Publications by authors named "Wim Verkruysse"

16 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Reducing the effects of parallax in camera-based pulse-oximetry.

Biomed Opt Express 2021 May 20;12(5):2813-2824. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Philips Research, High Tech Campus 34, 5656AE, Eindhoven, Netherlands.

Camera-based pulse-oximetry enables contactless estimation of peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO). Because of the lack of readily available and affordable single-optics multi-spectral cameras, custom-made multi-camera setups with different optical filters are currently mostly used. The introduced parallax by these cameras could however jeopardise the SpO algorithm assumptions, especially during subject movement. In this paper we investigate the effect of parallax quantitatively by creating a large dataset consisting of 150 videos with three different parallax settings and with realistic and challenging motion scenarios. We estimate oxygen saturation values with a previously used global frame registration method and with a newly proposed adaptive local registration method to further reduce the parallax-induced image misalignment. We found that the amount of parallax has an important effect on the accuracy of the SpO measurement during movement and that the proposed local image registration reduces the error by more than a factor of 2 for the most common motion scenarios during screening. Extrapolation of the results suggests that the error during the most challenging motion scenario can be reduced to approximately 2 percent when using a parallax-free single-optics camera. This study provides important insights on the possible applications and use cases of remote pulse-oximetry with current affordable and readily available cameras.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/BOE.419199DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8194625PMC
May 2021

Pulse oximetry based on photoplethysmography imaging with red and green light : Calibratability and challenges.

J Clin Monit Comput 2021 Feb 1;35(1):123-133. Epub 2020 Jan 1.

Philips Innovation Group, Philips Research, 5612 AZ, Eindhoven, The Netherlands.

Remotely measuring the arterial blood oxygen saturation (SpO) in visible light (Vis) involves different probing depths, which may compromise calibratibility. This paper assesses the feasibility of calibrating camera-based SpO (SpO) using red and green light. Camera-based photoplethysmographic (PPG) signals were measured at 46 healthy adults at center wavelengths of 580 nm (green), 675 nm (red), and 840 nm (near-infrared; NIR). Subjects had their faces recorded during normoxia and hypoxia and under gradual cooling. SpO estimates in Vis were based on the normalized ratio of camera-based PPG amplitudes in red over green light (RoG). SpO in Vis was validated against contact SpO (reference) and compared with SpO estimated using red-NIR wavelengths. An RoG-based calibration curve for SpO was determined based on data with a SpO range of 85-100%. We found an [Formula: see text] error of 2.9% (higher than the [Formula: see text] for SpO in red-NIR). Additional measurements on normoxic subjects under temperature cooling (from [Formula: see text] to [Formula: see text]) evidenced a significant bias of - 1.7, CI [- 2.7, - 0.7]%. It was also noted that SpO[Formula: see text] estimated at the cheeks was significantly biased (- 3.6, CI [- 5.7, - 1.5]%) with respect to forehead estimations. Under controlled conditions, SpO[Formula: see text] can be calibrated with red and green light but the accuracy is less than that of SpO[Formula: see text] estimated in the usual red-NIR window.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10877-019-00449-yDOI Listing
February 2021

A Model for Waveform Dissimilarities in Dual-Depth Reflectance-PPG.

Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc 2018 Jul;2018:5125-5130

The pressure wave is attenuated as it travels through the vascular bed of tissue. Consequently, reflectance photoplethysmography (PPG) waveforms probed using dual-penetrating wavelengths, such as green (G) and red R; the deepest) are dissimilar. To unravel the dual-depth aspect of PPG, we modeled the wavelength-dependency of the shape of reflection-PPG signals in G (520-580 nm) and R (625-720nm). Skin compression perturbs the relative contributions of the dermal and subdermal blood volume variations sources (BVVs) to PPG and was used to verify our model. We acquired reflectance-PPG in G and R on the finger of nine subjects (ages, 26-32 yrs). Two parameters were used for describing dual-depth dissimilarities: the phase shift, $\phi $, between the first harmonics of the subdermal and dermal BVVs, and the observed phase shift (PS) between PPG signals in G and R. The average $\phi $ was 37.6, CI 95% [22.0, 53.2] degrees. At uncompressed skin, this corresponds to an average PS of 12.5, [7.8, 17.2] degrees. Our results suggest that phase parameters may enable microvascular characterization and diagnosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/EMBC.2018.8513484DOI Listing
July 2018

Calibration of Contactless Pulse Oximetry.

Anesth Analg 2017 01;124(1):136-145

From the *Standardization Research, †Patient Care and Measurements, and ‡Data Science, Philips Research, Eindhoven, The Netherlands.

Background: Contactless, camera-based photoplethysmography (PPG) interrogates shallower skin layers than conventional contact probes, either transmissive or reflective. This raises questions on the calibratability of camera-based pulse oximetry.

Methods: We made video recordings of the foreheads of 41 healthy adults at 660 and 840 nm, and remote PPG signals were extracted. Subjects were in normoxic, hypoxic, and low temperature conditions. Ratio-of-ratios were compared to reference SpO2 from 4 contact probes.

Results: A calibration curve based on artifact-free data was determined for a population of 26 individuals. For an SpO2 range of approximately 83% to 100% and discarding short-term errors, a root mean square error of 1.15% was found with an upper 99% one-sided confidence limit of 1.65%. Under normoxic conditions, a decrease in ambient temperature from 23 to 7°C resulted in a calibration error of 0.1% (±1.3%, 99% confidence interval) based on measurements for 3 subjects. PPG signal strengths varied strongly among individuals from about 0.9 × 10 to 4.6 × 10 for the infrared wavelength.

Conclusions: For healthy adults, the results present strong evidence that camera-based contactless pulse oximetry is fundamentally feasible because long-term (eg, 10 minutes) error stemming from variation among individuals expressed as A*rms is significantly lower (<1.65%) than that required by the International Organization for Standardization standard (<4%) with the notion that short-term errors should be added. A first illustration of such errors has been provided with A**rms = 2.54% for 40 individuals, including 6 with dark skin. Low signal strength and subject motion present critical challenges that will have to be addressed to make camera-based pulse oximetry practically feasible.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1213/ANE.0000000000001381DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5145250PMC
January 2017

Non-contact heart rate monitoring utilizing camera photoplethysmography in the neonatal intensive care unit - a pilot study.

Early Hum Dev 2013 Dec 14;89(12):943-8. Epub 2013 Oct 14.

Department of Pediatrics, Máxima Medical Center, Veldhoven, The Netherlands. Electronic address:

Background: Presently the heart rate is monitored in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit with contact sensors: electrocardiogram or pulse oximetry. These techniques can cause injuries and infections, particularly in very premature infants with fragile skin. Camera based plethysmography was recently demonstrated in adults as a contactless method to determine heart rate.

Aim: To investigate the feasibility of this technique for NICU patients and identify challenging conditions.

Study Design And Participants: Video recordings using only ambient light were made of 19 infants at two NICUs in California and The Netherlands. Heart rate can be derived from these recordings because each cardiovascular pulse wave induces minute pulsatile skin color changes, invisible to the eye but measurable with a camera.

Results: In all infants the heart beat induced photoplethysmographic signal was strong enough to be measured. Low ambient light level and infant motion prevented successful measurement from time to time.

Conclusions: Contactless heart rate monitoring by means of a camera using ambient light was demonstrated for the first time in the NICU population and appears feasible. Better hardware and improved algorithms are required to increase robustness.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.earlhumdev.2013.09.016DOI Listing
December 2013

Remittance at a single wavelength of 390 nm to quantify epidermal melanin concentration.

J Biomed Opt 2009 Jan-Feb;14(1):014005

University of California, Irvine Beckman Laser Institute, 1002 Health Sciences Road, Irvine, California 92612, USA.

Objective quantification of epidermal melanin concentration (EMC) should be useful in laser dermatology to determine the individual maximum safe radiant exposure (IMSRE). We propose a single-wavelength remittance measurement at 390 nm as an alternative optical method to determine EMC and IMSRE. Remittance spectra (360 to 740 nm), melanin index (MI) measurements and the transient radiometric temperature increase, DeltaT(t), upon skin irradiation with an Alexandrite laser (755 nm, 3-ms pulse duration, 6 Jcm(2)) were measured on 749 skin spots (arm and calf) on 23 volunteers (skin phototypes I to IV). Due to the shallow penetration depth and independence of blood oxygen saturation (isosbestic point), remittance at 390 nm appears to provide better estimates for EMC and IMSRE than MI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/1.3065542DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2670778PMC
April 2009

Remote plethysmographic imaging using ambient light.

Opt Express 2008 Dec;16(26):21434-45

Beckman Laser Institue, University of California, Irvine, 1002 Health Sciences Rd. East, Irvine, CA 92612, USA.

Plethysmographic signals were measured remotely (> 1m) using ambient light and a simple consumer level digital camera in movie mode. Heart and respiration rates could be quantified up to several harmonics. Although the green channel featuring the strongest plethysmographic signal, corresponding to an absorption peak by (oxy-) hemoglobin, the red and blue channels also contained plethysmographic information. The results show that ambient light photo-plethysmography may be useful for medical purposes such as characterization of vascular skin lesions (e.g., port wine stains) and remote sensing of vital signs (e.g., heart and respiration rates) for triage or sports purposes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/oe.16.021434DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2717852PMC
December 2008

Thermal depth profiling of vascular lesions: automated regularization of reconstruction algorithms.

Phys Med Biol 2008 Mar 19;53(5):1463-74. Epub 2008 Feb 19.

Beckman Laser Institute and Medical Clinic, University of California, Irvine, CA 92612, USA.

Pulsed photo-thermal radiometry (PPTR) is a non-invasive, non-contact diagnostic technique used to locate cutaneous chromophores such as melanin (epidermis) and hemoglobin (vascular structures). Clinical utility of PPTR is limited because it typically requires trained user intervention to regularize the inversion solution. Herein, the feasibility of automated regularization was studied. A second objective of this study was to depart from modeling port wine stain PWS, a vascular skin lesion frequently studied with PPTR, as strictly layered structures since this may influence conclusions regarding PPTR reconstruction quality. Average blood vessel depths, diameters and densities derived from histology of 30 PWS patients were used to generate 15 randomized lesion geometries for which we simulated PPTR signals. Reconstruction accuracy for subjective regularization was compared with that for automated regularization methods. The objective regularization approach performed better. However, the average difference was much smaller than the variation between the 15 simulated profiles. Reconstruction quality depended more on the actual profile to be reconstructed than on the reconstruction algorithm or regularization method. Similar, or better, accuracy reconstructions can be achieved with an automated regularization procedure which enhances prospects for user friendly implementation of PPTR to optimize laser therapy on an individual patient basis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0031-9155/53/5/019DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2597291PMC
March 2008

Infrared measurement of human skin temperature to predict the individual maximum safe radiant exposure (IMSRE).

Lasers Surg Med 2007 Dec;39(10):757-66

Beckman Laser Institute and Medical Clinic, University of California-Irvine, 1002 Health Sciences Road East, Irvine, CA 92612, USA.

Background And Objectives: Radiant exposure (RE) is a critical treatment parameter to be optimized for laser hair removal (LHR). An objective and quantitative method to assess the individual maximum safe radiant exposure (IMSRE) would help clinicians optimize LHR while at the same time providing the safest possible laser therapy.

Study Design: Pulsed photo-thermal radiometry (PPTR) measurements were on a total of 403 spots on 13 volunteers. The radiometric signal at 20 milliseconds after the diagnostic laser pulse was used to predict the IMSRE using a simple analytic relationship. Laser pulses (wavelength 755 nm, 3 milliseconds pulse, 50 milliseconds cryogen spray cooling, 30 milliseconds delay) with RE's below and above the predicted IMSRE (range: 10-100 J/cm(2)) were applied and resulting injuries quantified through blind scoring.

Results: IMSRE can be predicted quite robustly with PPTR for the broad range of human skin photo-types (I-IV) considered in this study.

Conclusions: The method presented herein should be useful in helping clinicians optimize LHR on an individual patient basis, with the highest possible safety.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/lsm.20581DOI Listing
December 2007

Improvement of port wine stain laser therapy by skin preheating prior to cryogen spray cooling: a numerical simulation.

Lasers Surg Med 2006 Feb;38(2):155-62

Beckman Laser Institute, University of California, Irvine, 92612, USA. 92612, USA.

Background And Objectives: Although cryogen spray cooling (CSC) in conjunction with laser therapy has become the clinical standard for treatment of port wine stain (PWS) birthmarks, the current approach does not produce complete lesion blanching in the vast majority of patients. The objectives of this study are to: (1) experimentally determine the dynamic CSC heat flux when a skin phantom is preheated, and (2) numerically study the feasibility of using skin preheating prior to CSC to improve PWS laser therapeutic outcome.

Study Design/materials And Methods: A fast-response thin-foil thermocouple was used to measure the surface temperature and thus heat flux of an epoxy skin phantom during CSC. Using the heat flux as a boundary condition, PWS laser therapy was simulated with finite element heat diffusion and Monte Carlo light distribution models. Epidermal and PWS blood vessel thermal damage were calculated with an Arrhenius-type kinetic model.

Results: Experimental results show that the skin phantom surface can be cooled to a similar minimum temperature regardless of the initial temperature. Numerical simulation indicates that upon laser irradiation, the epidermal temperature increase is virtually unaffected by preheating, while higher PWS blood vessel temperatures can be achieved. Based on the damage criterion we assumed, the depth and maximum diameter of PWS vessels that can be destroyed irreversibly with skin preheating are greater than those without.

Conclusions: Skin preheating prior to CSC can maintain epidermal cooling while increasing PWS blood vessel temperature before laser irradiation. Numerical models have been developed to show that patients may benefit from the skin preheating approach, depending on PWS vessel diameter and depth.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/lsm.20255DOI Listing
February 2006

Comparison of diffusion approximation and Monte Carlo based finite element models for simulating thermal responses to laser irradiation in discrete vessels.

Phys Med Biol 2005 Sep 17;50(17):4075-86. Epub 2005 Aug 17.

Beckman Laser Institute, University of California, Irvine, CA 92612, USA.

Both diffusion approximation (DA) and Monte Carlo (MC) models have been used to simulate light distribution in multilayered human skin with or without discrete blood vessels. However, no detailed comparison of the light distribution, heat generation and induced thermal damage between these two models has been done for discrete vessels. Three models were constructed: (1) MC-based finite element method (FEM) model, referred to as MC-FEM; (2) DA-based FEM with simple scaling factors according to chromophore concentrations (SFCC) in the epidermis and vessels, referred to as DA-FEM-SFCC; and (3) DA-FEM with improved scaling factors (ISF) obtained by equalizing the total light energy depositions that are solved from the DA and MC models in the epidermis and vessels, respectively, referred to as DA-FEM-ISF. The results show that DA-FEM-SFCC underestimates the light energy deposition in the epidermis and vessels when compared to MC-FEM. The difference is nonlinearly dependent on wavelength, dermal blood volume fraction, vessel size and depth, etc. Thus, the temperature and damage profiles are also dramatically different. DA-FEM-ISF achieves much better results in calculating heat generation and induced thermal damage when compared to MC-FEM, and has the advantages of both calculation speed and accuracy. The disadvantage is that a multidimensional ISF table is needed for DA-FEM-ISF to be a practical modelling tool.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0031-9155/50/17/011DOI Listing
September 2005

Determination of an optimized conversion matrix for device independent skin color image analysis.

Lasers Surg Med 2005 Aug;37(2):138-43

Beckman Laser Institute and Medical Clinic, University of California, Irvine, CA 92612, USA.

Background And Objective: A cross-polarized diffuse reflectance (CDR) color imaging system was developed for quantitative evaluation of port wine stain (PWS) response to laser therapy. To obtain calibrated Commission International de l'Eclairage (CIE) color space images from RGB (red, green, and blue) images, it was necessary to derive an optimized conversion matrix specific to our imaging system.

Study Design/materials And Methods: A chromameter (CR-200, Minolta) and CDR imaging system were used to acquire CIELAB (CIE L*, a*, and b*) tristimulus values and RGB image values, respectively. A cost function was defined using these sample data sets and then a minimization algorithm was applied to obtain an optimized conversion matrix for our imaging system and illumination conditions. CIELAB color space values (L*, a*, and b*) obtained with the chromameter and CDR color images were compared to assess the accuracy of the derived matrix.

Results: In measurements using in vitro standard color patch or in vivo human skin samples, use of the optimized conversion matrix resulted in a good correlation with standard chromameter values for PWS human skin sites.

Conclusions: The cost function minimization algorithm resulted in an optimized conversion matrix for our CDR imaging system. Use of the optimized matrix improved the utility of CDR color image analysis as a simple non-contact measurement technique to monitor quantitatively PWS response to laser therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/lsm.20219DOI Listing
August 2005

Determination of human skin optical properties from spectrophotometric measurements based on optimization by genetic algorithms.

J Biomed Opt 2005 Mar-Apr;10(2):024030

University of California, Beckman Laser Institute, 1002 Health Sciences Road East, Irvine, California 92612, USA.

We present an initial study on applying genetic algorithms (GA) to retrieve human skin optical properties using visual reflectance spectroscopy (VRS). A three-layered skin model consisting of 13 parameters is first used to simulate skin and, through an analytical model based on optical diffusion theory, we study their independent effects on the reflectance spectra. Based on a preliminary analysis, nine skin parameters are chosen to be fitted by GA. The fitting procedure is applied first on simulated reflectance spectra with added white noise, and then on measured spectra from normal and port wine stain (PWS) human skin. A normalized residue of less than 0.005 is achieved for simulated spectra. In the case of measured spectra from human skin, the normalized residue is less than 0.01. Comparisons between applying GA and manual iteration (MI) fitting show that GA performed much better than the MI fitting method and can easily distinguish melanin concentrations for different skin types. Furthermore, the GA approach can lead to a reasonable understanding of the blood volume fraction and other skin properties, provided that the applicability of the diffusion approximation is satisfied.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/1.1891147DOI Listing
September 2005

Novel algorithm for tomographic reconstruction of atmospheric chemicals with sparse sampling.

Environ Sci Technol 2005 Apr;39(7):2247-54

Beckman Laser Institute, University of California-Irvine, Irvine, California, USA.

Numerical studies were performed to evaluate a new air monitoring method for reconstructing chemical exposures and source emissions, based upon optical remote sensing (ORS) and computed tomography (CT). With an ORS-CT system, two-dimensional maps of chemical concentrations can be created that have good spatial and temporal resolution. The mathematical algorithm used to compute the distribution is critical for accurate and useable reconstructions of the concentrations. In this research, a novel reconstruction method was tested that uses maximum likelihood expectation maximization (MLEM) combined with two techniques called grid-translation and multi-grid (GT-MG). To evaluate this method, computer simulations were performed using 120 test maps of varying complexity and a simulated ORS system with four instruments and a total of 40 path-integrated measurements. The results were quantitatively compared with two previously used reconstruction methods (single-grid and grid-translation). Results using the GT-MG method were dramatically improved over previously used methods. Quantitatively, peak exposure errors were reduced by up to 85% and artifacts were dramatically minimized.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/es035231vDOI Listing
April 2005

A library based fitting method for visual reflectance spectroscopy of human skin.

Phys Med Biol 2005 Jan;50(1):57-70

Beckman Laser Institute, University of California, Irvine, CA 92612, USA.

The diffuse reflectance spectrum of human skin in the visible region (400-800 nm) contains information on the concentrations of chromophores such as melanin and haemoglobin. This information may be extracted by fitting the reflectance spectrum with an optical diffusion based analytical expression applied to a layered skin model. With the use of the analytical expression, it is assumed that light transport is dominated by scattering. For port wine stain (PWS) and highly pigmented human skin, however, this assumption may not be valid resulting in a potentially large error in visual reflectance spectroscopy (VRS). Monte Carlo based techniques can overcome this problem but are currently too computationally intensive to be combined with previously used fitting procedures. The fitting procedure presented herein is based on a library search which enables the use of accurate reflectance spectra based on forward Monte Carlo simulations or diffusion theory. This allows for accurate VRS to characterize chromophore concentrations in PWS and highly pigmented human skin. The method is demonstrated using both simulated and measured reflectance spectra. An additional advantage of the method is that the fitting procedure is very fast.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0031-9155/50/1/005DOI Listing
January 2005

Spectral variation of the infrared absorption coefficient in pulsed photothermal profiling of biological samples.

Phys Med Biol 2002 Jun;47(11):1929-46

Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova, Ljubljana, Slovenia.

Pulsed photothermal radiometry can be used for non-invasive depth profiling of optically scattering samples, including biological tissues such as human skin. Computational reconstruction of the laser-induced temperature profile from recorded radiometric signals is sensitive to the value of the tissue absorption coefficient in the infrared detection band (muIR). While assumed constant in reported reconstruction algorithms, muIR of human skin varies by two orders of magnitude in the commonly used 3-5 microm detection band. We analyse the problem of selecting the effective absorption coefficient value to be used with such algorithms. In a numerical simulation of photothermal profiling we demonstrate that results can be markedly impaired, unless the reconstruction algorithm is augmented by accounting for spectral variation muIR(lambda). Alternatively, narrowing the detection band to 4.5-5 microm reduces the spectral variation muIR(lambda) to a level that permits the use of the simpler, unaugmented algorithm. Implementation of the latter approach for depth profiling of port wine stain birthmarks in vivo is presented and discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0031-9155/47/11/307DOI Listing
June 2002
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