Publications by authors named "William Reagan"

34 Publications

The use of emerging safety biomarkers in nonclinical and clinical safety assessment - The current and future state: An IQ DruSafe industry survey.

Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 2021 Mar 31;120:104857. Epub 2020 Dec 31.

GlaxoSmithKline, 1250 S. Collegeville Rd, Collegeville, PA, USA. Electronic address:

Pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies rarely disclose their use of translational emerging safety biomarkers (ESBs) during drug development, and the impact of ESB use on the speed of drug development remains unclear. A cross-industry survey of 20 companies of varying size was conducted to understand current trends in ESB use and future use prospects. The objectives were to: (1) determine current ESB use in nonclinical and clinical drug development and impact on asset advancement; (2) identify opportunities, gaps, and challenges to greater ESB implementation; and (3) benchmark perspectives on regulatory acceptance. Although ESBs were employed in only 5-50% of studies/programs, most companies used ESBs to some extent, with larger companies demonstrating greater nonclinical use. Inclusion of ESBs in investigational new drug applications (INDs) was similar across all companies; however, differences in clinical trial usage could vary among the prevailing health authority (HA). Broader implementation of ESBs requires resource support, cross-industry partnerships, and collaboration with HAs. This includes generating sufficient foundational data, demonstrating nonclinical to clinical translatability and practical utility, and clearly written criteria by HAs to enable qualification. If achieved, ESBs will play a critical role in the development of next-generation, translationally-tailored standard laboratory tests for drug development.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yrtph.2020.104857DOI Listing
March 2021

Evaluation of Rat Acute Phase Proteins as Inflammatory Biomarkers for Vaccine Nonclinical Safety Studies.

Toxicol Pathol 2020 10 12;48(7):845-856. Epub 2020 Oct 12.

105623Pfizer Inc, Worldwide Research Development and Medical, Drug Safety Research and Development, Pearl River, NY, USA.

The objectives were to characterize the kinetics of acute phase proteins (APPs) α-2 macroglobulin (A2M), α-1 acid glycoprotein (A1AGP), and fibrinogen (FIB), and injection site macroscopic and microscopic findings following intramuscular administration of tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis vaccine (TDaP; Adacel); adjuvants (aluminum phosphate [AlPO]; aluminum hydroxide, Al[OH]; CpG/Al[OH]; or Quillaja saponaria 21 [QS-21]); or saline to female Wistar Han rats. Intravascular lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was a positive control. Injection sites and lymph nodes were evaluated microscopically, using hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stained sections, 48 hours postdose (HPD) and compared with APP concentrations; A2M and A1AGP were measured using Meso Scale Discovery analyzer. Fibrinogen was measured on STA Compact analyzer. In a time-course study, APP peaked at 24 or 48 HPD. In a subsequent study at 48 HPD, injection site microscopic changes included inflammation and muscle degeneration/necrosis, which was different in severity/nature between groups. The APPs were not increased in rats administered saline, Al(OH), or AlPO. Fibrinogen and A1AGP increased in rats administered CpG/Al(OH), QS-21, or TDaP; and A2M increased in rats administered QS-21. Fibrinogen, A2M, and A1AGP increased after LPS administration. Acute phase proteins can be used to monitor inflammatory responses to adjuvants; however, some adjuvants may induce inflammation without higher APPs.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0192623320957281DOI Listing
October 2020

De novo lipogenesis is essential for platelet production in humans.

Nat Metab 2020 10 14;2(10):1163-1178. Epub 2020 Sep 14.

Internal Medicine Research Unit, Pfizer Worldwide Research and Development, Cambridge, MA, USA.

Acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) catalyses the first step of de novo lipogenesis (DNL). Pharmacologic inhibition of ACC has been of interest for therapeutic intervention in a wide range of diseases. We demonstrate here that ACC and DNL are essential for platelet production in humans and monkeys, but in not rodents or dogs. During clinical evaluation of a systemically distributed ACC inhibitor, unexpected dose-dependent reductions in platelet count were observed. While platelet count reductions were not observed in rat and dog toxicology studies, subsequent studies in cynomolgus monkeys recapitulated these platelet count reductions with a similar concentration response to that in humans. These studies, along with ex vivo human megakaryocyte maturation studies, demonstrate that platelet lowering is a consequence of DNL inhibition likely to result in impaired megakaryocyte demarcation membrane formation. These observations demonstrate that while DNL is a minor quantitative contributor to global lipid balance in humans, DNL is essential to specific lipid pools of physiological importance.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s42255-020-00272-9DOI Listing
October 2020

Confounding Factors in the Interpretation of Preclinical Studies.

Int J Toxicol 2019 May/Jun;38(3):228-234. Epub 2019 Apr 11.

4 Experimental Pathology Laboratories, Sterling, VA, USA.

A number of issues may arise during the conduct of a study which can complicate interpretation of in vitro and in vivo datasets. Speakers discussed the implications of differing interpretations and how to avoid complicating factors during study planning and execution. Consideration needs to be given to study design factors including defining objectives, consideration of expected pharmacological effects, dose selection and drug kinetics, species used, and vehicle selection. In addition, the effects of vivarium temperature effects on various endpoints, how to control variables affecting clinical pathology, and how early death animals, common background findings, and artifacts can affect histopathology interpretation all play into the final interpretation of study data.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1091581819837157DOI Listing
January 2020

Effects of Monoclonal Antibodies against Nerve Growth Factor on Healthy Bone and Joint Tissues in Mice, Rats, and Monkeys: Histopathologic, Biomarker, and Microcomputed Tomographic Assessments.

Toxicol Pathol 2018 06 16;46(4):408-420. Epub 2018 May 16.

3 Drug Safety Research and Development, Pfizer Inc., San Diego, California, USA.

Tanezumab, an anti-nerve growth factor (NGF) antibody, is in development for management of chronic pain. During clinical trials of anti-NGF antibodies, some patients reported unexpected adverse events requiring total joint replacements, resulting in a partial clinical hold on all NGF inhibitors. Three nonclinical toxicology studies were conducted to evaluate the effects of tanezumab or the murine precursor muMab911 on selected bone and joint endpoints and biomarkers in cynomolgus monkeys, Sprague-Dawley rats, and C57BL/6 mice. Joint and bone endpoints included histology, immunohistochemistry, microcomputed tomography (mCT) imaging, and serum biomarkers of bone physiology. Responses of bone endpoints to tanezumab were evaluated in monkeys at 4 to 30 mg/kg/week for 26 weeks and in rats at 0.2 to 10 mg/kg twice weekly for 28 days. The effects of muMab911 at 10 mg/kg/week for 12 weeks on selected bone endpoints were determined in mice. Tanezumab and muMab911 had no adverse effects on any bone or joint parameter. There were no test article-related effects on bone or joint histology, immunohistochemistry, or structure. Reversible, higher osteocalcin concentrations occurred only in the rat study. No deleterious effects were observed in joints or bones in monkeys, rats, or mice administered high doses of tanezumab or muMab911.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0192623318772501DOI Listing
June 2018

Therapeutic Effects of FGF23 c-tail Fc in a Murine Preclinical Model of X-Linked Hypophosphatemia Via the Selective Modulation of Phosphate Reabsorption.

J Bone Miner Res 2017 Oct 25;32(10):2062-2073. Epub 2017 Aug 25.

Center for Therapeutic Innovation, Pfizer, New York, NY, USA.

Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) is the causative factor of X-linked hypophosphatemia (XLH), a genetic disorder effecting 1:20,000 that is characterized by excessive phosphate excretion, elevated FGF23 levels and a rickets/osteomalacia phenotype. FGF23 inhibits phosphate reabsorption and suppresses 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25D) biosynthesis, analytes that differentially contribute to bone integrity and deleterious soft-tissue mineralization. As inhibition of ligand broadly modulates downstream targets, balancing efficacy and unwanted toxicity is difficult when targeting the FGF23 pathway. We demonstrate that a FGF23 c-tail-Fc fusion molecule selectively modulates the phosphate pathway in vivo by competitive antagonism of FGF23 binding to the FGFR/α klotho receptor complex. Repeated injection of FGF23 c-tail Fc in Hyp mice, a preclinical model of XLH, increases cell surface abundance of kidney NaPi transporters, normalizes phosphate excretion, and significantly improves bone architecture in the absence of soft-tissue mineralization. Repeated injection does not modulate either 1,25D or calcium in a physiologically relevant manner in either a wild-type or disease setting. These data suggest that bone integrity can be improved in models of XLH via the exclusive modulation of phosphate. We posit that the selective modulation of the phosphate pathway will increase the window between efficacy and safety risks, allowing increased efficacy to be achieved in the treatment of this chronic disease. © 2017 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jbmr.3197DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5816679PMC
October 2017

Inflammatory Cell Findings in the Female Rabbit Heart and Stress-associated Exacerbation with Handling and Procedures Used in Nonclinical Studies.

Toxicol Pathol 2017 04 28;45(3):416-426. Epub 2017 Mar 28.

1 Drug Safety Research and Development, Pfizer Inc., Pearl River, New York, USA.

Despite the use of rabbits in biomedical research, including regulatory toxicology and cardiovascular studies, little data exist on heart findings in this species. This study was designed to document myocardial findings in female rabbits and the impact of study-related procedures typical for vaccine toxicology studies. One hundred and forty 6- to 8-month-old female New Zealand White rabbits were divided equally into 2 groups, high and low study procedure groups (group 1 and group 2, respectively). All animals received intramuscular (IM) injections of sterile saline every 2 weeks for 5 times and were necropsied 2 days after the final IM injection. Clinical chemistry, hematology, and urinalysis were evaluated. Blood for stress biomarkers (norepinephrine, epinephrine, cortisol, and corticosterone), C-reactive protein, cardiac troponin I, and creatine kinase were collected at time 0 (just before dose administration) and then at 4, 24, and 48 hr after dose administration in group 1 only. Hearts were assessed histologically. Focal to multifocal minimal inflammatory cell infiltrates were common (∼80%), particularly in the left ventricle and interventricular septum, and were similar to the types of infiltrates identified in other laboratory animal species. Additionally, study-related procedures elevated serum stress biomarkers and exacerbated the frequency and severity of myocardial inflammatory cell infiltrates.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0192623317700519DOI Listing
April 2017

Principles for Assessing Adversity in Toxicologic Clinical Pathology.

Toxicol Pathol 2017 02 5;45(2):260-266. Epub 2017 Jan 5.

9 GlaxoSmithKline, King of Prussia, Pennsylvania, USA.

There is limited direction in the literature or regulatory guidance on determination of adversity for clinical pathology (CP) biomarkers in preclinical safety studies. Toxicologic clinical pathologists representing the American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology-Regulatory Affairs Committee and Society of Toxicologic Pathology-Clinical Pathology Interest Group identified principles, overall approach, and unique considerations for assessing adversity in CP data interpretation to provide a consensus opinion. Emphasized is the need for pathophysiologic context and a weight-of-evidence approach. Most CP biomarkers do not have the potential to be adverse in isolation, regardless of magnitude of change. Rather, they quantify or describe the impact of effects, provide adjunct or supportive information regarding a process or pathogenesis, and provide translational biomarkers of effect. Most often, CP changes are part of a constellation of findings that collectively are adverse. Thus, most CP changes must be interpreted in conjunction with other study findings and require contextual and integrative interpretation. Exceptions include critical CP changes without correlates that indicate a health risk in the tested species. Overall, CP changes should not be interpreted in isolation and their adversity is best addressed with an integrated approach.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0192623316681646DOI Listing
February 2017

Liver Microvascular Injury and Thrombocytopenia of Antibody-Calicheamicin Conjugates in Cynomolgus Monkeys-Mechanism and Monitoring.

Clin Cancer Res 2017 Apr 28;23(7):1760-1770. Epub 2016 Sep 28.

Drug Safety Research and Development, Pfizer Inc., Groton, Connecticut.

Adverse reactions reported in patients treated with antibody-calicheamicin conjugates such as gemtuzumab ozogamicin (Mylotarg) and inotuzumab ozogamicin include thrombocytopenia and sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (SOS). The objective of this experimental work was to investigate the mechanism for thrombocytopenia, characterize the liver injury, and identify potential safety biomarkers. Cynomolgus monkeys were dosed intravenously at 6 mg/m/dose once every 3 weeks with a nonbinding antibody-calicheamicin conjugate (PF-0259) containing the same linker-payload as gemtuzumab ozogamicin and inotuzumab ozogamicin. Monkeys were necropsied 48 hours after the first administration (day 3) or 3 weeks after the third administration (day 63). PF-0259 induced acute thrombocytopenia (up to 86% platelet reduction) with nadirs on days 3 to 4. There was no indication of effects on megakaryocytes in bone marrow or activation of platelets in peripheral blood. Microscopic evaluation of liver from animals necropsied on day 3 demonstrated midzonal degeneration and loss of sinusoidal endothelial cells (SECs) associated with marked platelet accumulation in sinusoids. Liver histopathology on day 63 showed variable endothelial recovery and progression to a combination of sinusoidal capillarization and sinusoidal dilation/hepatocellular atrophy, consistent with early SOS. Among biomarkers evaluated, there were early and sustained increases in serum hyaluronic acid (HA) that correlated well with serum aspartate aminotransferase and liver microscopic changes, suggesting that HA may be a sensitive diagnostic marker of the liver microvascular injury. These data support the conclusion that target-independent damage to liver SECs may be responsible for acute thrombocytopenia (through platelet sequestration in liver sinusoids) and development of SOS. .
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-16-0939DOI Listing
April 2017

Evaluation of Cardiac Toxicity Biomarkers in Rats from Different Laboratories.

Toxicol Pathol 2016 12 28;44(8):1072-1083. Epub 2016 Sep 28.

1 SRI International, Menlo Park, California, USA.

There is a great need for improved diagnostic and prognostic accuracy of potential cardiac toxicity in drug development. This study reports the evaluation of several commercially available biomarker kits by 3 institutions (SRI, Eli Lilly, and Pfizer) for the discrimination between myocardial degeneration/necrosis and cardiac hypertrophy as well as the assessment of the interlaboratory and interplatform variation in results. Serum concentrations of natriuretic peptides (N-terminal pro-atrial natriuretic peptide [NT-proANP] and N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide [NT-proBNP]), cardiac and skeletal troponins (cTnI, cTnT, and sTnI), myosin light chain 3 (Myl3), and fatty acid binding protein 3 (FABP3) were assessed in rats treated with minoxidil (MNX) and isoproterenol (ISO). MNX caused increased heart-to-body weight ratios and prominent elevations in NT-proANP and NT-proBNP concentrations detected at 24-hr postdose without elevation in troponins, Myl3, or FABP3 and with no abnormal histopathological findings. ISO caused ventricular leukocyte infiltration, myocyte fibrosis, and necrosis with increased concentrations of the natriuretic peptides, cardiac troponins, and Myl3. These results reinforce the advantages of a multimarker strategy in elucidating the underlying cause of cardiac insult and detecting myocardial tissue damage at 24-hr posttreatment. The interlaboratory and interplatform comparison analyses also showed that the data obtained from different laboratories and platforms are highly correlated and reproducible, making these biomarkers widely applicable in preclinical studies.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0192623316668276DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5330931PMC
December 2016

Assessment of Cardiac Troponin I Responses in Nonhuman Primates during Restraint, Blood Collection, and Dosing in Preclinical Safety Studies.

Toxicol Pathol 2017 02 20;45(2):335-343. Epub 2016 Aug 20.

1 Drug Safety Research and Development, Pfizer Global Research and Development, Groton, Connecticut, USA.

Limited information has been published on the use of cardiac troponin I (cTnI) as a biomarker of cardiac injury in monkeys. The purpose of these studies was to characterize the cTnI response seen in cynomolgus macaques during routine dosing and blood collection procedures typically used in preclinical safety studies and to better understand the pathogenesis of this response. We measured cTnI using two different methods, the Siemens Immulite cTnI assay and the more sensitive Siemens Troponin I-Ultra assay. We were able to demonstrate that after oral, subcutaneous, or intravenous dosing of common vehicles, as well as serial chair restraint for venipuncture blood collection, that minimal to mild transient increases in cTnI could be detected in monkeys with both assays. cTnI values typically peaked at 2, 3, 4, or 6 hr after sham dosing and returned to baseline at 22 or 24 hr. In addition, marked increases in heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) occurred in monkeys during the restraint procedures, which likely initiated the cTnI release in these animals. Monkeys that were very well acclimated to the chairing procedures and had vascular access ports for blood sampling did not have marked increases in HRs and BP or increases in cTnI.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0192623316663865DOI Listing
February 2017

Evaluation of urinary corticosterone as a biomarker of stress in rats using fenitrothion as a chemical stressor.

J Immunotoxicol 2016 05 19;13(3):386-92. Epub 2015 Nov 19.

a Drug Safety Research and Development, Pfizer Global Research and Development , Groton , CT , USA.

Regulatory guidelines for pharmaceutical toxicity studies recommend using one dose near the maximum tolerated. At that level significant toxicities may occur, leading to systemic stress and secondary immune suppression which can be difficult to differentiate from a primary drug effect. Therefore, there is a need for a biomarker of stress applicable to toxicity studies. This study evaluated urinary corticosterone as a biomarker, using as a pharmacologic stressor fenitrothion, which was previously shown not to cause primary immune suppression. Rats were administered fenitrothion orally at 20 and 30 mg/kg daily for 2 or 8 days, with matched vehicle controls (n = 6/group). Urine was collected for 6 and 24 h, before treatment and on Day 2 and Day 8. Urine was assayed for corticosterone, separately for the first 6 h of collection and for the whole 24 h sample. Animals were euthanized on Day 3 or Day 9 and lymphoid tissue samples were collected, weighed and examined histologically. Treated rats showed neurologic signs following treatment. Findings also included time- and dose-dependent decreases in body weight and spleen and thymus weight decreases supra-proportional to body weight on Day 9. Histologic changes were mild at a dose of 20 mg/kg, but significant at 30 mg/kg, consisting of lymphocytolysis at Day 3 and lymphoid depletion at Day 9. Urine corticosterone levels were increased on Day 2 and Day 8, in the 6-h samples, but not the 24-h ones, at both dose levels. Based on the results, urine corticosterone appears to be a sensitive biomarker of systemic stress caused by fenitrothion. Other chemical stressors should be evaluated in a similar manner in order to fully validate urine corticosterone measurement as a stress biomarker.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/1547691X.2015.1106623DOI Listing
May 2016

Cross-laboratory analytical validation of the cardiac biomarker NT-proANP in rat.

J Pharmacol Toxicol Methods 2016 Jan-Feb;77:58-65. Epub 2015 Oct 26.

GlaxoSmithKline, RTP, NC, USA.

Introduction: Natriuretic peptides, including N-terminal-proatrial natriuretic peptide (NT-proANP) are cardiac hormones that are produced in response to myocardial stretch and have been used in rats and humans as blood based functional cardiac biomarkers. There are limited validation data of these assays in rats and therefore the Predictive Safety Testing Consortium, Cardiac Hypertrophy Working Group (PSTC-CHWG) performed a cross-laboratory (5 laboratories) analytical evaluation of a commercially available NT-proANP ELISA for use with rat samples.

Methods: Serum samples were collected from normal Sprague Dawley (SD) rats and were spiked with kit calibrator material or rat heart tissue extracts to provide specimens for the validation. In addition, the cardiotoxicant, isoproterenol, was used to induce elevated endogenous NT-proANP levels in a subgroup of rats for additional validation specimens. The Biomedica™ (BI-20892, Vienna, Austria) proANP (1-98) enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay (ELISA) kit was used to measure NT-proANP. Intra-assay and inter-assay precisions, accuracy, sample linearity, recovery, limit of detection, upper and lower limits of quantitation (ULOQ and LLOQ, respectively), sample-freeze/thaw stability and stored sample stability were assessed and compared to pre-determined acceptance criteria.

Results: The majority of the experimental assessments met the established validation criteria, however there were individual results that did not meet these standards. Overall, acceptable intra- and inter-assay precisions and accuracies as well as inter-laboratory precision and accuracy were demonstrated. Linearity and recovery values fell within the pre-determined acceptance criteria, samples remained stable for up to three freeze-thaw cycles and frozen samples were stable at ~-70 °C for 12 months. The limit of detection (LOD) and LLOQ and ULOQ were similar to those specified by the manufacturer.

Discussion: Overall, the assay was demonstrated to be technically adequate for the detection of NT-proANP serum levels in SD rats.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vascn.2015.10.002DOI Listing
September 2016

Toxicities associated with 1-month treatment with propylthiouracil (PTU) and methimazole (MMI) in male rats.

Toxicol Pathol 2014 Aug 25;42(6):970-83. Epub 2013 Sep 25.

Pfizer Inc., Groton, Connecticut, USA.

Thionamides such as propylthiouracil (PTU) and methimazole (MMI) have been used for more than 50 years to treat the more common causes of thyrotoxicosis/hyperthyroidism such as Graves' disease. Serious adverse effects associated with thionamides in humans include idiosyncratic liver damage, agranulocytosis, aplastic anemia, and vasculitis. Both prospective and retrospective clinical studies with these drugs have failed to identify predictive biomarker for these adverse effects. To assess whether rat is a good model for predicting drug-related adverse events in the liver and in the bone marrow, we conducted a comprehensive study in male rats with multiple doses of PTU and MMI. As expected, euthyroid animals became hypothyroid along with several secondary changes associated with hypothyroidism. There were slight reductions in red blood cell parameters along with some marginal effects on the bone marrow elements. However, there was no evidence of significant neutropenia and liver injury in both PTU-treated and MMI-treated cohorts. MMI-related effects were noted in the seminiferous tubules of the testes. Overall, 1-month daily treatment of euthyroid rats with PTU or MMI resulted in hypothyroidism, minor bone marrow effects, and several secondary effects associated with hypothyroidism, but without any evidence of adverse effects reported in humans including liver injury and agranulocytosis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0192623313502708DOI Listing
August 2014

The American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology Regulatory Affairs Committee's clinical pathology best practices recommendations will impact the discipline of veterinary toxicologic clinical pathology.

Authors:
William J Reagan

Vet Clin Pathol 2013 Sep;42(3):247-9

Pfizer Worldwide Research and Development, Drug Safety Research and Development, Groton, CT, USA.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/vcp.12075DOI Listing
September 2013

Comparison of cardiac troponin I and T, including the evaluation of an ultrasensitive assay, as indicators of doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity.

Toxicol Pathol 2013 26;41(8):1146-58. Epub 2013 Mar 26.

1Pfizer Global Research Development, Groton, Connecticut, USA.

Cardiac troponin (cTn) has been utilized to assess acute myocardial injury, but the cTn response in active/ongoing chronic injury is not well documented. The purpose of this study was to characterize the cardiac troponin I (cTnI), cardiac troponin T (cTnT), high-sensitivity cTnI, hematology, and clinical chemistry responses in rats treated with doxorubicin. Rats treated with 1, 2, or 3 mg/kg/week (wk) of doxorubicin for 2, 4, or 6 wks were sacrificed after 0, 2, or 4 wks of recovery and compared to untreated controls and animals treated with doxorubicin/dexrazoxane (50 mg/kg/wk) or etoposide (1 and 3 mg/kg/wk). The incidence and mean magnitude of cTn response increased with increasing dose and/or duration of doxorubicin treatment. Conversely, dexrazoxane/doxorubicin was partially protective for cardiotoxicity, and minimal cardiotoxicity occurred with etoposide treatment. Both cTnI and cTnT effectively identified doxorubicin-induced injury as indicated by vacuolation of cardiomyocytes of the atria/ventricles. The association between the cTn responses and histological changes was greater at the higher total exposures, but the magnitude of cTn response did not match closely with histologic grade. The high-sensitivity cTnI assay was also effective in identifying cardiac injury. Alterations occurred in the hematology and clinical chemistry parameters and reflected both dose and duration of doxorubicin treatment.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0192623313482056DOI Listing
August 2014

Summary of the HESI consortium studies exploring circulating inhibin B as a potential biomarker of testis damage in the rat.

Birth Defects Res B Dev Reprod Toxicol 2013 Feb 30;98(1):110-8. Epub 2013 Jan 30.

Pfizer Drug Safety Research and Development, Groton, CT 06340, USA.

The Developmental and Reproductive Toxicity Technical Committee of the Health and Environmental Sciences Institute hosted a working consortium of companies to evaluate a new commercially available analytic assay for Inhibin B in rat serum or plasma. After demonstrating that the kit was stable and robust, the group performed a series of independent pathogenesis studies (23 different compound/investigator combinations) designed to examine the correlation between the appearance of lesions in the testis and changes in circulating levels of Inhibin B. These studies were reported individually in the previous articles in this series (this issue), and are discussed in this paper. For roughly half of these exposures, lesions appeared well before Inhibin B changed. A few of the studies showed a good correlation between seminiferous tubule damage and reduced circulating Inhibin B levels, while for seven exposures, circulating Inhibin B was reduced with no detectable alteration in testis histology. Whether this indicates a prodromal response or a false-positive signal will require further investigation. These exceptions could plausibly suggest some value of circulating Inhibin B as a useful biomarker in some circumstances. However, for roughly half of these exposures, Inhibin B appeared to be a lagging biomarker, requiring significant damage to the seminiferous tubules before a consistent and credible reduction in circulating levels of Inhibin B was observed.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bdrb.21041DOI Listing
February 2013

Analytic evaluation of a human ELISA kit for measurement of inhibin B in rat samples.

Birth Defects Res B Dev Reprod Toxicol 2013 Feb 24;98(1):4-16. Epub 2013 Jan 24.

AstraZeneca Research & Development, Global Safety Assessment, Alderley Park, Macclesfield, United Kingdom.

Background: A cross-laboratory analytic evaluation of a commercially available human inhibin B ELISA for measuring inhibin B in rat serum and plasma has been undertaken.

Methods: Dilution linearity, spiked recovery, intra- and inter-assay precision, functional sensitivity, matrix effects, and frozen stability were assessed across five laboratories. Reference ranges were generated for male Sprague Dawley and Han Wistar rats.

Results: Acceptable performance was defined as an overall assay coefficient of variation ≤ 20% with an intraday LLOQ ≤ 20 pg/ml. Intra- and inter-assay precision and functional sensitivity (≤6.4 pg/ml) generally met these criteria, but with occasional evidence of greater variability, particularly at lower concentrations. Dilution linearity was acceptable with occasional low recovery. Acceptable recovery of kit calibrators from rat serum confirmed the absence of matrix effects. Matched serum and plasma samples gave comparable results. The signal increased on freezing, remained constant for ≥3 freeze-thaw cycles and was generally stable for at least 8 weeks. Mean inhibin B ranged from 33.5 to 140.6 pg/ml in adult rats across laboratories, with some evidence for a decline from 6 to 9 weeks of age. Power calculations using preliminary reference range data indicated 10 animals/group would generally detect a 40% decrease in inhibin B at AstraZeneca, but laboratories with lower control values would require larger groups.

Conclusions: The assay meets the analytical performance criteria; however, precision at the low end of the standard curve, biological variability, and low control values observed in some laboratories indicate that the utility of the assay may be limited in some laboratories.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bdrb.21047DOI Listing
February 2013

The inhibin B response in male rats treated with two drug candidates.

Birth Defects Res B Dev Reprod Toxicol 2013 Feb 24;98(1):54-62. Epub 2013 Jan 24.

Developmental and Reproductive Toxicology Group, Drug Safety Research and Development, Pfizer Global R&D, Groton, CT 06340, USA.

Background: Serum Inhibin B was measured in two studies of known testis-toxic drug candidates.

Methods And Results: Study 1 was for a compound for Hepatitis C, and utilized a 10-week dosing period, followed by mating and necropsy of half of each group, and then a 12-week recovery period for the remaining animals. At the postmating necropsy, 6 of 15 high-dose males had testis lesions; Inhibin B was significantly reduced in all animals in that group. The mid-dose group had no lesions but significantly reduced serum Inhibin B. At recovery, 9 of 15 high-dose males showed damage in testes; serum Inhibin B levels were not different from controls. Inhibin B appeared to both overreport and underreport testis damage in Study 1. Study 2 was an acute pathogenesis study for an antibacterial compound, using control and two dose levels and multiple time points (days 5, 8, 15, 22, and then untreated until day 71). At each time point blood was sampled from all remaining rats and five/group were killed for histologic evaluation. The low-dose group had minimal to moderate lesions, while serum Inhibin B was never changed. The high-dose animals progressed quickly from minimal lesions to being broadly and moderately affected; serum Inhibin B levels were reduced at days 8 and 15 only. In Study 2, Inhibin B appeared less sensitive than histology, except at the extremes of testis damage, when Inhibin B was routinely low.

Conclusion: We conclude that in these two studies there was a poor correlation between changes in serum levels of Inhibin B and testis histopathology.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bdrb.21040DOI Listing
February 2013

Metabolic adaptive ALT isoenzyme response in livers of C57/BL6 mice treated with dexamethasone.

Toxicol Pathol 2012 Dec 18;40(8):1117-27. Epub 2012 May 18.

Drug Safety Research and Development, Pfizer Worldwide Research and Development, Eastern Point Rd., MS 274/1203, Groton, CT 06340, USA.

Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) is used as an indicator of hepatocellular injury. Since ALT consists of two isoenzymes, a better understanding of ALT isoenzyme biology in response to compounds that cause metabolic adaptive versus hepatotoxic responses will allow for a more accurate assessment of the significance of an ALT increase. The purpose of this study was to characterize the ALT isoenzyme response in mice treated with 25 or 75 mg/kg of dexamethasone, which is known to induce a progluconeogenic state, for 24 or 72 hr. Those mice treated with 75 mg/kg for 72 hr showed an increase in total liver ALT activity. Western blot showed that there was an increase in ALT2 at both doses and time points and there was a concurrent increase in ALT2 ribonucleic acid at 24 and 72 hr. The ALT isoenzyme response assessed by an activity assay showed an increase in ALT2. The increases in liver ALT were associated with an increase in liver glycogen and there was no hepatocellular necrosis. There was an increase in total serum ALT activity, although serum isoenzymes were not evaluated. Thus, the authors demonstrated that dexamethasone induced increases in hepatic and serum ALT, which reflect a hepatocellular progluconeogenic metabolic adaptive response.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0192623312447550DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4540180PMC
December 2012

Best practices for evaluation of bone marrow in nonclinical toxicity studies.

Vet Clin Pathol 2011 Jun;40(2):119-34

Pfizer Global Research and Development, Drug Safety Research and Development, 8274/1203 Eastern Point Rd., Groton, CT 06340, USA.

This manuscript is intended to provide a best practice approach to accurately and consistently assess toxicant-induced bone marrow effects of test articles. In nonclinical toxicity studies, complete blood count data in conjunction with the histological examination of the bone marrow are recommended as the foundation for assessing the effect of test articles on the hematopoietic system. This approach alone can be used successfully in many studies. However, in some situations it may be necessary to further characterize effects on the different hematopoietic lineages, either by cytological or flow cytometric evaluation of the bone marrow. Both modalities can be used successfully, and which one is selected will depend on the expertise, preference of the facility, and the nature of the change in the bone marrow. Other specialized techniques such as clonogenic assays or electron microscopy are used rarely to further characterize hematotoxicity. The indications and techniques to successfully employ histological, cytological, or flow cytometric evaluation as well as clonogenic assays and electron microscopy are reviewed.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1939-165X.2011.00323.xDOI Listing
June 2011

Best practices for evaluation of bone marrow in nonclinical toxicity studies.

Toxicol Pathol 2011 Feb 7;39(2):435-48. Epub 2011 Feb 7.

Pfizer, Inc., Groton, Connecticut, USA.

This manuscript is intended to provide a best practice approach to accurately and consistently assess toxicant-induced bone marrow effects of test articles. In nonclinical toxicity studies, complete blood count data in conjunction with the histological examination of the bone marrow are recommended as the foundation for assessing the effect of test articles on the hematopoietic system. This approach alone can be used successfully in many studies. However, in some situations it may be necessary to further characterize effects on the different hematopoietic lineages, either by cytological or flow cytometric evaluation of the bone marrow. Both modalities can be used successfully, and which one is selected will depend on the expertise, preference of the facility, and the nature of the change in the bone marrow. Other specialized techniques such as clonogenic assays or electron microscopy are used rarely to further characterize hematotoxicity. The indications and techniques to successfully employ histological, cytological, or flow cytometric evaluation as well as clonogenic assays and electron microscopy are reviewed.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0192623310396907DOI Listing
February 2011

Troponin as a biomarker of cardiac toxicity: past, present, and future.

Authors:
William J Reagan

Toxicol Pathol 2010 Dec 30;38(7):1134-7. Epub 2010 Sep 30.

Drug Safety Research and Development, Pfizer Global Research and Development, Groton, Connecticut 06340, USA.

Cardiac troponin (cTn) is a sensitive and specific biomarker for assessing cardiac damage and should be utilized in drug safety assessment. Lactate dehydrogenase and creatine kinase isoenzyme analyses have historically been used in pre-clinical toxicity testing to assess cardiac injury, but since these assays are less sensitive and specific than cTn, isoenzyme analyses, as determined by the manual electrophoretic technique, are no longer warranted. Commercial cTn assays developed for humans do not have the same immunoreactivity and functional sensitivity in the common pre-clinical testing species, so it is important to show that the assay that is chosen is appropriate for the pre-clinical species being assessed. The kinetics of the cTn response depends on the dose and frequency of test article administration as well as the mechanism of the cardiac injury induced by the test article. Cardiac troponin should be used in the assessment of classes of compound that have previously been shown to induce cardiac necrosis or if cardiac necrosis is identified histologically with a novel compound. Next generation high sensitivity cTn assays are being developed and the low levels of cTn detected with these assays may be an early sign of possibly reversible damage to the heart.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0192623310382438DOI Listing
December 2010

A translational approach to detecting drug-induced cardiac injury with cardiac troponins: consensus and recommendations from the Cardiac Troponins Biomarker Working Group of the Health and Environmental Sciences Institute.

Am Heart J 2009 Jul;158(1):21-9

GlaxoSmithKline Safety Assessment, 5 Moore Drive, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA.

Cardiac troponins (cTns) are established biomarkers of ischemic heart disease in humans. However, their value as biomarkers of cardiac injury from causes other than ischemic heart disease is now being explored, particularly in drug development. In a workshop sponsored by the Cardiac Troponin Biomarker Working Group of the Health and Environmental Sciences Institute, preclinical, clinical, and regulatory scientists discussed the application of cTns in their respective environments, issues in translating the preclinical application of cTn to clinical studies, and gaps in our understanding of cTn biology and pathobiology. Evidence indicates that cTns are sensitive and specific biomarkers of cardiac injury from varying causes in both animals and humans. Accordingly, monitoring cTns can help ensure patient safety during the clinical evaluation of new drugs. In addition, preclinical characterization of cardiac risk and cTns as biomarkers of that risk can guide relevant clinical application and interpretation. We summarize here the outcomes of the workshop which included consensus statements, recommendations for further research, and a proposal for a cross-disciplinary group of clinical, regulatory, and drug development scientists to collaborate in such research.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ahj.2009.04.020DOI Listing
July 2009

Alanine aminotransferase isoenzymes: molecular cloning and quantitative analysis of tissue expression in rats and serum elevation in liver toxicity.

Hepatology 2009 Feb;49(2):598-607

Department of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Unlabelled: The elevation of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) is regarded as an indicator of liver damage based on the presumption that ALT protein is specifically and abundantly expressed in the liver. However, ALT elevation is also observed in non-liver injury conditions (for example, muscle injury) and in apparently healthy people. Conversely, serum ALT activity is normal in many patients with confirmed liver diseases (for example, cirrhosis and hepatitis C infection). To improve the diagnostic value of the ALT assay and to understand the molecular basis for serum ALT changes in various pathophysiological conditions, we have cloned rat ALT isoenzyme ALT1 and ALT2 complementary DNAs (cDNAs), examined their tissue expressions at the messenger RNA and protein levels, and determined ALT1 and ALT 2 serum levels in response to liver damage in rodents. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis shows that ALT1 messenger RNA is widely distributed and mainly expressed in intestine, liver, fat tissues, colon, muscle, and heart, in the order of high to low expression level, whereas ALT2 gene expression is more restricted, mainly in liver, muscle, brain, and white adipose tissue. The tissue distribution pattern of ALT1 and ALT2 proteins largely agrees with their messenger RNA expression. Interestingly, hepatic ALT2 protein is approximately four times higher in male rats than in female rats. In addition, ALT isoenzymes distribute differentially at the subcellular level in that ALT1 is a cytoplasmic protein and ALT2 a mitochondrial protein, supporting bioinformatic prediction of mitochondrial localization of ALT2.

Conclusion: Using animal models of hepatoxicity induced by carbon tetrachloride and acetaminophen, we found that both serum ALT1 and ALT2 protein levels were significantly elevated and correlated with ALT activity, providing, for the first time, the molecular basis for the elevated total serum ALT activity.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hep.22657DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2917112PMC
February 2009

Characterization of the action of drug-induced stress responses on the immune system: evaluation of biomarkers for drug-induced stress in rats.

J Immunotoxicol 2007 Jan;4(1):25-38

Department of Cellular Biology and Anatomy, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, Shreveport, Louisiana, USA.

Toxicological testing of compounds often is conducted at the maximum tolerated dose to identify potential target organs. Toxicities observed at these high doses may result in decreased body weight gain, food consumption and activity. These clinical signs are often associated with a generalized stress response. It has been known that stress may cause increased levels of corticosterone, which causes changes in circulating leukocyte profiles, decreases in thymus and spleen weights and changes in the microscopic structure of lymphoid organs. This makes it difficult to differentiate between stress-related changes and direct toxicity to the immune system in standard non-clinical toxicity testing in rats. In mice, MHC Class II expression was found to be a very sensitive biomarker of stress and maybe useful for the rat. Therefore, the objective of studies presented was to further characterize the effects of corticosterone and stressors on the immune system and identify potential biomarkers of stress in rats. Rats were treated with exogenous corticosterone (20 or 30 mg/kg BID) or ethanol (5 g/kg) for either 1 or 4 days. Restraint stress was also evaluated for a 3-day period. Blood and urine samples were collected during the treatment period for corticosterone measurements. At necropsy, blood samples for leukocyte differentials were collected. Spleen and thymus weights, cellularity, lymphocyte subpopulations and histopathology were also evaluated. Urine corticosterone levels were also investigated as a surrogate to measuring serum corticosterone. The results demonstrate that the pattern of responses to corticosterone or the stressors is different in mice and rats. Although, decreases in MHC Class II were found to be a sensitive indicator of stress in mice, only slight decreases were observed in rats with similar serum corticosterone AUC levels. Decreases in thymus weight were greater than spleen weight with corticosterone or ethanol or restraint stressor. No other single parameter or combination of parameters tested were obvious candidates as sensitive biomarkers of stress in rats. However, the good correlation between urine and serum corticosterone levels suggest that urine corticosterone may be a potential biomarker of stress induced changes to the immune response.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15476910601115150DOI Listing
January 2007

Expression, purification, and initial characterization of human alanine aminotransferase (ALT) isoenzyme 1 and 2 in High-five insect cells.

Protein Expr Purif 2008 Aug 26;60(2):225-31. Epub 2008 Apr 26.

Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Nutrition, Department of Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA.

Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) is a key enzyme for gluconeogenesis as well as a widely used serum marker for liver injury. We have identified two ALT isoenzymes, ALT1 and ALT2, which are encoded by separate genes. In this study, we described the expression, purification and initial characterization of human ALT1 and ALT2 proteins in High-five insect cells. Human ALT1 and ALT2 were expressed as His-tagged fusion proteins by recombinant baculovirus in insect cells and purified into homogeneity in one step by using immobilized Ni2+-affinity chromatography. Tag-free ALT1 and ALT2 were obtained by cleavage of enterokinase digestion and used for initial characterization of the enzymes. The specific ALT activity of purified fusion or His-tag-removed ALT1 was about 15-fold higher than that of ALT2 and their enzymatic activities decreased quickly at 37 degrees C and -20 degrees C, but were well preserved at -80 degrees C. Nevertheless, the ALT1 and ALT2 activities remained stable in a buffer containing 25% glycerol. The pH profile was similar between hALT1 and hALT2 in that both enzymes remained fully active between pH 6.5 and 8.0. The purified ALT recombinant proteins can not only be used as a reference protein standard for the ALT assay in clinical chemistry, but also will be useful for understanding the biochemical and biological significance of the isoenzymes and for developing ALT isoform-specific assays for clinical or preclinical diagnostic use.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pep.2008.04.006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2617774PMC
August 2008

Urinary corticosterone as an indicator of stress-mediated immunological changes in rats.

J Immunotoxicol 2008 Jan;5(1):17-22

Department of Cellular Biology and Anatomy, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, Shreveport, Louisiana 71130, USA.

Drugs that target the CNS or doses of drugs near the maximum tolerated dose may cause a non-specific stress response during routine safety testing in rodents that leads to the release of corticosterone and changes immunological parameters. In situations with mild clinical signs of stress and changes to immune organs, it may be difficult to differentiate direct immunotoxicity from changes mediated by stress. To address this concern, studies were conducted to identify potential biomarker of stress in rats that could be used in routine toxicology studies. Since serial blood collections for corticosterone levels are not practical, studies were conducted to evaluate urine corticosterone and its metabolites as a potential biomarker of stress in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Exogenous corticosterone was used as a reference to identify immune system targets and determine their relative sensitivity to corticosterone. The data from rats treated with exogenous corticosterone and from rats treated with drug or chemical stressors produced linear relationships between urine corticosterone and most immunological parameters, with r-squared values greater than 0.6. Thus, quantitatively similar effects on immunological end points are produced by exogenous corticosterone and by corticosterone induced by chemical stressors with regard to their correlation to selected immunological changes. In preclinical safety testing for a new drug, the combined findings of increased urinary corticosterone and changes of the predicted magnitude and direction in blood lymphocyte and neutrophil differentials and thymus weight or cellularity would strongly suggest that the immunological effects are secondary to a drug-induced stress response. Because these results can be obtained reliably during routine preclinical evaluations, they should be useful for the weight-of-evidence approaches often used in regulatory settings.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15476910801897474DOI Listing
January 2008

Optimization and validation of a flow cytometric method for immunophenotyping peripheral blood lymphocytes from cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis).

Vet Clin Pathol 2008 Mar;37(1):42-8

Pfizer Global Research and Development, Eastern Point Road, Groton, CT 06340, USA.

Background: Guidelines published by the Food and Drug Administration and Center for Human Medicinal Products describe the need to assess immunotoxic effects in nonclinical studies that evaluate drug toxicity, including the use of immunophenotyping to measure immunotoxicity. We are not aware of previous studies, however, that have validated methods for immunophenotyping peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets in whole blood samples from cynomolgus monkeys.

Objective: The purpose of this study was to optimize and validate a flow cytometric assay for immunophenotyping lymphocytes in the peripheral blood of cynomolgus monkeys.

Methods: A series of prevalidation experiments were done to determine optimal reagents, volumes, timing, and other procedural details of the flow cytometric assay. Using the optimized method, we then determined precision, interindividual variation, laboratory-to-laboratory variability, and sample stability. Stabilized human blood was used as a positive control for staining, processing, and analysis. The percentage and number of pan-T cells (CD3+), T-helper cells (CD3+4+), T cytotoxic/suppressor cells (CD3+8+), natural killer cells (CD3-16+), and B-cells (CD3-20+) were determined in 146 male and 140 female, clinically healthy monkeys and reference intervals were calculated.

Results: By doing 4-color staining with a lyse-wash method, intra- and interassay precision were <5% for all lymphocyte subsets. Variability between technicians and laboratories was minimal (CVs<3%). Samples were stable for up to 24 hours after staining and fixing.

Conclusions: The validated method is extremely robust and can be performed under good laboratory practice conditions to support nonclinical studies. Reference intervals for lymphocyte subsets were similar to those previously reported.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1939-165X.2008.00014.xDOI Listing
March 2008
-->