Publications by authors named "Wissanuwat Chimnoi"

18 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Molecular Detection of Tick-Borne Pathogens in Stray Dogs and sensu lato Ticks from Bangkok, Thailand.

Pathogens 2021 May 6;10(5). Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Kasetsart University, Bangkok 10900, Thailand.

Canine tick-borne pathogens (CTBPs) such as , , , and are important pathogens in dogs worldwide. sensu lato, the main vector of several CTBPs, is the most common tick species found on dogs in Thailand. The present study identified CTBPs in dogs and ticks infested dogs. Samples (360 dog blood samples and 85 individual ticks) were collected from stray dogs residing in 37 temples from 24 districts in Bangkok and screened for CTBPs using molecular techniques. The most common CTBP found infecting dogs in this study was (38.3%) followed by (34.2%), (19.7%), (18.1%), and (13.9%), respectively. Furthermore, (22.4%) was the most common CTBP in ticks followed by (18.8%), (9.4%), (5.9%), and (2.4%), respectively. The detection of CTBPs from the present study highlights the potential risk of infections that may occur in stray dogs and their ticks residing in Bangkok temples. These findings underline the importance of performing active surveys to understand the complexity of distributions of CTBPs in dogs and their ticks in Thailand.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10050561DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8148546PMC
May 2021

Molecular detection of Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. from stray dogs residing in monasteries in Bangkok, Thailand.

Parasitol Int 2021 Aug 23;83:102337. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Kasetsart University, Bangkok 10900, Thailand. Electronic address:

Both Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis are enteric protozoan parasites that infect a wide variety of domestic animals as well as humans worldwide, causing diarrheal diseases. Giardia duodenalis assemblages C and D are specific to canine hosts and zoonotic assemblages A and B are also found in dogs as a reservoir host. In dogs, Cryptosporidium canis is the host-specific species while humans are infected by C. hominis and C. parvum and at least another 16 zoonotic Cryptosporidium species have been reported causing human infections, with C. meleagridis, C. viatorum, and C. ubiquitum being the most frequent. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. and G. duodenalis from stray dogs in areas of Bangkok and to identify the species and assemblages. Fecal samples (540) were collected from dogs residing in 95 monasteries in 48 districts in the Bangkok metropolitan area. Nested Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) was performed using the ssu-rRNA gene for both parasites. In total, 3.0% (16/540) samples were positive for G. duodenalis, with most being G. duodenalis assemblage D (7/16) followed by assemblage C (7/16) and zoonotic assemblage A (2/16). The prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. was 0.7% (4/540) based on the PCR results and all were the dog genotype C. canis. These results indicated that dogs residing in Bangkok monasteries poses a limited role as source of human giardiosis and cryptosporidiosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.parint.2021.102337DOI Listing
August 2021

Evaluation of hematological alteration of vector-borne pathogens in cats from Bangkok, Thailand.

BMC Vet Res 2021 Jan 18;17(1):28. Epub 2021 Jan 18.

Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Kasetsart University, 10900, Bangkok, Thailand.

Background: Cats can be carriers of infected arthropods and be infected with several vector-borne pathogens (VBPs) but there is limited knowledge about their pathogenic role in cats. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of some feline vector-borne agents by molecular technique and to characterize the hematological findings associated with these infections in a cat population from Bangkok Thailand.

Results: PCR was positive with at least one pathogen in 237 out of 372 subjects (63.7%), with prevalence of 39.5% (147/372) for Babesia spp., 36.9% (137/372) for hemoplasmas and 3.2% (12/372) for Hepatozoon spp. The cats older than 1 year were at significantly greater risk for VBPs infection (P = 0.001; OR = 1.43; 95% CI: 1.12 - 1.81) and hemoplasmas infection (χ2 = 10.8, df = 1; P < 0.0001; OR = 2.45; 95% CI: 1.49 - 4.01). A significant association between hematological findings and hemoplasma infection were identified in the present study. Besides, VBPs infection revealed more frequent in male cats (χ2= 6.38, df = 1, P = 0.01). Macrocytic hypochromic type of anemia was observed in cats infested with blood-sucking arthropods compared to the non-infested cats presented.

Conclusions: The current study confirmed that Babesia, Hepatozoon and hemoplasmas had infected semi-domesticated cats in Bangkok, Thailand, with Babesia and hemoplasmas being dominant in prevalence. Some hematological findings were significantly associated with cats infected with vector-borne pathogens in this study including leukocyte count and platelets count that may help support veterinary technicians in diagnosis and appropriate treatment. Campaigns of VBPs monitoring in Bangkok emphasizing on the investigation of vectors and possible routes of the infection in animals should be conducted to prevent the transmission of the pathogens.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12917-020-02737-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7812637PMC
January 2021

Prevalence of Tritrichomonas foetus infection in cats in Bangkok metropolitan area and in vitro drug sensitivity testing.

Vet Parasitol Reg Stud Reports 2020 07 23;21:100440. Epub 2020 Jul 23.

Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Kasetsart University, Bangkok 10900, Thailand. Electronic address:

Tritrichomonas foetus is a causative agent of feline trichomonosis, resulting in large-bowel diarrhea in cats. Feline trichomonosis has been reported in the USA, Europe and some Asian countries but there is limited information for Thailand. This study investigated the prevalence of T. foetus infection in cats in the Bangkok metropolitan area and evaluated the in vitro efficacy of metronidazole (MDZ) and ronidazole (RDZ) against T. foetus Thai isolates. In total, 215 fecal samples were collected from 121 owned cats and 94 stray cats. All fecal samples were cultivated in InPouch™ TF-feline medium. Afterward, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays targeting the 5.8S rRNA gene, the ITS regions and DNA sequencing were used for the confirmation of T. foetus. The overall prevalence of T. foetus infection was 4.18% (9/215) based on cultivation and PCR. The sequencing results showed 100% homology to T. foetus sequences from GenBank. The average minimal lethal concentrations (MLCs) of MDZ were 333.33 and 66.67 μg/ml at 24 and 48 h, respectively. The average MLCs of RDZ were 29.16 and 12.5 μg/ml at 24 and 48 h, respectively. The MLC of the MDZ results revealed that T. foetus Thai isolates had a tendency to be MDZ-resistant. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this study was the first using in vitro cultivation and molecular techniques to report and confirm the presence of T. foetus in cats living in the Bangkok metropolitan area. Further studies are needed to determine the genuine infection rate of T. foetus in a greater population sample and the infection status in cats with signs of diarrhea in Thailand.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vprsr.2020.100440DOI Listing
July 2020

Cats as potential mammalian reservoirs for Rickettsia sp. genotype RF2125 in Bangkok, Thailand.

Vet Parasitol Reg Stud Reports 2018 08 3;13:188-192. Epub 2018 Jul 3.

Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Kasetsart University, Bangkok, Thailand. Electronic address:

Rickettsia felis is an obligate intracellular alpha-proteobacteria and the cause of flea-borne spotted fever (FBSF), an emerging zoonosis of global public health importance, for which dogs and cats have been implicated as potential mammalian reservoirs hosts. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and associated risk factors for R. felis-like species in semi-domesticated cats and their fleas in aim of understanding public health risks posed by cats and their fleas in Bangkok, Thailand. Single whole blood samples (n = 432) and where observed, fleas (n = 234), were collected from cats from 53 temple communities in Bangkok. Fleas were morphologically and genetically identified to a species level. Cat blood and fleas were subjected to a spotted fever group (SFG)-specific PCR targeting the partial outer membrane protein B (ompB). Those that were positive, were further characterised using an R. felis-specific nested PCR targeting the partial citrate synthase A (gltA) gene. All fleas were identified as Ctenocephalides felis felis. In total SFG Rickettsiae were detected in the blood of 82/482 (17.01%) cats and 3/234 fleas (1.28%). DNA sequencing of the partial ompB characterised all positive amplicons from cat blood and their fleas as 100% identical to Rickettsia endosymbiont of Ctenocephalides felis orientis isolate (Rickettsia sp. genotype RF2125) and Rickettsia asemboensis (GenBank accession no. KP256362 and KY650699, respectively). The gltA gene targeting R. felis was successfully amplified from 12/82 PCR-positive cat blood samples and these clustered with 99% bootstrap support with isolates within the Rickettsia sp. genotype RF2125 clade. Cats that were permitted to roam freely inside monasteries were more likely to be infected with R. felis compared with cats confined indoors. The results suggest that cats in Thailand are potential mammalian reservoir hosts for Rickettsia sp. genotype RF2125.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vprsr.2018.07.001DOI Listing
August 2018

Molecular Identification of Cryptosporidium Species from Pet Snakes in Thailand.

Korean J Parasitol 2016 Aug 31;54(4):423-9. Epub 2016 Aug 31.

Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Kasetsart University, Bangkok 10900, Thailand.

Cryptosporidium is an important pathogen causing gastrointestinal disease in snakes and is distributed worldwide. The main objectives of this study were to detect and identify Cryptosporidium species in captive snakes from exotic pet shops and snake farms in Thailand. In total, 165 fecal samples were examined from 8 snake species, boa constrictor (Boa constrictor constrictor), corn snake (Elaphe guttata), ball python (Python regius), milk snake (Lampropeltis triangulum), king snake (Lampropeltis getula), rock python (Python sebae), rainbow boa (Epicrates cenchria), and carpet python (Morelia spilota). Cryptosporidium oocysts were examined using the dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)-modified acid-fast staining and a molecular method based on nested-PCR, PCR-RFLP analysis, and sequencing amplification of the SSU rRNA gene. DMSO-modified acid-fast staining revealed the presence of Cryptosporidium oocysts in 12 out of 165 (7.3%) samples, whereas PCR produced positive results in 40 (24.2%) samples. Molecular characterization indicated the presence of Cryptosporidium parvum (mouse genotype) as the most common species in 24 samples (60%) from 5 species of snake followed by Cryptosporidium serpentis in 9 samples (22.5%) from 2 species of snake and Cryptosporidium muris in 3 samples (7.5%) from P. regius.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3347/kjp.2016.54.4.423DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5040075PMC
August 2016

Canine vector-borne pathogens in semi-domesticated dogs residing in northern Cambodia.

Parasit Vectors 2016 05 10;9(1):253. Epub 2016 May 10.

Faculty of Veterinary and Agricultural Sciences, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria, 3052, Australia.

Background: In Southeast Asia, the canine vector-borne pathogens Babesia spp., Ehrlichia canis, Anaplasma platys, Hepatozoon canis, haemotropic mycoplasmas and Dirofilaria immitis cause significant morbidity and mortality in dogs. Moreover, dogs have also been implicated as natural reservoirs for Rickettsia felis, the agent of flea-borne spotted fever, increasingly implicated as a cause of undifferentiated fever in humans in Southeast Asia. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and diversity of canine vector-borne pathogens in 101 semi-domesticated dogs from rural Cambodia using molecular diagnostic techniques.

Results: The most common canine vector-borne pathogens found infecting dogs in this study were Babesia vogeli (32.7 %) followed by Ehrlichia canis (21.8 %), Dirofilaria immitis (15.8 %), Hepatozoon canis (10.9 %), Mycoplasma haemocanis (9.9 %) and "Candidatus Mycoplasma haematoparvum" (2.9 %). A high level of co-infection with CVBD agents (23.8 %) was present, most commonly B. vogeli and E. canis. Naturally occurring R. felis infection was also detected in 10.9 % of dogs in support of their role as a natural mammalian reservoir for flea-borne spotted fever in humans.

Conclusions: This study reports for the first time, the prevalence and diversity of CVBD pathogens in dogs in Cambodia. In total, five species of CVBD pathogens were found infecting semi-domesticated dogs and many were co-infected with two or more pathogens. This study supports the role of dogs as natural mammalian reservoirs for R. felis, the agent of flea-borne spotted fever in humans.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13071-016-1552-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4862146PMC
May 2016

Prevalence and genotype of Giardia duodenalis in dairy cattle from Northern and Northeastern part of Thailand.

Acta Parasitol 2015 Sep;60(3):459-61

The aims of this study were to determine prevalence and genotype of Giardia duodenalis in feces of dairy cattle from the northern part and the northeastern part of Thailand. A total of 900 fecal samples were collected directly from rectum and examined by using zinc sulphate centrifugal flotation technique and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The overall prevalence of G. duodenalis in dairy cows was 5.0 % (45/900) by zinc sulphate centrifugal flotation and 6.0 % (54/900) by PCR. Genotypes of G. duodenalis found in this study were Assemblage AI and E. The results indicated that dairy cattle may act as a potential risk of Giardia transmission among animals and humans (especially Assemblage AI).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/ap-2015-0063DOI Listing
September 2015

Low risk for transmission of zoonotic Giardia duodenalis from dogs to humans in rural Cambodia.

Parasit Vectors 2014 Aug 29;7:412. Epub 2014 Aug 29.

Department of Veterinary Disease Biology, Faculty of Health and Medical Science, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Background: A number of epidemiological studies have demonstrated Giardia as prevalent in both humans and dogs worldwide and have postulated the occurrence of anthroponotic, zoonotic and animal-specific cycles of transmission, which may be geographically and regionally unique in its epidemiology. The aim of this study was to utilise molecular tools to determine the prevalence and compare genotypes of Giardia duodenalis infecting humans and dogs living in a previously identified Giardia-endemic village in rural Cambodia in order to ascertain zoonotic transmission risk.

Findings: The prevalence of G. duodenalis in humans and dogs was 18.3% (40/218) and 10.6% (10/94) by PCR, respectively. Molecular characterisation of the small subunit of ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) gene, triose phosphate isomerase (TPI) gene and sub-assemblage characterisation of the glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh) gene placed 27.5% (11/40) of Giardia positive humans into assemblage AII and 72.5% (29/40) into assemblage BIII of G. duodenalis. In dogs, 20.0% (2/10) of Giardia-positive samples were characterised as G. duodenalis assemblage BIII, 40.0% (4/10) as assemblage C and 40.0% (4/10) as mix infection between assemblage C and D.

Conclusion: Overall, just over 2% of dogs harboured potentially zoonotic assemblages of G. duodenalis in the studied communities and hence pose a minimal zoonotic risk for the transmission of Giardia to humans.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1756-3305-7-412DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4262118PMC
August 2014

High prevalence of Ancylostoma ceylanicum hookworm infections in humans, Cambodia, 2012.

Emerg Infect Dis 2014 Jun;20(6):976-82

Ancylostoma ceylanicum, a hookworm of canids and felids in Asia, is becoming the second most common hookworm infecting humans. In 2012, we investigated the prevalence and infection dynamics of and risk factors for hookworm infections in humans and dogs in a rural Cambodian village. Over 57% of the population was infected with hookworms; of those, 52% harbored A. ceylanicum hookworms. The greatest intensities of A. ceylanicum eggs were in persons 21-30 years of age. Over 90% of dogs also harbored A. ceylanicum hookworms. Characterization of the cytochrome oxidase-1 gene divided isolates of A. ceylanicum hookworms into 2 groups, 1 containing isolates from humans only and the other a mix of isolates from humans and animals. We hypothesize that preventative chemotherapy in the absence of concurrent hygiene and animal health programs may be a factor leading to emergence of A. ceylanicum infections; thus, we advocate for a One Health approach to control this zoonosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2006.131770DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4036766PMC
June 2014

The prevalence and diversity of intestinal parasitic infections in humans and domestic animals in a rural Cambodian village.

Parasitol Int 2014 Aug 4;63(4):597-603. Epub 2014 Apr 4.

Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Basel, Switzerland; University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland. Electronic address:

In Cambodia, intestinal parasitic infections are prevalent in humans and particularly in children. Yet, information on potentially zoonotic parasites in animal reservoir hosts is lacking. In May 2012, faecal samples from 218 humans, 94 dogs and 76 pigs were collected from 67 households in Dong village, Preah Vihear province, Cambodia. Faecal samples were examined microscopically using sodium nitrate and zinc sulphate flotation methods, the Baermann method, Koga Agar plate culture, formalin-ether concentration technique and Kato Katz technique. PCR was used to confirm hookworm, Ascaris spp., Giardia spp. and Blastocystis spp. Major gastrointestinal parasitic infections found in humans included hookworms (63.3%), Entamoeba spp. (27.1%) and Strongyloides stercoralis (24.3%). In dogs, hookworm (80.8%), Spirometra spp. (21.3%) and Strongyloides spp. (14.9%) were most commonly detected and in pigs Isospora suis (75.0%), Oesophagostomum spp. (73.7%) and Entamoeba spp. (31.6%) were found. Eleven parasite species were detected in dogs (eight helminths and three protozoa), seven of which have zoonotic potential, including hookworm, Strongyloides spp., Trichuris spp., Toxocara canis, Echinostoma spp., Giardia duodenalis and Entamoeba spp. Five of the parasite species detected in pigs also have zoonotic potential, including Ascaris spp., Trichuris spp., Capillaria spp., Balantidium coli and Entamoeba spp. Further molecular epidemiological studies will aid characterisation of parasite species and genotypes and allow further insight into the potential for zoonotic cross transmission of parasites in this community.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.parint.2014.03.007DOI Listing
August 2014

Molecular detection of Cryptosporidium spp. infections in water buffaloes from northeast Thailand.

Trop Anim Health Prod 2014 Feb 14;46(2):487-90. Epub 2013 Nov 14.

The objectives of this study were to determine the individual and herd-level prevalence and genotype of Cryptosporidium and to identify putative risk factors associated with Cryptosporidium spp. infections in water buffaloes in northeast Thailand. Fecal samples from 600 water buffaloes of 287 farms in six provinces were collected and tested using DMSO-modified acid-fast staining and polymerase chain reaction. The overall prevalence of Cryptosporidium infections in buffaloes was 5.7 and 8.7% among individual animals and herds, respectively. The provinces with highest infected Cryptosporidium were located in the Sakon Nakhon Basin in the northern part of the region. In addition, higher herd prevalence was observed among farms with more than five buffaloes (30%) than those with five or less animals (16.2%). Thirty (88.2%) of the 34 Cryptosporidium-positive samples were Cryptosporidium parvum and four (11.8%) were Cryptosporidium ryanae.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11250-013-0499-8DOI Listing
February 2014

Prevalence and genotyping of Cryptosporidium SPP from dairy cow fecal samples in western Thailand.

Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 2010 Jul;41(4):770-5

Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Kasetsart University, Bangkok 10900, Thailand.

The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp in dairy cows in central Thailand and to investigate the genotype of Cryptosporidium spp in this population. A total of 200 fecal samples from dairy cows were collected and examined by the acid-fast staining technique and polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). The prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection in dairy cows was 7% (95% CI 3.5-10.5) by acid-fast staining, and 15.5% (95% CI 10.5-20.5) by PCR-RFLP. This is the first report of genetic identification of the C. parvum bovine genotype in dairy cows in Thailand. PCR-RFLP analysis showed all positive samples were C. parvum (bovine genotype). C. andersoni was not found in this study. The only significant risk factor for Cryptosporidium infection in dairy cows was age. Calves less than 2 months old were more frequently infected by Cryptosporidium than others (OR 13.82, 95% CI 3.67-51.97, p = 0.001). Cattle may be a potential source of human cryptosporidiosis.
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July 2010

Epidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii infection of stray cats in Bangkok, Thailand.

Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 2010 Jan;41(1):13-8

Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Kasetsart University, Bangkok, Thailand.

The objective of this study was to investigate the epidemiology of toxoplasmosis in stray cats in Bangkok. Sera were collected during 2006 and examined by Sabin-Feldman dye test. Five hundred sixty-four male and 926 female cats in and around monasteries from 50 districts were collected. Toxoplasma gondii was detected in 72 (4.8%) of 1,490 cats. The prevalence was significantly higher in females (5.6%) than in males (3.6%). Cats more than 5 years old had the highest infection rate (5.1%). Fifty-six percent (28/50) of areas were positive for T. gondii in cats. Our results show T. gondii is widespread in stray cats in Bangkok. It is essential to control the number of stray cats in order to reduce the transmission of toxoplasmosis to animals and humans.
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January 2010

Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in stray cats and dogs in the Bangkok metropolitan area, Thailand.

Vet Parasitol 2007 Apr 1;145(1-2):138-41. Epub 2006 Dec 1.

Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Kasetsart University, Bangkok, Thailand.

Cats and dogs are the most popular pet animals worldwide. Cats are the natural reservoir of Toxoplasma gondii and excrete the resistant oocyst to environments. On the other hands, dogs play a role in the mechanical transmission of the parasite. Stray cats and dogs in the Bangkok metropolitan area are becoming a public concern because there is a considerable increase in their number annually. These facts indicate the risk of mechanically spreading zoonoses including toxoplasmosis to humans since human acquire the infection from infected mammals, either directly or indirectly. In the present study, the presence of T. gondii antibodies was examined in 592 cats and 427 dogs from October 2001 to September 2002 by using a latex agglutination test. T. gondii antibodies were detected in 65 (11.0%) of the 592 cats and 40 (9.4%) of the 427 dogs. The antibody titers in the positive animals ranged from 1:64 to 1:2048. Seroprevalence was significantly higher in female cats than in male cats. The present study suggested that T. gondii was widespread in the stray animals in the Bangkok metropolitan area; therefore, it is essential to control the number of stray cats and dogs in order to reduce the transmission of toxoplasmosis to animals and humans.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetpar.2006.10.021DOI Listing
April 2007

Prevalence of Cryptosporidium among dairy cows in Thailand.

Ann N Y Acad Sci 2006 Oct;1081:328-35

Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Kasetsart University, Bangkok 10900, Thailand.

Cryptosporidium species are frequently associated with diarrhea among AIDS patients in Thailand, and dairy herds are a possible source of some of these infections. A cross-sectional study was performed to determine if Cryptosporidium is present among dairy cows in Thailand. Fecal samples were randomly collected from 363 Holstein-Friesian dairy cows from 108 of 860 farms in the Nong Pho region of central Thailand. The average prevalence of Cryptosporidium among dairy cows was 9.4%, according to an assay for Cryptosporidium-specific antigen (CSA) and 0.6% by microscopic examination of acid-fast stained feces. CSA was detected in all host age categories tested, but was most prevalent among calves (15.1%). Overall, 31.5% of farms were contaminated with Cryptosporidium infections. Fifty percent of poorly managed farms had CSA-positive cows, which were more likely to contaminate water and raw milk, while 12.9% of farms with acceptable management practices had CSA-positive cows. There was no association between the detection of Cryptosporidium and other gastrointestinal parasites. These results indicate that Cryptosporidium is enzootic among Thai dairy cattle, and suggest that cattle could have a role in zoonotic cryptosporidiosis in Thailand.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1196/annals.1373.045DOI Listing
October 2006

Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in captive felids in Thailand.

Vet Parasitol 2006 Mar 18;136(3-4):351-5. Epub 2006 Jan 18.

Department of Small Animal Clinical Science, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Kasetsart University, Kamphaengsaen Campus, Nakorn Pathom, Thailand.

The prevalence of antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii was investigated by commercial latex agglutination test kit (Toxocheck-MT 'Eiken') in captive felids maintained at zoos and a wildlife breeding center in different geographic regions of Thailand. Sera from a total of 136 captive felids of 12 species was obtained between 2002 and 2004. The overall seroprevalence of T. gondii was found in 21 of 136 (15.4%) felids. The titers varied from 1:64 (eight samples) to 1:8192 (one sample). The seroprevalence in different geographic regions were from 0% in the northern area to 23% in the southern area. This study suggested a widespread exposure of captive felids to T. gondii in Thailand and this is the first report of serologic analysis for T. gondii in captive felids in Southeast Asia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetpar.2005.12.009DOI Listing
March 2006

Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in domestic goats in Satun Province, Thailand.

Vet Parasitol 2005 Jan;127(1):17-22

Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Kasetsart University, Bangkok 10900, Thailand.

Goats are important domestic animals in the south of Thailand due to the minimal cost of rearing and maintaining them, and their production of both meat and milk. Toxoplasmosis is one of the most threatening parasitic zoonoses and the causative agent Toxoplasma gondii uses a wide range of warm-blooded intermediate hosts including the goat. The objective of this study was to assess the seroprevalence of antibodies to T. gondii in goats of Satun Province in Thailand. A total of 631 goat sera were examined for antibodies against toxoplasmosis with commercial latex agglutination test kits (Toxocheck-MT 'Eiken'). Of these, 176 (27.9%) were found to be positive to T. gondii; antibody titers ranged from 1:64 to 1:4096 (1:64 cut-off). Female goats were 1.73 times more likely than male to be seropositive (odds ratio [OR]=1.73; 95% confidential interval [CI]=1.11, 2.73). Dairy goats were more likely to be seropositive than meat goats (OR=1.36; 95% CI=0.84, 2.20). Goats were infected with T. gondii with acquisition of age because older goats were more likely to be seropositive than young goats under 1-year-old (for 1-2 years, OR=19.6; 95% CI=0.92, 4.15, for >2 years, OR=2.70; 95% CI=1.26, 5.80). The high seroprevalence of T. gondii antibodies found in the present study suggested widespread exposure of goats in Satun Province to T. gondii.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetpar.2004.08.019DOI Listing
January 2005
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