Publications by authors named "William G Kofron"

3 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Imidazolium salts as small-molecule urinary bladder exfoliants in a murine model.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2015 Sep 29;59(9):5494-502. Epub 2015 Jun 29.

Department of Pediatrics, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri, USA Department of Molecular Microbiology, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri, USA

We present a novel family of small-molecule urinary bladder exfoliants that are expected to be of great value in preclinical studies of urologic conditions and have improved potential for translation compared with prior agents. There is broad urologic interest in the therapeutic potential of such exfoliating agents. The primary agent used in preclinical models, the cationic peptide protamine sulfate (PS), has limited translational potential due to concerns including systemic adverse reactions and bladder tissue injury. Intravesical application of a safe, systemically nontoxic exfoliant would have potential utility in the eradication of Escherichia coli and other uropathogens that reside in the bladder epithelium following cystitis, as well as in chronic bladder pain and bladder cancer. Here, we introduce a family of imidazolium salts with potent and focused exfoliating activity on the bladder epithelium. Synthesis and purification were straightforward and scalable, and the compounds exhibited prolonged stability in lyophilized form. Most members of the compound family were cytotoxic to cultured uroepithelial cells, with >10-fold differences in potency across the series. Upon topical (intravesical) administration of selected compounds to the murine bladder, complete epithelial exfoliation was achieved with physiologically relevant imidazolium concentrations and brief contact times. The exfoliative activity of these compounds was markedly improved in comparison to PS, as assessed by microscopy, immunofluorescence, and immunoblotting for uroplakins. Bladder uroepithelium regenerated within days to yield a histologically normal appearance, and no toxicity was observed. Finally, the chemical scaffold offers an opportunity for inclusion of antimicrobials or conjugation with chemotherapeutic or other moieties.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AAC.00881-15DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4538537PMC
September 2015

The low-lying pisigma* state and its role in the intramolecular charge transfer of aminobenzonitriles and aminobenzethyne.

J Chem Phys 2008 Apr;128(16):164512

Department of Chemistry and Center for Laser and Optical Spectroscopy, The University of Akron, Akron, Ohio 44325-3601, USA.

Electronic absorption spectra of the low-lying pipi(*) and pisigma(*) states of several aminobenzonitriles and 4-dimethylaminobenzethyne have been studied by time-resolved transient absorption and time-dependent density functional theory calculation. In acetonitrile, the lifetime of the pisigma(*)-state absorption is very short (picoseconds or subpicosecond) for molecules that exhibit intramolecular charge transfer (ICT), and very long (nanoseconds) for those that do not. Where direct comparison of the temporal characteristics of the pisigma(*)-state and the ICT-state transients could be made, the formation rate of the ICT state is identical to the decay rate of the pisigma(*) state within the experimental uncertainty. These results are consistent with the pisigma(*)-mediated ICT mechanism, L(a) (pipi(*))-->pisigma(*)-->ICT, in which the decay rate of the pisigma(*) state is determined by the rate of the solvent-controlled pisigma(*)-->ICT charge-shift reaction. The pipi(*)-->pisigma(*) state crossing does not occur in 3-dimethylaminobenzonitrile or 2-dimethylaminobenzonitrile, as predicted by the calculation, and 4-aminobenzonitrile and 4-dimethylaminobenzethyne does not exhibit the ICT reaction, consistent with the higher energy of the ICT state relative to the pisigma(*) state.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.2901976DOI Listing
April 2008

Highly effective quenching of the ultrafast radiationless decay of photoexcited pyrimidine bases by covalent modification: photophysics of 5,6-trimethylenecytosine and 5,6-trimethyleneuracil.

Phys Chem Chem Phys 2007 Jul 25;9(25):3206-9. Epub 2007 May 25.

Steacie Institute for Molecular Sciences, National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, K1A 0R6, Canada.

5,6-Trimethylenecytosine (TMC) and 5,6-trimethyleneuracil (TMU), in which the twist of the C5-C6 bond (or the pyrimidalization of C5) is strongly hindered, do not exhibit the subpicosecond excited-state lifetime characteristic of the naturally occurring pyrimidine bases. This result demonstrates the important role the out-of-plane deformation of the six-membered ring plays in the ultrafast (subpicosecond) internal conversion of photoexcited nucleobases. The dramatically shorter fluorescence lifetime of TMU ( approximately 30 ps) relative to TMC ( approximately 1.2 ns), in aqueous solution at room temperature, is attributed to the presence in TMU of an efficient, secondary nonradiative decay channel of S(1)(pipi*) involving a low-lying (1)npi* state.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/b704001fDOI Listing
July 2007