Publications by authors named "William Winardi"

8 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Brainstem metastases treated with stereotactic radiosurgery: safety, efficacy, and dose response.

J Neurooncol 2015 Nov 4;125(2):385-92. Epub 2015 Sep 4.

Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Virginia, 1240 Lee Street, Box 800383, Charlottesville, VA, 22908, USA.

The safety and efficacy of stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) in the brainstem is questioned by some over concern of violating historical brainstem SRS dose tolerance. Our purpose was to report on the clinical outcomes of patients treated at our institution with radiosurgery for brainstem metastases. Patients with metastatic tumors within or directly abutting the brainstem from 1992 to 2014 were analyzed. Patient and tumor characteristics, SRS parameters, and toxicity were recorded and analyzed for associations with local control and survival. Multivariate statistical analysis was performed using Cox proportional hazards modeling. One-hundred and eighty-nine (189) brainstem metastases from 161 patients were included in our analysis. Whole brain irradiation was administered prior to SRS in 52 % of patients. The median margin dose was 18 Gy prescribed to the 50 % isodose line. Median imaging follow up was 5.4 months and median survival was 5.5 months after SRS. At last follow up, local control was achieved in 87.3 % of brainstem lesions treated. There were 3 recorded events of grade 3-5 toxicity (1.8 %). On multivariate analysis, a margin dose ≥16 Gy was associated with improved local control (p = 0.049) and greater KPS score was associated with improved overall survival following SRS (p = 0.024). Patients with brainstem metastases who have limited intracranial disease and/or who have received whole brain irradiation should be considered for SRS. Margin doses of at least 16 Gy are associated with superior local control, and serious radiation toxicity in SRS for brainstem metastasis appears rare.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11060-015-1927-6DOI Listing
November 2015

Predictors of memory and processing speed dysfunctions after traumatic brain injury.

Biomed Res Int 2014 29;2014:129796. Epub 2014 Apr 29.

Department of Occupational Therapy, College of Health Sciences, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung City 807, Taiwan.

Background: The aims of this study were to evaluate the predictive value of admission Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) scores, duration of unconsciousness, neurosurgical intervention, and countercoup lesion on the impairment of memory and processing speed functions six months after a traumatic brain injury (TBI) based on a structural equation modeling.

Methods: Thirty TBI patients recruited from Neurosurgical Department at the Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital were administered the Wechsler Memory Scale-III (WMS-III) and the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III processing speed index to evaluate the memory and processing speed functions.

Results: The study showed that GCS scores accounted for 40% of the variance in memory/processing speed. No significant predictive effects were found for the other three variables. GCS classification at the time of TBI seems to correspond moderately to the severity of memory/processing speed dysfunctions.

Conclusions: The present study demonstrated that admission GCS score is a robust predictor of memory/processing speed dysfunctions after TBI. The results should be replicated with a large sample of patients with TBI, or be extended by examining other potential clinical predictors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/129796DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4022287PMC
February 2015

Reduced WWOX protein expression in human astrocytoma.

Neuropathology 2013 Dec 16;33(6):621-7. Epub 2013 May 16.

School of Medicine, Poznan University, Poznan, Poland.

The WW domain-containing oxidoreductase (WWOX) functions as a tumor suppressor by interacting with various proteins in numerous important signaling pathways. WWOX silencing via homozygous deletion of its locus and/or promoter hypermethylation has been observed in various human cancers. However, the relationship between WWOX and tumors in the central nervous system has not been fully explored. In this study, the expression levels of WWOX protein in astrocytomas from 38 patients with different tumor grades were retrospectively analyzed by immunohistochemical staining. The results showed that 19 (50.0%) samples had highly reduced WWOX protein expression when compared with normal controls, while 14 (36.8%) and five (13.2%) cases exhibited moderate and mild decreases in WWOX expression, respectively. Reduction of the expression of WWOX protein correlated with patient age, supra-tentorial localization of the tumor and severity of the symptoms. Furthermore, loss of WWOX expression inversely correlated with survival time. No significant correlation was observed between the loss of WWOX expression and the gender of patients or the difference in pre-operative and post-operative karnofsky performance status scores. Surprisingly, there was no significant correlation between the loss of WWOX protein expression and overall tumor grades. Nevertheless, it was found that 63.6% (7/11) of the grade II astrocytomas had highly reduced WWOX expression and 36.4% (4/11) showed moderately reduced WWOX expression, while none of the samples exhibited mild reductions. Similar results were also found in grade III astrocytomas. The results from this small-size sample pilot study suggest that the loss of WWOX expression may be an early event in the pathogenesis of human astrocytoma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/neup.12040DOI Listing
December 2013

Attenuation of cerebral vasospasm following experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage by the bronchodilator KMUP-3.

Acta Neurochir Suppl 2013 ;115:239-46

Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Poznan, Poland.

Delayed cerebral vasospasm is a main cause of morbidity and mortality as well as poor outcome in patients following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). In this study, the effect of the bronchodilator KMUP-3 (7-[2-[4-(4-nitrobenzene)piperazinyl]ethyl]-1,3-dimethylxanthine) on basilar artery narrowing, neurological outcome, and expression of rhoA/rho kinase II (ROCKII), rhoA, and protein kinase C (PKC) γ proteins were evaluated in a rat model of SAH. SAH was induced by double injection of autologous blood into the cistern magna on days 0 and 3. KMUP-3 was administered (0.3 mg/kg/day) by osmotic minipumps implanted subcutaneously (beginning day -3 in pretreatment group and at 1 h after the initiation of the first autologous blood injection in the treatment group). Neurological outcome was assessed by ambulation and placing/stepping reflex responses at 48 h after the second injection of autologous blood. Tissue morphology and protein expression were conducted on day 7 post-day 0 injection. Both KMUP-3 treatment regimens significantly improved neurological outcome and completely attenuated basilar artery narrowing as well as reduced the enhancement of ROCKII, rhoA, and PKCγ protein expression in rats subjected to SAH, compared with normal and untreated SAH rats. These results suggest that KMUP-3 may be a novel agent for the treatment of cerebral vasospasm following SAH.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-7091-1192-5_43DOI Listing
December 2012

Assisted peripheral nerve recovery by KMUP-1, an activator of large-conductance Ca(2+)-activated potassium channel, in a rat model of sciatic nerve crush injury.

Acta Neurochir (Wien) 2012 Oct 8;154(10):1773-9. Epub 2012 Jul 8.

Institute of Clinical Medicine, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan.

Background: Axonal regeneration in peripheral nerves after injury is a complicated process. Numerous cytokines, growth factors, channels, kinases, and receptors are involved, and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) has been implicated in the pathogenesis subsequent to nerve injury. In this study, the effect of KMUP-1, an activator of large-conductance Ca(2+)-activated potassium channel, on functional recovery, myelinated axon growth, and immunoreactivity of MMP-9 was evaluated in rats subjected to sciatic nerve crush injury.

Method: A total of 144 male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into the following six groups (n = 24/group): group 1, sham-operated; group 2, sciatic nerve injury without treatment; group 3, injured and vehicle-treated; group 4, injured and treated with 1 mM KMUP-1 by topical application; group 5, injured and treated with 10 mM KMUP-1; group 6, injured and treated with 50 mM KMUP-1. Functional recovery was evaluated using walking track analysis at 1, 2, 3, and 4 weeks (n = 6/group at each time point) after injury. In addition, the number of myelinated axons and MMP-9 in the nerve was also examined.

Findings: Animals subjected to sciatic nerve crush injury had decreased motor function, a reduced number of myelinated axons, and increased MMP-9 in the nerve. Treatment with KMUP-1 concentration-dependently improved functional recovery, increased the number of myelinated axons, and decreased MMP-9.

Conclusions: These results suggest that KMUP-1 may be a novel agent for assisting peripheral nerve recovery after injury. The beneficial effect is probably due to known ability of the compound in activating the nitric oxide/cGMP/protein kinase G pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00701-012-1433-yDOI Listing
October 2012

Functional neuroprotective effect of CGS 26303, a dual ECE inhibitor, on ischemic-reperfusion spinal cord injury in rats.

Exp Biol Med (Maywood) 2007 Feb;232(2):214-8

Department of Anesthesiology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital-Kaohsiung Medical Center, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Taiwan.

Endothelin-1 (ET-1) has been implicated in many neurological diseases, including subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and cerebral ischemia. ET-1 is also proved to deteriorate the ischemia-reperfusion injury in many organs. Our previous studies demonstrated that the endothelin-converting enzyme (ECE) inhibitor, CGS 26303, possessed beneficial effects for the treatment of SAH and transient middle cerebral artery occlusion. In this study, we investigated the neuroprotective effect of CGS 26303 on the locomotor function and mRNA expression of heme-oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in rats subjected to a 15-min spinal cord ischemia. The results showed that pretreatment with CGS 26303 significantly preserved the locomotor function and decreased the paraplegia rate at Days 1 and 3 as compared with a saline-treated group. Furthermore, rats pretreated with CGS 26303 had a significant increase in the levels of HO-1 mRNA expression at Day 3 when compared with animals pretreated with saline after spinal cord ischemia and the sham operation group. These results suggest that CGS 26303 may have a promising neuroprotective effect in the spinal cord after ischemia-reperfusion injury, and beneficial result may be due to an adaptive mechanism involved by HO-1 overexpression.
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February 2007

Endothelin-converting enzyme inhibitors for the treatment of subarachnoid hemorrhage-induced vasospasm.

Neurol Res 2006 Oct;28(7):721-9

Department of Neurosurgery, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, Republic of China.

A burgeoning body of evidence suggests that endothelin-1 (ET-1), the most potent endogenous vasoconstrictor yet identified, may be critical in the pathophysiology of various cardiovascular diseases. The ET system may also be implicated in the pathogenesis of cerebral vasospasm after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Clinical studies have shown that the levels of ET-1 are increased in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients following SAH, suggesting that ET-1-mediated vasoconstriction plays a major role in the development of vasospasm after SAH. The potential involvement of ETs in SAH-induced vasospasm has triggered considerable interest in developing therapeutic strategies that inhibit the biologic effects of ET. One promising approach to block the biosynthesis of ETs is suppressing the proteolytic conversion of the precursor peptide (big ET-1) to its vasoactive form (ET-1) using metalloprotease as endothelin-converting enzyme (ECE) inhibitor. To date, three types of ECE-1 inhibitors have been synthesized: dual ECE-1/neutral endopeptidase 24.11 (NEP) inhibitors, triple ECE-1/NEP/angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and selective ECE-1 inhibitors. The therapeutic effects of ECE-1 inhibitors on the prevention and reversal of SAH-induced vasospasm in animal studies are reviewed and discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1179/016164106X152007DOI Listing
October 2006

Prevention and reversal of vasospasm and ultrastructural changes in basilar artery by continuous infusion of CGS 35066 following subarachnoid hemorrhage.

Exp Biol Med (Maywood) 2006 Jun;231(6):1069-74

Department of Neurosurgery, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, No.100, Tzyou 1st Road, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, Republic of China.

Endothelin-1, a potent vasoconstrictive peptide, has been implicated in the pathogenesis of cerebral vasospasm following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The goal of this study was to evaluate the effect of continuous intravenous infusion of a highly selective endothelin-converting enzyme-1 inhibitor, CGS 35066, on the prevention and reversal of cerebral vasospasm following SAH. New Zealand white rabbits were subjected to SAH by injecting autologous arterial blood into the cisterna magna. Infusion of CGS 35066 at dosages of 1, 3, or 10 mg/kg/ day was initiated either 1 hr and 24 hrs later in the prevention and reversal protocols, respectively. Animals were sacrificed by perfusion-fixation 48 hrs after SAH induction. The cross-sectional areas of basilar arteries were measured using computer-assisted videomicroscopy. Ultrastructural changes in basilar arteries were determined using electron microscopy. CGS 35066 significantly prevented and reversed the arterial narrowing after SAH in all three groups. The mean cross-sectional areas of arteries from animals in both the prevention and reversal protocol groups that received 10 mg/kg/day of CGS 35066 did not differ significantly from those of the healthy controls. Histological studies of the basilar artery in the 10 mg/kg/day treatment group did not show pathomorphological changes, such as corrugation of the endothelium seen at 2 days after SAH induction or vacuole formation in the endothelial cells noted in the vehicle-treated SAH group. These findings suggest that CGS 35066 is a promising therapeutic agent for the prevention and reversal of cerebral vasospasm after SAH. It also prevents the pathological changes in vascular walls due to SAH.
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June 2006