Publications by authors named "Wim J Kleijer"

19 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

A Turkish trichothiodystrophy patient with homozygous XPD mutation and genotype-phenotype relationship.

J Dermatol 2012 Dec 5;39(12):1016-21. Epub 2012 Oct 5.

Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas, USA.

Trichothiodystrophy (TTD) is a rare, recessive condition involving multiple organs and systems. Four genes associated with nuclear excision repair have been described in the molecular etiology of TTD. There is a significant heterogeneity of clinical and laboratory findings of TTD, even in individuals carrying the same mutation. Worldwide, approximately 120 cases have been reported, mostly from Western populations and the mutations are compound heterozygous. We herein present clinical and laboratory findings of a female patient with a homozygous mutation, R722W, in the XPD gene. To date, two patients who carry the same mutation have been reported. Our genotype-phenotype correlation study showed patients who carry R722W mutation have a more severe TTD phenotype than other types of mutations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1346-8138.2012.01662.xDOI Listing
December 2012

Presence of ATM protein and residual kinase activity correlates with the phenotype in ataxia-telangiectasia: a genotype-phenotype study.

Hum Mutat 2012 Mar 25;33(3):561-71. Epub 2012 Jan 25.

Department of Pediatric Neurology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

Ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) is an autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder with multisystem involvement and cancer predisposition, caused by mutations in the A-T mutated (ATM) gene. To study genotype-phenotype correlations, we evaluated the clinical and laboratory data of 51 genetically proven A-T patients, and additionally measured ATM protein expression and kinase activity. Patients without ATM kinase activity showed the classical phenotype. The presence of ATM protein, correlated with slightly better immunological function. Residual kinase activity correlated with a milder and essentially different neurological phenotype, absence of telangiectasia, normal endocrine and pulmonary function, normal immunoglobulins, significantly lower X-ray hypersensitivity in lymphocytes, and extended lifespan. In these patients, cancer occurred later in life and generally consisted of solid instead of lymphoid malignancies. The genotypes of severely affected patients generally included truncating mutations resulting in total absence of ATM kinase activity, while patients with milder phenotypes harbored at least one missense or splice site mutation resulting in expression of ATM with some kinase activity. Overall, the phenotypic manifestations in A-T show a continuous spectrum from severe classical childhood-onset A-T to a relatively mild adult-onset disorder, depending on the presence of ATM protein and kinase activity. Each patient is left with a tremendously increased cancer risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/humu.22016DOI Listing
March 2012

A novel mutation F826L in the human androgen receptor in partial androgen insensitivity syndrome; increased NH2-/COOH-terminal domain interaction and TIF2 co-activation.

Mol Cell Endocrinol 2008 Sep 5;292(1-2):69-78. Epub 2008 Jul 5.

Department of Reproduction and Development, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

A novel mutation F826L located within the ligand binding domain (LBD) of the human androgen receptor (AR) was investigated. This mutation was found in a boy with severe penoscrotal hypospadias (classified as 46,XY DSD). The AR mutant F826L appeared to be indistinguishable from the wild-type AR, with respect to ligand binding affinity, transcriptional activation of MMTV-luciferase and ARE2-TATA-luciferase reporter genes, protein level in genital skin fibroblasts (GSFs), and sub-cellular distribution in transfected cells. However, an at least two-fold higher NH2-/COOH-terminal domain interaction was found in luciferase and GST pull-down assays. A two-fold increase was also observed for TIF2 (transcription intermediary factor 2) co-activation of the AR F826L COOH-terminal domain. This increase could not be explained by a higher stability of the mutant protein, which was within wild-type range. Repression of transactivation by the nuclear receptor co-repressor (N-CoR) was not affected by the AR F826L mutation. The observed properties of AR F826L would be in agreement with an increased activity rather than with a partial defective AR transcriptional activation. It is concluded that the penoscrotal hypospadias in the present case is caused by an as yet unknown mechanism, which still may involve the mutant AR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mce.2008.06.016DOI Listing
September 2008

Incidence of DNA repair deficiency disorders in western Europe: Xeroderma pigmentosum, Cockayne syndrome and trichothiodystrophy.

DNA Repair (Amst) 2008 May 10;7(5):744-50. Epub 2008 Mar 10.

Department of Clinical Genetics, Erasmus Medical Centre, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

Laboratory diagnosis for DNA repair diseases has been performed in western Europe from the early seventies for xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) and from the mid-eighties for Cockayne syndrome (CS) and trichothiodystrophy (TTD). The combined data from the DNA repair diagnostic centres in France, (West) Germany, Italy, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom have been investigated for three groups of diseases: XP (including XP-variant), CS (including XP/CS complex) and TTD. Incidences in western Europe were for the first time established at 2.3 per million livebirths for XP, 2.7 per million for CS and 1.2 per million for TTD. As immigrant populations were disproportionately represented in the patients' groups, incidences were also established for the autochthonic western European population at: 0.9 per million for XP, 1.8 per million for CS and 1.1 per million for TTD. Perhaps contrary to general conceptions, compared to XP the incidence of CS appears to be somewhat higher and the incidence of TTD to be quite similar in the native West-European population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dnarep.2008.01.014DOI Listing
May 2008

Prenatal diagnosis of xeroderma pigmentosum and trichothiodystrophy in 76 pregnancies at risk.

Prenat Diagn 2007 Dec;27(12):1133-7

Department of Clinical Genetics, Erasmus University Medical Centre, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

Objective: Evaluation of results in a consecutive series of 76 prenatal diagnoses for xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) and trichothiodystrophy (TTD) made since 1977.

Methods: UV-induced DNA repair synthesis was assessed by the autoradiographic measurement of the incorporation of (3)H-thymidine.

Results: XP was diagnosed in 19 of the 76 investigated pregnancies at risk; cultured chorionic villus (CV) cells were used in 33 pregnancies with ten affected fetuses and cultured amniocytes in 43 pregnancies with nine affected fetuses. In four cases, CVS results were corroborated by subsequent investigation of amniocytes because maternal cell contamination in the CV cell culture was either present or could not be excluded. Uncertain results in two other cases with intermediate DNA repair capacity and severe maternal cell contamination required further investigation. Median time needed for cell culture and analysis was 25 days. To reduce intra-assay variations, a modification of the DNA repair synthesis assay has recently been developed. In this assay, patients and controls are investigated simultaneously in mixed cultures of cells labelled with polystyrene beads.

Conclusion: Reliable prenatal diagnosis for XP and TTD can be made by the demonstration of clearly reduced UV-induced DNA repair synthesis due to defective global genome nucleotide excision repair.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pd.1849DOI Listing
December 2007

First reported patient with human ERCC1 deficiency has cerebro-oculo-facio-skeletal syndrome with a mild defect in nucleotide excision repair and severe developmental failure.

Am J Hum Genet 2007 Mar 29;80(3):457-66. Epub 2007 Jan 29.

Department of Genetics, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

Nucleotide excision repair (NER) is a genome caretaker mechanism responsible for removing helix-distorting DNA lesions, most notably ultraviolet photodimers. Inherited defects in NER result in profound photosensitivity and the cancer-prone syndrome xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) or two progeroid syndromes: Cockayne and trichothiodystrophy syndromes. The heterodimer ERCC1-XPF is one of two endonucleases required for NER. Mutations in XPF are associated with mild XP and rarely with progeria. Mutations in ERCC1 have not been reported. Here, we describe the first case of human inherited ERCC1 deficiency. Patient cells showed moderate hypersensitivity to ultraviolet rays and mitomycin C, yet the clinical features were very severe and, unexpectedly, were compatible with a diagnosis of cerebro-oculo-facio-skeletal syndrome. This discovery represents a novel complementation group of patients with defective NER. Further, the clinical severity, coupled with a relatively mild repair defect, suggests novel functions for ERCC1.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/512486DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1821117PMC
March 2007

A new progeroid syndrome reveals that genotoxic stress suppresses the somatotroph axis.

Nature 2006 Dec;444(7122):1038-43

Center for Biomedical Genetics Medical Genetic Center Department of Cell Biology and Genetics, Erasmus Medical Center, PO Box 1738, 3000 DR Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

XPF-ERCC1 endonuclease is required for repair of helix-distorting DNA lesions and cytotoxic DNA interstrand crosslinks. Mild mutations in XPF cause the cancer-prone syndrome xeroderma pigmentosum. A patient presented with a severe XPF mutation leading to profound crosslink sensitivity and dramatic progeroid symptoms. It is not known how unrepaired DNA damage accelerates ageing or its relevance to natural ageing. Here we show a highly significant correlation between the liver transcriptome of old mice and a mouse model of this progeroid syndrome. Expression data from XPF-ERCC1-deficient mice indicate increased cell death and anti-oxidant defences, a shift towards anabolism and reduced growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) signalling, a known regulator of lifespan. Similar changes are seen in wild-type mice in response to chronic genotoxic stress, caloric restriction, or with ageing. We conclude that unrepaired cytotoxic DNA damage induces a highly conserved metabolic response mediated by the IGF1/insulin pathway, which re-allocates resources from growth to somatic preservation and life extension. This highlights a causal contribution of DNA damage to ageing and demonstrates that ageing and end-of-life fitness are determined both by stochastic damage, which is the cause of functional decline, and genetics, which determines the rates of damage accumulation and decline.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature05456DOI Listing
December 2006

Mutations in the C7orf11 (TTDN1) gene in six nonphotosensitive trichothiodystrophy patients: no obvious genotype-phenotype relationships.

Hum Mutat 2007 Jan;28(1):92-6

Istituto di Genetica Molecolare, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (CNR), Pavia, Italy.

Trichothiodystrophy (TTD) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder whose defining feature is brittle hair. Associated clinical symptoms include physical and mental retardation of different severity, ichthyosis, premature aging, and, in half of the patients, photosensitivity. Recently, C7orf11 (TTDN1) was identified as the first disease gene for the nonphotosensitive form of TTD, being mutated in two unrelated cases and in an Amish kindred. We have evaluated the involvement of TTDN1 in 44 unrelated nonphotosensitive TTD cases of different geographic origin and with different disease severity. Mutations were found in six patients, five of whom are homozygous and one of whom is a compound heterozygote. All five identified mutations are deletions that have not been described before. Three are deletions of a few bases, resulting in frameshifts and premature termination codons. The other two include the whole TTDN1 gene, suggesting that TTDN1 is not essential for cell proliferation and viability. The severity of the clinical features does not correlate with the type of mutation, indicating that other factors besides TTDN1 mutations influence the severity of the disorder. Since only a small proportion of the analyzed cases were mutated in TTDN1, the nonphotosensitive form of TTD is genetically heterogeneous. Mutations in TTDN1 do not affect the response to ultraviolet (UV) light or the steady state level of the repair/transcription factor IIH (TFIIH), which is central to the onset of the photosensitive form of TTD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/humu.20419DOI Listing
January 2007

Prenatal diagnosis of the Cockayne syndrome: survey of 15 years experience.

Prenat Diagn 2006 Oct;26(10):980-4

Department of Clinical Genetics, Erasmus University Medical Centre, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

Objective: Evaluation of results in a consecutive series of 29 prenatal diagnoses for the Cockayne syndrome.

Methods: Recovery of DNA-synthesis in UV-irradiated cultured fetal cells was measured by scintillation counting of incorporated (3)H-thymidine. Semiquantitative autoradiographic assessment of the recovery of RNA-synthesis (RecRS) was used as an adjunctive method.

Results: In 26 of the 29 pregnancies at risk, a definite diagnosis was directly made, based on normal (n = 23) or clearly reduced (n = 3) recovery of DNA-synthesis in UV-irradiated cultured chorionic villus (CV) cells (n = 23) or amniocytes (n = 3). Adjunctive studies were performed in several pregnancies to corroborate the initial results. On three occasions initial results were unreliable, which required investigation of the recovery of RNA-synthesis (n = 2) or even additional amniocentesis (n = 1) to achieve a firm diagnosis. Thus, four affected fetuses were diagnosed in 29 pregnancies at risk (13.8%).

Conclusion: Reliable prenatal diagnosis of the Cockayne syndrome can be made by the demonstration of a strongly reduced recovery of DNA-synthesis in UV-irradiated cultured chorionic villus cells or amniocytes. Assessment of the recovery of RNA-synthesis was needed as an adjunctive method in rare cases of poor cell growth and DNA-synthesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pd.1541DOI Listing
October 2006

The cystathionine beta-synthase variant c.844_845ins68 protects against CNS demyelination in X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy.

Hum Mutat 2006 Oct;27(10):1063-4

University Hospital Bonn, Department of Neurology, Bonn, Germany.

The clinical course of X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) is of unexplained heterogeneity. Major X-ALD phenotypes are the progressive childhood cerebral form (CCALD) with early confluent cerebral demyelination and the adult-onset adrenomyeloneuropathy (AMN). Adult AMN may present with demyelinated foci of the CNS (adrenoleukomyeloneuropathy, ALMN) or without ("pure" AMN). Activated methionine is essential for CNS myelination, and methionine metabolism is important for glutathione synthesis, which may influence neurodegeneration. Cystathionine beta-synthase (CBS) is a key enzyme of methionine metabolism. The CBS variant c.844_845ins68 (p.-) may influence the availability of activated methionine as well as of glutathione. In this study, we analyzed this variant in genomic DNA samples of 86 X-ALD patients. We observed the allele carrying the insertion in 12 of 49 patients without CNS demyelination ("pure" AMN), but in none of the 37 patients with CNS demyelination (CCALD or ALMN; chi(2)=10.531; p=0.001). We conclude that the insertion allele of CBS c.844_845ins68 protected X-ALD patients against CNS demyelination in our study sample. These data suggest that the individual conditions in methionine metabolism may be a disease modifier of X-ALD. Since methionine metabolism can easily be influenced by vitamin and amino acid substitution, this observation could be a basis of novel treatment strategies in this yet untreatable disease. (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/humu.9459DOI Listing
October 2006

Senescence-associated beta-galactosidase is lysosomal beta-galactosidase.

Aging Cell 2006 Apr;5(2):187-95

Department of Life Science, University of Seoul, Dongdaemungu, Jeonnongdong, Seoul, Korea 130-743.

Replicative senescence limits the proliferation of somatic cells passaged in culture and may reflect cellular aging in vivo. The most widely used biomarker for senescent and aging cells is senescence-associated beta-galactosidase (SA-beta-gal), which is defined as beta-galactosidase activity detectable at pH 6.0 in senescent cells, but the origin of SA-beta-gal and its cellular roles in senescence are not known. We demonstrate here that SA-beta-gal activity is expressed from GLB1, the gene encoding lysosomal beta-D-galactosidase, the activity of which is typically measured at acidic pH 4.5. Fibroblasts from patients with autosomal recessive G(M1)-gangliosidosis, which have defective lysosomal beta-galactosidase, did not express SA-beta-gal at late passages even though they underwent replicative senescence. In addition, late passage normal fibroblasts expressing small-hairpin interfering RNA that depleted GLB1 mRNA underwent senescence but failed to express SA-beta-gal. GLB1 mRNA depletion also prevented expression of SA-beta-gal activity in HeLa cervical carcinoma cells induced to enter a senescent state by repression of their endogenous human papillomavirus E7 oncogene. SA-beta-gal induction during senescence was due at least in part to increased expression of the lysosomal beta-galactosidase protein. These results also indicate that SA-beta-gal is not required for senescence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1474-9726.2006.00199.xDOI Listing
April 2006

Prenatal diagnosis of citrullinemia and argininosuccinic aciduria: evidence for a transmission ratio distortion in citrullinemia.

Prenat Diagn 2006 Mar;26(3):242-7

Department of Clinical Genetics, Erasmus Medical Centre, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

Background: In the course of 25 years, we have experienced a high rate of affected fetuses in the prenatal diagnosis of citrullinemia.

Methods And Results: Ninety-one pregnancies at 1 in 4 risk were tested; 36 were diagnosed as affected (39.5%; P = 0.0015). The high rate of positive diagnoses was found both after chorionic villus sampling (24/68 = 35.3%) and amniocentesis (12/23 = 52.2%) despite the completely different and independent techniques used. Using exactly the same (indirect) enzyme assay for argininosuccinic aciduria on chorionic villi and a similar method on amniotic fluid, the expected rate of affected fetuses was found: 13/53 = 24.5%. Technical and genetic causes for the unexpected results were excluded by confirmatory studies performed on independent fetal material, which was available for 27 of the 36 fetuses affected with citrullinemia. Biochemical confirmation was obtained in the 27 cases, whereas in 18 fetuses homozygosity or compound heterozygosity for disease-causing mutations were retrospectively demonstrated in the stored fetal cells.

Conclusion: The results suggest the occurrence of preferential transmission of the mutant allele. An explanation for this phenomenon may be found in a protective role of argininosuccinic acid synthetase deficiency in mutant sperm cells against the possibly detrimental or apoptotic effect of nitric oxide produced normally from arginine by nitric oxide synthase.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pd.1390DOI Listing
March 2006

Loss of ZMPSTE24 (FACE-1) causes autosomal recessive restrictive dermopathy and accumulation of Lamin A precursors.

Hum Mol Genet 2005 Jun 20;14(11):1503-13. Epub 2005 Apr 20.

Inserm U491, Faculté de Médecine de Marseille, Marseille, France.

Restrictive dermopathy (RD) is characterized by intrauterine growth retardation, tight and rigid skin with prominent superficial vessels, bone mineralization defects, dysplastic clavicles, arthrogryposis and early neonatal death. In two patients affected with RD, we recently reported two different heterozygous splicing mutations in the LMNA gene, leading to the production and accumulation of truncated Prelamin A. In other patients, a single nucleotide insertion was identified in ZMPSTE24. This variation is located in a homopolymeric repeat of thymines and introduces a premature termination codon. ZMPSTE24 encodes an endoprotease essential for the post-translational cleavage of the Lamin A precursor and the production of mature Lamin A. However, the autosomal recessive inheritance of RD suggested that a further molecular defect was present either in the second ZMPSTE24 allele or in another gene involved in Lamin A processing. Here, we report new findings in RD linked to ZMPSTE24 mutations. Ten RD patients were analyzed including seven from a previous series and three novel patients. All were found to be either homozygous or compound heterozygous for ZMPSTE24 mutations. We report three novel 'null' mutations as well as the recurrent thymine insertion. In all cases, we find a complete absence of both ZMPSTE24 and mature Lamin A associated with Prelamin A accumulation. Thus, RD is either a primary or a secondary laminopathy, caused by dominant de novo LMNA mutations or, more frequently, recessive null ZMPSTE24 mutations, most of which lie in a mutation hotspot within exon 9. The accumulation of truncated or normal length Prelamin A is, therefore, a shared pathophysiological feature in recessive and dominant RD. These findings have an important impact on our knowledge of the pathophysiology in Progeria and related disorders and will help direct the development of therapeutic approaches.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/hmg/ddi159DOI Listing
June 2005

Functional analysis of a novel androgen receptor mutation, Q902K, in an individual with partial androgen insensitivity.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2005 Jan 14;90(1):507-15. Epub 2004 Oct 14.

Department of Reproduction and Development, Erasmus MC, University Medical Center Rotterdam, P.O. Box 1738, 3000 DR Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

Androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS) is caused by defects in the androgen receptor (AR) that render the AR partially or completely inactive. As a result, embryonic sex differentiation is impaired. Here, we describe a novel mutation in the AR found in a patient with partial AIS. The mutation results in a substitution of a glutamine (Q) by a lysine (K) residue at position 902, Q902K. The AR Q902K mutation was investigated in vitro with respect to its functional properties. The equilibrium dissociation constants (K(d)s) of AR Q902K in the presence of either the synthetic androgen R1881 or the natural ligand DHT were slightly elevated. The R1881 dissociation rate (t(1/2)) was increased 3-fold for AR Q902K compared with wild type. Transcriptional activity was decreased to 85% of wild type, and the dose-response curve revealed that the sensitivity to hormone was decreased due to the mutation. Furthermore, the 114-kDa androgen-induced phosphorylated AR protein band was not detectable in genital skin fibroblasts. However, it could be detected in transfected CHO cells expressing the mutant receptor in the presence of 10 and 100 nm R1881. Functional interaction assays and a GST pull-down assay showed that the interaction between the NH2 and COOH terminus of AR Q902K was reduced to 50% of wild type. Furthermore, the transactivation by the coactivator TIF2 (transcriptional intermediary factor 2) was decreased 2- to 3-fold. The half-maximal response in both assays was shifted to a higher hormone concentration compared with wild type. These results indicate that residue Q902 is involved in TIF2 and NH2/COOH interaction and that the Q to K mutation results in a mild impairment of AR function, which can explain the partial AIS phenotype of the patient.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/jc.2004-0057DOI Listing
January 2005

Molecular and functional analysis of SUMF1 mutations in multiple sulfatase deficiency.

Hum Mutat 2004 Jun;23(6):576-81

Telethon Institute of Genetics and Medicine, Naples, Italy.

Multiple sulfatase deficiency (MSD) is a rare disorder characterized by impaired activity of all known sulfatases. The gene mutated in this disease is SUMF1, which encodes a protein involved in a post-translational modification at the catalytic site of all sulfatases that is necessary for their function. SUMF1 strongly enhances the activity of sulfatases when coexpressed with sulfatase in Cos-7 cells. We performed a mutational analysis of SUMF1 in 20 MSD patients of different ethnic origin. The clinical presentation of these patients was variable, ranging from severe neonatal forms to mild phenotypes showing mild neurological involvement. A total of 22 SUMF1 mutations were identified, including missense, nonsense, microdeletion, and splicing mutations. We expressed all missense mutations in culture to study their ability to enhance the activity of sulfatases. Of the predicted amino acid changes, 11 (p.R349W, p.R224W, p.L20F, p.A348P, p.S155P, p.C218Y, p.N259I, p.A279V, p.R349Q, p.C336R, p.A177P) resulted in severely impaired sulfatase-enhancing activity. Two (p.R345C and p.P266L) showed a high residual activity on some, but not all, of the nine sulfatases tested, suggesting that some SUMF1 mutations may have variable effects on the activity of each sulfatase. This study compares, for the first time, clinical, biochemical, and molecular data in MSD patients. Our results show lack of a direct correlation between the type of molecular defect and the severity of phenotype.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/humu.20040DOI Listing
June 2004

Identification and functional assessment of novel and known insulin receptor mutations in five patients with syndromes of severe insulin resistance.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2003 Sep;88(9):4251-7

Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Leiden University Medical Centre, 2333 AL Leiden, The Netherlands.

We analyzed the insulin receptor gene in four patients with leprechaunism and one with type A insulin resistance. We detected novel and previously reported mutations. The novel mutants were expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells to evaluate the consequences for insulin receptor function. A type A insulin resistance patient from Morocco was homozygous for Arg252His mutation, similar to a previously described type A patient from Japan. A patient with leprechaunism was homozygous for the Ser323Leu mutation, previously identified in homozygous form in two patients with Rabson-Mendenhall syndrome. Phenotypic expression of this mutation is variable. A patient with leprechaunism is compound heterozygous for the previously described Arg1092Trp mutation and a nonsense mutation in codon 897. Another patient with leprechaunism was homozygous for a novel Asn431Asp mutation, which only partially reduces insulin proreceptor processing and activation of signaling cascades. The novel Leu93Gln mutation that fully disrupts proreceptor processing was found in one allele in a patient with leprechaunism. A nonsense mutation at codon 1122 was in the other allele. These results expand the number of pathogenic insulin receptor mutations and demonstrate the variability in their phenotypic expression. The biochemical analysis of mutant insulin receptors does not reliably predict whether the phenotype will be leprechaunism, the Rabson-Mendenhall syndrome, or type A insulin resistance. The previously reported correlation between fibroblast insulin binding and duration of patient survival was not observed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/jc.2003-030034DOI Listing
September 2003

Variable clinical presentation of lysosomal beta-mannosidosis in patients with null mutations.

Mol Genet Metab 2002 Dec;77(4):282-90

Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, 5163 Biomedical and Physical Sciences Building, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA.

Beta-mannosidosis is an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disease resulting from a deficiency of the lysosomal enzyme beta-mannosidase. The clinical manifestations of this disease in reported human cases are very heterogeneous ranging from relatively mild to moderately severe. This is in contrast with the severe prenatal onset seen in ruminant beta-mannosidosis. In humans, mental retardation, hearing loss, frequent infections, and behavioral problems are relatively common. Dysmorphology and skeletal involvement such as those seen in ruminants are unusual. The purpose of this study is to determine the range of clinical expression in human beta-mannosidosis resulting from null mutations. We determined that the beta-mannosidase gene consists of 17 exons. Intron-based PCR primers were designed and used to amplify each of the exons in genomic DNA isolated from patient fibroblasts. We identified two patients with null mutations. Results of the analysis showed that one patient was heterozygous for nonsense mutations G334T (E83X) in exon 2 and C1363T (Q426X) in exon 10, resulting in truncation of the deduced peptide sequence from 879 to 82 and 425 amino acids, respectively. The second patient was homozygous for a deletion mutation in exon 11 (1541delAT). This deletion causes a reading frame shift and 26 out of frame amino acids before a stop codon occurs in exon 12, resulting in truncation of the deduced peptide sequence from 879 to 510 amino acids. Because disease presentation in these patients with null mutations is very variable, ranging from mild to severe, we conclude that beta-mannosidosis in humans may indeed be milder than typical of other lysosomal storage disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s1096-7192(02)00172-5DOI Listing
December 2002

Argininosuccinate lyase (ASL) deficiency: mutation analysis in 27 patients and a completed structure of the human ASL gene.

Hum Genet 2002 Oct 14;111(4-5):350-9. Epub 2002 Aug 14.

Universitätsklinikum Münster, Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Kinderheilkunde, 48149 Münster, Germany.

Argininosuccinic aciduria is an urea cycle disorder caused by argininosuccinate lyase (ASL) deficiency and is inherited as an autosomal-recessive trait. To date, mutation analysis has been limited because of incomplete sequence information about the human ASL gene. As a consequence, only 12 different mutations in 12 patients have been reported, so far. This study aimed at the completion of the structure and the sequence of the human ASL gene, the development of a genomic DNA-based system for mutation analysis and, finally, the characterisation of the molecular genetic background of ASL deficiency in 27 unrelated patients. This report provides transcript variants, the complete sequence of the human ASL gene and a complete ASL homologue on chromosome 22. The homologue was formerly thought to be a pseudogene but was found, in this study, to be correlated with an immunoglobulin-lambda-like mRNA. On the basis of the novel sequence data, a polymerase reaction chain system for mutation-screening in all 16 coding exons of the ASL gene was established and applied to the analysis of the ASL-deficient patients. We found mutations in all of the 54 investigated alleles and identified 23 (19 novel) different mutations. Some mutational hot-spots were identified (mainly in exons 4, 5, and 7) as were several predominant mutations: IVS5+1G-->A (15 alleles), c.532G-->A (7), c.346C-->T (6), c.1153C-->T (4). This study introduces a system for mutation analysis in the ASL gene, thereby elucidating the genetic background of ASL deficiency, which was found to be associated with considerable allelic heterogeneity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00439-002-0793-4DOI Listing
October 2002

Molecular analysis of mutations in DNA polymerase eta in xeroderma pigmentosum-variant patients.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2002 Jan 2;99(2):815-20. Epub 2002 Jan 2.

Genome Damage and Stability Centre, University of Sussex, Falmer, Brighton BN1 9RR, United Kingdom.

Xeroderma pigmentosum variant (XP-V) cells are deficient in their ability to synthesize intact daughter DNA strands after UV irradiation. This deficiency results from mutations in the gene encoding DNA polymerase eta, which is required for effecting translesion synthesis (TLS) past UV photoproducts. We have developed a simple cellular procedure to identify XP-V cell strains, and have subsequently analyzed the mutations in 21 patients with XP-V. The 16 mutations that we have identified fall into three categories. Many of them result in severe truncations of the protein and are effectively null alleles. However, we have also identified five missense mutations located in the conserved catalytic domain of the protein. Extracts of cells falling into these two categories are defective in the ability to carry out TLS past sites of DNA damage. Three mutations cause truncations at the C terminus such that the catalytic domains are intact, and extracts from these cells are able to carry out TLS. From our previous work, however, we anticipate that protein in these cells will not be localized in the nucleus nor will it be relocalized into replication foci during DNA replication. The spectrum of both missense and truncating mutations is markedly skewed toward the N-terminal half of the protein. Two of the missense mutations are predicted to affect the interaction with DNA, the others are likely to disrupt the three-dimensional structure of the protein. There is a wide variability in clinical features among patients, which is not obviously related to the site or type of mutation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.022473899DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC117388PMC
January 2002