Publications by authors named "William J Aronson"

206 Publications

Association between Delay to Radical Prostatectomy and Clinically Meaningful Outcomes among Patients with Intermediate and High-Risk Localized Prostate Cancer.

J Urol 2021 Oct 25:101097JU0000000000002304. Epub 2021 Oct 25.

Department of Urology, Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Purpose: There are limited data regarding the effect of treatment delays on important long-term outcomes among men with intermediate/high-risk prostate cancer (PC).

Materials And Methods: We identified 3,962 men with intermediate/high-risk disease from the SEARCH cohort treated with radical prostatectomy (RP) from 1988 to 2018. Cox proportional hazard models assessed the association between time from biopsy to RP (up to 1 year) and time to castration-resistant PC (CRPC), metastasis and all-cause mortality. Interaction terms were used to test for effect modification by risk group.

Results: Of the 3,962 men, 167 developed CRPC, 248 developed metastases and 884 died after a median followup of 85 months. Longer delays between biopsy and RP were associated with a decreased risk of CRPC (adjusted HR=0.88, 95% CI: 0.80-0.98, p=0.02), independent of D'Amico risk group (interaction p >0.05). In men with intermediate and high-risk disease, we found no statistically significant association between length of time to RP and risk of developing metastases (p=0.5 and 0.9, respectively) or all-cause mortality (p=0.1 and 0.1, respectively).

Conclusions: Among men with intermediate and high-risk PC, we found no statistically significant increased risk of adverse long-term outcomes, including CRPC, metastasis and death, for men who had treatment delays up to 1 year following PC diagnosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/JU.0000000000002304DOI Listing
October 2021

Diabetes and Prostate Cancer Outcomes in Obese and Nonobese Men After Radical Prostatectomy.

JNCI Cancer Spectr 2021 Jun 9;5(3):pkab023. Epub 2021 Mar 9.

Department of Surgery, Division of Urology, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

Background: The link between diabetes and prostate cancer progression is poorly understood and complicated by obesity. We investigated associations between diabetes and prostate cancer-specific mortality (PCSM), castrate-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), and metastases in obese and nonobese men undergoing radical prostatectomy (RP).

Methods: We included 4688 men from the Shared Equal Access Regional Cancer Hospital cohort of men undergoing RP from 1988 to 2017. Diabetes prior to RP, anthropometric, and clinical data were abstracted from 6 Veterans Affairs Medical Centers electronic medical records. Primary and secondary outcomes were PCSM and metastases and CRPC, respectively. Multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (adj-HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated for diabetes and PCSM, CRPC, and metastases. Adjusted hazard ratios were also estimated in analyses stratified by obesity (body mass index: nonobese <30 kg/m; obese ≥30 kg/m). All statistical tests were 2-sided.

Results: Diabetes was not associated with PCSM (adj-HR = 1.38, 95% CI = 0.86 to 2.24), CRPC (adj-HR = 1.05, 95% CI = 0.67 to 1.64), or metastases (adj-HR = 1.01, 95% CI = 0.70 to 1.46), among all men. Interaction terms for diabetes and obesity were statistically significant in multivariable models for PCSM, CRPC, and metastases ( ≤ .04). In stratified analyses, in obese men, diabetes was associated with PCSM (adj-HR = 3.06, 95% CI = 1.40 to 6.69), CRPC (adj-HR = 2.14, 95% CI = 1.11 to 4.15), and metastases (adj-HR = 1.57, 95% CI = 0.88 to 2.78), though not statistically significant for metastases. In nonobese men, inverse associations were suggested for diabetes and prostate cancer outcomes without reaching statistical significance.

Conclusions: Diabetes was associated with increased risks of prostate cancer progression and mortality among obese men but not among nonobese men, highlighting the importance of aggressively curtailing the increasing prevalence of obesity in prostate cancer survivors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jncics/pkab023DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8220304PMC
June 2021

Safety of concomitant therapy with radium-223 and abiraterone or enzalutamide in a real-world population.

Prostate 2021 May 11;81(7):390-397. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Department of Surgery, Division of Urology, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, California, USA.

Background: Real-world utilization and outcomes of combination therapy for men with metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) are largely unknown. We evaluated the overall survival (OS) and skeletal-related events (SREs) among men who received radium-223 with or without concomitant abiraterone or enzalutamide in the Veterans Affairs (VA) Health System.

Methods: We reviewed charts of all mCRPC patients who received radium-223 in the VA from January 2013 to September 2017. We used Cox models to test the association between concomitant therapy versus radium-223 alone on OS and SRE. Sensitivity analyses were performed for concomitant use of denosumab/bisphosphonates.

Results: Three hundred and eighteen patients treated with radium-223 were identified; 116/318 (37%) received concomitant abiraterone/enzalutamide. Two hundred and seventy-seven (87%) patients died during follow-up. Patients who received concomitant therapy were younger at radium-223 initiation (median age 68 vs. 70, p = .027) and had a longer follow-up (median 29.5 vs. 17.9 months, p = .030). There was no OS benefit for those on concomitant therapy (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.87, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.67-1.12, p = .28). There was a trend for an increased SRE risk for patients on concomitant therapy (HR: 1.87, 95% CI: 0.96-3.61, p = .066), but this was not significant. When analyses were limited to men using bone heath agents, similar results were seen for OS (HR: 0.86, 95% CI 0.64-1.15, p = .30) and SRE (HR: 2.36, 95% CI: 0.94-5.94, p = .068).

Conclusions: Despite the common use of concomitant therapy in this real-world study, there was no difference in OS among mCRPC patients. A nonsignificant increased SRE risk was observed. Further work needs to evaluate the optimal sequence, timing, and safety of combination therapies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pros.24115DOI Listing
May 2021

Is body composition linked to prostate cancer survival?

Nat Rev Urol 2021 03;18(3):135-136

Department of Urology, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41585-021-00427-7DOI Listing
March 2021

Monocyte counts and prostate cancer outcomes in white and black men: results from the SEARCH database.

Cancer Causes Control 2021 Feb 4;32(2):189-197. Epub 2021 Jan 4.

Center for Integrated Research On Cancer and Lifestyle, Department of Surgery, Division of Urology, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Samuel Oschin Comprehensive Cancer Institute, 8631 West 3rd Street Suite 430W, Los Angeles, CA, 90048, USA.

Purpose: Circulating inflammatory markers may predict prostate cancer (PC) outcomes. For example, a recent study showed that higher peripheral blood monocyte counts were associated with aggressive PC in Asian men undergoing radical prostatectomy (RP). Herein, we investigated whether peripheral monocyte count can predict long-term PC outcomes after RP in black and white men.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed data on 2345 men undergoing RP from 2000 to 2017 at eight Veterans Affairs hospitals. Data on monocyte count within 6 and 12 months prior to surgery were collected. The study outcomes were biochemical recurrence (BCR), castration-resistant PC (CRPC), metastasis, all-cause mortality (ACM), and PC-specific morality (PCSM). Cox-proportional hazard models were used to assess the associations between pre-operative monocyte count and the above-mentioned outcomes accounting for confounders.

Results: Of 2345 RP patients, 972 (41%) were black and 1373 (59%) were white men. In multivariable analyses, we found no associations between monocyte count and BCR among all men (HR: 1.36, 95%CI 0.90-2.07) or when analyses were stratified by race (HR: 1.30, 95%CI 0.69-2.46, in black men; HR:1.33, 95%CI 0.76-02.33, in white men). Likewise, no overall or race-specific associations were found between monocyte count and CRPC, metastases, ACM, and PCSM, all p ≥ 0.15. Results were similar for monocyte count measured at 12 months prior to RP.

Conclusion: In black and white PC patients undergoing RP, peripheral monocyte count was not associated with long-term PC outcomes. Contrary to what was found in Asian populations, monocyte count was not associated with PC outcomes in this study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10552-020-01373-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7856261PMC
February 2021

Do Hispanic Men Have Worse Outcomes After Radical Prostatectomy? Results From SEARCH.

Urology 2021 Mar 12;149:181-186. Epub 2020 Nov 12.

Section of Urology, Division of Surgery, Durham VA Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina; Center for Integrated Research in Cancer and Lifestyle, Division of Urology, Department of Surgery, and the Samuel Oschin Comprehensive Cancer Institute, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, California. Electronic address:

Objective: To examine the associations between ethnicity and outcomes after radical prostatectomy (RP) among Hispanics. While non-Hispanic Black men have worse prostate cancer (PC) outcomes, there are limited data on outcomes of Hispanic men, especially after RP.

Methods: We identified 3789 White men who underwent RP between 1988 and 2017 in the Shared Equal Access Regional Cancer Hospital database. Men were categorized as Hispanic or non-Hispanic. Logistic regression was used to test the association between ethnicity and PC adverse features. Cox models were used to test the association between ethnicity and biochemical recurrence (BCR), metastases, and castration-resistant PC (CRPC). All models were adjusted for age, prostate-specific antigen, clinical stage, biopsy grade group, surgery year, and surgical center.

Results: Of 3789 White men, 236 (6%) were Hispanic. Hispanic men had higher prostate-specific antigen, but all other characteristics were similar between ethnicities. On multivariable analysis, there was no difference between ethnicities in odds of extracapsular extension, seminal vesicle invasion, positive margins, positive lymph nodes, or high-grade disease (odds ratio 0.62-0.89, all P > .07). A total of 1168 men had BCR, 182 developed metastasis, and 132 developed CRPC. There was no significant association between Hispanic ethnicity and risk of BCR, metastases, or CRPC (hazards ratio 0.39-0.85, all P > .06).

Conclusion: In an equal access setting, we found no evidence Hispanic White men undergoing RP had worse outcomes than non-Hispanic White men. In fact, all hazard ratios were <1 and although they did not achieve statistical significance, suggest perhaps slightly better outcomes for Hispanic men. Larger studies are needed to confirm findings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.urology.2020.10.043DOI Listing
March 2021

Development and Validation of a Clinical Prognostic Stage Group System for Nonmetastatic Prostate Cancer Using Disease-Specific Mortality Results From the International Staging Collaboration for Cancer of the Prostate.

JAMA Oncol 2020 12;6(12):1912-1920

Department of Radiation Oncology, Penn State Cancer Institute, Hershey, Pennsylvania.

Importance: In 2016, the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) established criteria to evaluate prediction models for staging. No localized prostate cancer models were endorsed by the Precision Medicine Core committee, and 8th edition staging was based on expert consensus.

Objective: To develop and validate a pretreatment clinical prognostic stage group system for nonmetastatic prostate cancer.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This multinational cohort study included 7 centers from the United States, Canada, and Europe, the Shared Equal Access Regional Cancer Hospital (SEARCH) Veterans Affairs Medical Centers collaborative (5 centers), and the Cancer of the Prostate Strategic Urologic Research Endeavor (CaPSURE) registry (43 centers) (the STAR-CAP cohort). Patients with cT1-4N0-1M0 prostate adenocarcinoma treated from January 1, 1992, to December 31, 2013 (follow-up completed December 31, 2017). The STAR-CAP cohort was randomly divided into training and validation data sets; statisticians were blinded to the validation data until the model was locked. A Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) cohort was used as a second validation set. Analysis was performed from January 1, 2018, to November 30, 2019.

Exposures: Curative intent radical prostatectomy (RP) or radiotherapy with or without androgen deprivation therapy.

Main Outcomes And Measures: Prostate cancer-specific mortality (PCSM). Based on a competing-risk regression model, a points-based Score staging system was developed. Model discrimination (C index), calibration, and overall performance were assessed in the validation cohorts.

Results: Of 19 684 patients included in the analysis (median age, 64.0 [interquartile range (IQR), 59.0-70.0] years), 12 421 were treated with RP and 7263 with radiotherapy. Median follow-up was 71.8 (IQR, 34.3-124.3) months; 4078 (20.7%) were followed up for at least 10 years. Age, T category, N category, Gleason grade, pretreatment serum prostate-specific antigen level, and the percentage of positive core biopsy results among biopsies performed were included as variables. In the validation set, predicted 10-year PCSM for the 9 Score groups ranged from 0.3% to 40.0%. The 10-year C index (0.796; 95% CI, 0.760-0.828) exceeded that of the AJCC 8th edition (0.757; 95% CI, 0.719-0.792), which was improved across age, race, and treatment modality and within the SEER validation cohort. The Score system performed similarly to individualized random survival forest and interaction models and outperformed National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) and Cancer of the Prostate Risk Assessment (CAPRA) risk grouping 3- and 4-tier classification systems (10-year C index for NCCN 3-tier, 0.729; for NCCN 4-tier, 0.746; for Score, 0.794) as well as CAPRA (10-year C index for CAPRA, 0.760; for Score, 0.782).

Conclusions And Relevance: Using a large, diverse international cohort treated with standard curative treatment options, a proposed AJCC-compliant clinical prognostic stage group system for prostate cancer has been developed. This system may allow consistency of reporting and interpretation of results and clinical trial design.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamaoncol.2020.4922DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7582232PMC
December 2020

Obese men undergoing radical prostatectomy: Is robotic or retropubic better to limit positive surgical margins? Results from SEARCH.

Int J Urol 2020 10 17;27(10):851-857. Epub 2020 Jul 17.

Section of Urology, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina, USA.

Objectives: To evaluate the association between obesity and positive surgical margins in patients undergoing retropubic radical prostatectomy versus robotic-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the data of 3141 men undergoing retropubic radical prostatectomy and 1625 undergoing robotic-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy between 1988 and 2017 at eight Veterans Health Administration hospitals. The positive surgical margin location (peripheral, apical, bladder neck, overall) was determined from pathology reports. We adjusted for age, race, prostate-specific antigen, surgery year, prostate weight, pathological grade group, extracapsular extension, seminal vesicle invasion, hospital surgical volume and surgical method (in analyses not stratified by surgical method). Interactions between body mass index and surgical approach were tested.

Results: Among all patients, higher body mass index was associated with increased odds of overall, peripheral and apical positive surgical margins (OR 1.02-1.03, P ≤ 0.02). Although not statistically significant, there was a trend between higher body mass index and increased odds of bladder neck positive surgical margins (OR 1.03, P = 0.09). Interactions between body mass index and surgical method were significant for peripheral positive surgical margins only (P = 0.024). Specifically, there was an association between body mass index and peripheral positive surgical margins among men undergoing retropubic radical prostatectomy (OR 1.04, P < 0.001), but not robotic-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy (OR 1.00, P = 0.98). Limitations include lacking individual surgeon data and lacking central pathology review.

Conclusions: In this multicenter cohort, higher body mass index was associated with increased odds of positive surgical margins at all locations except the bladder neck. Furthermore, there was a significant association between obesity and peripheral positive surgical margins in men undergoing retropubic radical prostatectomy, but not robotic-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy. Long-term clinical significance requires further study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/iju.14307DOI Listing
October 2020

Obesity, race, and long-term prostate cancer outcomes.

Cancer 2020 08 4;126(16):3733-3741. Epub 2020 Jun 4.

Urology Section, Department of Surgery, Veterans Affairs Greater Los Angeles Healthcare System, Los Angeles, California.

Background: The authors previously found that obesity was linked with prostate cancer (PC)-specific mortality (PCSM) among men who underwent radical prostatectomy (RP). Herein, in a larger RP cohort, the authors investigated whether the association between obesity and long-term PC outcomes, including PCSM, differed by race.

Methods: Data from 5929 patients who underwent RP and were in the Shared Equal Access Regional Cancer Hospital (SEARCH) database were analyzed. Prior to RP, body mass index (BMI) was measured and recorded in the medical records. BMI was categorized as normal weight (<25 kg/m ), overweight (25-29.9 kg/m ), and obese (≥30 kg/m ). The authors assessed the association between BMI and biochemical disease recurrence (BCR), castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), metastasis, and PCSM, accounting for confounders.

Results: Of the 5929 patients, 1983 (33%) were black, 1321 (22%) were of normal weight, 2605 (44%) were overweight, and 2003 (34%) were obese. Compared with white men, black men were younger; had higher prostate-specific antigen levels; and were more likely to have a BMI ≥30 kg/m , seminal vesicle invasion, and positive surgical margins (all P ≤ .032). During a median follow-up of 7.4 years, a total of 1891 patients (32%) developed BCR, 181 patients (3%) developed CRPC, 259 patients (4%) had metastasis, and 135 patients (2%) had died of PC. On multivariable analysis, obesity was found to be associated with an increased risk of PCSM (hazard ratio, 1.78; 95% confidence interval, 1.04-3.04 [P = .035]). No interaction was found between BMI and race in predicting PCSM (P ≥ .88), BCR (P ≥ .81), CRPC (P ≥ .88), or metastasis (P ≥ .60). Neither overweight nor obesity was associated with risk of BCR, CRPC, or metastasis (all P ≥ .18).

Conclusions: Obese men undergoing RP at several Veterans Affairs hospitals were found to be at an increased risk of PCSM, regardless of race.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cncr.32906DOI Listing
August 2020

Race does not predict skeletal-related events and all-cause mortality in men with castration-resistant prostate cancer.

Cancer 2020 07 6;126(14):3274-3280. Epub 2020 May 6.

Division of Urology, Department of Surgery, Samuel Oschin Comprehensive Cancer Institute, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, California, USA.

Background: The impact of race on prostate cancer skeletal-related events (SREs) remains understudied. In the current study, the authors tested the impact of race on time to SREs and overall survival in men with newly diagnosed, bone metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC).

Methods: The authors performed a retrospective study of patients from 8 Veterans Affairs hospitals who were newly diagnosed with bone mCRPC in the year 2000 or later. SREs comprised pathologic fracture, spinal cord compression, radiotherapy to the bone, or surgery to the bone. Time from diagnosis of bone mCRPC to SREs and overall mortality was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Cox models tested the association between race and SREs and overall mortality.

Results: Of 837 patients with bone mCRPC, 232 patients (28%) were black and 605 (72%) were nonblack. At the time of diagnosis of bone mCRPC, black men were found to be more likely to have more bone metastases compared with nonblack men (29% vs 19% with ≥10 bone metastases; P = .021) and to have higher prostate-specific antigen (41.7 ng/mL vs 29.2 ng/mL; P = .005) and a longer time from the diagnosis of CRPC to metastasis (17.9 months vs 14.3 months; P < .01). On multivariable analysis, there were no differences noted with regard to SRE risk (hazard ratio [HR], 0.80; 95% CI, 0.59-1.07) or overall mortality (HR, 0.87; 95% CI, 0.73-1.04) between black and nonblack people, although the HRs were <1, which suggested the possibility of better outcomes.

Conclusions: No significant association between black race and risk of SREs and overall mortality was observed in the current study. These data have suggested that efforts to understand the basis for the excess risk of aggressive prostate cancer in black men should focus on cancer development and progression in individuals with early-stage disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cncr.32933DOI Listing
July 2020

Prospective randomized trial evaluating blood and prostate tissue concentrations of green tea polyphenols and quercetin in men with prostate cancer.

Food Funct 2020 May 29;11(5):4114-4122. Epub 2020 Apr 29.

Center for Human Nutrition David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

We evaluated if chronic consumption of quercetin (Q) with green tea extract (GTE) enhances the bioavailability of GT polyphenols (GTPs) and reduces methylation activity as previously observed in mouse xenograft tumors. In this prospective, randomized, parallel design, placebo controlled study, thirty-one men with prostate cancer consumed daily 1 gram of GTE (830 mg of GTP) with 800 mg of Q (GT + Q) or placebo (GT + PL) for four weeks before prostatectomy. First morning voided urine was collected at baseline, 3 weeks and the day of surgery, and prostate tissue on the day of surgery. In week 3, plasma concentration of GTPs and Q was measured in blood collected before and 2 hours after the morning dose. Prostate tissue epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and epicatechin gallate (ECG) were detected in 67 and 93% of participants in the GT + Q group and 75 and 94% of participants in the GT + PL group. Q was increased 14-fold, 12-fold and 4.5-fold in plasma, urine, and prostate tissue, respectively, in the GT + Q compared to the GT + PL-group. There was a trend for decreased EGC levels in urine collected prior to prostatectomy in the GT + Q compared to GT + PL-group (p = 0.053). Plasma epigallocatechin (EGC) showed a trend to increase (p = 0.066) two hours after capsule intake in the GT + Q vs. the GT + PL-group. There was no significant difference between the groups in GTP content or methylation activity in prostate tissue or RBCs. No liver toxicity was observed. Although our findings are suggestive, further studies are warranted evaluating if Q alters GTP metabolism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0fo00565gDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8312236PMC
May 2020

Competing Risks of Mortality among Men with Biochemical Recurrence after Radical Prostatectomy.

J Urol 2020 Sep 3;204(3):511-517. Epub 2020 Apr 3.

Division of Urology, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, California.

Purpose: Men with biochemical recurrence after radical prostatectomy need information on competing risks of mortality to inform prognosis and guide treatment. We quantified the risk of prostate cancer metastasis and mortality, and other cause mortality across key clinical predictors.

Materials And Methods: We analyzed 1,225 men with biochemical recurrence after radical prostatectomy from 2001 to 2017 in the VA SEARCH database. Multivariable competing risks regression was used to identify predictors and quantify cumulative incidence of metastasis, prostate cancer specific mortality and other cause mortality. Recursive partitioning analysis was used to identify optimum variable cut points for prediction of prostate cancer specific mortality and other cause mortality.

Results: During a median followup of 5.6 years after biochemical recurrence (IQR 2.7-9.1), 243 (20%) men died of other causes and 68 (6%) died of prostate cancer. Multivariable competing risks regression showed that high D'Amico tumor risk and prostate specific antigen doubling time at biochemical recurrence less than 9 months were associated with metastasis and prostate cancer specific mortality (p ≤0.001). Ten-year prostate cancer specific mortality was 14% and 9% for those with high risk tumors and prostate specific antigen doubling time less than 9 months, respectively. Advanced age and worse comorbidity were associated with other cause mortality (p ≤0.001). Ten-year other cause mortality was higher among men 70 years old or older with any Charlson comorbidity (1-3+) (40% to 49%) compared to those with none (20%). Recursive partitioning analysis identified optimal variable cut points for prediction of prostate cancer specific mortality and other cause mortality, with 10-year prostate cancer specific mortality ranging from 3% to 59% and 10-year other cause mortality ranging from 17% to 50% across risk subgroups.

Conclusions: Among men with biochemical recurrence after radical prostatectomy, there is significant heterogeneity in prognosis that can be explained by available clinical variables. Men in their 70s with any major comorbidity are 2 to 10 times more likely to die of other causes than of prostate cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/JU.0000000000001036DOI Listing
September 2020

Radical Prostatectomy or Observation for Clinically Localized Prostate Cancer: Extended Follow-up of the Prostate Cancer Intervention Versus Observation Trial (PIVOT).

Eur Urol 2020 06 21;77(6):713-724. Epub 2020 Feb 21.

MDx Health, Irvine, CA, USA; Nanospectra Biosciences, Houston, TX, USA.

Background: Very long-term mortality in men with early prostate cancer treated with surgery versus observation is uncertain.

Objective: To determine long-term effects of surgery versus observation on all-cause mortality for men with early prostate cancer.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This study evaluated long-term follow-up of a randomized trial conducted at the US Department of Veterans Affairs and National Cancer Institute sites. The participants were men (n=731) ≤75yr of age with localized prostate cancer, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) <50ng/ml, life expectancy ≥10yr, and medically fit for surgery.

Intervention: Radical prostatectomy versus observation.

Outcome Measurements And Statistical Analysis: All-cause mortality was assessed in the entire cohort and patient and tumor subgroups. Intention-to-treat analysis was conducted using Kaplan-Meier methods with log-rank tests and Cox proportional hazard models; cumulative mortality incidence, between-group differences, and relative risks were also assessed at predefined time periods.

Results And Limitations: During 22.1yr (median follow-up for survivors=18.6yr; interquartile range: 16.6-20.0), 515 men died; 246 of 346 men (68%) were assigned to surgery versus 269 of 367 (73%) assigned to observation (hazard ratio 0.84 [95% confidence interval {CI}: 0.70-1.00]; p= 0.044 [absolute risk reduction = 5.7 percentage points, 95% CI: -0.89 to 12%]; relative risk: 0.92 [95% CI: 0.84-1.01]). The restricted mean survival in the surgical group was 13.6 yr (95% CI: 12.9-14.3) versus 12.6 yr (95% CI: 11.8-13.3) in the observation group; a mean of 1 life-year was gained with surgery. Results did not significantly vary by patient or tumor characteristics, although differences were larger favoring surgery among men aged <65 yr, of white race, and having better health status, fewer comorbidities, ≥34% positive prostate biopsy cores, and intermediate-risk disease. Results were not adjusted for multiple comparisons, and we could not assess outcomes other than all-cause mortality.

Conclusions: Surgery was associated with small very long-term reductions in all-cause mortality and increases in years of life gained. Absolute effects did not vary markedly by patient characteristics. Absolute effects and mean survival were much smaller in men with low-risk disease, but were greater in men with intermediate-risk disease although not in men with high-risk disease.

Patient Summary: In this randomized study, we evaluated death from any cause in men with early prostate cancer treated with either surgery or observation. Overall, surgery may provide small very long-term reductions in death from any cause and increases in years of life gained. Absolute effects were much smaller in men with low-risk disease, but were greater in men with intermediate-risk disease although not in men with high-risk disease. Strategies are needed to identify men needing and benefitting from surgery while reducing ineffective treatment and overtreatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eururo.2020.02.009DOI Listing
June 2020

Reply by Authors.

J Urol 2020 01 14;203(1):127. Epub 2019 Oct 14.

Division of Urology, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.JU.0000604076.44320.a0DOI Listing
January 2020

Racial Discrepancies in Overall Survival among Men Treated with Radium.

J Urol 2020 02 3;203(2):331-337. Epub 2019 Sep 3.

Division of Urology, Department of Surgery, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, California.

Purpose: Several recent studies on metastatic castration resistant prostate cancer demonstrated improved overall survival in black vs white men. Radium is Food and Drug Administration approved for metastatic castration resistant prostate cancer based on a survival benefit in the ALSYMPCA (A Phase III Study of Radium-223 Dichloride in Patients with Symptomatic Hormone Refractory Prostate Cancer with Skeletal Metastases) trial, in which 94% of participants were white. We identified a real world population of patients with metastatic castration resistant prostate cancer who received radium to compare differences in baseline characteristics and outcomes in black vs nonblack men.

Materials And Methods: We reviewed the charts of all men who received radium in the entire Veterans Affairs system. We compared treatment patterns and baseline characteristics between black and nonblack men. We used Cox models to analyze predictors of time from radium start to overall survival and time to skeletal related events.

Results: We identified 318 patients treated with radium, including 87 (27%) who were black. Median followup after radium initiation was 25.3 months (IQR 13.8-37.1). Black men were younger than nonblack men when starting radium (median age 67 vs 70 years, p <0.001) and they had higher prostate specific antigen (median 159.9 vs 90.2 ng/ml, p=0.014) and alkaline phosphatase (median 163 vs 135 IU/l, p=0.017). A greater proportion of black men received docetaxel prior to radium (77% vs 55%, p <0.001). On multivariable analysis black race was associated with a decreased risk of mortality from the time of radium initiation (HR 0.75, 95% CI 0.57-0.99, p=0.045).

Conclusions: Black men had longer overall survival than nonblack men, although they appeared to receive radium later in the disease course. Further studies are required to verify our findings and explore biological differences between black and nonblack men with metastatic castration resistant prostate cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/JU.0000000000000524DOI Listing
February 2020

Effect of dietary omega-3 fatty acids on castrate-resistant prostate cancer and tumor-associated macrophages.

Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis 2020 03 22;23(1):127-135. Epub 2019 Aug 22.

Department of Urology, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

Background: M2-like macrophages are associated with the pathogenesis of castrate-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). We sought to determine if dietary omega-3 fatty acids (ω-3 FAs) delay the development and progression of CRPC and inhibit tumor-associated M2-like macrophages.

Methods: MycCap cells were grown subcutaneously in immunocompetent FVB mice. Mice were castrated when tumors reached 300 mm. To study effects of dietary ω-3 FAs on development of CRPC, ω-3 or ω-6 diets were started 2 days after castration and mice sacrificed after early regrowth of tumors. To study ω-3 FA effects on progression of CRPC, tumors were allowed to regrow after castration before starting the diets. M2 (CD206+) macrophages were isolated from allografts to examine ω-3 FA effects on macrophage function. Omega-3 fatty acid effects on androgen-deprived RAW264.7 M2 macrophages were studied by RT-qPCR and a migration/ invasion assay.

Results: The ω-3 diet combined with castration lead to greater MycCap tumor regression (tumor volume reduction: 182.2 ± 33.6 mm) than the ω-6 diet (tumor volume reduction: 148.3 ± 35.2; p = 0.003) and significantly delayed the time to CRPC (p = 0.006). Likewise, the ω-3 diet significantly delayed progression of established castrate-resistant MycCaP tumors (p = 0.003). The ω-3 diet (as compared to the ω-6 diet) significantly reduced tumor-associated M2-like macrophage expression of CSF-1R in the CRPC development model, and matrix metallopeptidase-9 (MMP-9) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the CRPC progression model. Migration of androgen-depleted RAW264.7 M2 macrophages towards MycCaP cells was reversed by addition of docosahexaenoic acid (ω-3).

Conclusions: Dietary omega-3 FAs (as compared to omega-6 FAs) decreased the development and progression of CRPC in an immunocompetent mouse model, and had inhibitory effects on M2-like macrophage function. Clinical trials are warranted evaluating if a fish oil-based diet can delay the time to castration resistance in men on androgen deprivation therapy, whereas further preclinical studies are warranted evaluating fish oil for more advanced CRPC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41391-019-0168-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7031053PMC
March 2020

Serum Lipids prior to Starting Androgen Deprivation Therapy and Risk of Castration Resistant Prostate Cancer and Metastasis: Results from the SEARCH Database.

J Urol 2020 01 20;203(1):120-127. Epub 2019 Aug 20.

Division of Urology, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina.

Purpose: We tested the association of serum lipid levels prior to androgen deprivation therapy with the risk of castration resistant prostate cancer and metastasis.

Materials And Methods: We identified 302 men in the SEARCH (Shared Equal Access Regional Cancer Hospital) database who received androgen deprivation therapy after radical prostatectomy for nonmetastatic disease, had never received statins before androgen deprivation therapy and had available serum lipid data within 2 years prior to androgen deprivation therapy. Cox proportional hazards models were used to test associations between total cholesterol (less than 200 vs 200 mg/dl or greater), low density lipoprotein (less than 130 vs 130 mg/dl or greater), high density lipoprotein (40 or greater vs less than 40 mg/dl) and triglycerides (less than 150 vs 150 mg/dl or greater) and the risk of castration resistant prostate cancer and metastasis after androgen deprivation therapy while adjusting for potential confounders. Subanalyses were restricted to men who remained statin nonusers after androgen deprivation therapy.

Results: Median followup after androgen deprivation therapy was 67 months. Castration resistant prostate cancer and metastasis developed in 42 and 44 men, respectively. Men with elevated cholesterol received androgen deprivation therapy in an earlier year and had longer followup and a higher rate of statin use after androgen deprivation therapy. On multivariable analysis total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein were unrelated to castration resistant prostate cancer. Low high density lipoprotein (less than 40 vs 40 mg/dl or greater) was suggestively linked to an increased risk of castration resistant prostate cancer (HR 1.86, 95% CI 0.99-3.48). The association was stronger in men who remained statin nonusers after androgen deprivation therapy (HR 3.64, 95% CI 1.45-9.17). Results for metastasis were similar to those for castration resistant prostate cancer.

Conclusions: Among men with nonmetastatic prostate cancer who started androgen deprivation therapy serum cholesterol was unrelated to castration resistant prostate cancer or metastasis. Low high density lipoprotein was suggestively associated with risks of increased castration resistant prostate cancer and metastasis, particularly in statin never users. Further studies are needed to explore a potential role for lipids in prostate cancer progression after androgen deprivation therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/JU.0000000000000494DOI Listing
January 2020

Predictors of skeletal-related events and mortality in men with metastatic, castration-resistant prostate cancer: Results from the Shared Equal Access Regional Cancer Hospital (SEARCH) database.

Cancer 2019 11 7;125(22):4003-4010. Epub 2019 Aug 7.

Division of Urology, Department of Surgery, The University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas.

Background: Although skeletal-related events (SREs) are linked with a reduced quality of life and worse outcomes, to the authors' knowledge the factors that predict SREs are minimally understood. The objective of the current study was to identify predictors of SREs and all-cause mortality among men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC).

Methods: Data were collected on 837 men with bone mCRPC at 8 Veterans Affairs medical centers within the Shared Equal Access Regional Cancer Hospital (SEARCH) database from 2000 through 2017. Patients were followed to assess development of SREs (pathological fracture, radiotherapy to bone, spinal cord compression, or surgery to bone). Cox proportional hazards models were used to evaluate predictors of SREs and mortality.

Results: Of the 837 men with bone mCRPC, 287 developed a SRE and 740 men died (median follow-up, 26 months). Bone pain was found to be the strongest predictor of SREs (hazard ratio [HR], 2.96; 95% CI, 2.25-3.89). A shorter time from CRPC to the development of metastasis (HR, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.85-0.99), shorter progression to CRPC (HR, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.91-0.98), and visceral metastasis at the time of diagnosis of bone metastasis (HR, 1.91; 95% CI, 1.18-3.09) were associated with an increased risk of SREs. Ten or more bone metastases (HR, 2.17; 95% CI, 1.72-2.74), undergoing radical prostatectomy (HR, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.61-0.89), shorter progression to CRPC (HR, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.94-0.99), older age (HR, 1.03; 95% CI, 1.02-1.04), higher prostate-specific antigen level at the time of diagnosis of metastasis (HR, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.14-1.28), bone pain (HR, 1.44; 95% CI, 1.23-1.70), and visceral metastasis (HR, 1.72; 95% CI, 1.23-2.39) were associated with an increased mortality risk.

Conclusions: Among men with bone mCRPC, bone pain was found to be the strongest predictor of SREs and the number of bone metastases was a strong predictor of mortality. If validated, these factors potentially may be used for risk stratification and for SRE prevention strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cncr.32414DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6819222PMC
November 2019

Practice patterns and outcomes of equivocal bone scans for patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer: Results from SEARCH.

Asian J Urol 2019 Jul 18;6(3):242-248. Epub 2019 Jan 18.

Urology Section, Department of Surgery, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA.

Objective: To review follow-up imaging after equivocal bone scans in men with castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) and examine the characteristics of equivocal bone scans that are associated with positive follow-up imaging.

Methods: We identified 639 men from five Veterans Affairs Hospitals with a technetium-99m bone scan after CRPC diagnosis, of whom 99 (15%) had equivocal scans. Men with equivocal scans were segregated into "high-risk" and "low-risk" subcategories based upon wording in the bone scan report. All follow-up imaging (bone scans, computed tomography [CT], magnetic resonance imaging [MRI], and X-rays) in the 3 months after the equivocal scan were reviewed. Variables were compared between patients with a positive negative follow-up imaging after an equivocal bone scan.

Results: Of 99 men with an equivocal bone scan, 43 (43%) received at least one follow-up imaging test, including 32/82 (39%) with low-risk scans and 11/17 (65%) with high-risk scans ( = 0.052). Of follow-up tests, 67% were negative, 14% were equivocal, and 19% were positive. Among those who underwent follow-up imaging, 3/32 (9%) low-risk men had metastases 5/11 (45%) high-risk men ( = 0.015).

Conclusion: While 19% of all men who received follow-up imaging had positive follow-up imaging, only 9% of those with a low-risk equivocal bone scan had metastases versus 45% of those with high-risk. These preliminary findings, if confirmed in larger studies, suggest follow-up imaging tests for low-risk equivocal scans can be delayed while high-risk equivocal scans should receive follow-up imaging.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajur.2019.01.004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6595156PMC
July 2019

Salvage Radiotherapy for Recurrent Prostate Cancer: Can the Prognostic Grade Group System Inform Treatment Timing?

Clin Genitourin Cancer 2019 10 24;17(5):e930-e938. Epub 2019 May 24.

Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA.

Purpose: In order to better time salvage radiotherapy (SRT) for post-radical prostatectomy biochemical failure, we examined the association between pre-SRT prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and PSA control as a function of the new prognostic grade group (PGG) system.

Patients And Methods: Using the Shared Equal Access Regional Cancer Hospital database, we identified men after radical prostatectomy with PSA > 0.2 ng/mL and without cancer involvement of lymph nodes who underwent SRT alone. SRT failure was defined as post-SRT PSA nadir + 0.2 ng/mL or receipt of post-SRT hormone therapy. Men were stratified by pre-SRT PSA (0.2-0.49, 0.5-0.99, and ≥ 1.0 ng/mL). Multivariable Cox models were used to test the association between pre-SRT PSA and SRT failure, stratified by PGG.

Results: A total of 358 men met the inclusion criteria and comprised our study cohort. Median post-SRT follow-up was 78 months. A total of 174 men (49%) had pre-SRT PSA 0.2-0.49 ng/mL, 97 (27%) PSA 0.5-0.99 ng/mL, and 87 (24%) PSA ≥ 1.0 ng/mL. On multivariable analysis among men with PGG 1-2, pre-SRT PSA 0.2-0.49 ng/mL had similar outcomes as PSA 0.5-0.99 ng/mL; those with PSA ≥ 1.0 ng/mL had higher recurrence risks (hazard ratio = 2.78, P < .001). Among PGG 3-5, PSA 0.5-0.99 ng/mL or ≥ 1.0 ng/mL had a higher recurrence risk (hazard ratio = 2.15, P = .021; and hazard ratio = 2.49, P = .010, respectively) versus PSA 0.2-0.49 ng/mL.

Conclusion: In men with higher-grade prostate cancer (PGG 3-5), SRT should be provided earlier (PSA < 0.5 ng/mL), while among men with lower-grade disease (PGG 1-2), SRT results in equal PSA control up to PSA 1.0 ng/mL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clgc.2019.05.007DOI Listing
October 2019

Association of Black Race With Prostate Cancer-Specific and Other-Cause Mortality.

JAMA Oncol 2019 07;5(7):975-983

Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.

Importance: Black men are more likely to die of prostate cancer than white men. In men with similar stages of disease, the contribution of biological vs nonbiological differences to this observed disparity is unclear.

Objective: To quantify the association of black race with long-term survival outcomes after controlling for known prognostic variables and access to care among men with prostate cancer.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This multiple-cohort study included updated individual patient-level data of men with clinical T1-4N0-1M0 prostate cancer from the following 3 cohorts: Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER [n = 296 273]); 5 equal-access regional medical centers within the Veterans Affairs health system (VA [n = 3972]); and 4 pooled National Cancer Institute-sponsored Radiation Therapy Oncology Group phase 3 randomized clinical trials (RCTs [n = 5854]). Data were collected in the 3 cohorts from January 1, 1992, through December 31, 2013, and analyzed from April 27, 2017, through April 13, 2019.

Exposures: In the VA and RCT cohorts, all patients received surgery and radiotherapy, respectively, with curative intent. In SEER, radical treatment, hormone therapy, or conservative management were received.

Main Outcomes And Measures: Prostate cancer-specific mortality (PCSM). Secondary measures included other-cause mortality (OCM). To adjust for demographic-, cancer-, and treatment-related baseline differences, inverse probability weighting (IPW) was performed.

Results: Among the 306 100 participants included in the analysis (mean [SD] age, 64.9 [8.9] years), black men constituted 52 840 patients (17.8%) in the SEER cohort, 1513 (38.1%) in the VA cohort, and 1129 (19.3%) in the RCT cohort. Black race was associated with an increased age-adjusted PCSM hazard (subdistribution hazard ratio [sHR], 1.30; 95% CI, 1.23-1.37; P < .001) within the SEER cohort. After IPW adjustment, black race was associated with a 0.5% (95% CI, 0.2%-0.9%) increase in PCSM at 10 years after diagnosis (sHR, 1.09; 95% CI, 1.04-1.15; P < .001), with no significant difference for high-risk men (sHR, 1.04; 95% CI, 0.97-1.12; P = .29). No significant differences in PCSM were found in the VA IPW cohort (sHR, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.56-1.30; P = .46), and black men had a significantly lower hazard in the RCT IPW cohort (sHR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.66-0.99; P = .04). Black men had a significantly increased hazard of OCM in the SEER (sHR, 1.30; 95% CI, 1.27-1.34; P < .001) and RCT (sHR, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.06-1.29; P = .002) IPW cohorts.

Conclusions And Relevance: In this study, after adjustment for nonbiological differences, notably access to care and standardized treatment, black race did not appear to be associated with inferior stage-for-stage PCSM. A large disparity remained in OCM for black men with nonmetastatic prostate cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamaoncol.2019.0826DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6547116PMC
July 2019

Influence of African American race on the association between preoperative biopsy grade group and adverse histopathologic features of radical prostatectomy.

Cancer 2019 09 1;125(17):3025-3032. Epub 2019 May 1.

Division of Urology, Department of Surgery, Duke Cancer Institute, Durham, North Carolina.

Background: The current study was performed to evaluate the influence of race on the association between biopsy grade group (GrGp) and the risk of detectable prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and adverse histopathological outcomes after radical prostatectomy (RP).

Methods: Data regarding 4073 men (1344 African American men; 33%) who were treated with RP were categorized based on the 5-tiered GrGp system. Logistic regression was used to test the association between biopsy GrGp and PSA nadir (<0.1 ng/mL) after RP as well as adverse pathological features among all patients and stratified by race.

Results: Those patients with a higher biopsy GrGp were found to have lower odds of achieving a PSA nadir <0.1 ng/mL after RP on unadjusted and multivariable analysis (both P < .001). On unadjusted and multivariable analysis, higher GrGp was associated with increased odds of each of the adverse pathological features, namely, GrGp ≥3, extraprostatic extension, seminal vesicle invasion, positive surgical resection margin, and positive lymph nodes (all P < .001). Race had no significant interaction with biopsy GrGp in the prediction of PSA nadir after RP (P = .91) or any adverse pathological features (all P > .06) except positive lymph nodes. When the models were stratified by race, the associations between preoperative biopsy GrGp and having a PSA nadir <0.1 ng/mL, high-grade final pathology, or other adverse histopathologic features were similar in both races except as noted for positive lymph nodes.

Conclusions: Higher preoperative biopsy GrGp is associated with increased odds of adverse histopathological findings as well as lower odds of a PSA nadir <0.1 ng/mL after RP. These associations are largely independent of race, suggesting that GrGp is an accurate tool for risk stratification in both black and white men.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cncr.32168DOI Listing
September 2019

Validity of the National Death Index to ascertain the date and cause of death in men having undergone prostatectomy for prostate cancer.

Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis 2019 12 29;22(4):633-635. Epub 2019 Apr 29.

Durham Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA.

Background: The National Death Index (NDI) is a centralized database containing information from death certificates that are frequently referenced by health and medical investigators to ascertain vital statistics. Yet, it commonly includes misclassified causes of death. Since the NDI is frequently relied upon in studies that evaluate outcomes following radical prostatectomy (RP) for prostate cancer (PC), we evaluated its validity by referencing mortality data from the Shared Equal Access Regional Cancer Hospital (SEARCH) database which is a prospectively managed database of 5009 Veterans who underwent a RP at eight Veterans Affairs medical centers between 1982 and 2016.

Methods: We compared vital status, cause of death and date of death from the SEARCH database with the NDI.

Results: A total of 1312 men in SEARCH were deceased, yet the NDI reported 17% (219) of those men as still alive. Among the 1093 men who had concordant vital status in both SEARCH and NDI, the date of death was an exact match within one day, a week, or 31 days in 94%, 97%, 99%, and 100%, respectively. Of those men coded as dying from prostate cancer in the SEARCH database (n = 105), 12% were coded as having died from non-PC causes in the NDI. Meanwhile, among patients coded by the NDI as having died of PC (n = 139), 34% were coded in SEARCH as having died of non-PC causes.

Conclusions: These findings demonstrate that the NDI provides accurate dates of death, but frequently misclassifies whether a death was due to prostate cancer. Studies that rely upon death certificates, as captured in the NDI, may be unreliable to report prostate cancer-specific mortality rates after prostatectomy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41391-019-0146-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6819236PMC
December 2019

Poorly controlled diabetes increases the risk of metastases and castration-resistant prostate cancer in men undergoing radical prostatectomy: Results from the SEARCH database.

Cancer 2019 08 29;125(16):2861-2867. Epub 2019 Apr 29.

Division of Urology, Department of Surgery, Samuel Oschin Comprehensive Cancer Institute, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, California.

Background: Although diabetes is inversely related to prostate cancer (PC) risk, to the authors' knowledge the impact of glycemic control on PC progression is unknown. In the current study, the authors tested the association between hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and long-term PC outcomes among diabetic men undergoing radical prostatectomy (RP).

Methods: The authors retrospectively reviewed data regarding men undergoing RP from 2000 to 2017 at 8 Veterans Affairs hospitals. Diabetic patients were identified using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9) codes (250.x) or by an HbA1c value >6.5% at any time before RP. Cox models tested the association between HbA1c and biochemical disease recurrence (BCR), castration-resistant PC (CRPC), metastases, PC-specific mortality, and all-cause mortality. The model for BCR was adjusted for multiple variables. Due to limited events, models for long-term outcomes were adjusted for biopsy grade and prostate-specific antigen only.

Results: A total of 1409 men comprised the study population. Of these, 699 patients (50%) had an HbA1c value <6.5%, 631 (45%) had an HbA1c value of 6.5% to 7.9%, and 79 (6%) had an HbA1c value ≥8.0%. Men with an HbA1c value ≥8.0% were younger (P < .001) and more likely to be black (P = .013). The median follow-up after RP was 6.8 years (interquartile range, 3.7-10.6 years). On multivariable analysis, HbA1c was not found to be associated with BCR. However, a higher HbA1c value was associated with metastasis (hazard ratio [HR], 1.21; 95% CI, 1.02-1.44 [P = .031]) and CRPC (HR, 1.27; 95% CI, 1.03-1.56 [P = .023]). Although not statistically significant, there were trends between higher HbA1c and risk of PC-specific mortality (HR, 1.24; 95% CI, 0.99-1.56 [P = .067]) and all-cause mortality (HR, 1.09; 95% CI, 0.99-1.19 [P = .058]).

Conclusions: Among diabetic men undergoing RP, a higher HbA1c value was associated with metastases and CRPC. If validated in larger studies with longer follow-up, future research should test whether better glycemic control improves long-term PC outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cncr.32141DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6663572PMC
August 2019

Prostate-only Versus Whole-pelvis Radiation with or Without a Brachytherapy Boost for Gleason Grade Group 5 Prostate Cancer: A Retrospective Analysis.

Eur Urol 2020 01 13;77(1):3-10. Epub 2019 Apr 13.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Veteran Affairs Greater Los Angeles Healthcare System, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

Background: The role of elective whole-pelvis radiotherapy (WPRT) remains controversial. Few studies have investigated it in Gleason grade group (GG) 5 prostate cancer (PCa), known to have a high risk of nodal metastases.

Objective: To assess the impact of WPRT on patients with GG 5 PCa treated with external-beam radiotherapy (EBRT) or EBRT with a brachytherapy boost (EBRT+BT).

Design, Setting, And Participants: We identified 1170 patients with biopsy-proven GG 5 PCa from 11 centers in the United States and one in Norway treated between 2000 and 2013 (734 with EBRT and 436 with EBRT+BT).

Outcome Measurements And Statistical Analysis: Biochemical recurrence-free survival (bRFS), distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS), and prostate cancer-specific survival (PCSS) were compared using Cox proportional hazards models with propensity score adjustment.

Results And Limitations: A total of 299 EBRT patients (41%) and 320 EBRT+BT patients (73%) received WPRT. The adjusted 5-yr bRFS rates with WPRT in the EBRT and EBRT+BT groups were 66% and 88%, respectively. Without WPRT, these rates for the EBRT and EBRT+BT groups were 58% and 78%, respectively. The median follow-up was 5.6yr. WPRT was associated with improved bRFS among patients treated with EBRT+BT (hazard ratio [HR] 0.5, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.2-0.9, p=0.02), but no evidence for improvement was found in those treated with EBRT (HR 0.8, 95% CI 0.6-1.2, p=0.4). WPRT was not significantly associated with improved DMFS or PCSS in the EBRT group (HR 1.1, 95% CI 0.7-1.7, p=0.8 for DMFS and HR 0.7, 95% CI 0.4-1.1, p=0.1 for PCSS), or in the EBRT+BT group (HR 0.6, 95% CI 0.3-1.4, p=0.2 for DMFS and HR 0.5 95% CI 0.2-1.2, p=0.1 for PCSS).

Conclusions: WPRT was not associated with improved PCSS or DMFS in patients with GG 5 PCa who received either EBRT or EBRT+BT. However, WPRT was associated with a significant improvement in bRFS among patients receiving EBRT+BT. Strategies to optimize WPRT, potentially with the use of advanced imaging techniques to identify occult nodal disease, are warranted.

Patient Summary: When men with a high Gleason grade prostate cancer receive radiation with external radiation and brachytherapy, the addition of radiation to the pelvis results in a longer duration of prostate-specific antigen control. However, we did not find a difference in their survival from prostate cancer or in their survival without metastatic disease. We also did not find a benefit for radiation to the pelvis in men who received radiation without brachytherapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eururo.2019.03.022DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7521828PMC
January 2020

Systemic and tumor-directed therapy for oligometastatic prostate cancer: study protocol for a phase II trial for veterans with de novo oligometastatic disease.

BMC Cancer 2019 Apr 1;19(1):291. Epub 2019 Apr 1.

Department of Radiation Oncology, UCLA, 200 UCLA Medical Plaza, Suite B265, Los Angeles, CA, 90095-6951, USA.

Background: The treatment paradigm for metastatic hormone-sensitive prostate cancer (mHSPC) patients is evolving. PET/CT now offers improved sensitivity and accuracy in staging. Recent randomized trial data supports escalated hormone therapy, local primary tumor therapy, and metastasis-directed therapy. The impact of combining such therapies into a multimodal approach is unknown. This Phase II single-arm clinical trial sponsored and funded by Veterans Affairs combines local, metastasis-directed, and systemic therapies to durably render patients free of detectable disease off active therapy.

Methods: Patients with newly-diagnosed M1a/b prostate cancer (PSMA PET/CT staging is permitted) and 1-5 radiographically visible metastases (excluding pelvic lymph nodes) are undergoing local treatment with radical prostatectomy, limited duration systemic therapy for a total of six months (leuprolide, abiraterone acetate with prednisone, and apalutamide), metastasis-directed stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT), and post-operative fractionated radiotherapy if pT ≥ 3a, N1, or positive margins are present. The primary endpoint is the percent of patients achieving a serum PSA of < 0.05 ng/mL six months after recovery of serum testosterone ≥150 ng/dL. Secondary endpoints include time to biochemical progression, time to radiographic progression, time to initiation of alternative antineoplastic therapy, prostate cancer specific survival, health related quality-of-life, safety and tolerability.

Discussion: To our knowledge, this is the first trial that tests a comprehensive systemic and tumor directed therapeutic strategy for patients with newly diagnosed oligometastatic prostate cancer. This trial, and others like it, represent the critical first step towards curative intent therapy for a patient population where palliation has been the norm.

Trial Registration: Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT03298087 (registration date: September 29, 2017).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12885-019-5496-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6444674PMC
April 2019

MEK-ERK signaling is a therapeutic target in metastatic castration resistant prostate cancer.

Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis 2019 12 25;22(4):531-538. Epub 2019 Feb 25.

Department of Urology, David Geffen School of Medicine at University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, 90095, USA.

Background: Metastatic castration resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) is incurable and progression after drugs that target the androgen receptor-signaling axis is inevitable. Thus, there is an urgent need to develop more effective treatments beyond hormonal manipulation. We sought to identify activated kinases in mCRPC as therapeutic targets for existing, approved agents, with the goal of identifying candidate drugs for rapid translation into proof of concept Phase II trials in mCRPC.

Methods: To identify evidence of activation of druggable kinases in these patients, we compared mRNA expression from metastatic biopsies of patients with mCRPC (n = 101) to mRNA expression in localized prostate from TCGA and used this analysis to infer differential kinase activity. In addition, we assessed the differential phosphorylation levels for key MAPK pathway kinases between mCRPC and localized prostate cancers.

Results: Transcriptomic profiling of 101 patients with mCRPC as compared to patients with localized prostate cancer identified evidence of hyperactive ERK1, and whole genome sequencing revealed frequent amplifications of members of the MAPK pathway in 32% of this cohort. Next, we confirmed elevated levels of phosphorylated ERK1/2 in castration resistant prostate cancer as compared to untreated primary prostate cancer. We observed that the presence of detectable phosphorylated ERK1/2 in the primary tumor is associated with biochemical failure after radical prostatectomy independent of clinicopathologic features. ERK1 is the immediate downstream target of MEK1/2, which is druggable with trametinib, an approved therapeutic for melanoma. Trametinib elicited a profound biochemical and clinical response in a patient who had failed multiple prior treatments for mCRPC.

Conclusions: We conclude that pharmacologic targeting of the MEK/ERK pathway may be a viable treatment strategy for patients with refractory metastatic prostate cancer. An ongoing Phase II trial tests this hypothesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41391-019-0134-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6853839PMC
December 2019

First-year weight loss with androgen-deprivation therapy increases risks of prostate cancer progression and prostate cancer-specific mortality: results from SEARCH.

Cancer Causes Control 2019 Mar 30;30(3):259-269. Epub 2019 Jan 30.

Urology Section, Department of Surgery, Veterans Affairs Medical Centers, Durham, NC, USA.

Purpose: We aimed to study the associations between androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT)-induced weight changes and prostate cancer (PC) progression and mortality in men who had undergone radical prostatectomy (RP).

Methods: Data from the Shared Equal Access Regional Cancer Hospital (SEARCH) cohort were used to study the associations between weight change approximately 1-year post-ADT initiation and metastases, castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), all-cause mortality (ACM), and PC-specific mortality (PCSM) in 357 patients who had undergone RP between 1988 and 2014. We estimated hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) using covariate-adjusted Cox regression models for associations between weight loss, and weight gains of 2.3 kg or more, and PC progression and mortality post-ADT.

Results: During a median (IQR) follow-up of 81 (46-119) months, 55 men were diagnosed with metastases, 61 with CRPC, 36 died of PC, and 122 died of any cause. In multivariable analysis, weight loss was associated with increases in risks of metastases (HR 3.13; 95% CI 1.40-6.97), PCSM (HR 4.73; 95% CI 1.59-14.0), and ACM (HR 2.16; 95% CI 1.25-3.74) compared with mild weight gains of ≤ 2.2. Results were slightly attenuated but remained statistically significant in analyses that accounted for competing risks of non-PC death. Estimates for the associations between weight gains of ≥ 2.3 kg and metastases (HR 1.58; 95% CI 0.73-3.42), CRPC (HR 1.33; 95% CI 0.66-2.66), and PCSM (HR 2.44; 95% CI 0.84-7.11) were elevated, but not statistically significant.

Conclusions: Our results suggest that weight loss following ADT initiation in men who have undergone RP is a poor prognostic sign. If confirmed in future studies, testing ways to mitigate weight loss post-ADT may be warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10552-019-1133-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6599459PMC
March 2019

Socioeconomic status, race, and long-term outcomes after radical prostatectomy in an equal access health system: Results from the SEARCH database.

Urol Oncol 2019 04 28;37(4):289.e11-289.e17. Epub 2018 Dec 28.

Division of Urology, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Durham, NC; Division of Urology, Department of Surgery, Samuel Oschin Comprehensive Cancer Institute, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA. Electronic address:

Introduction: We previously found racial differences in biochemical recurrence (BCR) after radical prostatectomy (RP) persisted after adjusting for socioeconomic status (SES) while SES did not predict BCR. The impact on long-term prostate cancer (PC) outcomes is unclear. We hypothesized higher SES would associate with better long-term outcomes regardless of race.

Methods: Among 4,787 black and white men undergoing RP from 1988 to 2015 in the SEARCH Database, poverty (primary SES measure) was estimated by linking home ZIP-code to census data. Cox models were used to test the association between SES adjusting for demographic, clinicopathological features, and race with BCR, castration-resistant PC (CRPC), metastases, PC-specific mortality (PCSM), and all-cause mortality. Interactions between race and SES were tested.

Results: Median follow-up was 98 months (Interquartile range: 54-150 months). There were no interactions between race and SES for BCR. Black men had 10%- to 11% increased BCR risk (P < 0.06) while SES was unrelated to BCR. There were interactions between SES and race for CRPC (P = 0.002), metastasis (P = 0.014), and PCSM (P = 0.004). Lower SES was associated with decreased CRPC (P = 0.012), metastases (P = 0.004), and PCSM (P = 0.049) in black, but not white men (all P ≥ 0.22). Higher SES was associated with decreased all-cause mortality in both races.

Conclusions: In an equal-access setting, lower SES associated with decreased CRPC, metastases, and PCSM in black but not white men. If confirmed, these findings suggest a complex relationship between race, SES, and PC with further research needed to understand why low SES in black men decreased the risk for poor PC outcomes after RP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.urolonc.2018.12.004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6440810PMC
April 2019
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