Publications by authors named "William Frea"

5 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Is Medication Information for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder Monitored and Coordinated Across Professionals? Findings from a Teacher Survey.

School Ment Health 2013 Mar 6;5(1):48-57. Epub 2013 Feb 6.

Counseling, Clinical, & School Psychology, University of California, Santa Barbara.

Prescription medications are commonly used for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), however, there is little research regarding how the effect of medication is monitored across settings once prescribed. The present study addressed this issue for children with ASD in school by administering a questionnaire to teachers of students with ASD who were and were not being given medication. Specifically, the questionnaire assessed the teachers' knowledge about whether the child was being given medication, and whether behavior changes or side effects were being communicated in any way to the child's family and prescribing physician. The results showed that for children who were being given medication, fewer than half of the teachers reported knowing the child was being given medication. For those children who were not being given medication, only 53% of the teachers reported correct information for their students. Of the teachers who knew their students were being given medication, all reported that they were not conferring with the child's prescribing physician regarding behavioral observations or side effects. Whether teachers are blind to the medication types and dosage the students are being given or not, some type of communication to physicians about the children's behavior at school is important. Given the importance of monitoring medication for children with ASD, implications for system change, for professionals and for funding agencies are discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12310-012-9098-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3603705PMC
March 2013

Recess is time-in: using peers to improve social skills of children with autism.

J Autism Dev Disord 2008 May;38(5):815-26

Garden Grove Unified School District in Orange County, California State University, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

Children with autism face enormous struggles when attempting to interact with their typically developing peers. More children are educated in integrated settings; however, play skills usually need to be explicitly taught, and play environments must be carefully prepared to support effective social interactions. This study incorporated the motivational techniques of Pivotal Response Training through peer-mediated practice to improve social interactions for children with autism during recess activities. A multiple baseline design across subjects was used to assess social skills gains in two elementary school children. The results demonstrated an increase in important social skills, namely social initiations and turn taking, during recess.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10803-007-0449-2DOI Listing
May 2008

Using time-delay to improve social play skills with peers for children with autism.

J Autism Dev Disord 2008 Feb 2;38(2):312-23. Epub 2007 Jun 2.

California State University, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

Interventions that teach social communication and play skills are crucial for the development of children with autism. The time delay procedure is effective in teaching language acquisition, social use of language, discrete behaviors, and chained activities to individuals with autism and developmental delays. In this study, three boys with autism, attending a non-public school, were taught play activities that combined a play sequence with requesting peer assistance, using a graduated time delay procedure. A multiple-baseline across subjects design demonstrated the success of this procedure to teach multiple-step social play sequences. Results indicated an additional gain of an increase in pretend play by one of the participants. Two also demonstrated a generalization of the skills learned through the time delay procedure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10803-007-0395-zDOI Listing
February 2008

Priming as a Method of Coordinating Educational Services for Students With Autism.

Lang Speech Hear Serv Sch 2003 Jul;34(3):228-235

University of California, Santa Barbara.

Purpose: The importance of coordination of educational services has been well documented in the literature. For students with disabilities, coordinated programs result in more rapid acquisition of targeted behaviors and the increased likelihood of long-term maintenance of gains. The purpose of this study was to assess whether "priming" or exposing students with autism and disruptive behaviors to school assignments before their presentation in class would affect academic performance and problem behaviors.

Method: Two students diagnosed with autism who attended general education classrooms, both of whom exhibited numerous disruptive behaviors and low academic performance, participated in this study. A repeated reversals design was used to monitor student progress.

Results: The results demonstrated decreases in problem behavior and increases in academic responding when priming sessions occurred.

Clinical Implications: Application is discussed in terms of a mechanism for speech-language pathologists to assist classroom teachers with a systematic educational coordination plan that can quickly produce improved school performance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1044/0161-1461(2003/019)DOI Listing
July 2003

Contextualized behavioral support in early intervention for children with autism and their families.

J Autism Dev Disord 2002 Dec;32(6):519-33

University of California, Los Angeles, USA.

Parent education programs have become an effective mode of treatment delivery for teaching families effective behavioral strategies to manage challenging behavior in young children with autism. Functional assessment and functional communication training (FCT) are empirically validated procedures that have recently been introduced into parent education programming to help resolve challenging behaviors. The success of these procedures, however, is contingent on family members' ability to integrate them into the specific contexts in which challenging behaviors occur. Consequently, the application of these procedures in home settings necessitates consideration of the family context in the assessment and treatment planning process. A study is presented that investigated the use of information on family context (i.e., caregiving demands, family support, patterns of social interaction) to direct the assessment and intervention planning process. More specifically, information on family context was used to individualize behavioral support plans designed to support family use of functional communication training within important family routines. Through parent-investigator collaboration we individualized the manner in which functional communication training procedures were taught and implemented so they were contextually relevant. Utilizing a multiple baseline design, the challenging behaviors and functional communication of three children with autism were monitored across baseline, intervention (i.e., FCT, and contextulized FCT), and follow-up phases. Multiple routines for each participant were selected and monitored across all phases to evaluate changes in the dependent measures within training and generalization routines. A self-report questionnaire was administered intermittently to parents to determine if consideration of family context improved the "goodness of fit" of the functional communication training treatment packages across FCT and contextualized FCT intervention phases. Results from the study indicate that consideration of family context in the assessment and intervention planning process does not jeopardize and may contribute to the stability and durability of reductions in challenging behavior achieved with functional assessment and functional communication training procedures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/a:1021298729297DOI Listing
December 2002