Publications by authors named "Wilson Fernandes"

45 Publications

Maintenance of venomous snakes in captivity for venom production at Butantan Institute from 1908 to the present: a scoping history.

J Venom Anim Toxins Incl Trop Dis 2021 22;27:e20200068. Epub 2021 Jan 22.

Laboratory of Herpetology, Butantan Institute, São Paulo, SP, Brazil.

Maintenance of snakes at Butantan Institute started in the last century, intending to produce a different antivenom serum to reduce death caused by snakebites. Through a successful campaign coordinated by Vital Brazil, farmers sent venomous snakes to Butantan Institute by the railway lines with no cost. From 1908 to 1962, the snakes were kept in an outdoor serpentarium, where venom extraction was performed every 15 days. During this period, the snake average survival was 15 days. In 1963, the snakes were transferred to an adapted building, currently called Laboratory of Herpetology (LH), to be maintained in an intensive system. Although the periodicity of venom extraction remained the same, animal average survival increased to two months. With the severe serum crisis in 1983, the Ministry of Health financed remodeling for the three public antivenom producers, and with this support, the LH could be improved. Air conditioning and exhausting systems were installed in the rooms, besides the settlement of critical hygienic-sanitary managements to increase the welfare of snakes. In the early 1990s, snake survival was ten months. Over the years to the present day, several improvements have been made in the intensive serpentarium, as the establishment of two quarantines, feeding with thawed rodents, an interval of two months between venom extraction routines, and monitoring of snake health through laboratory tests. With these new protocols, average snake survival increased significantly, being eight years for the genus , ten years for genus and and four years for the genus . Aiming the production of venoms of good quality, respect for good management practices is essential for the maintenance of snakes in captivity. New techniques and efficient management must always be sought to improve animal welfare, the quality of the venom produced, and the safety of those working directly with the venomous snakes.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1678-9199-JVATITD-2020-0068DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7856910PMC
January 2021

NEOTROPICAL CARNIVORES: a data set on carnivore distribution in the Neotropics.

Authors:
Mariana Nagy-Reis Júlia Emi de Faria Oshima Claudia Zukeran Kanda Francesca Belem Lopes Palmeira Fabiano Rodrigues de Melo Ronaldo Gonçalves Morato Lilian Bonjorne Marcelo Magioli Caroline Leuchtenberger Fabio Rohe Frederico Gemesio Lemos Felipe Martello Milene Alves-Eigenheer Rafaela Aparecida da Silva Juliana Silveira Dos Santos Camila Fátima Priante Rodrigo Bernardo Patricia Rogeri Julia Camara Assis Lucas Pacciullio Gaspar Vinicius Rodrigues Tonetti Cristiano Trapé Trinca Adauto de Souza Ribeiro Adriana Bocchiglieri Adriani Hass Adriano Canteri Adriano Garcia Chiarello Adriano Pereira Paglia Adriele Aparecida Pereira Agnis Cristiane de Souza Ailin Gatica Akyllam Zoppi Medeiro Alan Eriksson Alan Nilo Costa Alberto González-Gallina Alberto A Yanosky Alejandro Jesus de la Cruz Alessandra Bertassoni Alex Bager Alex Augusto Abreu Bovo Alexandra Cravino Mol Alexandra Maria Ramos Bezerra Alexandre Percequillo Alexandre Vogliotti Alexandre Martins Costa Lopes Alexine Keuroghlian Alfonso Christopher Zúñiga Hartley Allison L Devlin Almir de Paula Alvaro García-Olaechea Amadeo Sánchez Ana Carla Medeiros Morato Aquino Ana Carolina Srbek-Araujo Ana Cecilia Ochoa Ana Cristina Tomazzoni Ana Cristyna Reis Lacerda Ana Elisa de Faria Bacellar Ana Kellen Nogueira Campelo Ana María Herrera Victoria Ana Maria de Oliveira Paschoal Ana Paula Potrich Ana Paula Nascimento Gomes Ana Priscila Medeiros Olímpio Ana Raissa Cunha Costa Anah Tereza de Almeida Jácomo Analice Maria Calaça Anamélia Souza Jesus Ananda de Barros Barban Anderson Feijó Anderson Pagoto Anderson Claudino Rolim Andiara Paula Hermann Andiara Silos Moraes de Castro E Souza André Chein Alonso André Monteiro André Faria Mendonça André Luís Luza André Luis Botelho Moura André Luiz Ferreira da Silva Andre Monnerat Lanna Andre Pinassi Antunes André Valle Nunes Andrea Dechner Andrea Siqueira Carvalho Andres Jose Novaro Andressa Barbara Scabin Andressa Gatti Andrezza Bellotto Nobre Anelise Montanarin Ângela Camila Deffaci Anna Carolina Figueiredo de Albuquerque Antonio Marcelo Mangione Antonio Millas Silva Pinto Antonio Rossano Mendes Pontes Ariane Teixeira Bertoldi Armando Muniz Calouro Arthur Fernandes Arystene Nicodemo Ferreira Atilla Colombo Ferreguetti Augusto Lisboa Martins Rosa Aureo Banhos Beatriz da Silva de Souza Francisco Beatriz Azevedo Cezila Beatriz de Mello Beisiegel Benoit de Thoisy Bianca Ingberman Bianca Dos Santos Neves Brenda Pereira-Silva Bruna Bertagni de Camargo Bruna da Silva Andrade Bruna Silva Santos Bruno Leles Bruno Augusto Torres Parahyba Campos Bruno Busnello Kubiak Bruno Rodrigo de Albuquerque França Bruno Henrique Saranholi Calebe Pereira Mendes Camila Cantagallo Devids Camila Pianca Camila Rodrigues Camila Alvez Islas Camilla Angélica de Lima Camilo Ribeiro de Lima Carla Cristina Gestich Carla Denise Tedesco Carlos De Angelo Carlos Fonseca Carlos Hass Carlos A Peres Carlos Benhur Kasper Carlos Cesar Durigan Carlos Eduardo Fragoso Carlos Eduardo Verona Carlos Frederico Duarte Rocha Carlos Henrique Salvador Carlos Leonardo Vieira Carmen Elena Barragán Ruiz Carolina Carvalho Cheida Caroline Charão Sartor Caroline da Costa Espinosa Carolline Zatta Fieker Caryne Braga Catalina Sánchez-Lalinde Cauanne Iglesias Campos Machado Cecilia Cronemberger Cecília Licarião Luna Christine Del Vechio Christine Steiner S Bernardo Cindy Meliza Hurtado Cíntia M Lopes Clarissa Alves da Rosa Claudia Cristina Cinta Claudia Guimaraes Costa Claudia Paola Zárate-Castañeda Claudio Leite Novaes Clinton N Jenkins Cristiana Simão Seixas Cristiane Martin Cristiane Patrícia Zaniratto Cristina Fabiola López-Fuerte Cristina Jaques da Cunha Crizanto Brito De-Carvalho Cuauhtémoc Chávez Cyntia Cavalcante Santos Daiana Jeronimo Polli Daiane Buscariol Daiane Cristina Carreira Daniel Galiano Daniel Thornton Daniel da Silva Ferraz Daniela Lamattina Daniele Janina Moreno Danielle Oliveira Moreira Danilo Augusto Farias Darci Moraes Barros-Battesti Davi Castro Tavares David Costa Braga Denise Alemar Gaspar Diana Friedeberg Diego Astúa Diego Afonso Silva Diego Carvalho Viana Diego J Lizcano Diego M Varela Diogo Loretto Diogo Maia Gräbin Donald P Eaton Douglas Machado da Silva Douglas de Matos Dias Edeltrudes Maria Valadares Calaça Camara Eder Barbier Edgar Chávez-González Ednaldo Cândido Rocha Edson de Souza Lima Eduardo Carrano Eduardo Eizirik Eduardo Nakano-Oliveira Eduardo Delgado Rigacci Eduardo Marques Santos Eduardo Martins Venticinque Eduardo Roberto Alexandrino Edvandro Abreu Ribeiro Eleonore Setz Eliana César Laranjeira Duarte Rocha Elildo Alves Ribeiro Carvalho Elisabete Rechenberg Elmary da Costa Fraga Eloisa Neves Mendonça Elvira D'Bastiani Emiliana Isasi-Catalá Emiliano Guijosa-Guadarrama Emiliano Esterci Ramalho Enrique González Érica Hasui Erica Naomi Saito Erich Fischer Erick Francisco Aguiar Erick Sekiama Rocha Erik Daniel Martínez Nambo Erika de la Peña-Cuéllar Érika Paula Castro Evellyn Borges de Freitas Ezequiel Pedó Fabiana Lopes Rocha Fabiane Girardi Fabiane de Aguiar Pereira Fábio Angelo Melo Soares Fabio de Oliveira Roque Fabio Gabriel Díaz-Santos Fabio Mello Patiu Fabio Oliveira do Nascimento Fabíola Keesen Ferreira Fabricio Diaz-Santos Felipe Moreli Fantacini Felipe Pedrosa Felipe Pessoa da Silva Felipe Velez-Garcia Felipe Bittioli R Gomes Fernanda Guedes da Silva Fernanda Michalski Fernanda Cavalcanti de Azevedo Fernanda Cristina de Barros Fernanda da Silva Santos Fernanda Delborgo Abra Fernanda do Passo Ramalho Fernanda Martins Hatano Fernando Anaguano-Yancha Fernando Gonçalves Fernando Pedroni Fernando C Passos Fernando de Castro Jacinavicius Fernando César Gonçalves Bonfim Fernando Henrique Puertas Fernando M Contreras-Moreno Fernando Rodrigo Tortato Filipe Martins Santos Flávia Guimarães Chaves Flavia Pereira Tirelli Flávio Eduardo Vilas Boas Flavio Henrique Guimarães Rodrigues Flávio Kulaif Ubaid Francisco Grotta-Neto Francisco Palomares Franco Leandro Souza Francys Emanuelle Costa Frederico G R França Fredy Ramírez Pinto Gabriel Lima Aguiar Gabriel Selbach Hofmann Gabriela Heliodoro Gabriela Teixeira Duarte Gabrielle Ribeiro de Andrade Gabrielle Beca Galo Zapata-Ríos Gastón Andrés Fernandez Giné George V N Powell Geraldo Wilson Fernandes German Forero-Medina Geruza L Melo Gindomar Gomes Santana Giordano Ciocheti Giselle Bastos Alves Glauber Henrique Borges de Oliveira Souto Glenda Jéssica Villarroel Grasiela Edith de Oliveira Porfirio Graziele Oliveira Batista Greici Maia Behling Guido Marcos Ayala Crespo Guilherme de Miranda Mourão Guilherme Zamarian Rezende Gustavo Alves da Costa Toledo Heitor Miraglia Herrera Helena Alves Prado Helena de Godoy Bergallo Helio Secco Henrique Rajão Henrique Llacer Roig Henrique Villas Boas Concone Herbert Duarte Hiago Ermenegildo Hipólito Ferreira Paulino Neto Howard Quigley Hudson Macedo Lemos Hugo Cabral Hugo Fernandes-Ferreira Hugo Fernando Del Castillo Igor Kintopp Ribeiro Igor Pfeifer Coelho Ingridi Camboim Franceschi Isabel Melo Isabella Oliveira-Bevan Italo Mourthe Itiberê Bernardi J Antonio de la Torre Jader Marinho-Filho Jaime Martinez Jaime Xavier Palacios Perez Jairo Pérez-Torres Jamile Bubadué Jana Rangel Silveira Jardel Brandão Seibert Jasmim Felipe Oliveira Jasmine Resende Assis Javier De la Maza Javier Hinojosa Jean Paul Metzger Jeffrey James Thompson Jens-Christian Svenning Jéssica Abonizio Gouvea Jesus Rodrigues Domingos Souza Jimmy Pincheira-Ulbrich Joana Zorzal Nodari João Miranda João Carlos Zecchini Gebin João Gabriel Ribeiro Giovanelli João Luiz Rossi Junior João Paulo Pandini Favoretti João Paulo Villani João Paulo Gava Just João Pedro Souza-Alves Jociel Ferreira Costa Joedison Rocha John Polisar Jonas Sponchiado Jorge José Cherem Jorge Reppold Marinho Jörn Ziegler José Cordeiro José de Sousa E Silva Júnior Jose Ariel Rodriguez-Pulido José Carlos Chaves Dos Santos José Clemensou Dos Reis Júnior Jose Eduardo Mantovani José Fernando Moreira Ramírez José Hernán Sarasola Jose Luis Cartes José Maurício Barbanti Duarte Jose Milton Longo José Oliveira Dantas José Otávio Venancio Jose Roberto de Matos José Salatiel Rodrigues Pires Joseph E Hawes Joyce Gonçalves Santos Juan Ruiz-Esparza Juan Andrés Martínez Lanfranco Juan Carlos Rudolf Juan Felipe Charre-Medellin Juan Ignacio Zanón-Martínez Juan L Peña-Mondragón Juan Manuel Campos Krauer Juan Pablo Arrabal Julia Beduschi Júlia Ilha Julia Carolina Mata Juliana Bonanomi Juliana Jordao Juliana Monteiro de Almeida-Rocha Juliane Pereira-Ribeiro Juliani Bruna Zanoni Juliano André Bogoni Julio Javier Chacón Pacheco Kamila Marianne Contreras Palma Karen B Strier Karen Giselle Rodriguez Castro Karl Didier Karl L Schuchmann Karla Chávez-Congrains Kathrin Burs Katia M P M B Ferraz Keila Macfadem Juarez Kevin Flesher Kimberly Danielle Rodrigues Morais Laís Lautenschlager Laís Aline Grossel Lais Camila Dahmer Lana Resende de Almeida Larissa Fornitano Larissa de Nazaré Barros Barbosa Larissa L Bailey Larissa Nascimento Barreto Laura Magnolia Villalba Laura Martins Magalhães Laury Cullen Leandro Marques Leonardo Marques Costa Leandro Silveira Leandro Santana Moreira Leonardo Sartorello Leonardo de Carvalho Oliveira Leonardo de Paula Gomes Leonardo Dos Santos Aguiar Leonardo Henrique da Silva Leonardo Siqueira Mendonça Leonor Adriana Valenzuela Letícia Benavalli Leticia Coutinho Sangy Dias Leticia Prado Munhoes Lilian Catenacci Lilian Elaine Rampim Lívia Maria de Paula Lorena Anne Nascimento Lucas Gonçalves da Silva Lucas Quintilham Lucas Ramis Segura Lucas Neves Perillo Lucas Rodrigo Rezende Lucía Martínez Retta Lucia Nathaly Stefany Rojas Luiza Neves Guimarães Luciana Araújo Luciana Zago da Silva Luciano Carramaschi de Alagão Querido Luciano Martins Verdade Lucy E Perera-Romero Ludimila Juliele Carvalho-Leite Ludmila Hufnagel Luis Renato Rezende Bernardo Luiz Flamarion Oliveira Luiz Gustavo Rodrigues Oliveira Santos Luiz Henrique Lyra Luiz Henrique Medeiros Borges Magnus Machado Severo Maíra Benchimol Maira Giuliana Quatrocchi Maísa Ziviani Alves Martins Manoel Rodrigues Marcel José Franco Penteado Marcela Figuerêdo Duarte Moraes Marcela Alvares Oliveira Marcela Guimarães Moreira Lima Marcella do Carmo Pônzio Marcelo Cervini Marcelo da Silva Marcelo Passamani Marcelo Alejandro Villegas Marcelo Augusto Dos Santos Junior Marcelo Hideki Yamane Marcia Maria de Assis Jardim Márcio Leite de Oliveira Marcos Silveira Marcos Adriano Tortato Marcos de Souza Lima Figueiredo Marcus Vinícius Vieira Margareth L Sekiama Maria Augusta Andrade da Silva María Beatriz Nuñez Maria Brunini Siviero María Celina Carrizo Maria Claudene Barros Marília A S Barros Maria Cristina Ferreira do Rosário María Cristina Peñuela Mora Maria Del Carmen Fleytas Jover Maria Elisa de Freitas Morandi Maria Emilia Huerta Maria Emília Avelar Fernandes Maria Estela Viscarra Siñani María Eugenia Iezzi Maria João Ramos Pereira Maria Laura Gomez Vinassa Maria Lucia Lorini Maria Luisa S P Jorge Maria Santina Morini Mariana Guenther Mariana Bueno Landis Mariana M Vale Mariana Sampaio Xavier Mariana Silva Tavares Mariane Kaizer Marianela Velilla Mariano Maudet Bergel Marilia Teresinha Hartmann Marina Lima da Silva Marina Rivero Marina Salles Munerato Marina Xavier da Silva Marina Zanin Marinêz Isaac Marques Mario Haberfeld Mario S Di Bitetti Mark Bowler Maron Galliez Martha Lucia Ortiz-Moreno Martin Buschiazzo Martin Alejandro Montes Martín R Alvarez Mateus Melo-Dias Matheus Gonçalves Reis Matheus Rocha Jorge Corrêa Mathias W Tobler Matthew E Gompper Mauricio Nunez-Regueiro Maurício Brandão Vecchi Maurício Eduardo Graipel Mauricio Neves Godoi Mauricio O Moura Maurício Quoos Konzen Maximiliano Víctor Pardo Mayara Guimarães Beltrão Melissa Mongelli Meyline Oliveira Almeida Michael P Gilmore Michel Schutte Michel Barros Faria Micheli Ribeiro Luiz Milton de Paula Mircea G Hidalgo-Mihart Miriam Lucia Lages Perilli Mozart Caetano Freitas-Junior Murillo Prado da Silva Natalia Mariana Denkiewicz Natalia Mundim Torres Natalie Olifiers Natani Da Silva De Lima Natasha Moraes de Albuquerque Nathália Fernandes Canassa Nelson Henrique de Almeida Curi Nêmora Pauletti Prestes Nereyda Falconi Newton Mota Gurgel-Filho Nielson Pasqualotto Nilton C Cáceres Nivaldo Peroni Noé U de la Sancha Noeli Zanella Octavio Monroy-Vilchis Olivier Pays Omolabake Alhambra Arimoro Otávio Santi Ribeiro Pablo Villalva Pablo Rodrigues Gonçalves Paloma Marques Santos Pamella Brennand Patrício Rocha Paula Akkawi Paula Cruz Paula Modenesi Ferreira Paula Ribeiro Prist Paula Sanches Martin Paulina Arroyo-Gerala Paulo Auricchio Paulo Afonso Hartmann Paulo de Tarso Zuquim Antas Paulo H S A Camargo Paulo Henrique Marinho Paulo Henrique Peira Ruffino Paulo Inácio Prado Paulo Wesley Martins Pedro Cordeiro-Estrela Pedro Luna Pedro Sarmento Pedro Henrique Faria Peres Pedro Manoel Galetti Pedro Volkmer de Castilho Pierre-Cyril Renaud Pietro Oliveira Scarascia Priscilla De Paula Andrade Cobra Pryscilla Moura Lombardi Rafael Bessa Rafael Reyna-Hurtado Rafael Cerqueira Castro de Souza Rafael Jan Hoogesteijn Rafael Souza Cruz Alves Rafael Spilere Romagna Ramon Lima Silva Ramonna de Oliveira Raone Beltrão-Mendes Raony de Macêdo Alencar Raphaella Coutinho Raquel Costa da Silva Raquel L S C Caribé Grando Rayanne Gama Matos Raylenne da Silva Araujo Rayssa Faria Pedroso Rayssa Mainette Nantes Durães Renan Lieto Alves Ribeiro Renata Chagas Renata Miotto Renata Twardowsky Ramalho Bonikowski Renata Lara Muylaert Renata Valls Pagotto Renato Richard Hilário Rhayssa Terra Faria Ricardo Bassini-Silva Ricardo Sampaio Ricardo Sartorello Ricardo Araújo Pires Richard Hatakeyama Rita de Cassia Bianchi Robert Buitenwerf Robert Wallace Roberta Montanheiro Paolino Roberto Fusco-Costa Roberto Guilherme Trovati Roberto Junior Tomasi Robson Odeli Espíndola Hack Rodolfo Assis Magalhães Rodrigo Affonso de Albuquerque Nobrega Rodrigo de Almeida Nobre Rodrigo Lima Massara Rodrigo Medina Fróes Rodrigo Paulo da Cunha Araújo Rodrigo Raúl León Pérez Rodrigo Silva Pinto Jorge Rogério Cunha de Paula Rogério Martins Rogério Grassetto Teixeira da Cunha Rômulo Costa Romulo Romeu Nobrega Alves Rony Garcia-Anleu Rony Peterson Santos Almeida Rubén Darío Cueva Loachamín Rúbia Santana Andrade Rugieri Juárez Samanta Uchôa Bordallo Samara Arsego Guaragni Samia E Carrillo-Percastegui Samile Seber Samuel Astete Sandra Maria Hartz Santiago Espinosa Sara Álvarez Solas Saulo Ramos Lima Saulo Meneses Silvestre Sávio Augusto de Souza Machado Sean Keuroghlian-Eaton Sebastian Albanesi Sebastián Andrés Costa Sergio Bazilio Sergio Lucena Mendes Sérgio Luiz Althoff Shery Duque Pinheiro Silvio Junior Napiwoski Sixto Fernández Ramirez Sonia Aparecida Talamoni Stefani Gabrieli Age Taiguã Corrêa Pereira Tainah Cruz Moreira Tatiane Campos Trigo Tayana Mendonça da Silva Gondim Thamíris Christina Karlovic Thiago Cavalcante Thiago Maccarini Thiago Ferreira Rodrigues Thiago Philipe de Camargo E Timo Tiberio Cesar Monterrubio Ubiratan Piovezan Vagner Cavarzere Valeria Towns Valeria Castilho Onofrio Valeska Buchemi Oliveira Valquíria Cabral Araújo Vanessa Lazaro Melo Vanessa Tavares Kanaan Victor Iwakami Victor Vale Vilmar Picinatto Filho Vinicius Alberici Vinicius A G Bastazini Vinícius Santana Orsini Vivian da Silva Braz Viviana B Rojas Bonzi Viviane Maria Guedes Layme Viviane Telles Rodrigues Gaboardi Vlamir José Rocha Waldney Pereira Martins Walfrido Moraes Tomas Wellington Hannibal Wesley Dáttilo Wesley R Silva Whaldener Endo William Bercê Yaribeth Bravata de la Cruz Yuri Geraldo Gomes Ribeiro Mauro Galetti Milton C Ribeiro

Ecology 2020 11;101(11):e03128

Laboratório de Ecologia Espacial e Conservação (LEEC), Departamento de Biodiversidade, Instituto de Biociências, Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Rio Claro, SP, 13506-900, Brazil.

Mammalian carnivores are considered a key group in maintaining ecological health and can indicate potential ecological integrity in landscapes where they occur. Carnivores also hold high conservation value and their habitat requirements can guide management and conservation plans. The order Carnivora has 84 species from 8 families in the Neotropical region: Canidae; Felidae; Mephitidae; Mustelidae; Otariidae; Phocidae; Procyonidae; and Ursidae. Herein, we include published and unpublished data on native terrestrial Neotropical carnivores (Canidae; Felidae; Mephitidae; Mustelidae; Procyonidae; and Ursidae). NEOTROPICAL CARNIVORES is a publicly available data set that includes 99,605 data entries from 35,511 unique georeferenced coordinates. Detection/non-detection and quantitative data were obtained from 1818 to 2018 by researchers, governmental agencies, non-governmental organizations, and private consultants. Data were collected using several methods including camera trapping, museum collections, roadkill, line transect, and opportunistic records. Literature (peer-reviewed and grey literature) from Portuguese, Spanish and English were incorporated in this compilation. Most of the data set consists of detection data entries (n = 79,343; 79.7%) but also includes non-detection data (n = 20,262; 20.3%). Of those, 43.3% also include count data (n = 43,151). The information available in NEOTROPICAL CARNIVORES will contribute to macroecological, ecological, and conservation questions in multiple spatio-temporal perspectives. As carnivores play key roles in trophic interactions, a better understanding of their distribution and habitat requirements are essential to establish conservation management plans and safeguard the future ecological health of Neotropical ecosystems. Our data paper, combined with other large-scale data sets, has great potential to clarify species distribution and related ecological processes within the Neotropics. There are no copyright restrictions and no restriction for using data from this data paper, as long as the data paper is cited as the source of the information used. We also request that users inform us of how they intend to use the data.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ecy.3128DOI Listing
November 2020

Diversity of Gall-Inducing Insects Associated With a Widely Distributed Tropical Tree Species: Testing the Environmental Stress Hypothesis.

Environ Entomol 2020 08;49(4):838-847

Programa de Pós-Graduação em Biodiversidade e Uso dos Recursos Naturais, Laboratório de Biologia da Conservação, DBG/CCBS/Universidade Estadual de Montes Claros, Montes Claros, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

Abiotic factors can affect plant performance and cause stress, which in turn affects plant-herbivore interactions. The Environmental Stress Hypothesis (ESH) predicts that gall-inducing insect diversity will be greater on host plants that grow in stressful habitats. We tested this hypothesis, considering both historical and ecological scales, using the plant Copaifera langsdorffii Desf. (Fabaceae) as a model because it has a wide geographic distribution and is a super-host of gall-inducing insects. According to the ESH, we predicted that 1) on a historical scale, the diversity of gall-inducing insects will be higher in habitats with greater environmental stress and 2) on an ecological scale, gall-inducing insect diversity will be greater on plants that possess greater levels of foliar sclerophylly. We sampled gall-inducing insects on plants of C. langsdorffii in five sites with different levels of water and soil nutrient availability and separated from each other by a distance of up to 470 km. The composition, richness, and abundance of gall-inducing insects varied among study sites. Plants located in more stressful habitats had higher levels of foliar sclerophylly; but richness and abundance of gall-inducing insects were not affected by host plant sclerophylly. Habitat stress was a good predictor of gall-inducing insect diversity on a regional scale, thus corroborating the first prediction of the ESH. No relationship was found between plant sclerophylly and gall-inducing insect diversity within habitats. Therefore, on a local scale, we did not find support for our second prediction related to the ESH.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ee/nvaa072DOI Listing
August 2020

Interaction engineering: Non-trophic effects modify interactions in an insect galler community.

J Anim Ecol 2019 08 20;88(8):1168-1177. Epub 2019 Jun 20.

Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.

Theory suggests that non-trophic interactions can be a major mechanism behind community stability and persistence, but community-level empirical data are scarce, particularly for effects on species interactions mediated through changes in the physical environment. Here, we explored how ecosystem engineering effects can feed back to the engineer, not only modulating the engineer's population density (node modulation) but also affecting its interactions with other species (link modulation). Gall induction can be viewed as ecosystem engineering since galls serve as habitat for other species. In a community-level field experiment, we generated treatments with reduced or elevated ecosystem engineering by removing or adding post-emergence galls to different plots of their host plant in the Brazilian Cerrado. We tested the effect of post-emergence galls on the galler, as well as on the galler-parasitoid and galler-aphid interactions. The manipulation of post-emergence galls had little effect on the galler-abundance and survivorship were not affected, and gall volume changed only slightly-but modified interactions involving the galler, parasitoid wasps and inquiline aphids. Aphid inquilines negatively affected density-dependent parasitism rates (interaction modification) likely by killing parasitised galling larvae. Post-emergence galls interfered with aphid inquilinism-likely by the provision of alternative habitat for aphids-and thus interfered with the negative effect of aphids on parasitism (modification of an interaction modification). This work is one of the few studies to demonstrate experimentally the role played by environment-mediated interaction modification at a community level in the field. Moreover, by manipulating a species' ecosystem engineering effect (post-emergence galls) instead of the species itself, we demonstrate the novel result that populations can be regulated by non-trophic effects initiated by their own activities that alter their interaction with other species. This reveals that indirect interactions mediated via the environment offer new pathways of feedback loops for population regulation. Our results indicate that interaction modification has the potential to be a key regulatory mechanism underlying interaction variation in nature, and play a major role in community structure, dynamics and stability.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1365-2656.13025DOI Listing
August 2019

Biodiversity recovery of Neotropical secondary forests.

Authors:
Danaë M A Rozendaal Frans Bongers T Mitchell Aide Esteban Alvarez-Dávila Nataly Ascarrunz Patricia Balvanera Justin M Becknell Tony V Bentos Pedro H S Brancalion George A L Cabral Sofia Calvo-Rodriguez Jerome Chave Ricardo G César Robin L Chazdon Richard Condit Jorn S Dallinga Jarcilene S de Almeida-Cortez Ben de Jong Alexandre de Oliveira Julie S Denslow Daisy H Dent Saara J DeWalt Juan Manuel Dupuy Sandra M Durán Loïc P Dutrieux Mario M Espírito-Santo María C Fandino G Wilson Fernandes Bryan Finegan Hernando García Noel Gonzalez Vanessa Granda Moser Jefferson S Hall José Luis Hernández-Stefanoni Stephen Hubbell Catarina C Jakovac Alma Johanna Hernández André B Junqueira Deborah Kennard Denis Larpin Susan G Letcher Juan-Carlos Licona Edwin Lebrija-Trejos Erika Marín-Spiotta Miguel Martínez-Ramos Paulo E S Massoca Jorge A Meave Rita C G Mesquita Francisco Mora Sandra C Müller Rodrigo Muñoz Silvio Nolasco de Oliveira Neto Natalia Norden Yule R F Nunes Susana Ochoa-Gaona Edgar Ortiz-Malavassi Rebecca Ostertag Marielos Peña-Claros Eduardo A Pérez-García Daniel Piotto Jennifer S Powers José Aguilar-Cano Susana Rodriguez-Buritica Jorge Rodríguez-Velázquez Marco Antonio Romero-Romero Jorge Ruíz Arturo Sanchez-Azofeifa Arlete Silva de Almeida Whendee L Silver Naomi B Schwartz William Wayt Thomas Marisol Toledo Maria Uriarte Everardo Valadares de Sá Sampaio Michiel van Breugel Hans van der Wal Sebastião Venâncio Martins Maria D M Veloso Hans F M Vester Alberto Vicentini Ima C G Vieira Pedro Villa G Bruce Williamson Kátia J Zanini Jess Zimmerman Lourens Poorter

Sci Adv 2019 03 6;5(3):eaau3114. Epub 2019 Mar 6.

Forest Ecology and Forest Management Group, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 47, 6700 AA Wageningen, Netherlands.

Old-growth tropical forests harbor an immense diversity of tree species but are rapidly being cleared, while secondary forests that regrow on abandoned agricultural lands increase in extent. We assess how tree species richness and composition recover during secondary succession across gradients in environmental conditions and anthropogenic disturbance in an unprecedented multisite analysis for the Neotropics. Secondary forests recover remarkably fast in species richness but slowly in species composition. Secondary forests take a median time of five decades to recover the species richness of old-growth forest (80% recovery after 20 years) based on rarefaction analysis. Full recovery of species composition takes centuries (only 34% recovery after 20 years). A dual strategy that maintains both old-growth forests and species-rich secondary forests is therefore crucial for biodiversity conservation in human-modified tropical landscapes.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.aau3114DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6402850PMC
March 2019

Factors that can influence the survival rates of coral snakes (Micrurus corallinus) for antivenom production.

J Anim Sci 2019 Feb;97(2):972-980

Laboratório de Herpetologia do Instituto Butantan, CEP, São Paulo, Brazil.

Envenoming and deaths resulting from snakebites are a particularly important public health problem in rural tropical areas of Africa, Asia, Latin America, and New Guinea. In 2015, The Lancet highlighted snake-bite envenoming as a neglected tropical disease and urged the world to increase antivenom production. In Brazil, around 20,000 snakebites occur per year affecting mostly agricultural workers and children, of which 1% is caused by coral snakes (Micrurus sp.). Although human envenoming by coral snakes is relatively rare due to their semifossorial habits and nonaggressive behavior, they are always considered severe due to the neurotoxic, myotoxic, hemorrhagic, and cardiovascular actions of their venom, which is highly toxic when compared to the venom of other Brazilian venomous snakes as Bothrops sp. (pit vipers), Crotalus sp. (rattlesnakes), and Lachesis sp. (bushmasters). The production of antivenom serum is an important public health issue worldwide and the maintenance of venomous snakes in captivity essential to obtain high-quality venom. Though more than 30 species of Brazilian coral snakes exist, the specific antivenom serum produced with the venom of two species, Micrurus corallinus and M. frontalis, is able to neutralize the accidents caused by the genus in general. M. corallinus is considered a difficult species to maintain in captivity and concerned about this difficulty the Laboratory of Herpetology (LH) at Instituto Butantan, over the last 10 yr, has given special attention to its maintenance in captivity. In more than 20 yr of maintenance, LH has made some changes to improve Micrurus captive husbandry and welfare. The objective of this study was to verify the factors influencing the survival rates of coral snakes in captivity through data generated from 289 M. corallinus from the LH snake facility in the last 10 yr. We observed that survival rates increased significantly with the improvement of nutritional adequacy that included freezing food items before offering them to coral snakes, as well as the development of a new pasty diet to force-feed anorexic animals. Another important factor responsible for increasing life expectancy was the shift of the cage's substrate from Sphagnum to bark in 2010, aiding in the eradication of Blister Disease, which used to be responsible for the death of several coral snakes in previous years.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jas/sky467DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6358253PMC
February 2019

Resilience and restoration of tropical and subtropical grasslands, savannas, and grassy woodlands.

Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 2019 04 24;94(2):590-609. Epub 2018 Sep 24.

Department of Ecosystem Science and Management, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, 77843-2138, U.S.A.

Despite growing recognition of the conservation values of grassy biomes, our understanding of how to maintain and restore biodiverse tropical grasslands (including savannas and open-canopy grassy woodlands) remains limited. To incorporate grasslands into large-scale restoration efforts, we synthesised existing ecological knowledge of tropical grassland resilience and approaches to plant community restoration. Tropical grassland plant communities are resilient to, and often dependent on, the endogenous disturbances with which they evolved - frequent fires and native megafaunal herbivory. In stark contrast, tropical grasslands are extremely vulnerable to human-caused exogenous disturbances, particularly those that alter soils and destroy belowground biomass (e.g. tillage agriculture, surface mining); tropical grassland restoration after severe soil disturbances is expensive and rarely achieves management targets. Where grasslands have been degraded by altered disturbance regimes (e.g. fire exclusion), exotic plant invasions, or afforestation, restoration efforts can recreate vegetation structure (i.e. historical tree density and herbaceous ground cover), but species-diverse plant communities, including endemic species, are slow to recover. Complicating plant-community restoration efforts, many tropical grassland species, particularly those that invest in underground storage organs, are difficult to propagate and re-establish. To guide restoration decisions, we draw on the old-growth grassland concept, the novel ecosystem concept, and theory regarding tree cover along resource gradients in savannas to propose a conceptual framework that classifies tropical grasslands into three broad ecosystem states. These states are: (1) old-growth grasslands (i.e. ancient, biodiverse grassy ecosystems), where management should focus on the maintenance of disturbance regimes; (2) hybrid grasslands, where restoration should emphasise a return towards the old-growth state; and (3) novel ecosystems, where the magnitude of environmental change (i.e. a shift to an alternative ecosystem state) or the socioecological context preclude a return to historical conditions.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/brv.12470DOI Listing
April 2019

Legume abundance along successional and rainfall gradients in Neotropical forests.

Nat Ecol Evol 2018 07 28;2(7):1104-1111. Epub 2018 May 28.

Department of Ecology, Evolution and Behavior, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN, USA.

The nutrient demands of regrowing tropical forests are partly satisfied by nitrogen-fixing legume trees, but our understanding of the abundance of those species is biased towards wet tropical regions. Here we show how the abundance of Leguminosae is affected by both recovery from disturbance and large-scale rainfall gradients through a synthesis of forest inventory plots from a network of 42 Neotropical forest chronosequences. During the first three decades of natural forest regeneration, legume basal area is twice as high in dry compared with wet secondary forests. The tremendous ecological success of legumes in recently disturbed, water-limited forests is likely to be related to both their reduced leaflet size and ability to fix N, which together enhance legume drought tolerance and water-use efficiency. Earth system models should incorporate these large-scale successional and climatic patterns of legume dominance to provide more accurate estimates of the maximum potential for natural nitrogen fixation across tropical forests.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41559-018-0559-6DOI Listing
July 2018

Global Biodiversity Threatened by Science Budget Cuts in Brazil.

Bioscience 2018 Jan 7;68(1):11-12. Epub 2017 Nov 7.

Gerhard E. Overbeck is affiliated with the Departamento de Botânica at the Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, in Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Helena Godoy Bergallo is affiliated with the Departamento de Ecologia at the Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Carlos E. V. Grelle is affiliated with the Departamento de Ecologia at the Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. William E. Magnusson is affiliated with the Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia, in Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil. Alberto Akama is affiliated with the Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi, in Belém, Pará, Brazil. Guarino R. Colli is affiliated with the Departamento de Zoologia at the Universidade de Brasília, in Brasília, Distrito Federal, Brazil. Walfrido Moraes Tomas is affiliated with the Laboratório de Vida Selvagem of the Embrapa Pantanal, in Corumbá, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Freddy Bravo is affiliated with the Departamento de Ciências Biológicas at the Universidade Estadual de Feira de Santana, in Feira de Santana, Bahia, Brazil. G. Wilson Fernandes is affiliated with the Laboratório de Ecologia Evolutiva e Biodiversidade at the Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil. The authors are coordinators of the regional networks of Brazil's PPBio program.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/biosci/bix130DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5862352PMC
January 2018

Examination of biochemical and biological activities of Bothrops jararaca (Serpentes: Viperidae; Wied-Neuwied 1824) snake venom after up to 54 years of storage.

Toxicon 2018 Jan 24;141:34-42. Epub 2017 Nov 24.

Laboratório de Herpetologia, Instituto Butantan, Av. Vital Brazil, 1500, 05503-900, São Paulo, Brazil.

The number of snakes donated to the Brazilian Instituto Butantan has been decreasing in the past 10 years. This circumstance motivated us to compare the properties of five venom pools of Bothrops jararaca snake stored for up to 54 years. Results showed differences among venom pools regarding enzymatic and other biological activities, such as caseinolytic, phospholipase A, hemorrhagic and coagulant activities, as well as antigenicity. Protein content, reverse-phase chromatographic profile, and immunorecognition by commercial Bothrops antivenom were comparable for all venom pools, although lethality of the most recent preparations was higher. Since the lowest functional activities did not always correspond to older venoms, differences among venom pools used for antivenom production during the period 1963-2008 may correlate with the different proportions of venoms from different localities used in their generation, rather than to long-term storage. We conclude that B. jararaca venoms properly stored for long periods of time retain their structural and pharmacological activities, thus representing useful materials for scientific research and antivenom production.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.toxicon.2017.11.011DOI Listing
January 2018

Evolution of equine influenza viruses (H3N8) during a Brazilian outbreak, 2015.

Braz J Microbiol 2018 Apr - Jun;49(2):336-346. Epub 2017 Oct 13.

Universidade de São Paulo, Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia, Departamento de Medicina Veterinária Preventiva e Saúde Animal, São Paulo, SP, Brazil.

Equine influenza is one of the major respiratory infectious diseases in horses. An equine influenza virus outbreak was identified in vaccinated and unvaccinated horses in a veterinary school hospital in São Paulo, SP, Brazil, in September 2015. The twelve equine influenza viruses isolated belonged to Florida Clade 1. The hemagglutinin and neuraminidase amino acid sequences were compared with the recent isolates from North and South America and the World Organisation for Animal Health recommended Florida Clade 1 vaccine strain. The hemagglutinin amino acid sequences had nine substitutions, compared with the vaccine strain. Two of them were in antigenic site A (A138S and G142R), one in antigenic site E (R62K) and another not in antigenic site (K304E). The four substitutions changed the hydrophobicity of hemagglutinin. Three distinct genetic variants were identified during the outbreak. Eleven variants were found in four quasispecies, which suggests the equine influenza virus evolved during the outbreak. The use of an out of date vaccine strain or updated vaccines without the production of protective antibody titers might be the major contributing factors on virus dissemination during this outbreak.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bjm.2017.07.003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5913825PMC
August 2018

Galling Insects of the Brazilian Páramos: Species Richness and Composition Along High-Altitude Grasslands.

Environ Entomol 2017 12;46(6):1243-1253

Ecologia Evolutiva & Biodiversidade/DBG, ICB/Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Brazil.

In this work, we investigated the factors that determine the distribution of galling insects in high-altitude grasslands, locally called 'campos de altitude' of Mantiqueira Range and tested whether 1) richness of galling insects decreases with altitude, 2) galling insect richness increases with plant richness, 3) variation in galling insect diversity is predominantly a consequence of its β component, and 4) turnover is the main mechanism driving the beta diversity of both galling insects and plants. Galling insect richness did not exhibit a negative relationship with altitude, but it did increase with plant richness. The additive partition of regional richness (γ) into its local and beta components showed that local diversity (α) of galling insects and plants was relatively low in relation to regional diversity; the β component incorporated most of the regional diversity. This pattern was also found in the multiscale analysis of the additive partition for galling insects and plants. The beta diversity of galling insects and plants was driven predominantly by the process of turnover and minimally by nesting. The results reported here point out that the spatial distribution of galling insects is best explained by historical factors, such as the distribution of genera and species of key host plants, as well as their relation to habitat, than ecological effects such as hygrothermal stress - here represented by altitude.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ee/nvx147DOI Listing
December 2017

Experimentally reducing species abundance indirectly affects food web structure and robustness.

J Anim Ecol 2017 Mar 31;86(2):327-336. Epub 2017 Jan 31.

Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford, OX1 3PS, UK.

Studies on the robustness of ecological communities suggest that the loss or reduction in abundance of individual species can lead to secondary and cascading extinctions. However, most such studies have been simulation-based analyses of the effect of primary extinction on food web structure. In a field experiment we tested the direct and indirect effects of reducing the abundance of a common species, focusing on the diverse and self-contained assemblage of arthropods associated with an abundant Brazilian shrub, Baccharis dracunculifolia D.C. (Asteraceae). Over a 5-month period we experimentally reduced the abundance of Baccharopelma dracunculifoliae (Sternorrhyncha: Psyllidae), the commonest galling species associated with B. dracunculifolia, in 15 replicate plots paired with 15 control plots. We investigated direct effects of the manipulation on parasitoids attacking B. dracunculifoliae, as well as indirect effects (mediated via a third species or through the environment) on 10 other galler species and 50 associated parasitoid species. The experimental manipulation significantly increased parasitism on B. dracunculifoliae in the treatment plots, but did not significantly alter either the species richness or abundance of other galler species. Compared to control plots, food webs in manipulated plots had significantly lower values of weighted connectance, interaction evenness and robustness (measured as simulated tolerance to secondary extinction), even when B. dracunculifoliae was excluded from calculations. Parasitoid species were almost entirely specialized to individual galler species, so the observed effects of the manipulation on food web structure could not have propagated via the documented trophic links. Instead, they must have spread either through trophic links not included in the webs (e.g. shared predators) or non-trophically (e.g. through changes in habitat availability). Our results highlight that the inclusion of both trophic and non-trophic direct and indirect interactions is essential to understand the structure and dynamics of even apparently discrete ecological communities.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1365-2656.12626DOI Listing
March 2017

Effects of a Possible Pollinator Crisis on Food Crop Production in Brazil.

PLoS One 2016 30;11(11):e0167292. Epub 2016 Nov 30.

Departamento de Biologia Geral, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

Animal pollinators contribute to human food production and security thereby ensuring an important component of human well-being. The recent decline of these agents in Europe and North America has aroused the concern of a potential global pollinator crisis. In order to prioritize efforts for pollinator conservation, we evaluated the extent to which food production depends on animal pollinators in Brazil-one of the world's agriculture leaders-by comparing cultivated area, produced volume and yield value of major food crops that are pollinator dependent with those that are pollinator non-dependent. In addition, we valued the ecosystem service of pollination based on the degree of pollinator dependence of each crop and the consequence of a decline in food production to the Brazilian Gross Domestic Product and Brazilian food security. A total of 68% of the 53 major food crops in Brazil depend to some degree on animals for pollination. Pollinator non-dependent crops produce a greater volume of food, mainly because of the high production of sugarcane, but the cultivated area and monetary value of pollinator dependent crops are higher (59% of total cultivated area and 68% of monetary value). The loss of pollination services for 29 of the major food crops would reduce production by 16.55-51 million tons, which would amount to 4.86-14.56 billion dollars/year, and reduce the agricultural contribution to the Brazilian GDP by 6.46%- 19.36%. These impacts would be largely absorbed by family farmers, which represent 74.4% of the agricultural labor force in Brazil. The main effects of a pollinator crisis in Brazil would be felt by the poorer and more rural classes due to their lower income and direct or exclusive dependence on this ecosystem service.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0167292PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5130262PMC
July 2017

Experimental infection of horses with Rickettsia rickettsii.

Parasit Vectors 2016 09 13;9:499. Epub 2016 Sep 13.

Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.

Background: Rickettsia rickettsii is vectored by ticks, and some vertebrate hosts can be sources of infection to ticks during bacteremic periods. In Brazil, the main vector for R. rickettsii is the tick Amblyomma sculptum, a member of the A. cajennense complex. Horses, in turn, are one of the major hosts for A. sculptum. In this study, horses experimentally infected with R. rickettsii were assessed for clinical changes and their capability to transmit the infection to A. sculptum ticks.

Methods: Four horses were infected with R. rickettsii through either intraperitoneal injection or infestation with R. rickettsii-infected A. sculptum ticks. Simultaneously, the animals were infested with non-infected A. sculptum ticks. The horses were monitored for 30 days by clinical examination, hematological and biochemical tests, real-time PCR of blood for the detection of Rickettsia, and inoculation of blood in guinea pigs. IgG antibody titers were followed until the horses have shown seronegativity or until the end of the experiment. Uninfected ticks that fed on horses were subjected to real-time PCR and/or were fed on susceptible rabbits.

Results: The horses showed no clinical, hematological or blood biochemical alterations, and bacteremia was not detected by real-time PCR or by inoculation of horse blood into guinea pigs. Anti-R. rickettsii antibodies were detected in horses from 10 days to 2 years after infection. Uninfected ticks, after feeding on infected horses, showed 2.1 % positivity in real-time PCR, but failed to transmit the infection to rabbits at a next feeding stage.

Conclusions: Rickettsia rickettsii-infected horses did not manifest illness and are not competent amplifier hosts of R. rickettsii for A. sculptum ticks.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13071-016-1784-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5022194PMC
September 2016

Dung Beetles along a Tropical Altitudinal Gradient: Environmental Filtering on Taxonomic and Functional Diversity.

PLoS One 2016 23;11(6):e0157442. Epub 2016 Jun 23.

Ecologia Evolutiva & Biodiversidade /DBG, ICB/ Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, CP 486, 31270-901, Belo Horizonte Minas Gerais, Brazil.

Mountains provide an interesting context in which to study the many facets of biodiversity in response to macroclimate, since environmental conditions change rapidly due to elevation. Although the decrease in biodiversity with increasing elevation is generally accepted, our understanding of the variation of functional diversity along altitudinal gradients is still poorly known. The partitioning of diversity into spatial components can help to understand the processes that influence the distribution of species, and these studies are urgently needed in face of the increasing threats to mountain environments throughout the world. We describe the distribution of dung beetle diversity along an altitudinal gradient on a tropical mountain in southeastern Brazil, including the spatial partitioning of taxonomic and functional diversities. The altitudinal gradient ranged from 800 up to 1400 m a.s.l. and we collected dung beetles at every 100 m of altitude. We used the Rao Index to calculate γ, α and β diversity for taxonomic and functional diversity of dung beetles. Climatic, soil and vegetation variables were used to explain variation in community attributes along the altitudinal gradient. Dung beetle richness declined with altitude and was related to climatic and vegetation variables, but functional diversity did not follow the same pattern. Over 50% of γ taxonomic diversity was caused by among altitudes diversity (β), while almost 100% of functional diversity was due to the α component. Contrasting β taxonomic with β functional diversity, we suggest that there is ecological redundancy among communities and that the environment is filtering species in terms of the Grinnellian niche, rather than the Eltonian niche. β taxonomic diversity is caused mainly by the turnover component, reinforcing the hypothesis of environmental filtering. Global warming may have strong effects on mountain communities due to upslope range shifts and extinctions, and these events will lead to an even larger than previously expected loss of diversity as dung beetles γ taxonomic diversity is caused mainly by the β component.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0157442PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4918931PMC
July 2017

Mechanisms Driving Galling Success in a Fragmented Landscape: Synergy of Habitat and Top-Down Factors along Temperate Forest Edges.

PLoS One 2016 16;11(6):e0157448. Epub 2016 Jun 16.

Plant Ecology & Systematics, University of Kaiserslautern, Kaiserslautern, Germany.

Edge effects play key roles in the anthropogenic transformation of forested ecosystems and their biota, and are therefore a prime field of contemporary fragmentation research. We present the first empirical study to address edge effects on the population level of a widespread galling herbivore in a temperate deciduous forest. By analyzing edge effects on abundance and trophic interactions of beech gall midge (Mikiola fagi Htg.), we found 30% higher gall abundance in the edge habitat as well as lower mortality rates due to decreased top-down control, especially by parasitoids. Two GLM models with similar explanatory power (58%) identified habitat specific traits (such as canopy closure and altitude) and parasitism as the best predictors of gall abundance. Further analyses revealed a crucial influence of light exposure (46%) on top-down control by the parasitoid complex. Guided by a conceptual framework synthesizing the key factors driving gall density, we conclude that forest edge proliferation of M. fagi is due to a complex interplay of abiotic changes and trophic control mechanisms. Most prominently, it is caused by the microclimatic regime in forest edges, acting alone or in synergistic concert with top-down pressure by parasitoids. Contrary to the prevailing notion that specialists are edge-sensitive, this turns M. fagi into a winner species in fragmented temperate beech forests. In view of the increasing proportion of edge habitats and the documented benefits from edge microclimate, we call for investigations exploring the pest status of this galling insect and the modulators of its biological control.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0157448PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4910982PMC
July 2017

Ontogenetic Variation in Biological Activities of Venoms from Hybrids between Bothrops erythromelas and Bothrops neuwiedi Snakes.

PLoS One 2015 29;10(12):e0145516. Epub 2015 Dec 29.

Laboratório de Herpetologia, Instituto Butantan, São Paulo-SP, Brazil.

Lance-headed snakes are found in Central and South America, and they account for most snakebites in Brazil. The phylogeny of South American pitvipers has been reviewed, and the presence of natural and non-natural hybrids between different species of Bothrops snakes demonstrates that reproductive isolation of several species is still incomplete. The present study aimed to analyze the biological features, particularly the thrombin-like activity, of venoms from hybrids born in captivity, from the mating of a female Bothrops erythromelas and a male Bothrops neuwiedi, two species whose venoms are known to display ontogenetic variation. Proteolytic activity on azocoll and amidolytic activity on N-benzoyl-DL-arginine-p-nitroanilide hydrochloride (BAPNA) were lowest when hybrids were 3 months old, and increased over body growth, reaching values similar to those of the father when hybrids were 12 months old. The clotting activity on plasma diminished as hybrids grew; venoms from 3- and 6-months old hybrids showed low clotting activity on fibrinogen (i.e., thrombin-like activity), like the mother venom, and such activity was detected only when hybrids were older than 1 year of age. Altogether, these results point out that venom features in hybrid snakes are genetically controlled during the ontogenetic development. Despite the presence of the thrombin-like enzyme gene(s) in hybrid snakes, they are silenced during the first six months of life.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0145516PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4699835PMC
July 2016

Molecular characterization of Brazilian equid herpesvirus type 1 strains based on neuropathogenicity markers.

Braz J Microbiol 2015 Jun 1;46(2):565-70. Epub 2015 Jun 1.

Universidade de São Paulo, Departamento de Medicina Veterinária Preventiva e Saúde Animal, Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP, Brasil, Departamento de Medicina Veterinária Preventiva e Saúde Animal, Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP, Brazil.

Partial nucleotide sequences of ORF72 (glycoprotein D, gD), ORF64 (infected cell protein 4, ICP4) and ORF30 (DNA polymerase) genes were compared with corresponding sequences of EHV-1 reference strains to characterize the molecular variability of Brazilian strains. Virus isolation assays were applied to 74 samples including visceral tissue, total blood, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and nasal swabs of specimens from a total of 64 animals. Only one CSF sample (Iso07/05 strain) was positive by virus isolation in cell culture. EHV-1 Iso07/05 neurologic strain and two abortion visceral tissues samples (Iso11/06 and Iso33/06) were PCR-positive for ORF33 (glycoprotein B, gB) gene of EHV-1. A sequence analysis of the ORF72, ORF64 and ORF30 genes from three EHV-1 archival strains (A3/97, A4/72, A9/92) and three clinical samples (Iso07/05, Iso11/06 and Iso33/06) suggested that among Brazilian EHV-1 strains, the amplified region of the gD gene sequence is highly conserved. Additionally, the analysis of ICP4 gene showed high nucleotide and amino acid identities when compared with genotype P strains, suggesting that the EHV-1 Brazilian strains belonged to the same group. All the EHV-1 Brazilian strains were classified as non-neuropathogenic variants (N752) based on the ORF30 analysis. These findings indicate a high conservation of the gD-, ICP4- and ORF30-encoding sequences. Different pathotypes of the EHV-1 strain might share identical genes with no specific markers, and tissue tropism is not completely dependent on the gD envelope, immediate-early ICP4 and DNA polymerase proteins.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1517-838246220140096DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4507552PMC
June 2015

Combined venomics, venom gland transcriptomics, bioactivities, and antivenomics of two Bothrops jararaca populations from geographic isolated regions within the Brazilian Atlantic rainforest.

J Proteomics 2016 Mar 9;135:73-89. Epub 2015 May 9.

Laboratorio de Venómica Estructural y Funcional, Instituto de Biomedicina de Valencia, CSIC, Valencia, Spain. Electronic address:

Bothrops jararaca is a slender and semi-arboreal medically relevant pit viper species endemic to tropical and subtropical forests in southern Brazil, Paraguay, and northern Argentina (Misiones). Within its geographic range, it is often abundant and is an important cause of snakebite. Although no subspecies are currently recognized, geographic analyses have revealed the existence of two well-supported B. jararaca clades that diverged during the Pliocene ~3.8Mya and currently display a southeastern (SE) and a southern (S) Atlantic rainforest (Mata Atlântica) distribution. The spectrum, geographic variability, and ontogenetic changes of the venom proteomes of snakes from these two B. jararaca phylogroups were investigated applying a combined venom gland transcriptomic and venomic analysis. Comparisons of the venom proteomes and transcriptomes of B. jararaca from the SE and S geographic regions revealed notable interpopulational variability that may be due to the different levels of population-specific transcriptional regulation, including, in the case of the southern population, a marked ontogenetic venom compositional change involving the upregulation of the myotoxic PLA2 homolog, bothropstoxin-I. This population-specific marker can be used to estimate the proportion of venom from the southern population present in the B. jararaca venom pool used for the Brazilian soro antibotrópico (SAB) antivenom production. On the other hand, the southeastern population-specific D49-PLA2 molecules, BinTX-I and BinTX-II, lend support to the notion that the mainland ancestor of Bothrops insularis was originated within the same population that gave rise to the current SE B. jararaca phylogroup, and that this insular species endemic to Queimada Grande Island (Brazil) expresses a pedomorphic venom phenotype. Mirroring their compositional divergence, the two geographic B. jararaca venom pools showed distinct bioactivity profiles. However, the SAB antivenom manufactured in Vital Brazil Institute neutralized the lethal effect of both venoms to a similar extent. In addition, immobilized SAB antivenom immunocaptured most of the venom components of the venoms of both B. jararaca populations, but did not show immunoreactivity against vasoactive peptides. The Costa Rican bothropic-crotalic-lachesic (BCL) antivenom showed the same lack of reactivity against vasoactive peptides but, in addition, was less efficient immunocapturing PI- and PIII-SVMPs from the SE venom, and bothropstoxin-I, a CRISP molecule, and a D49-PLA2 from the venom of the southern B. jararaca phylogroup. The remarkable paraspecificity exhibited by the Brazilian and the Costa Rican antivenoms indicates large immunoreactive epitope conservation across the natural history of Bothrops, a genus that has its roots in the middle Miocene. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Omics Evolutionary Ecolog.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jprot.2015.04.029DOI Listing
March 2016

Variation of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal communities along an altitudinal gradient in rupestrian grasslands in Brazil.

Mycorrhiza 2015 Nov 15;25(8):627-38. Epub 2015 Mar 15.

CB/Departamento de Botânica e Zoologia, Laboratório de Biologia de Micorrizas, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, 59072-970, Natal, RN, Brazil.

Variation in arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) communities is described for the first time in rupestrian grasslands in Brazil along an altitudinal gradient of 700 m (800 to 1400 m a.s.l.). Hypotheses tested were that soil properties influence the variation in AMF communities and that the frequency of the most common species of AMF is inversely influenced by the richness of other AMF. Field and laboratory data were collected on AMF community composition, richness, density, and frequency in the altitudinal gradient, and the relationships with several physical-chemical soil properties and altitude were evaluated. Fifty-one species of AMF were recorded, with 14 species being reported as possibly new to science and nine species representing new records for Brazil. This single elevation gradient alone contains 22% of the known world diversity of AMF. Soil properties and AMF community density and richness varied significantly along the elevation (p < 0.05). AMF density and richness were higher at the intermediate altitude, while AMF species composition differed statistically among the altitudes.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00572-015-0636-5DOI Listing
November 2015

Tyranny of trees in grassy biomes.

Science 2015 Jan;347(6221):484-5

Department of Biological Sciences, University of Cape Town and South African Environmental Observation Network, NRF, Rondebosch, 7701, South Africa.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.347.6221.484-cDOI Listing
January 2015

Unexpected high diversity of galling insects in the Amazonian upper canopy: the savanna out there.

PLoS One 2014 31;9(12):e114986. Epub 2014 Dec 31.

Department of Biological Sciences, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, Arizona, United States of America.

A relatively large number of studies reassert the strong relationship between galling insect diversity and extreme hydric and thermal status in some habitats, and an overall pattern of a greater number of galling species in the understory of scleromorphic vegetation. We compared galling insect diversity in the forest canopy and its relationship with tree richness among upland terra firme, várzea, and igapó floodplains in Amazonia, Brazil. The soils of these forest types have highly different hydric and nutritional status. Overall, we examined the upper layer of 1,091 tree crowns. Galling species richness and abundance were higher in terra firme forests compared to várzea and igapó forests. GLM-ANCOVA models revealed that the number of tree species sampled in each forest type was determinant in the gall-forming insect diversity. The ratio between galling insect richness and number of tree species sampled (GIR/TSS ratio) was higher in the terra firme forest and in seasonally flooded igapó, while the várzea presented the lowest GIR/TSS ratio. In this study, we recorded unprecedented values of galling species diversity and abundance per sampling point. The GIR/TSS ratio from várzea was approximately 2.5 times higher than the highest value of this ratio ever reported in the literature. Based on this fact, we ascertained that várzea and igapó floodplain forests (with lower GIA and GIR), together with the speciose terra firme galling community emerge as the gall diversity apex landscape among all biogeographic regions already investigated. Contrary to expectation, our results also support the "harsh environment hypothesis", and unveil the Amazonian upper canopy as similar to Mediterranean vegetation habitats, hygrothermically stressed environments with leaf temperature at lethal limits and high levels of leaf sclerophylly.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0114986PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4281248PMC
September 2015

Viperid venom glands with defective venom production. Morphological study.

Toxicon 2013 Aug 9;70:32-43. Epub 2013 Apr 9.

Laboratório de Biologia Celular, Instituto Butantan, Av. Vital Brazil 1500, 05503-900 São Paulo, SP, Brazil.

The venom of viperid snakes is collected monthly at Butantan Institute for research purposes and production of antivenoms. Here we describe histological and ultrastructural changes on Crotalus durissus terrificus and Bothrops sp. venom glands with defective venom production. Secretory tubules commonly showed partial or total obliteration of their lumina by masses of necrotic cells and cellular debris. Secretory cells showed varying degrees of degenerative and/or metaplastic alterations seriously affecting the structures responsible for the synthesis and secretion of venom. The intertubular connective tissue presented fibroblast hyperplasia, inflammatory cells infiltration, vacuolated cells and blood vessels alterations. In two venom glands out of nineteen snakes examined, virus-like particles were found. The alterations observed in most of the glands could have been caused by excessive manual pressure, during venom extraction routine, causing disruption of the secretory tubules and leakage of venom to the intertubular connective tissue.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.toxicon.2013.03.019DOI Listing
August 2013

The role of pectic composition of cell walls in the determination of the new shape-functional design in galls of Baccharis reticularia (Asteraceae).

Protoplasma 2013 Aug 20;250(4):899-908. Epub 2012 Dec 20.

Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais - UFMG-ICB, Belo Horizonte, MG, CEP: 31270-901, Brasil.

The pectic composition of cell wall is altered during the processes of cell differentiation, plant growth, and development. These alterations may be time-dependent, and fluctuate in distinct regions of the same cell or tissue layer, due to the biotic stress caused by the activity of the gall inducer. Among the roles of the pectins in cell wall, elasticity, rigidity, porosity, and control of cell death may be crucial during gall development. Galls on Baccharis reticularia present species-specific patterns of development leading to related morphotypes where pectins were widely detected by Ruthenium red, and the pectic epitopes were labeled with specific monoclonal antibodies (LM1, LM2, LM5, LM6, JIM5, and JIM7) in distinct sites of the non-galled and the galled tissues. In the studied system B. reticularia, the epitopes for extensins were not labeled in the non-galled tissues, as well as in those of the rolling and kidney-shaped galls. The high methyl-esterified homogalacturonans (HGA) were labeled all over the tissues either of non-galled leaves or of the three gall morphotypes, while the intense labeling for arabinogalactans was obtained just in the rolling galls. The pectic composition of non-galled leaves denotes their maturity. The kidney-shaped gall was the most similar to the non-galled leaves. The pectic dynamics in the gall tissues was particularly altered in relation to low methyl-esterified HGA, which confers elasticity and expansion, as well as porosity and adhesion to cell walls, and are related to the homogenization and hypertrophy of gall cortex, and to translocation of solutes to the larval chamber. Herein, the importance of the pectic dynamics of cell walls to the new functional design established during gall development is discussed for the first time. The repetitive developmental patterns in galls are elegant models for studies on cell differentiation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00709-012-0473-8DOI Listing
August 2013

Plant phenology and absence of sex-biased gall attack on three species of Baccharis.

PLoS One 2012 4;7(10):e46896. Epub 2012 Oct 4.

Departamento de Biologia Geral, Centro de Ciências Biológicas e da Saúde, Universidade Estadual de Montes Claros, Montes Claros, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

Background: Dioecy represents a source of variation in plant quality to herbivores due to sexual differences in intensity and timing of resource allocation to growth, defense and reproduction. Male plants have higher growth rates and should be more susceptible to herbivores than females, due to a lower investment in defense and reproduction.

Methodology/principal Findings: We compared resource investment to growth and reproduction and its consequences to herbivore attack on three Baccharis species along one year (B. dracunculifolia, B. ramosissima, and B. concinna). Phenological patterns presented by the three species of Baccharis were quite different over time, but the number of fourth-level shoots and plant growth rate did not differ between sexes in any studied species. Intersexual difference in reproductive investment was only observed for B. concinna, with female individuals supporting higher inflorescence density than male individuals throughout the year. Gall abundance on the three Baccharis species was not influenced by plant sex. However, all plant traits evaluated here positively influenced the gall abundance on B. concinna, whereas only the number of fourth-level shoots positively influenced gall abundance on B. ramosissima and B. dracunculifolia.

Conclusions/significance: The absence of differential reproductive allocation may have contributed to similar growth and shoot production between the sexes, with bottom-up effects resulting in gender similarities in gall abundance patterns. The number of fourth-level shoots, an indicator of meristem availability to herbivores, was the most important driver of the abundance of the galling insects regardless of host plant gender or species. Albeit the absence of intersexual variation in insect gall abundance is uncommon in the literature, the detailed study of the exceptions may bring more light to understand the mechanisms and processes behind such trend.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0046896PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3464257PMC
May 2013

Insect herbivores associated with Baccharis dracunculifolia (Asteraceae): responses of gall-forming and free-feeding insects to latitudinal variation.

Rev Biol Trop 2011 Sep;59(3):1419-32

Laboratório de Biologia da Conservação DBG/ CCBS, Universidade Estadual de Montes Claros, Montes Claros, MG, Brazil 39401-089.

The spatial heterogeneity hypothesis has been invoked to explain the increase in species diversity from the poles to the tropics: the tropics may be more diverse because they contain more habitats and micro-habitats. In this paper, the spatial heterogeneity hypothesis prediction was tested by evaluating the variation in richness of two guilds of insect herbivores (gall-formers and free-feeders) associated with Baccharis dracunculifolia (Asteraceae) along a latitudinal variation in Brazil. The seventeen populations of B. dracunculifolia selected for insect herbivores sampling were within structurally similar habitats, along the N-S distributional limit of the host plant, near the Brazilian sea coast. Thirty shrubs were surveyed in each host plant population. A total of 8 201 galls and 864 free-feeding insect herbivores belonging to 28 families and 88 species were sampled. The majority of the insects found on B. dracunculifolia were restricted to a specific site rather than having a geographic distribution mirroring that of the host plant. Species richness of free-feeding insects was not affected by latitudinal variation corroborating the spatial heterogeneity hypothesis. Species richness of gall-forming insects was positively correlated with latitude, probably because galling insect associated with Baccharris genus radiated in Southern Brazil. Other diversity indices and evenness estimated for both gall-forming and free feeding insect herbivores, did not change with latitude, suggesting a general structure for different assemblages of herbivores associated with the host plant B. dracunculifolia. Thus it is probable that, insect fauna sample in each site resulted of large scale events, as speciation, migration and coevolution, while at local level, the population of these insects is regulated by ecological forces which operate in the system.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
September 2011

Gall-inducing insect species richness as indicators of forest age and health.

Environ Entomol 2010 Aug;39(4):1134-40

Ecologia Evolutiva and Biodiversidade/DBG, C P 486, ICB/Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, UFMG, 31270 901 Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil.

The changes in the plant community that occur during the process of succession affect the availability of resources for the community of herbivores. In this study, the richness of galling insects was evaluated in restored stands of Amazonian tropical rain forest of several ages (0-21 yr), as well as in areas of primary forest in Brazil. The richness of gallers increased with the age of the restored stands. Fifty-eight percent of the variation in the richness of galling insects was explained by forest stand age, but an increase in richness was observed at intermediate stages of succession. The greatest similarity among groups was found between the initial successional stages and intermediate ones. The results indicate a recovery of both host plants and insect community and that succession directly affects the richness and composition of these herbivores.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1603/EN09199DOI Listing
August 2010