Publications by authors named "William N Charman"

100 Publications

Pharmacological Insights Into Safety and Efficacy Determinants for the Development of Adenosine Receptor Biased Agonists in the Treatment of Heart Failure.

Front Pharmacol 2021 11;12:628060. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Drug Discovery Biology, Monash Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Monash University, Parkville, VIC, Australia.

Adenosine A receptors (AR) are a potential target for cardiac injury treatment due to their cardioprotective/antihypertrophic actions, but drug development has been hampered by on-target side effects such as bradycardia and altered renal hemodynamics. Biased agonism has emerged as an attractive mechanism for AR-mediated cardioprotection that is haemodynamically safe. Here we investigate the pre-clinical pharmacology, efficacy and side-effect profile of the AR agonist neladenoson, shown to be safe but ineffective in phase IIb trials for the treatment of heart failure. We compare this agent with the well-characterized, pan-adenosine receptor (AR) agonist NECA, capadenoson, and the AR biased agonist VCP746, previously shown to be safe and cardioprotective in pre-clinical models of heart failure. We show that like VCP746, neladenoson is biased away from Ca influx relative to NECA and the cAMP pathway at the AR, a profile predictive of a lack of adenosine-like side effects. Additionally, neladenoson was also biased away from the MAPK pathway at the AR. In contrast to VCP746, which displays more 'adenosine-like' signaling at the AR, neladenoson was a highly selective AR agonist, with biased, weak agonism at the AR. Together these results show that unwanted hemodynamic effects of AR agonists can be avoided by compounds biased away from Ca influx relative to cAMP, relative to NECA. The failure of neladenoson to reach primary endpoints in clinical trials suggests that AR-mediated cAMP inhibition may be a poor indicator of effectiveness in chronic heart failure. This study provides additional information that can aid future screening and/or design of improved AR agonists that are safe and efficacious in treating heart failure in patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2021.628060DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7991592PMC
March 2021

A Tribute to Professor Per Artursson - Scientist, Explorer, Mentor, Innovator, and Giant in Pharmaceutical Research.

J Pharm Sci 2021 01 21;110(1):2-11. Epub 2020 Oct 21.

Department of Pharmacy, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden. Electronic address:

This issue of the Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences is dedicated to Professor Per Artursson and the groundbreaking contributions he has made and continues to make in the Pharmaceutical Sciences. Per is one of the most cited researchers in his field, with more than 30,000 citations and an h-index of 95 as of September 2020. Importantly, these citations are distributed over the numerous fields he has explored, clearly showing the high impact the research has had on the discipline. We provide a short portrait of Per, with emphasis on his personality, driving forces and the inspirational sources that shaped his career as a world-leading scientist in the field. He is a curious scientist who deftly moves between disciplines and has continued to innovate, expand boundaries, and profoundly impact the pharmaceutical sciences throughout his career. He has developed new tools and provided insights that have significantly contributed to today's molecular and mechanistic approaches to research in the fields of intestinal absorption, cellular disposition, and exposure-efficacy relationships of pharmaceutical drugs. We want to celebrate these important contributions in this special issue of the Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences in Per's honor.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.xphs.2020.10.031DOI Listing
January 2021

Intestinal Lymph Flow, and Lipid and Drug Transport Scale Allometrically From Pre-clinical Species to Humans.

Front Physiol 2020 21;11:458. Epub 2020 May 21.

Drug Delivery, Disposition and Dynamics, Monash Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Parkville, VIC, Australia.

The intestinal lymphatic system transports fluid, immune cells, dietary lipids, and highly lipophilic drugs from the intestine to the systemic circulation. These transport functions are important to health and when dysregulated contribute to pathology. This has generated significant interest in approaches to deliver drugs to the lymphatics. Most of the current understanding of intestinal lymph flow, and lymphatic lipid and drug transport rates, comes from studies and animal studies. In contrast, intestinal lymphatic transport studies in human subjects have been limited. Recently, three surgical patients had cannulation of the thoracic lymph duct for collection of lymph before and during a stepwise increase in enteral feed rate. We compared these data to studies where we previously enterally administered controlled quantities of lipid and the lipophilic drug halofantrine to mice, rats and dogs and collected lymph and blood (plasma). The collected lymph was analyzed to compare lymph flow rate, triglyceride (TG) and drug transport rates, and plasma was analyzed for drug concentrations, as a function of enteral lipid dose across species. Lymph flow rate, TG and drug transport increased with lipid administration in all species tested, and scaled allometrically according to the equation A = M where A is the lymph transport parameter, M is animal body mass, is constant and is the allometric exponent. For lymph flow rate and TG transport, the allometric exponents were 0.84-0.94 and 0.80-0.96, respectively. Accordingly, weight normalized lymph flow and TG mass transport were generally lower in larger compared to smaller species. In comparison, mass transport of drug via lymph increased in a greater than proportional manner with species body mass with an exponent of ∼1.3. The supra-proportional increase in lymphatic drug transport with species body mass appeared to be due to increased partitioning of drug into lymph rather than blood following absorption. Overall, this study proposes that intestinal lymphatic flow, and lymphatic lipid and drug transport in humans is most similar to species with higher body mass such as dogs and underestimated by studies in rodents. Notably, lymph flow and lipid transport in humans can be predicted from animal data via allometric scaling suggesting the potential for similar relationships with drug transport.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2020.00458DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7326060PMC
May 2020

Drug-receptor kinetics and sigma-1 receptor affinity differentiate clinically evaluated histamine H receptor antagonists.

Neuropharmacology 2019 01 22;144:244-255. Epub 2018 Oct 22.

Drug Discovery Biology, Monash Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Monash University, Parkville, Victoria, Australia. Electronic address:

The histamine H receptor is a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) drug target that is highly expressed in the CNS, where it acts as both an auto- and hetero-receptor to regulate neurotransmission. As such, it has been considered as a relevant target in disorders as varied as Alzheimer's disease, schizophrenia, neuropathic pain and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. A range of competitive antagonists/inverse agonists have progressed into clinical development, with pitolisant approved for the treatment of narcolepsy. Given the breadth of compounds developed and potential therapeutic indications, we assessed the comparative pharmacology of six investigational histamine H agents, including pitolisant, using native tissue and recombinant cells. Whilst all of the compounds tested displayed robust histamine H receptor inverse agonism and did not differentiate between the main H receptor splice variants, they displayed a wide range of affinities and kinetic properties, and included rapidly dissociating (pitolisant, S 38093-2, ABT-239) and slowly dissociating (GSK189254, JNJ-5207852, PF-3654746) agents. S 38093-2 had the lowest histamine H receptor affinity (pK values 5.7-6.2), seemingly at odds with previously reported, potent in vivo activity in models of cognition. We show here that at pro-cognitive and anti-hyperalgesic/anti-allodynic doses, S 38093-2 preferentially occupies the mouse sigma-1 receptor in vivo, only engaging the histamine H receptor at doses associated with wakefulness promotion and neurotransmitter (histamine, ACh) release. Furthermore, pitolisant, ABT-239 and PF-3654746 also displayed appreciable sigma-1 receptor affinity, suggesting that this property differentiates clinically evaluated histamine H receptor antagonists and may play a role in their efficacy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropharm.2018.10.028DOI Listing
January 2019

Divergent effects of strontium and calcium-sensing receptor positive allosteric modulators (calcimimetics) on human osteoclast activity.

Br J Pharmacol 2018 11 3;175(21):4095-4108. Epub 2018 Jun 3.

Drug Discovery Biology, Monash Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Monash University, Parkville, VIC, Australia.

Background And Purpose: Strontium ranelate, a drug approved and until recently used for the treatment of osteoporosis, mediates its effects on bone at least in part via the calcium-sensing (CaS) receptor. However, it is not known whether bone-targeted CaS receptor positive allosteric modulators (PAMs; calcimimetics) represent an alternative (or adjunctive) therapy to strontium (Sr ).

Experimental Approach: We assessed three structurally distinct calcimimetics [cinacalcet, AC-265347 and a benzothiazole tri-substituted urea (BTU-compound 13)], alone and in combination with extracellular calcium (Ca ) or Sr , in G protein-dependent signalling assays and trafficking experiments in HEK293 cells and their effects on cell differentiation, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) activity and hydroxyapatite resorption assays in human blood-derived osteoclasts.

Key Results: Sr activated CaS receptor-dependent signalling in HEK293 cells in a similar manner to Ca , and inhibited the maturation, TRAP expression and hydroxyapatite resorption capacity of human osteoclasts. Calcimimetics potentiated Ca - and Sr -mediated CaS receptor signalling in HEK293 cells with distinct biased profiles, and only cinacalcet chaperoned an endoplasmic reticulum-retained CaS mutant receptor to the cell surface in HEK293 cells, indicative of a conformational state different from that engendered by AC-265347 and BTU-compound 13. Intriguingly, only cinacalcet modulated human osteoclast function, reducing TRAP activity and profoundly inhibiting resorption.

Conclusion And Implications: Although AC-265347 and BTU-compound 13 potentiated Ca - and Sr -induced CaS receptor activation, they neither replicated nor potentiated the ability of Sr to inhibit human osteoclast function. In contrast, the FDA-approved calcimimetic, cinacalcet, inhibited osteoclast TRAP activity and hydroxyapatite resorption, which may contribute to its clinical effects on bone mineral density LINKED ARTICLES: This article is part of a themed section on Molecular Pharmacology of GPCRs. To view the other articles in this section visit http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/bph.v175.21/issuetoc.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.14344DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6177624PMC
November 2018

The role of lecithin degradation on the pH dependent stability of halofantrine encapsulated fat nano-emulsions.

Int J Pharm 2017 Aug 13;528(1-2):524-535. Epub 2017 Jun 13.

Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Monash University (Parkville Campus), Parkville, Vic. 3052, Australia.

We report on the successful incorporation of the antimalarial drug, halofantrine, into laboratory based soybean oil emulsions which were designed to mimic the commercially available parenteral fat emulsion, Intralipid. A high pH (minimum of pH 9, preferable pH of 11) was required for the drug laden emulsion to remain stable on storage and also to resist breaking under various stresses. Ageing of lecithin samples on storage was noted to result in degradation and a decrease in pH. We argue that this is the main reason for a similar decrease in pH for lecithin based emulsions and subsequent instability in drug laden emulsions. As expected, incorporation of the drug (halofantrine) resulted in lower stability. The (intensity weighted) particle size increased from 281nm for the drug free emulsion to 550nm following a loading of 1gL of halofantrine, indicative of a lowering in stability and this was reflected in a shorter shelf life. Interestingly, incorporation of even higher concentrations of drug then resulted in better stability albeit never as stable as the drug free emulsion. We also report on unusual and complex surface tension behaviour for fresh lecithin where multiple critical concentration points were observed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpharm.2017.06.040DOI Listing
August 2017

Structure-Activity Relationship of the Antimalarial Ozonide Artefenomel (OZ439).

J Med Chem 2017 04 18;60(7):2654-2668. Epub 2017 Jan 18.

College of Pharmacy, University of Nebraska Medical Center , 986125 Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, Nebraska 68198, United States.

Building on insights gained from the discovery of the antimalarial ozonide arterolane (OZ277), we now describe the structure-activity relationship (SAR) of the antimalarial ozonide artefenomel (OZ439). Primary and secondary amino ozonides had higher metabolic stabilities than tertiary amino ozonides, consistent with their higher pK and lower log D values. For primary amino ozonides, addition of polar functional groups decreased in vivo antimalarial efficacy. For secondary amino ozonides, additional functional groups had variable effects on metabolic stability and efficacy, but the most effective members of this series also had the highest log D values. For tertiary amino ozonides, addition of polar functional groups with H-bond donors increased metabolic stability but decreased in vivo antimalarial efficacy. Primary and tertiary amino ozonides with cycloalkyl and heterocycle substructures were superior to their acyclic counterparts. The high curative efficacy of these ozonides was most often associated with high and prolonged plasma exposure, but exposure on its own did not explain the presence or absence of either curative efficacy or in vivo toxicity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jmedchem.6b01586DOI Listing
April 2017

High throughput, quantitative analysis of human osteoclast differentiation and activity.

Anal Biochem 2017 Feb 14;519:51-56. Epub 2016 Dec 14.

Drug Discovery Biology, Monash Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Monash University, 381 Royal Parade, Parkville, VIC 3052, Australia. Electronic address:

Osteoclasts are multinuclear cells that degrade bone under both physiological and pathophysiological conditions. Osteoclasts are therefore a major target of osteoporosis therapeutics aimed at preserving bone. Consequently, analytical methods for osteoclast activity are useful for the development of novel biomarkers and/or pharmacological agents for the treatment of osteoporosis. The nucleation state of an osteoclast is indicative of its maturation and activity. To date, activity is routinely measured at the population level with only approximate consideration of the nucleation state (an 'osteoclast population' is typically defined as cells with ≥3 nuclei). Using a fluorescent substrate for tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP), a routinely used marker of osteoclast activity, we developed a multi-labelled imaging method for quantitative measurement of osteoclast TRAP activity at the single cell level. Automated image analysis enables interrogation of large osteoclast populations in a high throughput manner using open source software. Using this methodology, we investigated the effects of receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANK-L) on osteoclast maturation and activity and demonstrated that TRAP activity directly correlates with osteoclast maturity (i.e. nuclei number). This method can be applied to high throughput screening of osteoclast-targeting compounds to determine changes in maturation and activity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ab.2016.12.010DOI Listing
February 2017

Isoform-Specific Biased Agonism of Histamine H3 Receptor Agonists.

Mol Pharmacol 2017 Feb 18;91(2):87-99. Epub 2016 Nov 18.

Drug Discovery Biology, Monash Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Monash University, Parkville, Victoria, Australia (D.M.R., A.E.C., N.A.D., S.B., R.B., R.J.S., W.N.C., P.M.S., A.C., C.J.L.); and Institut de Recherches Internationales Servier, Suresnes, France (C.M.C., E.M.)

The human histamine H receptor (hHR) is subject to extensive gene splicing that gives rise to a large number of functional and nonfunctional isoforms. Despite the general acceptance that G protein-coupled receptors can adopt different ligand-induced conformations that give rise to biased signaling, this has not been studied for the HR; further, it is unknown whether splice variants of the same receptor engender the same or differential biased signaling. Herein, we profiled the pharmacology of histamine receptor agonists at the two most abundant hHR splice variants (hHR and hHR) across seven signaling endpoints. Both isoforms engender biased signaling, notably for 4-[3-(benzyloxy)propyl]-1H-imidazole (proxyfan) [e.g., strong bias toward phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) via the full-length receptor] and its congener 3-(1H-imidazol-4-yl)propyl-(4-iodophenyl)-methyl ether (iodoproxyfan), which are strongly consistent with the former's designation as a "protean" agonist. The 80 amino acid IL3 deleted isoform hHR is more permissive in its signaling than hHR: 2-(1H-imidazol-5-yl)ethyl imidothiocarbamate (imetit), proxyfan, and iodoproxyfan were all markedly biased away from calcium signaling, and principal component analysis of the full data set revealed divergent profiles for all five agonists. However, most interesting was the identification of differential biased signaling between the two isoforms. Strikingly, hHR was completely unable to stimulate GSK3β phosphorylation, an endpoint robustly activated by the full-length receptor. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first quantitative example of differential biased signaling via isoforms of the same G protein-coupled receptor that are simultaneously expressed in vivo and gives rise to the possibility of selective pharmacological targeting of individual receptor splice variants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1124/mol.116.106153DOI Listing
February 2017

50years of oral lipid-based formulations: Provenance, progress and future perspectives.

Adv Drug Deliv Rev 2016 06 16;101:167-194. Epub 2016 Apr 16.

Drug Delivery, Disposition and Dynamics, Monash Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Monash University, 381 Royal Parade, Parkville, VIC 3052, Australia; ARC Centre of Excellence in Convergent Bio-Nano Science and Technology, Monash Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Monash University, Parkville, VIC, Australia. Electronic address:

Lipid based formulations (LBF) provide well proven opportunities to enhance the oral absorption of drugs and drug candidates that sit close to, or beyond, the boundaries of Lipinski's 'rule-of-five' chemical space. Advantages in permeability, efflux and presystemic metabolism are evident; however, the primary benefit is in increases in dissolution and apparent intestinal solubility for lipophilic, poorly water soluble drugs. This review firstly details the inherent advantages of LBF, their general properties and classification, and provides a brief retrospective assessment of the development of LBF over the past fifty years. More detailed analysis of the ability of LBF to promote intestinal solubilisation, supersaturation and absorption is then provided alongside review of the methods employed to assess formulation performance. Critical review of the ability of simple dispersion and more complex in vitro digestion methods to predict formulation performance subsequently reveals marked differences in the correlative ability of in vitro tests, depending on the properties of the drug involved. Notably, for highly permeable low melting drugs e.g. fenofibrate, LBF appear to provide significant benefit in all cases, and sustained ongoing solubilisation may not be required. In other cases, and particularly for higher melting point drugs such as danazol, where re-dissolution of crystalline precipitate drug is likely to be slow, correlations with ongoing solubilisation and supersaturation are more evident. In spite of their potential benefits, one limitation to broader use of LBF is low drug solubility in the excipients employed to generate formulations. Techniques to increase drug lipophilicity and lipid solubility are therefore explored, and in particular those methods that provide for temporary enhancement including lipophilic ionic liquid and prodrug technologies. The transient nature of these lipophilicity increases enhances lipid solubility and LBF viability, but precludes enduring effects on receptor promiscuity and off target toxicity. Finally, recent efforts to generate solid LBF are briefly described as a means to circumvent the need to encapsulate in soft or hard gelatin capsules, although the latter remain popular with consumers and a proven means of LBF delivery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.addr.2016.04.007DOI Listing
June 2016

Computational prediction of formulation strategies for beyond-rule-of-5 compounds.

Adv Drug Deliv Rev 2016 06 27;101:6-21. Epub 2016 Feb 27.

Drug Delivery, Disposition and Dynamics, Monash Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Monash University, 381 Royal Parade, Parkville, Victoria 3052, Australia; ARC Centre of Excellence in Convergent Nano-Bio Science and Technology, Monash Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Monash University, 381 Royal Parade, Parkville, Victoria 3052, Australia.

The physicochemical properties of some contemporary drug candidates are moving towards higher molecular weight, and coincidentally also higher lipophilicity in the quest for biological selectivity and specificity. These physicochemical properties move the compounds towards beyond rule-of-5 (B-r-o-5) chemical space and often result in lower water solubility. For such B-r-o-5 compounds non-traditional delivery strategies (i.e. those other than conventional tablet and capsule formulations) typically are required to achieve adequate exposure after oral administration. In this review, we present the current status of computational tools for prediction of intestinal drug absorption, models for prediction of the most suitable formulation strategies for B-r-o-5 compounds and models to obtain an enhanced understanding of the interplay between drug, formulation and physiological environment. In silico models are able to identify the likely molecular basis for low solubility in physiologically relevant fluids such as gastric and intestinal fluids. With this baseline information, a formulation scientist can, at an early stage, evaluate different orally administered, enabling formulation strategies. Recent computational models have emerged that predict glass-forming ability and crystallisation tendency and therefore the potential utility of amorphous solid dispersion formulations. Further, computational models of loading capacity in lipids, and therefore the potential for formulation as a lipid-based formulation, are now available. Whilst such tools are useful for rapid identification of suitable formulation strategies, they do not reveal drug localisation and molecular interaction patterns between drug and excipients. For the latter, Molecular Dynamics simulations provide an insight into the interplay between drug, formulation and intestinal fluid. These different computational approaches are reviewed. Additionally, we analyse the molecular requirements of different targets, since these can provide an early signal that enabling formulation strategies will be required. Based on the analysis we conclude that computational biopharmaceutical profiling can be used to identify where non-conventional gateways, such as prediction of 'formulate-ability' during lead optimisation and early development stages, are important and may ultimately increase the number of orally tractable contemporary targets.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.addr.2016.02.005DOI Listing
June 2016

Murine GPRC6A Mediates Cellular Responses to L-Amino Acids, but Not Osteocalcin Variants.

PLoS One 2016 19;11(1):e0146846. Epub 2016 Jan 19.

Drug Discovery Biology, Monash Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Monash University, Parkville, Victoria 3052, Australia.

Phenotyping of Gprc6a KO mice has shown that this promiscuous class C G protein coupled receptor is variously involved in regulation of metabolism, inflammation and endocrine function. Such effects are described as mediated by extracellular calcium, L-amino acids, the bone-derived peptide osteocalcin (OCN) and the male hormone testosterone, introducing the concept of a bone-energy-metabolism-reproduction functional crosstalk mediated by GPRC6A. However, whilst the calcium and L-amino acid-sensing properties of GPRC6A are well established, verification of activity of osteocalcin at both human and mouse GPRC6A in vitro has proven somewhat elusive. This study characterises the in vitro pharmacology of mouse GPRC6A in response to its putative ligands in both recombinant and endogenous GPRC6A-expressing cells. Using cell signalling, and glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 and insulin release assays, our results confirm that basic L-amino acids act as agonists of the murine GPRC6A receptor in both recombinant cells and immortalised entero-endocrine and pancreatic β-cells. In contrast, our studies do not support a role for OCN as a direct ligand for mouse GPRC6A, suggesting that the reported in vivo effects of OCN that require GPRC6A may be indirect, rather than via direct activation of the receptor.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0146846PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4718634PMC
July 2016

Label-Free Kinetics: Exploiting Functional Hemi-Equilibrium to Derive Rate Constants for Muscarinic Receptor Antagonists.

Mol Pharmacol 2015 Oct 4;88(4):779-90. Epub 2015 Aug 4.

Drug Discovery Biology, Monash Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Monash University, Parkville, Victoria, Australia

Drug receptor kinetics is as a key component in drug discovery, development, and efficacy; however, determining kinetic parameters has historically required direct radiolabeling or competition with a labeled tracer. Here we present a simple approach to determining the kinetics of competitive antagonists of G protein-coupled receptors by exploiting the phenomenon of hemi-equilibrium, the state of partial re-equilibration of agonist, antagonist, and receptor in some functional assays. Using functional [Ca(2+)]i-flux and extracellular kinases 1 and 2 phosphorylation assays that have short incubation times and therefore are prone to hemi-equilibrium "behaviors," we investigated a wide range of structurally and physicochemically distinct muscarinic acetylcholine receptor antagonists. Using a combined operational and hemi-equilibrium model of antagonism to both simulate and analyze data, we derived estimates of association and dissociation rates for the test set of antagonists, identifying both rapidly dissociating (4-DAMP, himbacine) and slowly dissociating (tiotropium, glycopyrrolate) ligands. The results demonstrate the importance of assay incubation time and the degree of receptor reserve in applying the analytical model. There was an excellent correlation between estimates of antagonist pK(B), k(on), and k(off) from functional assays and those determined by competition kinetics using whole-cell [(3)H]N-methylscopolamine binding, validating this approach as a rapid and simple method to functionally profile receptor kinetics of competitive antagonists in the absence of a labeled tracer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1124/mol.115.100545DOI Listing
October 2015

Synthesis, structure-activity relationships and brain uptake of a novel series of benzopyran inhibitors of insulin-regulated aminopeptidase.

J Med Chem 2014 Feb 7;57(4):1368-77. Epub 2014 Feb 7.

Medicinal Chemistry, Monash Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences , Parkville, Victoria 3052, Australia.

Peptide inhibitors of insulin-regulated aminopeptidase (IRAP) enhance fear avoidance and spatial memory and accelerate spatial learning in a number of memory paradigms. Using a virtual screening approach, a series of benzopyran compounds was identified that inhibited the catalytic activity of IRAP, ultimately resulting in the identification of potent and specific inhibitors. The present study describes the medicinal chemistry campaign that led to the development of the lead candidate, 3, highlighting the key structural features considered as critical for binding. Furthermore, the in vivo pharmacokinetics and brain uptake of compounds (1 and 3) were assessed in rats and were complemented with in vitro human and rat microsomal stability studies. Following intravenous administration to rodents, 3 exhibits brain exposure, albeit it is rapidly converted to 1, a compound which also exhibits potent inhibition of IRAP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jm401540fDOI Listing
February 2014

Targeted delivery of a model immunomodulator to the lymphatic system: comparison of alkyl ester versus triglyceride mimetic lipid prodrug strategies.

J Control Release 2014 Mar 5;177:1-10. Epub 2014 Jan 5.

Drug Delivery, Disposition and Dynamics, Monash Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria 3052, Australia. Electronic address:

A lipophilic prodrug approach has been used to promote the delivery of a model immunomodulator, mycophenolic acid (MPA), to the lymphatic system after oral administration. Lymphatic transport was employed to facilitate enhanced drug uptake into lymphocytes, as recent studies demonstrate that targeted drug delivery to lymph resident lymphocytes may enhance immunomodulatory effects. Two classes of lymph-directing prodrugs were synthesised. Alkyl chain derivatives (octyl mycophenolate, MPA-C8E; octadecyl mycophenolate, MPA-C18E; and octadecyl mycophenolamide, MPA-C18AM), to promote passive partitioning into lipids in lymphatic transport pathways, and a triglyceride mimetic prodrug (1,3-dipalmitoyl-2-mycophenoloyl glycerol, 2-MPA-TG) to facilitate metabolic integration into triglyceride deacylation-reacylation pathways. Lymphatic transport, lymphocyte uptake and plasma pharmacokinetics were assessed in mesenteric lymph and carotid artery cannulated rats following intraduodenal infusion of lipid-based formulations containing MPA or MPA prodrugs. Patterns of prodrug hydrolysis in rat digestive fluid, and cellular re-esterification in vivo, were evaluated to examine the mechanisms responsible for lymphatic transport. Poor enzyme stability and low absorption appeared to limit lymphatic transport of the alkyl derivatives, although two of the three alkyl chain prodrugs - MPA-C18AM (6-fold) and MPA-C18E (13-fold) still increased lymphatic drug transport when compared to MPA. In contrast, 2-MPA-TG markedly increased lymphatic drug transport (80-fold) and drug concentrations in lymphocytes (103-fold), and this was achieved via biochemical incorporation into triglyceride deacylation-reacylation pathways. The prodrug was hydrolysed rapidly to 2-mycophenoloyl glycerol (2-MPA-MG) in the presence of rat digestive fluid, and 2-MPA-MG was subsequently re-esterified in the enterocyte with oleic acid (most likely originating from the co-administered formulation) prior to accessing the lymphatics and lymphocytes. Importantly, after administration of 2-MPA-TG, the concentrations of free MPA in the mesenteric lymph nodes were significantly enhanced (up to 28 fold) when compared to animals administered equimolar quantities of MPA, suggesting the efficient conversion of the esterified prodrug back to the pharmacologically active parent drug. The data suggest that triglyceride mimetic prodrugs have potential as a means of enhancing immunotherapy via drug targeting to lymphocytes and lymph nodes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jconrel.2013.12.031DOI Listing
March 2014

Computational prediction of drug solubility in lipid based formulation excipients.

Pharm Res 2013 Dec 15;30(12):3225-37. Epub 2013 Jun 15.

Department of Pharmacy, Drug Optimization and Pharmaceutical Profiling Platform Uppsala University, Uppsala Biomedical Center, P.O. Box 580, 751 23, Uppsala, Sweden.

Purpose: To investigate if drug solubility in pharmaceutical excipients used in lipid based formulations (LBFs) can be predicted from physicochemical properties.

Methods: Solubility was measured for 30 structurally diverse drug molecules in soybean oil (SBO, long-chain triglyceride; TGLC), Captex355 (medium-chain triglyceride; TGMC), polysorbate 80 (PS80; surfactant) and PEG400 co-solvent and used as responses during PLS model development. Melting point and calculated molecular descriptors were used as variables and the PLS models were validated with test sets and permutation tests.

Results: Solvation capacity of SBO and Captex355 was equal on a mol per mol scale (R (2) = 0.98). A strong correlation was also found between PS80 and PEG400 (R (2) = 0.85), identifying the significant contribution of the ethoxylation for the solvation capacity of PS80. In silico models based on calculated descriptors were successfully developed for drug solubility in SBO (R (2) = 0.81, Q (2) = 0.76) and Captex355 (R (2) = 0.84, Q (2) = 0.80). However, solubility in PS80 and PEG400 were not possible to quantitatively predict from molecular structure.

Conclusion: Solubility measured in one excipient can be used to predict solubility in another, herein exemplified with TGMC versus TGLC, and PS80 versus PEG400. We also show, for the first time, that solubility in TGMC and TGLC can be predicted from rapidly calculated molecular descriptors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11095-013-1083-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3841656PMC
December 2013

Intestinal bile secretion promotes drug absorption from lipid colloidal phases via induction of supersaturation.

Mol Pharm 2013 May 27;10(5):1874-89. Epub 2013 Mar 27.

Drug Delivery, Disposition and Dynamics, Monash Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Monash University, 381 Royal Parade, Parkville, Victoria 3052, Australia.

The oral bioavailability of poorly water-soluble drugs (PWSD) is often significantly enhanced by coadministration with lipids in food or lipid-based oral formulations. Coadministration with lipids promotes drug solubilization in intestinal mixed micelles and vesicles, however, the mechanism(s) by which PWSD are absorbed from these dispersed phases remain poorly understood. Classically, drug absorption is believed to be a product of the drug concentration in free solution and the apparent permeability across the absorptive membrane. Solubilization in colloidal phases such as mixed micelles increases dissolution rate and total solubilized drug concentrations, but does not directly enhance (and may reduce) the free drug concentration. In the absence of changes to cellular permeability (which is often high for lipophilic, PWSD), significant changes to membrane flux are therefore unexpected. Realizing that increases in effective dissolution rate may be a significant driver of increases in drug absorption for PWSD, we explore here two alternate mechanisms by which membrane flux might also be enhanced: (1) collisional drug absorption where drug is directly transferred from lipid colloidal phases to the absorptive membrane, and (2) supersaturation-enhanced drug absorption where bile mediated dilution of lipid colloidal phases leads to a transient increase in supersaturation, thermodynamic activity and absorption. In the current study, collisional uptake mechanisms did not play a significant role in the absorption of a model PWSD, cinnarizine, from lipid colloidal phases. In contrast, bile-mediated dilution of model intestinal mixed micelles and vesicles led to drug supersaturation. For colloids that were principally micellar, supersaturation was maintained for a period sufficient to promote absorption. In contrast, for primarily vesicular systems, supersaturation resulted in rapid drug precipitation and no increase in drug absorption. This work suggests that ongoing dilution by bile in the gastrointestinal tract may invoke supersaturation in intestinal colloids and promote absorption, and thus presents a new mechanism by which lipids may enhance the oral absorption of PWSD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/mp3006566DOI Listing
May 2013

A mouse model to evaluate the impact of species, sex, and lipid load on lymphatic drug transport.

Pharm Res 2013 Dec 21;30(12):3254-70. Epub 2013 Feb 21.

Drug Delivery, Disposition and Dynamics Monash Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Monash University (Parkville Campus), 381 Royal Parade, Parkville, Victoria, Australia, 3052,

Purpose: To establish a lymph-cannulated mouse model, and use the model to investigate the impact of lipid dose on exogenous and endogenous lipid recruitment, and drug transport, into the lymph of males versus females. Finally, lymphatic transport and drug absorption in the mouse were compared to other pre-clinical models (rats/dogs).

Methods: Animals were orally or intraduodenally administered 1.6 mg/kg halofantrine in low or high (14)C-lipid doses. For bioavailability calculation, animals were intravenuosly administered halofantrine. Lymph or blood samples were taken and halofantrine, triglyceride, phospholipid and (14)C-lipid concentrations measured.

Results: Lymphatic lipid transport increased linearly with lipid dose, was similar across species and in male/female animals. In contrast, lymphatic transport of halofantrine differed markedly across species (dogs>rats>mice) and plateaued at higher lipid doses. Lower bioavailability appeared responsible for some species differences in halofantrine lymphatic transport; however other systematic differences were involved.

Conclusions: A contemporary lymph-cannulated mouse model was established which will enable investigation of lymphatic transport in transgenic and disease models. The current study found halofantrine absorption and lymphatic transport are reduced in small animals. Future analyses will investigate mechanisms involved, and if similar trends occur for other drugs, to establish the most relevant model(s) to predict lymphatic transport in humans.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11095-013-1000-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4136478PMC
December 2013

Strategies to address low drug solubility in discovery and development.

Pharmacol Rev 2013 Jan;65(1):315-499

Drug Delivery, Disposition and Dynamics, Monash Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Monash University, Parkville, Victoria, Australia.

Drugs with low water solubility are predisposed to low and variable oral bioavailability and, therefore, to variability in clinical response. Despite significant efforts to "design in" acceptable developability properties (including aqueous solubility) during lead optimization, approximately 40% of currently marketed compounds and most current drug development candidates remain poorly water-soluble. The fact that so many drug candidates of this type are advanced into development and clinical assessment is testament to an increasingly sophisticated understanding of the approaches that can be taken to promote apparent solubility in the gastrointestinal tract and to support drug exposure after oral administration. Here we provide a detailed commentary on the major challenges to the progression of a poorly water-soluble lead or development candidate and review the approaches and strategies that can be taken to facilitate compound progression. In particular, we address the fundamental principles that underpin the use of strategies, including pH adjustment and salt-form selection, polymorphs, cocrystals, cosolvents, surfactants, cyclodextrins, particle size reduction, amorphous solid dispersions, and lipid-based formulations. In each case, the theoretical basis for utility is described along with a detailed review of recent advances in the field. The article provides an integrated and contemporary discussion of current approaches to solubility and dissolution enhancement but has been deliberately structured as a series of stand-alone sections to allow also directed access to a specific technology (e.g., solid dispersions, lipid-based formulations, or salt forms) where required.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1124/pr.112.005660DOI Listing
January 2013

Malarial dihydrofolate reductase as a paradigm for drug development against a resistance-compromised target.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2012 Oct 3;109(42):16823-8. Epub 2012 Oct 3.

BIOTEC, National Science and Technology Development Agency, Thailand Science Park, Pathumthani 12120, Thailand.

Malarial dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) is the target of antifolate antimalarial drugs such as pyrimethamine and cycloguanil, the clinical efficacy of which have been compromised by resistance arising through mutations at various sites on the enzyme. Here, we describe the use of cocrystal structures with inhibitors and substrates, along with efficacy and pharmacokinetic profiling for the design, characterization, and preclinical development of a selective, highly efficacious, and orally available antimalarial drug candidate that potently inhibits both wild-type and clinically relevant mutated forms of Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) DHFR. Important structural characteristics of P218 include pyrimidine side-chain flexibility and a carboxylate group that makes charge-mediated hydrogen bonds with conserved Arg122 (PfDHFR-TS amino acid numbering). An analogous interaction of P218 with human DHFR is disfavored because of three species-dependent amino acid substitutions in the vicinity of the conserved Arg. Thus, P218 binds to the active site of PfDHFR in a substantially different fashion from the human enzyme, which is the basis for its high selectivity. Unlike pyrimethamine, P218 binds both wild-type and mutant PfDHFR in a slow-on/slow-off tight-binding mode, which prolongs the target residence time. P218, when bound to PfDHFR-TS, resides almost entirely within the envelope mapped out by the dihydrofolate substrate, which may make it less susceptible to resistance mutations. The high in vivo efficacy in a SCID mouse model of P. falciparum malaria, good oral bioavailability, favorable enzyme selectivity, and good safety characteristics of P218 make it a potential candidate for further development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1204556109DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3479511PMC
October 2012

Antimalarial activity of pyrroloiminoquinones from the Australian marine sponge Zyzzya sp.

J Med Chem 2012 Jun 20;55(12):5851-8. Epub 2012 Jun 20.

Eskitis Institute, Griffith University, Brisbane, QLD 4111, Australia.

A new bispyrroloiminoquinone alkaloid, tsitsikammamine C (1), displayed potent in vitro antimalarial activity with IC(50) values of 13 and 18 nM against chloroquine-sensitive (3D7) and chloroquine-resistant (Dd2) Plasmodium falciparum, respectively. Tsitsikammamine C (1) displayed selectivity indices of >200 against HEK293 cells and inhibited both ring and trophozoite stages of the malaria parasite life cycle. Previously reported compounds makaluvamines J (2), G (3), L (4), K (5) and damirones A (6) and B (7) were also isolated from the same marine sponge (Zyzzya sp.). Compounds 2-4 displayed potent growth inhibitory activity (IC(50) < 100 nM) against both P. falciparum lines and only moderate cytotoxicity against HEK293 cells (IC(50) = 1-4 μM). Makaluvamine G (3) was not toxic to mice and suppressed parasite growth in P. berghei infected mice following subcutaneous administration at 8 mg kg(-1) day(-1).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jm3002795DOI Listing
June 2012

Intravenous dosing conditions may affect systemic clearance for highly lipophilic drugs: implications for lymphatic transport and absolute bioavailability studies.

J Pharm Sci 2012 Sep 23;101(9):3540-6. Epub 2012 May 23.

Drug Delivery, Disposition and Dynamics, Monash Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Monash University (Parkville Campus), Parkville, Victoria 3052, Australia.

The clearance (Cl) and volume of distribution (V(ss)) of a lipophilic, lymphatically transported drug, halofantrine (Hf) have been evaluated after intravenous delivery to the systemic circulation in ex vivo lymph and plasma, and compared with the data obtained after administration of a lipid-based emulsion and a lipid-free cosolvent formulation. Systemic Cl and V(ss) were significantly lower (approximately twofold) after delivery of Hf in lymph or the emulsion when compared with the administration in plasma or the cosolvent formulation. Preadministration of drug-free lymph, immediately before administration of drug in plasma, however, resulted in plasma profiles consistent with that obtained after administration of drug in lymph/emulsion. Where drug and lipid entered the systemic circulation coincidentally, systemic Cl of Hf, therefore, appeared to be relatively unaffected by the route of entry to the systemic circulation (i.e. via the lymph or the blood), but more significantly altered by total plasma lipid levels. Because temporal changes to plasma lipid levels occur as a result of the absorption of formulation or food-derived lipids and the infusion of intravenous lipid emulsions, the current data suggest that a mismatch in plasma lipid levels after intravenous and oral administrations may lead to differences in drug Cl and errors in bioavailability assessment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jps.23211DOI Listing
September 2012

Structure-guided lead optimization of triazolopyrimidine-ring substituents identifies potent Plasmodium falciparum dihydroorotate dehydrogenase inhibitors with clinical candidate potential.

J Med Chem 2011 Aug 14;54(15):5540-61. Epub 2011 Jul 14.

GlaxoSmithKline, Diseases of the Developing World (DDW)-Tres Cantos Medicines Development Campus, Madrid, Spain.

Drug therapy is the mainstay of antimalarial therapy, yet current drugs are threatened by the development of resistance. In an effort to identify new potential antimalarials, we have undertaken a lead optimization program around our previously identified triazolopyrimidine-based series of Plasmodium falciparum dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (PfDHODH) inhibitors. The X-ray structure of PfDHODH was used to inform the medicinal chemistry program allowing the identification of a potent and selective inhibitor (DSM265) that acts through DHODH inhibition to kill both sensitive and drug resistant strains of the parasite. This compound has similar potency to chloroquine in the humanized SCID mouse P. falciparum model, can be synthesized by a simple route, and rodent pharmacokinetic studies demonstrated it has excellent oral bioavailability, a long half-life and low clearance. These studies have identified the first candidate in the triazolopyrimidine series to meet previously established progression criteria for efficacy and ADME properties, justifying further development of this compound toward clinical candidate status.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jm200592fDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3156099PMC
August 2011

Acute hypertriglyceridemia promotes intestinal lymphatic lipid and drug transport: a positive feedback mechanism in lipid and drug absorption.

Mol Pharm 2011 Aug 1;8(4):1132-9. Epub 2011 Jun 1.

Drug Delivery, Disposition and Dynamics, Monash Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Royal Parade, Parkville, Victoria, Australia 3052.

Elevated systemic levels of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRL) are a risk factor for the development of atherosclerosis. In patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS), intestinal TRL overproduction contributes to high systemic TRL levels, and recent studies suggest that systemic changes in MetS such as increases in plasma fatty acids and insulin resistance stimulate intestinal TRL production. The current study has examined whether increases in systemic TRL influence intestinal lipid transport and lipoprotein assembly pathways and evaluates the impact of these changes on the absorption and lymphatic transport of lipids and a model lipophilic drug (halofantrine). Mesenteric lymph-duct or bile-duct cannulated rats were administered IV saline or (14)C-labeled chylomicron (CM) (to increase systemic TRL) and intraduodenal (3)H lipids and drug. Changes to biliary lipid output and lymphatic lipid and drug transport were subsequently examined. Increasing systemic TRL concentrations stimulated a significant increase in lymphatic lipid and drug transport. The increased lipids in lymph were not derived from bile or the intestinal blood supply (fatty acid or IV infused (14)C-CM). Rather, an increase in lymphatic transport of duodenally sourced lipids was evident. Increasing plasma levels of TRL therefore stimulated lipid absorption and lymphatic transport via a positive feedback process. The data also suggest that the changes to intestinal TRL formation that result from raised systemic TRL levels may impact on the absorption of highly lipophilic drugs and therefore the reproducibility of drug treatments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/mp100462dDOI Listing
August 2011

Lead optimization of aryl and aralkyl amine-based triazolopyrimidine inhibitors of Plasmodium falciparum dihydroorotate dehydrogenase with antimalarial activity in mice.

J Med Chem 2011 Jun 12;54(11):3935-49. Epub 2011 May 12.

Department of Chemistry and Global Health, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA.

Malaria is one of the leading causes of severe infectious disease worldwide; yet, our ability to maintain effective therapy to combat the illness is continually challenged by the emergence of drug resistance. We previously reported identification of a new class of triazolopyrimidine-based Plasmodium falciparum dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (PfDHODH) inhibitors with antimalarial activity, leading to the discovery of a new lead series and novel target for drug development. Active compounds from the series contained a triazolopyrimidine ring attached to an aromatic group through a bridging nitrogen atom. Herein, we describe systematic efforts to optimize the aromatic functionality with the goal of improving potency and in vivo properties of compounds from the series. These studies led to the identification of two new substituted aniline moieties (4-SF(5)-Ph and 3,5-Di-F-4-CF(3)-Ph), which, when coupled to the triazolopyrimidine ring, showed good plasma exposure and better efficacy in the Plasmodium berghei mouse model of the disease than previously reported compounds from the series.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jm200265bDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3124361PMC
June 2011

Synthetic ozonide drug candidate OZ439 offers new hope for a single-dose cure of uncomplicated malaria.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2011 Mar 7;108(11):4400-5. Epub 2011 Feb 7.

Centre for Drug Candidate Optimisation, Monash Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Monash University, Parkville, VIC 3052, Australia.

Ozonide OZ439 is a synthetic peroxide antimalarial drug candidate designed to provide a single-dose oral cure in humans. OZ439 has successfully completed Phase I clinical trials, where it was shown to be safe at doses up to 1,600 mg and is currently undergoing Phase IIa trials in malaria patients. Herein, we describe the discovery of OZ439 and the exceptional antimalarial and pharmacokinetic properties that led to its selection as a clinical drug development candidate. In vitro, OZ439 is fast-acting against all asexual erythrocytic Plasmodium falciparum stages with IC(50) values comparable to those for the clinically used artemisinin derivatives. Unlike all other synthetic peroxides and semisynthetic artemisinin derivatives, OZ439 completely cures Plasmodium berghei-infected mice with a single oral dose of 20 mg/kg and exhibits prophylactic activity superior to that of the benchmark chemoprophylactic agent, mefloquine. Compared with other peroxide-containing antimalarial agents, such as the artemisinin derivatives and the first-generation ozonide OZ277, OZ439 exhibits a substantial increase in the pharmacokinetic half-life and blood concentration versus time profile in three preclinical species. The outstanding efficacy and prolonged blood concentrations of OZ439 are the result of a design strategy that stabilizes the intrinsically unstable pharmacophoric peroxide bond, thereby reducing clearance yet maintaining the necessary Fe(II)-reactivity to elicit parasite death.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1015762108DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3060245PMC
March 2011

Targeted drug delivery to lymphocytes: a route to site-specific immunomodulation?

Mol Pharm 2010 Dec 12;7(6):2297-309. Epub 2010 Nov 12.

Drug Delivery, Disposition and Dynamics, Monash Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Monash University, 381 Royal Parade, Parkville, Victoria, Australia.

Lymphocytes are central to the progression of autoimmune disease, transplant rejection, leukemia, lymphoma and lymphocyte-resident viral diseases such as HIV/AIDs. Strategies to target drug treatments to lymphocytes, therefore, represent an opportunity to enhance therapeutic outcomes in disease states where many current treatment regimes are incompletely effective and promote significant toxicities. Here we demonstrate that highly lipophilic drug candidates that preferentially access the intestinal lymphatics after oral administration show significantly enhanced access to lymphocytes leading to improved immunomodulatory activity. When coadministered with such drugs, lipids enhance lymphocyte targeting via a three tiered action: promotion of drug absorption from the gastrointestinal tract, enhancement of lymphatic drug transport and stimulation of lymphocyte recruitment into the lymphatics. This strategy has been exemplified using a highly lipophilic immunosuppressant (JWH015) where coadministration with selected lipids led to significant increases in lymphatic transport, lymphocyte targeting and IL-4 and IL-10 expression in CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocytes after ex vivo mitogen stimulation. In contrast, administration of a 2.5-fold higher dose of JWH015 in a formulation that did not stimulate lymph transport had no effect on antiinflammatory cytokine levels, in spite of equivalent drug exposure in the blood. The current data suggest that complementary drug design and delivery strategies that combine highly lipophilic, lymphotropic drug candidates with lymph-directing formulations provide enhanced selectivity, potency and therapeutic potential for drug candidates with lymphocyte associated targets.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/mp100259aDOI Listing
December 2010

The mechanism of lymphatic access of two cholesteryl ester transfer protein inhibitors (CP524,515 and CP532,623) and evaluation of their impact on lymph lipoprotein profiles.

Pharm Res 2010 Sep 16;27(9):1949-64. Epub 2010 Jul 16.

Drug Delivery, Disposition and Dynamics Monash Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Monash University, Parkville, VIC 3052, Australia.

Purpose: To explore the mechanism of lymphatic access of the CETP inhibitors (CETPi) CP524,515 and CP532,623 and probe their potential effect on lymph lipoprotein development.

Methods: Lymphatic access mechanisms were examined via correlation of lymphatic drug transport profiles with drug affinity for lymph lipoproteins and drug solubility in representative combinations of lipoprotein lipids. The effects of the CETPi on lymph lipoprotein profiles were evaluated by ultracentrifugation and flow cytometry.

Results: Both CETPi were highly lymphatically transported (22-28% of dose), and lymphatic transport was closely correlated with drug affinity for ex-vivo lymph lipoproteins or triglyceride emulsions and poorly related to solubility in mixtures of lipoprotein core and/or surface lipids. Both CETPi altered the kinetics of lymph lipid transport and decreased lymph lipid transport in chylomicrons.

Conclusion: Lymphatic transport of the CETPi appears to reflect high affinity for the interface of lymph lipoproteins rather than solubilisation in the lipoprotein core and confirms that triglyceride solubilities >50 mg/g are not necessarily a pre-requisite for lymphatic transport. The CETPi also led to changes to lipoprotein processing in the enterocyte including a reduction in lipid transport in chylomicrons. Changes to intestinal lipoprotein profiles may contribute to the changes in systemic lipoprotein levels seen during CETPi therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11095-010-0199-2DOI Listing
September 2010

The role of the intestinal lymphatics in the absorption of two highly lipophilic cholesterol ester transfer protein inhibitors (CP524,515 and CP532,623).

Pharm Res 2010 May 11;27(5):878-93. Epub 2010 Mar 11.

Drug Delivery, Disposition and Dynamics, Monash Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Monash University, 381 Royal Parade, Parkville, VIC, 3052, Australia.

Purpose: To evaluate the potential role of intestinal lymphatic transport in the absorption and oral bioavailability of members of an emerging class of anti-atherosclerosis drugs (CETP inhibitors). CP524,515 and CP532,623 are structurally related with eLogD(7.4) >5; however, only CP524,515 (and not CP532,623) had sufficient solubility (>50 mg/g) in long-chain triglyceride (LCT) to be considered likely to be lymphatically transported.

Methods: CP524,515 and CP532,623 were administered intravenously and orally to fasted or fed lymph-cannulated or non-cannulated dogs. Oral bioavailability and lymphatic transport of drug (and triglyceride) was subsequently quantified.

Results: Both CETP inhibitors were substantially transported into the lymphatic system (>25% dose) in fed and fasted dogs. Food enhanced oral bioavailability (from 45 to 83% and 44 to 58% for CP524,515 and CP532,623, respectively) and the proportion of the absorbed dose transported via the lymph (from 61 to 86% and from 68 to 83%, respectively). Lymphatic triglyceride transport was significantly lower in fed dogs administered CP532,623.

Conclusion: Intestinal lymphatic transport is the major absorption pathway for CP524,515 and CP532,623, suggesting that a LCT solubility >50 mg/g is not an absolute requirement for lymphatic transport. The effect of CP532,623 on intestinal lipid transport may suggest a role in the activity/toxicity profiles of CETP inhibitors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11095-010-0083-0DOI Listing
May 2010
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