstrated complete occlusion of the celiac trunk, significant stenosis of the superior mesenteric artery, and multiple aneurysms up to 17 mm in collateral circulatory vessels. Surgical decompression of the median arcuate ligament was performed and venous bypass was implanted between the aorta and the common hepatic artery, resulting in restoration of proper blood in the visceral circulation. Subsequently, 2 endovascular embolizations of visceral aneurysms were successfully performed. In the 48-month follow-up period, there was resolution of symptoms and no aneurysm formation was observed. CONCLUSIONS Endovascular methods should be the treatment of choice in patients with splanchnic artery aneurysms. However, in patients with multiple aneurysms secondary to MALS, arterial reconstruction may be considered prior to performing an endovascular procedure to restore physiological blood flow in the visceral circulation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12659/AJCR.926074DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7440745PMC
August 2020

Prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea in patients with peripheral arterial diseases.

Sleep Breath 2020 Sep 14;24(3):1035-1041. Epub 2019 Nov 14.

Department of Cardiology, Medical University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland.

Background: The presence of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), a novel cardiovascular risk factor, contributes to the development of peripheral arterial diseases (PAD). There is a lack of data showing how often these diseases coexist.

Aims: The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of OSA in the population of patients with PAD.

Methods: Patients previously qualified for the first revascularization due to PAD were included in the study. All patients underwent an overnight sleep study to detect OSA. Diagnosis of OSA was made when the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) was ≥5 per hour.

Results: From 141 patients (60% men, age 69.6 ± 9.5 years), OSA was diagnosed in 68 patients (48%). OSA occurred in mild form (5 ≤ AHI < 15/h) in 39 cases (28%), in moderate form (15 ≤ AHI < 30/h) in 21 cases (15%), and in severe form (AHI ≥ 30/h) in 8 cases (6%). Patients without OSA had significantly lower body mass index (BMI; 26.9 ± 5.5 vs. 27.7 ± 5.3 kg/m, p = 0.01) and lower hip circumference (97.4 ± 11.7 vs. 98.7 ± 7.4, p = 0.04). There were no differences in the distribution of other investigated cardiovascular risk factors and diseases between these groups. There were no significant differences in OSA distribution or its severity between patients with lower extremity artery disease and carotid artery disease.

Conclusions: The prevalence of OSA in patients with PAD is very high, affecting nearly half of the studied population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11325-019-01950-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7426286PMC
September 2020

Relationship between parathyroid gland scintigraphy and its histopathology, oxyphil cell content and volume: a retrospective study.

Nucl Med Rev Cent East Eur 2019 ;22(1):29-33

Nuclear Medicine Department, Medical University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland.

Background: Mechanisms that are responsible for positive 99mTc-MIBI uptake in parathyroid glands are not clearly understood, some authors suggest there is a correlation between 99mTc MIBI accumulation and oxyphil cell content or parathyroid gland volume. The aim of our work was to assess the relationship between the pathological structure of parathyroids, their volume, oxyphil cell content and parathyroid 99mTc-MIBI retention.

Material And Methods: A total of 62 hyperfunctioning parathyroid glands in 46 patients were retrospectively analyzed. Preoperative 99mTc-MIBI scintigraphy was performed according to the double-phase and subtraction protocol. After surgery all glands were evaluated histologically, oxyphil cell content was assessed and volume of each excised gland was calculated.

Results: Scintigraphy was positive in 41 of 62 parathyroid glands (66%). The median volume of positive glands was larger than that of negative glands (1.33 ml vs 0.7 ml, p = 0.015). Of the parathyroid lesions, there were 14 (22.6%) cases of nodular hyperplasia, 23 (37.1%) cases of diffuse hyperplasia, and 25 (40.3%) cases of adenomas. A high (≥ 25%) oxyphil cell content was found in 16 glands (25.8%) and a low ( < 25%) oxyphil cell content in 46 (74.2%) glands. Histopathology of parathyroid glands was related to the scintigraphy result (p = 0.002), but not to the 99mTc-MIBI uptake pattern (p = 0.868). The overall result of scintigraphy was not related to the oxyphil cell content (p = 0.797). 99mTc-MIBI uptake pattern wasn't related to the oxyphil cell content (p = 0.833). In general, parathyroid lesions with low oxyphil cell content were larger than parathyroid glands with high oxyphil cell content (1.33 ml vs 0.5 ml, respectively; p = 0.01). The median volume of parathyroids containing a high number of oxyphil cells and having a prolonged 99mTc-MIBI retention was larger than those without prolonged 99mTc-MIBI retention (1.62 ml vs 0.3 ml, respectively; p = 0.008). The median volume of parathyroids with low oxyphil cells content and showing prolonged 99mTc-MIBI retention was larger than those without prolonged 99mTc-MIBI retention (1.95 ml vs 1.07 ml, respectively; p = 0.014).

Conclusions: Our findings suggest that a positive scintigraphy result depends on parathyroid histopathology and gland volume and does not depend on the presence of oxyphil cells. Prolonged 99mTc-retention is not related to the parathyroid gland histopathology and the presence of oxyphil cells but to the gland volume.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5603/NMR.2019.0005DOI Listing
April 2020

Accuracy of the European Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System (EU-TIRADS) in the valuation of thyroid nodule malignancy in reference to the post-surgery histological results.

Pol J Radiol 2018 19;83:e579-e586. Epub 2018 Dec 19.

Department of Internal Medicine and Endocrinology, Medical University of Warsaw, Poland.

Purpose: To assess the clinical usefulness of the European Thyroid Imaging and Reporting Data System (EU-TIRADS) in the valuation of thyroid nodules malignancy in reference to post-surgery histological results.

Material And Methods: Pre-operative ultrasound was performed in consecutive patients admitted for thyroid surgery between June 2017 and January 2018. Thyroid nodules were classified according to EU-TIRADS to five groups: 1-5. At least one fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB)/patient (dominant or suspected nodule) was performed in an outpatient clinic. The final diagnosis was based on the histological result. The percentage of cancers in each EU-TIRADS group was evaluated. Finally, sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, as well as positive and negative predictive values for malignancy were assessed.

Results: Fifty-two patients with a total of 140 thyroid nodules (median: 3 nodules/thyroid [minimum-maximum: 1-6]) were enrolled in the study. Thyroid cancer was diagnosed in 0% (0/6) in EU-TIRADS 2; 0% (0/92) in EU-TIRADS 3; 5.9% (2/34) in EU-TIRADS 4, and 75% (6/8) in EU-TIRADS 5. In nodules assessed as EU-TIRADS ≥ 4 sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values for malignancy were, respectively: 75% (CI 95%: 40.7-93.5), 94.1% (CI 95%: 86.0-98.5), 75% (CI 95%: 40.7-93.5), and 94.1% (CI 95%: 86.0-98.5).

Conclusions: EU-TIRADS is a valuable and simple tool for assessment of the risk of malignancy of thyroid nodules and demonstrates a high ultrasound correlation with histological post-surgery results. FNAB should be performed in all nodules assessed as EU-TIRADS ≥ 4, due to higher risk of malignancy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5114/pjr.2018.81556DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6384399PMC
December 2018

Late type III endoleak after thoracic endovascular aneurysm repair and previous infrarenal stent graft implantation - a case report and review of the literature.

Wideochir Inne Tech Maloinwazyjne 2017 Sep 31;12(3):320-324. Epub 2017 Jul 31.

Department of General and Endocrine Surgery, Medical University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland.

Thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) effectively improved the results of thoracic aortic aneurysm treatment. TEVAR is a less invasive procedure that can be performed under local anesthesia with shorter hospital stay. The perioperative morbidity and mortality rates are lower for endovascular than open repair, but the rate of secondary interventions is higher for TEVAR. We report a case of an elderly man with synchronous abdominal and thoracic aortic aneurysms. A type III dangerous endoleak was recognized 3 years after TEVAR. It was successfully repaired during an endovascular procedure. There were no new endoleaks after 12 months of follow-up. TEVAR may be the only option of treatment for risky and elderly patients. However, postoperative monitoring is necessary to exclude different types of endoleaks. Most of them undergo effective endovascular repair.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5114/wiitm.2017.69239DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5649506PMC
September 2017

Comparison of scintigraphy and ultrasound imaging in patients with primary, secondary and tertiary hyperparathyroidism - own experience.

J Ultrason 2017 Mar 31;17(68):17-22. Epub 2017 Mar 31.

Nuclear Medicine Department, Medical University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland.

Background: The imaging techniques most commonly used in the diagnosis of hyperparathyroidisms are ultrasound and scintigraphy. The diagnostic algorithms vary, depending mainly on the population, and experience of physicians.

Aim: Aim of the present research was to determine the usefulness of parathyroid scintigraphy and ultrasonography in patients diagnosed for hyperparathyroidism in own material.

Material And Method: In the present research, 96 operated patients with documented primary, secondary and tertiary hyperparathyroidism were retrospectively analyzed. All patients underwent a Tc hexakis-2-methoxyisobutylisonitrile scintigraphy of the neck with the use of subtraction and two-phase examinations. Ultrasonography of the neck was performed in all the patients in B mode 2D presentation. A total number of 172 parathyroid glands were analyzed.

Results: The sensitivity and specificity of scintigraphy was 68% and 60%, respectively. The sensitivity of ultrasound was 49% and specificity 85%. Both techniques allowed visualization of 76 parathyroid glands. Ultrasound revealed 19 glands that were not visible in scintigraphy. Scintigraphy showed 76 parathyroid glands that were not visualized on ultrasound. Having combined the results of scintigraphy and ultrasound, the sensitivity of 76% and specificity of 50% were obtained. Considering the ability to locate the parathyroid glands in both techniques as a positive result, the sensitivity decreased to 37% and specificity rose to 95%.

Conclusions: Scintigraphy showed greater sensitivity than ultrasound in the localization of enlarged parathyroid glands. Ultrasound, in turn, was characterized by a higher specificity. The combined use of scintigraphy and ultrasonography allowed to obtain the specificity of 95%. In the light of obtained results, scintigraphy and ultrasonography are complementary and should be used together.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.15557/JoU.2017.0002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5392549PMC
March 2017

Reoperations for persistent or recurrent primary hyperparathyroidism: results of a retrospective cohort study at a tertiary referral center.

Med Sci Monit 2014 Sep 9;20:1604-12. Epub 2014 Sep 9.

Department of General, Vascular, and Transplantation Surgery, Medical University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland.

Background: Parathyroid reoperations are challenging and achieving a cure requires multidisciplinary treatment team cooperation. The aims of this study were to summarize our experience in revision surgery for persistent (pHPT) or recurrent primary hyperparathyroidism (rHPT) and to explore factors underlying failure to cure at initial surgery.

Material And Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study of patients who underwent reoperations for pHPT or rHPT at a tertiary referral center. The database of parathyroid surgery was searched for eligible patients (treated in the years 2000-2012). The primary outcome was the cure rate. All the patients were followed-up for at least 12 months postoperatively. Factors underlying failure to cure at initial surgery were reviewed based on hospital records.

Results: The study group comprised 88 patients (69 women, 19 men) operated on for persistent (n=57) or recurrent disease (n=31), who underwent 98 reoperations, including 26 (2.4%) patients first operated on at our institution, and 72 (81.8%) patients operated on elsewhere, but referred for revision surgery. A long-term cure was achieved in 83/88 patients (94.3%). The mean post-reoperation follow-up was 91.7 (12-176) months. Missed hyperfunctioning parathyroid gland was found on reoperation in eutopic position in 49 (55.5%) patients, and in ectopic position in 39 (44.3%) patients, including 20 (22.7%) cases of cervical ectopy and 19 (21.6%) cases of mediastinal ectopy.

Conclusions: Multidisciplinary treatment team cooperation at a tertiary referral center, consisting of an accurate preoperative localization, expertise in parathyroid re-explorations, and correct use of intraoperative adjuncts, contribute to the high success rate of parathyroid reoperations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12659/MSM.890983DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4166223PMC
September 2014

Xenotransplantation of human cultured parathyroid progenitor cells into mouse peritoneum does not induce rejection reaction.

Cent Eur J Immunol 2014 14;39(3):279-84. Epub 2014 Oct 14.

Department of General, Vascular Surgery and Transplantation, Medical University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland.

Introduction: Parathyroid progenitor cells devoid of immunogenic antigens were used for human allotransplantation. Although there were many potential reasons for the expiry of transplant activity in humans, we decided to exclude a subclinical form of rejection reaction, and test the rejection reaction in an animal model.

Material And Methods: Experiments were carried out on 40 conventional male mice in their third month of life. The animals were housed in groups of 10 per cage in 4 cages with fitted water dispensers and fed a conventional diet based on standard pellet food. They were divided into four groups of 10 animals each, three experimental groups and one control group. Identified progenitor cells were stored in a cell bank. After testing the phenotype, viability, and absence of immunogenic properties, the cells were transplanted into mouse peritoneum cavity.

Results: Animals were observed for 9 weeks. At 9 weeks of observation, the mean serum PTH concentration in the experimental groups was 2.0-2.5 pg/ml, while in the control group it did not exceed 1.5 pg/ml. The immunohistochemical assays demonstrated that millions of viable cells with a phenotype identical to the endocrine cells had survived in the peritoneum. Histologic specimens from different internal organs stained for PTH revealed positive cells labelled with anti-PTH Ab in the intestinal lamina, brain, liver, and spleen.

Conclusions: In the present paper we have demonstrated that xenotransplantation may be used as a model for an explanation of the immunogenic properties of cells generated from postnatal organs for regenerative therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5114/ceji.2014.45937DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4440013PMC
July 2015

Late aneurysm rupture after endovascular abdominal aneurysm repair.

Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg 2007 Aug 24;6(4):490-4. Epub 2007 Apr 24.

Department of General, Vascular and Transplant Surgery, Medical University of Warsaw, Banacha 1a, 02-097 Warsaw, Poland.

Objectives: The goal of endovascular repair is to protect the patient from aneurysm rupture. Careful surveillance should be performed postoperatively in order to select patients with aneurysm growth and, therefore, the highest rupture risk. The aim of the study was to present our experience with aneurysm rupture in long-term follow-up after endovascular abdominal aneurysm repair.

Methods: Between 1998 and 2006, 445 patients with abdominal aortic aneurysms were treated endovasculary in our Department. All patients were followed-up postoperatively according to the EUROSTAR protocol, with a CT scan performed postoperatively in the 3rd, 6th and 12th month and annually thereafter with good compliance. Because of this we had the opportunity for early treatment of complications, especially endoleaks which may cause aneurysm growth and subsequent rupture.

Results: In three presented patients aneurysm rupture occurred in the late follow-up period after endovascular treatment. In all cases open aneurysmectomy was performed without any major complications. We also analyzed the reason for the rupture: in all cases it was due to endoleak type I, that was not present during postoperative CT-scans. The mechanism of its recurrence was proximal cuff migration 29 months after endovascular aneurysm treatment in the first patient. In the second case endoleak type I appeared 32 months postoperatively due to aneurysm lengthening, what could have been the consequence of persistent, small endoleak type II. In the third case the reason of aneurysm rupture was late endoleak type I due to migration of proximal seal of the stentgraft.

Conclusions: Although the risk of aneurysm rupture after EVAR is low, all patients treated endovascularly should be routinely monitored, in order to select cases with potential endoleaks or stentgraft migration which may lead to fatal complications. When rupture occurs open aneurysmectomy is feasible, although it requires careful management in these high-risk patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1510/icvts.2007.152447DOI Listing
August 2007

Allotransplantation of cultured parathyroid progenitor cells without immunosuppression: clinical results.

Transplantation 2007 Mar;83(6):734-40

Department of General, Vascular, and Transplantation Surgery, The Medical University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland.

Background: Hypoparathyroidism is a well-known consequence of extensive thyroid and parathyroid surgery. Allotransplantation of cultured parathyroid cells can be considered as an alternative to vitamin D3 and calcium supplementation in treatment of hypoparathyroidism. We present the long-term allotransplant activity in 85 patients who had undergone cellular allotransplantation for surgical hypoparathyroidism. Also, a modified technique to prepare parathyroid explants is described for obtaining a new nonimmunogenic cell population.

Methods: From March 1990 to December 2004, 85 patients underwent 116 allotransplantations of cultured parathyroid cells. Mean recipient age was 46.2+/-11.1 years. Donors were selected from patients undergoing parathyroidectomy for secondary and tertiary hyperparathyroidism.

Results: After 6 weeks of cultivation and freezing, the parathyroid cells decreased their normal human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I ABC expression and were free of HLA class II positive cells. The viability of cultured cells was 95.15+/-2.94%. Eighty-five patients underwent primary allotransplantation. Of these, 25 patients subsequently underwent a repeat procedure. In six cases, the parathyroid cells were obtained from the same donor and in 19 cases from a different donor. For all patients, the mean cellular allograft survival was 6.35+/-13.08 months. In 64 patients (55.1%), the allografts retained their endocrine function for more than 2 months.

Conclusions: The present study has shown that in some patients parathyroid cell allotransplantation may be considered a method of treatment for permanent hypoparathyroidism after thyroid surgery. Graft function and/or survival did not depend on the baseline viability or secretory activity of cultured cells used for transplantation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.tp.0000258601.17505.9dDOI Listing
March 2007

The comparison of treatment results of type 1 diabetes mellitus complicated by end-stage diabetic nephropathy in patients undergoing simultaneous pancreas and pre-emptive kidney transplantation (SPPkTx) and patients enrolled into the dialysis program--a cohort study.

Ann Transplant 2005 ;10(3):31-5

Department of General, Vascular and Transplant Surgery, The Medical University of Warsaw.

Objective: A cohort study was conducted to compare treatment of patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus and end-stage diabetic nephropathy.

Patients And Methods: 47 type 1 diabetic patients required renal replacement therapy in years: 2001-2005 were enrolled. Simultaneous pancreas and preemptive kidney transplant (sppktx) was performed in 18 (group I). Group II consisted of 29 patients who entered dialysis program. Survival rate for patients from both groups was estimated. Transplanted organ function was evaluated for group II. Lipid profile and its correlation with thickness of carotid media was assessed. Impact of sppktx on diabetic retinopathy was investigated. Cost and life quality were compared between groups.

Results: Two-year cumulative recipient survival rate for group I and II was 100% and 96%, respectively. One-year cumulative survival rate for transplanted pancreas was 88% and for kidney grafts 94%. In group I cholesterol and triglyceride level before transplantation were: 207 +/- 38 mg/dl and 133 +/- 65 mg/dl and decreased after transplantation to 155 +/- 20 mg/dl and 78 +/- 25 mg/dl, respectively (p < 0.05). No difference of carotid media thickness was observed between groups. Stabilization of retinopathy was observed in 91.6% non-blind recipients. During the first year of the follow-up the costs of transplantation doubled those of dialysis therapy but in the second year the costs of dialysis exceeded the costs required for transplanted patients.

Conclusion: Despite of major surgery and introduction of immunosuppression in group I, results did not differ significantly between groups during a two-year follow-up. After sppktx, stabilization of the carotid media was slower than the normalization of lipids. At the second year, transplantation is less expensive than dialysis.
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September 2006

The calcium-sensing receptor and vitamin D receptor expression in tertiary hyperparathyroidism.

Int J Mol Med 2006 May;17(5):779-83

Cell Molecular Biology Laboratory, Department of Histology and Embryology, Biostructure Research Center, Warsaw Medical University, PL 02 004 Warsaw, Poland.

The parathormone (PTH) production is controlled by calcium and vitamin D, which interact with the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) and vitamin D receptor (VDR), respectively. All of these elements control calcium homeostasis, which is crucial for many physiological processes. Thus, impairment of the upstream component of this system, e.g. a decrease of CaSR and/or VDR, could result in hyperparathyroidism (HPTH). Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the expression of CaSR and VDR in a tertiary form of HPTH (T-HPTH). The study involved 19 T-HPTH patients qualified for parathyroidectomy and 21 control parathyroids harvested from multi-organ cadaver donors. The small fragments of harvested glands were homogenized and used for Western blot analysis, whereas the remaining tissues underwent routine hematoxylin-eosin staining or immunostaining for CaSR and VDR. Among 64 T-HPTH parathyroids, 58 revealed the morphology of benign hyperplasia, 2 were identified as adenoma and 4 were classified as normal; some glands displayed a mixed histological phenotype. Western blot analysis revealed a decrease of CaSR and VDR in hyperplasia and adenoma-derived samples. However, no correlation between the types of hyperplasia and receptor expression was observed. On the other hand, microscopic analysis of CaSR- and VDR-immunostained sections revealed a highly differentiated and significantly decreased mean expression of both receptors, which correlated with parathyroid histology. The reason behind the impaired expression of CaSR and VDR in T-HPTH is unclear. It presumably results from constant parathyroid stimulation at the stage of S-HPTH, followed by further development of polyclonal autonomy. However, the verification of this thesis requires further study.
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May 2006

P-glycoprotein expression influences the result of 99mTc-MIBI scintigraphy in tertiary hyperparathyroidism.

Int J Mol Med 2005 Aug;16(2):215-9

Department of General, Vascular and Transplant Surgery, Central University Hospital, Warsaw, Poland.

Precise localization of parathyroid glands using 99mTc-labeled hexakis-2-methoxyisobutylisonitrile (99mTc-MIBI) scintigraphy could be affected by various biological factors. There is increasing evidence that radiotracer retention could be controlled by members of multidrug resistance (MDR) system, especially P-glycoprotein (P-gp). Since the role of P-gp in tertiary hyperparathyroidism (T-HPTH) scintigraphic studies is poorly recognized, the aim of the study was to compare the correlation between parathyroid P-gp expression and results of their scintigraphy in T-HPTH versus primary hyperparathyroidism (P-HPTH). P-HPTH (n = 19) and T-HPTH (n = 18) patients were subjected to 99mTc-MIBI scintigraphy followed by surgical treatment. The parathyroid glands were assessed in routine hematoxylin-eosin staining and P-gp expression was analyzed using immunohistochemistry. Parathyroids collected during cadaver donor multi-organ harvesting were used as a control. It has been found that P-HPTH-derived parathyroid glands with predominating adenoma morphology expressed less P-gp, as compared to P-gp-rich T-HPTH glands, mainly displaying nodular or diffused hyperplasia phenotype. This finding reversely correlated with results of 99mTc-MIBI scintigraphy. However, we did not observe any difference in P-gp expression nor scintigraphy result between nodular or diffused hyperplasia. Altogether, these data suggest that P-gp overexpression in T-HPTH could be responsible for decreased sensitivity of 99mTc-MIBI scintigraphy in those patients. Therefore, the recently proposed reduced neck exploration or limited parathyroid resection on the basis of scintigraphy could create the risk of persisted/recurrent hyperparathyroidism. However, this problem requires further study.
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August 2005

Persisted/recurrent hyperparathyroidism associated with development of multi-drug resistance phenotype and proliferation of parathyroid transplants.

Int J Mol Med 2004 Oct;14(4):595-9

Department of Histology and Embryology, Warsaw Medical University, 5 Chalubinskiego Str., PL 02 004 Warsaw, Poland.

The surgical treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism (HPTH) requires sub-total excision of parathyroid glands or total excision with their autotransplantation. Although this approach has been considered as a safe method of treatment, in this report we describe persisted/recurrent HPTH after parathyroid transplantation. Due to parathormone (PTH) hypersecretion and uncontrolled proliferation, the parathyroid grafts were removed and used for generation of cell cultures, which further have been subjected to in vitro studies. As a control we used parathyroid tissue, obtained during multiorgan harvesting. We found increased proliferation and up-regulated PTH production by the graft-derived, but not control in vitro cultured cells. Moreover, due to decrease of in vivo radiotracer uptake by parathyroid grafts, the expression of multi-drug resistance-involved factors, including P-glycoprotein (P-gp/mdr1), multi-drug resistance-associated protein (mrp) and bcl-2 have been investigated using RT-PCR. The analysis revealed increased expression of both, mdr1 and mrp in graft-derived cells, in contrast to control cells, which did not express P-gp/mdr1 or mrp. However, we did not observe any difference in expression of bcl-2 between analyzed cells. The up-regulated expression of P-gp/mdr1 on graft-derived cells was further confirmed by immunofluorescence studies. The described case indicates potential risk associated with transplantation of parathyroid tissue. Our results confirm a role of MDR phenomenon in occurrence of false negative results in parathyroid tissue scintigraphy studies. Moreover, they indicate that standard histological examination of transplanted material could not be sensitive enough to exclude any potential danger of abnormal graft progression. Thus, they could support the concept to use encapsulated parathyroid transplants.
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October 2004
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