Publications by authors named "William H Devlin"

4 Publications

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GREAT APE HEART PROJECT GUIDELINES FOR THE ECHOCARDIOGRAPHIC ASSESSMENT OF GREAT APES.

J Zoo Wildl Med 2020 Jan;50(4):822-836

Great Ape Heart Project, Zoo Atlanta, Atlanta, Georgia 30315, USA,

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been identified as a major cause of mortality in all four great ape taxa in zoologic institutions. In an effort to better understand and treat CVD in captive great apes, a program called the Great Ape Heart Project (GAHP), based at Zoo Atlanta, collects and maintains a database of echocardiograms and other relevant medical information relating to the cardiac health status of great apes. Cardiac health assessments have become standard practice among North American zoos that house great apes and are recommended by all four great ape Species Survival Plans (SSP) for the assessment of CVD in captive great apes. As of December 31, 2017, more than 70 ape-holding institutions have submitted approximately 1,100 cardiac examinations of great apes to the GAHP, information from which is stored in the GAHP database. Transthoracic echocardiography is one of the most practical and cost-effective diagnostic imaging techniques for the evaluation of cardiac function in great apes. Standardization of echocardiographic measurements is critical for maximizing the diagnostic value of an echocardiographic exam and for utilization of stored information in comparative studies within and between the great ape taxa. The following manuscript offers suggestions for standardization of nomenclature, imaging technique, echocardiographic measurements, data storage, and reporting of cardiac exams for submission into the GAHP database with the goal of promoting consistency and quality in data collection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1638/2018-0164DOI Listing
January 2020

Evaluating echocardiogram and indirect blood pressure results in male western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) during three phases of an anesthetic protocol.

J Zoo Wildl Med 2013 Dec;44(4):875-81

Michigan Heart Group, 4600 Investment Drive, Suite 200, Troy, Michigan 48098, USA.

Until the majority of the great ape population is trained for conscious cardiac evaluations, most individuals will require general anesthesia to perform echocardiograms. Within the veterinary community, concern exists that certain anesthetic protocols may exacerbate or artificially induce signs of cardiac disease. Because of potential cardiovascular effects, medetomidine has generally been used cautiously in patients with cardiac disease. The combination of ketamine and medetomidine is frequently used by many institutions because of its reversibility. To date, no published studies have obtained physiologic or echocardiographic parameters comparing different anesthetic protocols. In this study, with the use of seven adult male gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) with and without cardiac disease, echocardiographic and indirect blood pressure data during three phases of an anesthetic protocol were collected. The initial echocardiographic study was completed with ketamine/ medetomidine alone (5-7 mg/kg, i.m., and 0.05-0.07 mg/kg, i.m., respectively); the second study was completed after the addition of sevoflurane inhalant anesthesia to this procedure; and the third study was completed after reversal of medetomidine by administration of atipamezole (5:1 with the medetomidine dose given at induction). Without exception, ejection fractions were 15-25% lower under anesthesia with medetomidine as compared to ejection fractions after administration of atipamezole. Indirect blood pressures were higher on ketamine/ medetomidine, lower with addition of sevoflurane, and considerably lower after administration of atipamezole.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1638/2012-0186R3.1DOI Listing
December 2013

Optimal glycemic control is associated with a lower rate of target vessel revascularization in treated type II diabetic patients undergoing elective percutaneous coronary intervention.

J Am Coll Cardiol 2004 Jan;43(1):8-14

Division of Cardiology and Biostatistics, Mid America Heart Institute, St. Luke's Hospital, Kansas City, Missouri, USA.

Objectives: We examined the association between glycemic control determined by preprocedural hemoglobin A1c (A1c) and the incidence of target vessel revascularization (TVR) in diabetic patients undergoing elective percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).

Background: Patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) have increased rates of restenosis and a worse clinical outcome after PCI than patients without DM.

Methods: A total of 239 patients (60 without DM and 179 with DM) were enrolled in this study. Optimal glycemic control was defined as A1c < or =7%, and suboptimal control was defined as A1c >7%. Follow-up was performed at six and 12 months after the index intervention.

Results: Diabetic patients with optimal glycemic control had a rate of 12-month TVR similar to that of nondiabetic patients (15% vs. 18%, p = NS). Diabetic patients with A1c >7% had a significantly higher rate of TVR than those with A1c <7% (34% vs. 15%, p = 0.02). In a multiple logistic regression analysis, A1c >7% was a significant independent predictor of TVR (odds ratio 2.87, 95% confidence interval 1.13 to 7.24; p = 0.03). Optimal glycemic control was associated with a lower rate of cardiac rehospitalization (15% vs. 31%, p = 0.03) and recurrent angina (13% vs. 37%, p = 0.002) at 12-month follow-up.

Conclusions: In diabetic patients undergoing elective PCI, optimal glycemic control (A1c < or =7%) is associated with a lower rate of TVR, cardiac rehospitalization, and recurrent angina. These data suggest that aggressive treatment of DM to achieve A1c < or =7% is beneficial in improving the clinical outcome after PCI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2003.06.019DOI Listing
January 2004

Relation of hemoglobin A1c to rate of major adverse cardiac events in nondiabetic patients undergoing percutaneous coronary revascularization.

Am J Cardiol 2003 Dec;92(11):1282-6

Division of Cardiology, Mid America Heart Institute, St. Luke's Hospital, Kansas City, Missouri 64111, USA.

Abnormalities in plasma glucose below the "diabetic range" of glycemia are associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in patients without diabetes mellitus. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relation between ambient glycemic levels as measured by hemoglobin A1c and outcome after elective percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Baseline laboratory studies, including hemoglobin A1c, were drawn in 500 consecutive patients before elective PCI. Nondiabetic patients were defined as those without a history of diet or pharmacologically controlled diabetes mellitus and a hemoglobin A1c level <7.0%. Of the 500 patients studied, 291 (59%) were nondiabetic patients. Abnormal hemoglobin A1c levels (6% to 7%) were found in 30% of nondiabetic patients. Nondiabetic patients with an abnormal hemoglobin A1c level had a significantly higher rate of major adverse cardiac events (33% vs 22%, p = 0.04), target vessel revascularization (31% vs 19%, p = 0.02), and cardiovascular mortality (4.6% vs 0.5%, p = 0.03) compared with nondiabetic patients with hemoglobin A1c levels <6%. Multivariate analysis disclosed that a hemoglobin A1c level of 6% to 7% was a significant independent predictor of major adverse cardiac events, target vessel revascularization, and cardiovascular mortality 12 months after PCI in nondiabetic patients. These data demonstrate that an abnormal hemoglobin A1c level may have prognostic significance in nondiabetic patients who undergo PCI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjcard.2003.08.008DOI Listing
December 2003
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