Publications by authors named "William F Schillinger"

7 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Characterizing reduced height wheat mutants for traits affecting abiotic stress and photosynthesis during seedling growth.

Physiol Plant 2021 Jan 9. Epub 2021 Jan 9.

Department of Crop and Soil Sciences, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington, USA.

Most high-yielding, semidwarf wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grown around the world contains either Rht1 or Rht2 genes. The success of these high-yielding cultivars is greatest in the most productive farming environments but provide marginal benefits in less favorable growing conditions such as shallow soils and low-precipitation dryland farming. Further, growing evidence suggests semidwarf genes not only affect early seedling growth but limit grain yield, especially under abiotic stress conditions. There are 23 other reduced-height mutants reported in wheat, most of which have not been functionally characterized. We evaluated these mutants along with their parents for several traits affecting seedling emergence, early seedling growth, and photosynthetic efficiency. Two- to seven-fold differences in coleoptile length, first leaf length, root length, and root angle were observed among the genotypes. Most of the mutations had a positive effect on root length, while the root angle narrowed. Coleoptile and first leaf lengths were strongly correlated with emergence. A specialized deep planting experiment identified Rht5, Rht6, Rht8, and Rht13 with significantly improved seedling emergence compared to the parent. Among the mutants, Rht4, Rht19, and Rht12 ranked highest for photosynthetic traits while Rht9, Rht16, and Rht15 performed best for early seedling growth parameters. Considering all traits collectively, Rht15 showed the most promise for utilization in marginal environments followed by Rht19 and Rht16. These wheat mutants may be useful for deciphering the underlying molecular mechanisms of understudied traits and breeding programs in arid and semiarid regions where deep planting is practiced.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ppl.13321DOI Listing
January 2021

Decline in Soil Microbial Abundance When Camelina Introduced Into a Monoculture Wheat System.

Front Microbiol 2020 19;11:571178. Epub 2020 Nov 19.

Wheat Health, Genetics, and Quality Research, USDA-Agricultural Research Service, Washington State University, Pullman, WA, United States.

Camelina [ (L.) Crantz] of the Brassicaceae family is a potential alternative and oilseed biofuel crop for wheat ( L.)-based cropping systems of the Inland Pacific Northwest (PNW) of the United States. We investigated the effect of this relatively new rotational crop on soil microbial communities. An 8-year cropping systems experiment was initiated in 2007 at Lind, WA, to compare a 3-year rotation of winter wheat (WW)-camelina (C)-fallow (F) to the typical 2-year WW-F rotation. All phases of both rotations (total = 20 plots) were present every year to allow valid statistical analysis and data interpretations. Monoculture WW-F is the dominant system practiced by the vast majority of farmers on 1.56 million ha of cropland in the PNW drylands that receive <300 mm average annual precipitation. Microbial abundance and community composition were determined using phospholipid fatty acid analysis (PLFA) from soil samples collected during 3 consecutive years beginning in 2010. The abundance of fungi, mycorrhizae, Gram positive and negative bacteria, and total microbial abundance all declined over the 3-year period in the WW-C-F rotation compared to the WW-F rotation. All microbial lipid biomarkers were significantly less in fallow compared to WW of the WW-C-F rotation. The 2-year WW-F rotation demonstrated few differences in microbial lipid abundance and community structure between the rotation phases. Microbial abundance declined and community structure shifted in the 3-year WW-C-F rotation likely due to the combination of a crop followed by a 13-month-long fallow. The results of this study suggest that camelina in combination with a fallow period may disrupt microbial communities that have become stable under historical WW-F monocropping. Such disturbances have the potential to affect soil processes that have been provided by wheat-adapted microbial communities. However, the disruption appears to be short-lived with the microbial abundance of WW in the WW-C-F rotation, returning to similar levels observed in the WW-F rotation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2020.571178DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7710528PMC
November 2020

Agroecological Advantages of Early-Sown Winter Wheat in Semi-Arid Environments: A Comparative Case Study From Southern Australia and Pacific Northwest United States.

Front Plant Sci 2020 27;11:568. Epub 2020 May 27.

NSW Department of Primary Industries, Wagga Wagga Agricultural Institute, Wagga Wagga, NSW, Australia.

Wheat ( L.) is the most widely-grown crop in the Mediterranean semi-arid (150-400 mm) cropping zones of both southern Australia and the inland Pacific Northwest (PNW) of the United States of America (United States). Low precipitation, low winter temperatures and heat and drought conditions during late spring and summer limit wheat yields in both regions. Due to rising temperatures, reduced autumn rainfall and increased frost risk in southern Australia since 1990, cropping conditions in these two environments have grown increasingly similar. This presents the opportunity for southern Australian growers to learn from the experiences of their PNW counterparts. Wheat cultivars with an obligate vernalization requirement (winter wheat), are an integral part of semi-arid PNW cropping systems, but in Australia are most frequently grown in cool or cold temperate cropping zones that receive high rainfall (>500 mm p.a.). It has recently been shown that early-sown winter wheat cultivars can increase water-limited potential yield in semi-arid southern Australia, in the face of decreasing autumn rainfall. Despite this research, there has to date been little breeding effort invested in winter wheat for growers in semi-arid southern Australia, and agronomic research into the management of early-sown winter wheat has only occurred in recent years. This paper explores the current and emerging environmental constraints of cropping in semi-arid southern Australia and, using the genotype × management strategies developed over 120 years of winter wheat agronomy in the PNW, highlights the potential advantages early-sown winter wheat offers growers in low-rainfall environments. The increased biomass, stable flowering time and late-summer establishment opportunities offered by winter wheat genotypes ensure they achieve higher yields in the PNW compared to later-sown spring wheat. Traits that make winter wheat advantageous in the PNW may also contribute to increased yield when grown in semi-arid southern Australia. This paper investigates which specific traits present in winter wheat genotypes give them an advantage in semi-arid cropping environments, which management practices best exploit this advantage, and what potential improvements can be made to cultivars for semi-arid southern Australia based on the history of winter wheat crop growth in the semi-arid Pacific Northwest.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2020.00568DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7266876PMC
May 2020

Soil Microbial Biomass and Fungi Reduced With Canola Introduced Into Long-Term Monoculture Wheat Rotations.

Front Microbiol 2019 11;10:1488. Epub 2019 Jul 11.

Wheat Health, Genetics, and Quality Research Unit, USDA-Agricultural Research Service, Washington State University, Pullman, WA, United States.

With increasing canola ( L.) acreage in the Inland Pacific Northwest of the USA, we investigated the effect of this relatively new rotational crop on soil microbial communities and the performance of subsequent wheat ( L.) crops. In a 6-year on-farm canola-wheat rotation study conducted near Davenport, WA, grain yields of spring wheat (SW) following winter canola (WC) were reduced an average of 17% compared to SW yields following winter wheat (WW). Using soil samples collected and analyzed every year from that study, the objective of this research was to determine the differences and similarities in the soil microbial communities associated with WC and WW, and if those differences were associated with SW yield response. Microbial biomass and community composition were determined using phospholipid fatty acid analysis (PLFA). The WC-associated microbial community contained significantly less fungi, mycorrhizae, and total microbial biomass than WW. Additionally, reduced fungal and mycorrhizal abundance in SW following WC suggests that the canola rotation effect can persist. A biocidal secondary metabolite of canola, isothiocyanate, may be a potential mechanism mediating the decline in soil microbial biomass. These results demonstrate the relationship between soil microbial community composition and crop productivity. Our data suggest that WC can have significant effects on soil microbial communities that ultimately drive microbially mediated soil processes.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2019.01488DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6637790PMC
July 2019

Biosolids and Tillage Practices Influence Soil Bacterial Communities in Dryland Wheat.

Microb Ecol 2019 Oct 22;78(3):737-752. Epub 2019 Feb 22.

Wheat Health, Genetics and Quality Research Unit, USDA-ARS, Pullman, WA, 99164, USA.

Class B biosolids are used in dryland wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) production in eastern Washington as a source of nutrients and to increase soil organic matter, but little is known about their effects on bacterial communities and potential for harboring human pathogens. Moreover, conservation tillage is promoted to reduce erosion and soil degradation. We explored the impacts of biosolids or synthetic fertilizer in combination with traditional (conventional) or conservation tillage on soil bacterial communities. Bacterial communities were characterized from fresh biosolids, biosolid aggregates embedded in soil, and soil after a second application of biosolids using high-throughput amplicon sequencing. Biosolid application significantly affected bacterial communities, even 4 years after their application. Bacteria in the families Clostridiaceae, Norcardiaceae, Anaerolinaceae, Dietziaceae, and Planococcaceae were more abundant in fresh biosolids, biosolid aggregates, and soils treated with biosolids than in synthetically fertilized soils. Taxa identified as Turcibacter, Dietzia, Clostridiaceae, and Anaerolineaceae were highly abundant in biosolid aggregates in the soil and likely originated from the biosolids. In contrast, Oxalobacteriaceae, Streptomyceteaceae, Janthinobacterium, Pseudomonas, Kribbella, and Bacillus were rare in the fresh biosolids, but relatively abundant in biosolid aggregates in the soil, and probably originated from the soil to colonize the substrate. However, tillage had relatively minor effects on bacterial communities, with only a small number of taxa differing in relative abundance between traditional and conventional tillage. Although biosolid-associated bacteria persisted in soil, potentially pathogenic taxa were extremely rare and no toxin genes for key groups (Salmonella, Clostridium) were detectable, suggesting that although fecal contamination was apparent via indicator taxa, pathogen populations had declined to low levels. Thus, biosolid amendments had profound effects on soil bacterial communities both by introducing gut- or digester-derived bacteria and by enriching potentially beneficial indigenous soil populations.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00248-019-01339-1DOI Listing
October 2019

Role of bacterial communities in the natural suppression of Rhizoctonia solani bare patch disease of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

Appl Environ Microbiol 2013 Dec 20;79(23):7428-38. Epub 2013 Sep 20.

Department of Plant Pathology, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington, USA.

Rhizoctonia bare patch and root rot disease of wheat, caused by Rhizoctonia solani AG-8, develops as distinct patches of stunted plants and limits the yield of direct-seeded (no-till) wheat in the Pacific Northwest of the United States. At the site of a long-term cropping systems study near Ritzville, WA, a decline in Rhizoctonia patch disease was observed over an 11-year period. Bacterial communities from bulk and rhizosphere soil of plants from inside the patches, outside the patches, and recovered patches were analyzed by using pyrosequencing with primers designed for 16S rRNA. Taxa in the class Acidobacteria and the genus Gemmatimonas were found at higher frequencies in the rhizosphere of healthy plants outside the patches than in that of diseased plants from inside the patches. Dyella and Acidobacteria subgroup Gp7 were found at higher frequencies in recovered patches. Chitinophaga, Pedobacter, Oxalobacteriaceae (Duganella and Massilia), and Chyseobacterium were found at higher frequencies in the rhizosphere of diseased plants from inside the patches. For selected taxa, trends were validated by quantitative PCR (qPCR), and observed shifts of frequencies in the rhizosphere over time were duplicated in cycling experiments in the greenhouse that involved successive plantings of wheat in Rhizoctonia-inoculated soil. Chryseobacterium soldanellicola was isolated from the rhizosphere inside the patches and exhibited significant antagonism against R. solani AG-8 in vitro and in greenhouse tests. In conclusion, we identified novel bacterial taxa that respond to conditions affecting bare patch disease symptoms and that may be involved in suppression of Rhizoctonia root rot and bare batch disease.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AEM.01610-13DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3837727PMC
December 2013

Wheat seedling emergence from deep planting depths and its relationship with coleoptile length.

PLoS One 2013 3;8(9):e73314. Epub 2013 Sep 3.

Department of Crop and Soil Sciences, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington, United States of America.

Successful stand establishment is prerequisite for optimum crop yields. In some low-precipitation zones, wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is planted as deep as 200 mm below the soil surface to reach adequate soil moisture for germination. To better understand the relationship of coleoptile length and other seed characteristics with emergence from deep planting (EDP), we evaluated 662 wheat cultivars grown around the world since the beginning of the 20(th) century. Coleoptile length of collection entries ranged from 34 to 114 mm. A specialized field EDP test showed dramatic emergence differences among cultivars ranging from 0-66% by 21 days after planting (DAP). Less than 1% of entries had any seedlings emerged by 7 DAP and 43% on day 8. A wide range of EDP within each coleoptile length class suggests the involvement of genes other than those controlling coleoptile length. Emergence was correlated with coleoptile length, but some lines with short coleoptiles ranked among the top emergers. Coleoptiles longer than 90 mm showed no advantage for EDP and may even have a negative effect. Overall, coleoptile length accounted for only 28% of the variability in emergence among entries; much lower than the 60% or greater reported in previous studies. Seed weight had little correlation with EDP. Results show that EDP is largely controlled by yet poorly understood mechanisms other than coleoptile length.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0073314PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3760894PMC
May 2014