Publications by authors named "William Demaio"

19 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Nondetectable or minimal detectable residue levels of N-(n-butyl) thiophosphoric triamide in bovine tissues and milk from a 28-d NBPT dosing study.

Transl Anim Sci 2019 Jul 12;3(4):1606-1616. Epub 2019 Oct 12.

Frontage Laboratories, Inc., Concord OH.

N-(n-butyl) thiophosphoric triamide (NBPT) (Figure 1) is an active ingredient in nitrogen stabilizer (urease inhibitor), which temporarily inhibits the action of the urease enzyme to improve the efficiency of urea-containing fertilizers. Given the potential for NBPT residues to be present in milk and tissues of dairy cattle, due diligence is needed to demonstrate the safety of NBPT in urea-based fertilizers used on forages and crops intended for consumption by Holstein dairy cows. This study used controlled dosing of NBPT in capsule form to dairy cattle for 28 d, followed by a 14-d depuration phase to assess the potential for residues to exist in milk and tissues of dairy cattle at exaggerated use levels. Fourteen lactating cows were selected for the dosing and depuration phases of the study, based on health, body weight (BW), and milk production. There were four treatment groups: 0 mg NBPT/kg BW (Control) ( = 2 cows), 1 mg NBPT/kg BW (1×) ( = 3 cows), 3 mg NBPT/kg BW (3×) ( = 3 cows), and 10 mg NBPT/kg/BW (10×) ( = 6 cows); levels were based on maximum tolerable amount of urea that a cow can ingest on a daily basis (1×) and the maximum concentration of NBPT commercially used when treating urea (0.1 wt% NBPT in urea). At the end of the 28-d dosing phase, cows were randomly selected for the 14-d depuration phase of the study (one control and three 10× cows). The results showed no NBPT residue is detectable at all dose levels, except that a residue level was above the lower limit of quantitation in a single milk and subcutaneous fat sample in the highest (10×) treatment group, which represents the level of NBPT that would be theoretically present in 10× the lethal dosing of daily consumable urea to a cow. Overall, the study demonstrated that it is unlikely for NBPT residues to be present in cattle milk or edible tissues or to cause negative effects on animal health under good agricultural practice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/tas/txz153DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7200401PMC
July 2019

Preclinical Metabolism, Pharmacokinetics and In Vivo Analysis of New Blood-Brain-Barrier Penetrant Fingolimod Analogues: FTY720-C2 and FTY720-Mitoxy.

PLoS One 2016 9;11(9):e0162162. Epub 2016 Sep 9.

Department of Biomedical Sciences, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Center of Emphasis in Neurosciences, Paul L. Foster School of Medicine, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center El Paso, El Paso, Texas, United States of America.

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative aging disorder in which postmortem PD brain exhibits neuroinflammation, as well as synucleinopathy-associated protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) enzymatic activity loss. Based on our translational research, we began evaluating the PD-repurposing-potential of an anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective, and PP2A stimulatory oral drug that is FDA-approved for multiple sclerosis, FTY720 (fingolimod, Gilenya®). We also designed two new FTY720 analogues, FTY720-C2 and FTY720-Mitoxy, with modifications that affect drug potency and mitochondrial localization, respectively. Herein, we describe the metabolic stability and metabolic profiling of FTY720-C2 and FTY720-Mitoxy in liver microsomes and hepatocytes. Using mouse, rat, dog, monkey, and human liver microsomes the intrinsic clearance of FTY720-C2 was 22.5, 79.5, 6.0, 20.2 and 18.3 μL/min/mg; and for FTY720-Mitoxy was 1.8, 7.8, 1.4, 135.0 and 17.5 μL/min/mg, respectively. In hepatocytes, both FTY720-C2 and FTY720-Mitoxy were metabolized from the octyl side chain, generating a series of carboxylic acids similar to the parent FTY720, but without phosphorylated metabolites. To assess absorption and distribution, we gave equivalent single intravenous (IV) or oral doses of FTY720-C2 or FTY720-Mitoxy to C57BL/6 mice, with two mice per time point evaluated. After IV delivery, both FTY720-C2 and FTY720-Mitoxy were rapidly detected in plasma and brain; and reached peak concentrations at the first sampling time points. After oral dosing, FTY720-C2 was present in plasma and brain, although FTY720-Mitoxy was not orally bioavailable. Brain-to-plasma ratio of both compounds increased time-dependently, suggesting a preferential partitioning to the brain. PP2A activity in mouse adrenal gland increased ~2-fold after FTY720-C2 or FTY720-Mitoxy, as compared to untreated controls. In summary, FTY720-C2 and FTY720-Mitoxy both (i) crossed the blood-brain-barrier; (ii) produced metabolites similar to FTY720, except without phosphorylated species that cause S1P1-mediated-immunosuppression; and (iii) stimulated in vivo PP2A activity, all of which encourage additional preclinical assessment.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0162162PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5017749PMC
August 2017

Recommendations on bioanalytical method stability implications of co-administered and co-formulated drugs by Global CRO Council for Bioanalysis (GCC).

Bioanalysis 2012 Sep;4(17):2117-26

Advion Bioanalytical Laboratories, Quintiles, NY, USA.

An open letter written by the Global CRO Council for Bioanalysis (GCC) describing the GCC survey results on stability data from co-administered and co-formulated drugs was sent to multiple regulatory authorities on 14 December 2011. This letter and further discussions at different GCC meetings led to subsequent recommendations on this topic of widespread interest within the bioanalytical community over the past 2 years.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4155/bio.12.192DOI Listing
September 2012

4th Global CRO Council for Bioanalysis: coadministered drugs stability, EMA/US FDA guidelines, 483s and carryover.

Bioanalysis 2012 Apr;4(7):763-8

The Global CRO Council for Bioanalysis (GCC) was formed in September 2010. Since then, the representatives of the member companies come together periodically to openly discuss bioanalysis and the regulatory challenges unique to the outsourcing industry. The 4th GCC Closed Forum brought together experts from bioanalytical CROs to share and discuss recent issues in regulated bioanalysis, such as the impact of coadministered drugs on stability, some differences between European Medicines Agency and US FDA bioanalytical guidance documents and lessons learned following recent Untitled Letters. Recent 483s and agency findings, as well as issues on method carryover, were also part of the topics discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4155/bio.12.48DOI Listing
April 2012

Metabolism of vabicaserin in mice, rats, dogs, monkeys, and humans.

Drug Metab Dispos 2010 Dec 25;38(12):2266-77. Epub 2010 Aug 25.

Pfizer Inc., Collegeville, Pennsylvania, USA.

Vabicaserin is a potent 5-hydroxytryptamine(2C) agonist that is currently being developed for the treatment of the psychotic symptoms of schizophrenia. In this study, in vitro and in vivo metabolism of vabicaserin was evaluated in mice, rats, dogs, monkeys, and humans, and the structures of the metabolites were characterized by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry and NMR spectroscopy. Vabicaserin underwent three major metabolic pathways in vitro: NADPH-dependent hydroxylation, NADPH-independent imine formation, and carbamoyl glucuronidation. After a single oral dose, vabicaserin was extensively metabolized in animals and humans, and its metabolites were mainly excreted via the urine in mice and rats. Along with the metabolites observed in vitro, secondary metabolism via oxidation and conjugation of the primary metabolites generated from the above-mentioned three pathways yielded a number of additional metabolites in vivo. Carbamoyl glucuronidation was the major metabolic pathway in humans but a minor pathway in rats. Although carbamoyl glucuronidation was a major metabolic pathway in mice, dogs, and monkeys, oxidative metabolism was also extensive in these species. Hydroxylation occurred in all species, although different regional selectivity was apparent. The imine pathway also appeared to be common to several species, because vabicaserin imine was observed in humans and hydroxyl imine metabolites were observed in mice, rats, and dogs. A nitrone metabolite of vabicaserin was observed in dogs and humans but not in other species. In conclusion, the major metabolic pathways for vabicaserin in humans and nonclinical safety species include carbamoyl glucuronidation, hydroxylation, formation of an imine, and a nitrone.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1124/dmd.110.033670DOI Listing
December 2010

In vitro metabolism, permeability, and efflux of bazedoxifene in humans.

Drug Metab Dispos 2010 Sep 1;38(9):1471-9. Epub 2010 Jun 1.

Department of Pharmacokinetics, Dynamics & Metabolism, Pfizer Global Research & Development, Ramsgate Road, Sandwich, Kent, UK.

Bazedoxifene (BZA) acetate, a novel estrogen receptor modulator being developed for the prevention and treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis, undergoes extensive metabolism in women after oral administration. In this study, the in vitro metabolism of [(14)C]BZA was determined in human hepatocytes and hepatic and intestinal microsomes, and the UDP glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) isozymes involved in the glucuronidation of BZA were identified. In addition, BZA was evaluated for its potential as a substrate of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) transporter in Caco-2 cell monolayers. BZA was metabolized to two monoglucuronides, BZA-4'-glucuronide and BZA-5-glucuronide, in hepatocytes and in liver and intestinal microsomes including jejunum, duodenum, and ileum. Both BZA-4'-glucuronide and BZA-5-glucuronide were major metabolites in the intestinal microsomes, whereas BZA-4'-glucuronide was the predominant metabolite in liver microsomes and hepatocytes. The kinetic parameters of BZA-4'-glucuronide formation were determined in liver, duodenum, and jejunum microsomes and with UGT1A1, 1A8, and 1A10, the most active UGT isoforms involved in the glucuronidation of BZA, whereas those of BZA-5-glucuronide were determined with all the enzyme systems except in liver microsomes and in UGT1A1 because the formation of the BZA-5-glucuronide was too low. K(m) values in liver, duodenum, and jejunum microsomes and UGT1A1, 1A8, and 1A10, were similar and ranged from 5.1 to 33.1 microM for BZA-4'-glucuronide formation and from 2.5 to 11.1 microM for BZA-5-glucuronide formation. V(max) values ranged from 0.8 to 2.9 nmol/(min . mg) protein for BZA-4'-glucuronide and from 0.1 to 1.2 nmol/(min . mg) protein for BZA-5-glucuronide. In Caco-2 cells, BZA appeared to be a P-gp substrate.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1124/dmd.109.030999DOI Listing
September 2010

In vitro metabolism and identification of human enzymes involved in the metabolism of methylnaltrexone.

Drug Metab Dispos 2010 May 19;38(5):801-7. Epub 2010 Feb 19.

Pfizer Inc., Collegeville, PA 19426, USA.

Methylnaltrexone (MNTX) is a peripherally acting mu-opioid receptor antagonist and is currently indicated for the treatment of opioid-induced constipation in patients with advanced illness who are receiving palliative care, when response to laxative therapy has not been sufficient. Sulfation to MNTX-3-sulfate (M2) and carbonyl reduction to methyl-6alpha-naltrexol (M4) and methyl-6beta-naltrexol (M5) are the primary metabolic pathways for MNTX in humans. The objectives of this study were to investigate MNTX in vitro metabolism in human and nonclinical species and to identify the human enzymes involved in MNTX metabolism. Of the five commercially available sulfotransferases investigated, only SULT2A1 and SULT1E1 catalyzed M2 formation. Formation of M4 and M5 was catalyzed by NADPH-dependent hepatic cytosolic enzymes, which were identified using selective chemical inhibitors (10 and 100 microM) for aldo-keto reductase (AKR) isoforms, short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase including carbonyl reductase, alcohol dehydrogenase, and quinone oxidoreductase. The results were then compared with the effects of the same inhibitors on 6beta-naltrexol formation from naltrexone, a structural analog of MNTX, which is catalyzed mainly by AKR1C4. The AKR1C inhibitor phenolphthalein inhibited MNTX and naltrexone reduction up to 98%. 5beta-Cholanic acid 3alpha,7alpha-diol, the AKR1C2 inhibitor, and medroxyprogesterone acetate, an inhibitor of AKR1C1, AKR1C2, and AKR1C4, inhibited MNTX reduction up to 67%. Other inhibitors were less potent. In conclusion, the carbonyl reduction of MNTX to M4 and M5 in hepatic cytosol was consistent with previous in vivo observations. AKR1C4 appeared to play a major role in the carbonyl reduction of MNTX, although multiple enzymes in the AKR1C subfamily may be involved. Human SULT2A1 and SULT1E1 were involved in MNTX sulfation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1124/dmd.110.032169DOI Listing
May 2010

Metabolism of intravenous methylnaltrexone in mice, rats, dogs, and humans.

Drug Metab Dispos 2010 Apr 6;38(4):606-16. Epub 2010 Jan 6.

Pfizer, Inc, Collegeville, PA 19426, USA.

Methylnaltrexone (MNTX), a selective mu-opioid receptor antagonist, functions as a peripherally acting receptor antagonist in tissues of the gastrointestinal tract. This report describes the metabolic fate of [(3)H]MNTX or [(14)C]MNTX bromide in mice, rats, dogs, and humans after intravenous administration. Separation and identification of plasma and urinary MNTX metabolites was achieved by high-performance liquid chromatography-radioactivity detection and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. The structures of the most abundant human metabolites were confirmed by chemical synthesis and NMR spectroscopic analysis. Analysis of radioactivity in plasma and urine showed that MNTX underwent two major pathways of metabolism in humans: sulfation of the phenolic group to MNTX-3-sulfate (M2) and reduction of the carbonyl group to two epimeric alcohols, methyl-6alpha-naltrexol (M4) and methyl-6beta-naltrexol (M5). Neither naltrexone nor its metabolite 6beta-naltrexol were detected in human plasma after administration of MNTX, confirming an earlier observation that N-demethylation was not a metabolic pathway of MNTX in humans. The urinary metabolite profiles in humans were consistent with plasma profiles. In mice, the circulating and urinary metabolites included M5, MNTX-3-glucuronide (M9), 2-hydroxy-3-O-methyl MNTX (M6), and its glucuronide (M10). M2, M5, M6, and M9 were observed in rats. Dogs produced only one metabolite, M9. In conclusion, MNTX was not extensively metabolized in humans. Conversion to methyl-6-naltrexol isomers (M4 and M5) and M2 were the primary pathways of metabolism in humans. MNTX was metabolized to a higher extent in mice than in rats, dogs, and humans. Glucuronidation was a major metabolic pathway in mice, rats, and dogs, but not in humans. Overall, the data suggested species differences in the metabolism of MNTX.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1124/dmd.109.031179DOI Listing
April 2010

Species differences in the formation of vabicaserin carbamoyl glucuronide.

Drug Metab Dispos 2010 Apr 23;38(4):581-90. Epub 2009 Dec 23.

Pfizer Inc., Collegeville, PA 19426, USA.

Vabicaserin is a potent 5-hydroxtryptamine 2C full agonist with therapeutic potential for a wide array of psychiatric disorders. Metabolite profiles indicated that vabicaserin was extensively metabolized via carbamoyl glucuronidation after oral administration in humans. In the present study, the differences in the extent of vabicaserin carbamoyl glucuronide (CG) formation in humans and in animals used for safety assessment were investigated. After oral dosing, the systemic exposure ratios of CG to vabicaserin were approximately 12 and up to 29 in monkeys and humans, respectively, and the ratios of CG to vabicaserin were approximately 1.5 and 1.7 in mice and dogs, respectively. These differences in systemic levels of CG are likely related to species differences in the rate and extent of CG formation and elimination. Whereas CG was the predominant circulating metabolite in humans and a major metabolite in mice, dogs, and monkeys, it was a relatively minor metabolite in rats, in which oxidative metabolism was the major metabolic pathway. Although the CG was not detected in plasma or urine of rats, approximately 5% of the dose was excreted in bile as CG in the 24-h collection postdose, indicating the rat had the metabolic capability of producing the CG. In vitro, in a CO(2)-enriched environment, the CG was the predominant metabolite in dog and human liver microsomes, a major metabolite in monkey and mice, and only a very minor metabolite in rats. Carbamoyl glucuronidation and hydroxylation had similar contributions to vabicaserin metabolism in mouse and monkey liver microsomes. However, only trace amounts of CG were formed in rat liver microsomes, and other metabolites were more prominent than the CG. In conclusion, significant differences in the extent of formation of the CG were observed among the various species examined. The exposure ratios of CG to vabicaserin were highest in humans, followed by monkeys, then mice and dogs, and lowest in rats, and the in vitro metabolite profiles generally correlated well with the in vivo metabolites.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1124/dmd.109.028639DOI Listing
April 2010

Spectral accuracy of molecular ions in an LTQ/Orbitrap mass spectrometer and implications for elemental composition determination.

J Am Soc Mass Spectrom 2009 Nov 30;20(11):2058-69. Epub 2009 Jul 30.

Drug Safety and Metabolism, Wyeth Research, Collegeville, Pennsylvania 19426, USA.

In addition to mass accuracy, the ability of a mass spectrometer to faithfully measure the isotopic distribution of an ion, defined as spectral accuracy, is also important. Although time-of-flight mass spectrometers are reported to possess high spectral accuracy capability compared with other mass spectrometers, the Orbitrap has not yet been investigated. Ten natural products (moxidectin, erythromycin, digoxin, rifampicin, amphotericin B, rapamycin, gramicidin S, cyclosporin A, vancomycin, and thiostrepton) ranging in molecular weight from 639 to 1663 Da were measured on an LTQ/Orbitrap mass spectrometer with resolving power settings of 7.5, 15, 30, 60, and 100 K. The difference in the observed profile isotope pattern compared with the theoretical calculation after peak shape calibration, denoted spectral error, was calculated using the program MassWorks (Cerno Bioscience, Danbury, CT, USA). Spectral errors were least at 7.5 K resolving power (< or = 3%) but exceeded 10% for some compounds at 100 K. The increasing spectral error observed at higher resolving power for compounds with complex fine structure might be explained by the phenomena of isotopic beat patterns as observed in FTICR. Several compounds with prominent doubly charged ions allowed comparison of spectral accuracies of singly- versus doubly-charged ions. When using spectral error to rank elemental compositions with formula constraints (C(0-100)H(0-200)N(0-50)O(0-50)Cl(0-5)S(0-5)) and a mass tolerance < or = 2 parts-per-million, the correct formula was ranked first 35% of the time. However, spectral error considerations eliminated >99% of possible elemental formulas for compounds with molecular weight >900 Da.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jasms.2009.07.014DOI Listing
November 2009

Metabolic disposition of [14C]bazedoxifene in healthy postmenopausal women.

Drug Metab Dispos 2009 Jun 9;37(6):1219-25. Epub 2009 Mar 9.

Wyeth Research, Collegeville, PA 19426, USA.

Bazedoxifene is a selective estrogen receptor modulator under development for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. The disposition of [(14)C]bazedoxifene was determined in six healthy postmenopausal women after administration of a single oral dose of 20 mg (200 microCi). After dosing, blood was collected at frequent intervals, and urine and fecal samples were collected for up to 10 days. Aliquots of plasma, blood, urine, and fecal homogenates were analyzed for concentrations of radioactivity. Bazedoxifene metabolite profiles in plasma and feces were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with radioactivity flow detection; metabolite structures were confirmed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Bazedoxifene was rapidly absorbed, exhibiting a mean peak plasma concentration of 3.43 ng/ml at 1.2 h postdose. The total mean recovery of the radioactive dose in excreta was 85.6%, with the majority recovered in feces (84.7%) and only a small fraction (0.81%) in urine. Radiochromatograms of plasma revealed that glucuronidation was the major metabolic pathway; little or no cytochrome P450-mediated metabolism was evident. The majority of circulating radioactivity was constituted by metabolites, with bazedoxifene-5-glucuronide being the predominant metabolite (up to 95%). Bazedoxifene-4'-glucuronide was a minor metabolite (up to 20%), and unchanged bazedoxifene represented 0 to 13% of the radioactivity in most plasma samples. Unchanged bazedoxifene was the major radioactive component in feces, however, reflecting unabsorbed drug and/or glucuronides that were hydrolyzed by intestinal bacterial enzymes. [(14)C]Bazedoxifene was generally well tolerated. These findings demonstrated that, after oral administration in healthy postmenopausal women, bazedoxifene was rapidly absorbed, metabolized via glucuronidation, and excreted predominantly in feces.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1124/dmd.108.023861DOI Listing
June 2009

Disposition of desipramine, a sensitive cytochrome P450 2D6 substrate, when coadministered with intravenous temsirolimus.

Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 2009 Jul 18;64(2):263-70. Epub 2008 Nov 18.

Department of Early Development and Clinical Pharmacology, Wyeth Research, 500 Arcola Road, Collegeville, PA 19426, USA.

Purpose: Intravenous (i.v.) temsirolimus, a novel inhibitor of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), is approved for treatment of renal cell carcinoma. In vitro studies with pooled human liver microsomes showed that temsirolimus and its principal metabolite, sirolimus, inhibit the CYP2D6 isozyme (K(i) = 1.5 and 5 microM, respectively), indicating potential for pharmacokinetic interaction with agents that are substrates of CYP2D6.

Methods: This 2-period study in healthy subjects investigated the pharmacokinetics of a single oral 50-mg dose of the CYP2D6 substrate desipramine, first without and subsequently with a single coadministered i.v. 25-mg dose of temsirolimus.

Results: The study population consisted of 25 males and 1 female; 10 were black, 12 were white, and 4 were of other races. Plasma and whole blood samples were available from all 26 subjects in period 1 following oral desipramine and from 23 subjects in period 2 following oral desipramine and i.v. temsirolimus coadministration. The 90% confidence intervals for least squares geometric mean ratios of desipramine and 2-hydroxy-desipramine C(max), AUC(T), and AUC were within 80-125%, indicating that parameter differences did not manifest into clinically relevant exposure changes. A single i.v. 25-mg dose of temsirolimus, alone or with desipramine, was well tolerated in healthy subjects.

Conclusions: A single i.v. 25-mg dose of temsirolimus did not alter disposition of desipramine. Temsirolimus i.v. 25 mg may be safely administered with agents metabolized through the CYP2D6 pathway, but vigilance for drug interaction is warranted in patients with advanced malignancies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00280-008-0865-9DOI Listing
July 2009

Rapid metabolite identification with sub parts-per-million mass accuracy from biological matrices by direct infusion nanoelectrospray ionization after clean-up on a ZipTip and LTQ/Orbitrap mass spectrometry.

Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom 2008 Oct;22(19):3015-26

Drug Safety and Metabolism, Wyeth Research, Collegeville, PA 19426, USA.

Metabolite identification studies remain an integral part of pre-clinical and clinical drug development programs. Analysis of biological matrices, such as plasma, urine, feces and bile, pose challenges due to the large amounts of endogenous components that can mask a drug and its metabolites. Although direct infusion nanoelectrospray using capillaries has been used routinely for proteomic studies, metabolite identification has traditionally employed liquid chromatographic (LC) separation prior to analysis. A method is described here for rapid metabolite profiling in biological fluids that involves initial sample clean-up using pipette tips packed with reversed-phase material (i.e. ZipTips) to remove matrix components followed by direct infusion nanoelectrospray on an LTQ/Orbitrap mass spectrometer using a protonated polydimethylcyclosiloxane cluster ion for internal calibration. We re-examined samples collected from a prazosin metabolism study in the rat. Results are presented that demonstrate that sub parts-per-million accuracies can be achieved on molecular ions, facilitating identification of metabolites, and on product ions, facilitating structural assignments. The data also show that the high-resolution measurements (R = 100,000 at m/z 400) enable metabolites of interest to be resolved from endogenous components. The extended analysis times available with nanospray enables signal averaging for 1 min or more that is valuable when metabolites are present in low concentrations as encountered here in plasma and brain. Using this approach, the metabolic fate of a drug can be quickly obtained. A limitation of this approach is that metabolites that are structural isomers cannot be distinguished, although such information can be collected by LC/MS during follow-on experiments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/rcm.3702DOI Listing
October 2008

Identification and synthesis of major metabolites of Vasopressin V2-receptor agonist WAY-151932, and antagonist, Lixivaptan.

Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2007 Nov 28;17(21):5796-800. Epub 2007 Aug 28.

Chemical and Screening Sciences, Wyeth Research, 500 Arcola Road, Collegeville, PA 19426, USA.

Small molecule agonists and antagonists of the V(2)-vasopressin receptor have been discovered and have undergone clinical trials. In conjunction with these discovery programs, the synthesis and biological testing of various metabolites associated with these clinical targets were actively pursued. We now report the results of our synthetic efforts and the corresponding biological data generated for several of the metabolites of WAY-151932 and CL-347985 (Lixivaptan).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bmcl.2007.08.053DOI Listing
November 2007

Metabolism, excretion, and pharmacokinetics of [14C]tigecycline, a first-in-class glycylcycline antibiotic, after intravenous infusion to healthy male subjects.

Drug Metab Dispos 2007 Sep 30;35(9):1543-53. Epub 2007 May 30.

Department of Biotransformation, Wyeth Research, 500 Arcola Road/S3226, Collegeville, PA 19426, USA.

Tigecycline, a novel, first-in-class glycylcycline antibiotic, has been approved for the treatment of complicated intra-abdominal infections and complicated skin and skin structure infections. The pharmacokinetics, metabolism, and excretion of [(14)C]tigecycline were examined in healthy male volunteers. Tigecycline has been shown to bind to bone; thus, to minimize the amount of radioactivity binding to bone and to maximize the recovery of radioactivity, tigecycline was administered intravenously (30-min infusion) as a single 100-mg dose, followed by six 50-mg doses, every 12 h, with the last dose being [(14)C]tigecycline (50 microCi). After the final dose, the pharmacokinetics of tigecycline in serum showed a long half-life (55.8 h) and a large volume of distribution (21.0 l/kg), whereas radioactivity in serum had a shorter half-life (6.9 h) and a smaller volume of distribution (3.3 l/kg). The major route of elimination was feces, containing 59% of the radioactive dose, whereas urine contained 32%. Unchanged tigecycline was the predominant drug-related compound in serum, urine, and feces. The major metabolic pathways identified were glucuronidation of tigecycline and amide hydrolysis followed by N-acetylation to form N-acetyl-9-aminominocycline. The glucuronide metabolites accounted for 5 to 20% of serum radioactivity, and approximately 9% of the dose was excreted as glucuronide conjugates within 48 h. Concentrations of N-acetyl-9-aminominocycline were approximately 6.5% and 11% of the tigecycline concentrations in serum and urine, respectively. Excretion of unchanged tigecycline into feces was the primary route of elimination, and the secondary elimination pathways were renal excretion of unchanged drug and metabolism to glucuronide conjugates and N-acetyl-9-aminominocycline.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1124/dmd.107.015735DOI Listing
September 2007

Metabolism of prazosin in rat, dog, and human liver microsomes and cryopreserved rat and human hepatocytes and characterization of metabolites by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

Drug Metab Dispos 2007 Jun 12;35(6):908-16. Epub 2007 Mar 12.

Drug Safety and Metabolism, Wyeth Research, Collegeville, PA, USA.

Prazosin (2-[4-(2-furanoyl)-piperazin-1-yl]-4-amino-6,7-dimethoxyquinazoline) is an antihypertensive agent that was introduced to the market in 1976. It has since established an excellent safety record. However, in vitro metabolism of prazosin has not been investigated. This study describes the in vitro biotransformation of prazosin in liver microsomes from rats, dogs, and humans, as well as rat and human cryopreserved hepatocytes and characterization of metabolites using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. The major in vivo biotransformation pathways reported previously in rats and dogs include demethylation, amide hydrolysis, and O-glucuronidation. These metabolic pathways were also confirmed in our study. In addition, several new metabolites were characterized, including a stable carbinolamine, an iminium species, and an enamine-all formed via oxidation of the piperazine ring. Two ring-opened metabolites generated following oxidative cleavage of the furan ring were also identified. Using semicarbazide hydrochloride as a trapping agent, an intermediate arising from opening of the furan ring was captured as a pyridazine product. In the presence of glutathione, three glutathione conjugates were detected in microsomal incubations, although they were not detected in cryopreserved hepatocytes. These data support ring opening of the furan via a reactive gamma-keto-alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehyde intermediate. In the presence of UDP-glucuronic acid, prazosin underwent conjugation to form an N-glucuronide not reported previously. Our in vitro investigations have revealed additional metabolic transformations of prazosin and have shown the potential of prazosin to undergo bioactivation through metabolism of the furan ring to a reactive intermediate.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1124/dmd.106.013219DOI Listing
June 2007

Mechanism study of N-dephenylation mediated through a N-para-hydroxy metabolite.

Curr Drug Discov Technol 2006 Jun;3(2):101-14

Division of Biotransformation, Department of Drug Safety and Metabolism Wyeth Research, 500 Arcola Road, Collegeville, PA 19426, USA.

A P450 catalyzed N-para-hydroxy metabolite was suggested to be a prerequisite for N-dephenylation occurrence. Although two mechanisms have been proposed to describe this process as a consequence of either a chemical degradation or P450 lead epoxidation of the hydroxy metabolite, direct evidence has not been demonstrated. In this study, we started with a novel technique using a dipeptide, Lys-Phe, to trap the byproduct of N-dephenylation, a quinone-like compound, forming a peptide adduct to facilitate LC/MS characterization. N-dephenylation via chemical degradation was assessed by LC/MS characterization of the resulting (Lys-Phe)(2)-quinone from 4-hydroxyphenyl-2-naphthylamine following interaction with Lys-Phe in pH 7.4 buffer. N-dephenylation mediated by P450 catalysis proposed was investigated in N-para-hydroxy benzodioxane derivative incubated with mouse liver microsomes in the presence of Lys-Phe in 50/50 H(2)(16)O/H(2)(18)O. LC/MS demonstrated that only one of two hydroxy oxygens in the byproduct was exchanged with water and the MS signal intensity of the (16)O labeled peptide adduct was equal to that of (18)O labeled. These observations suggested us that the origin of the oxygen in the byproduct was from water only, not from O(2). Therefore, it appears that N-dephenylation occurs via a stepwise process, namely the substrate is initially metabolized to a N-para-hydroxy metabolite by P450, which was readily oxidized to a quinone imine/iminium chemically or enzymatically, then hydrolyzed resulting in N-dephenylation. However, in our studies, the proposed P450 mechanism involving epoxidation of a N-para-hydroxy metabolite was disproved.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/157016306778108901DOI Listing
June 2006

NMR characterization of an S-linked glucuronide metabolite of the potent, novel, nonsteroidal progesterone agonist tanaproget.

Drug Metab Dispos 2006 Aug 12;34(8):1283-7. Epub 2006 May 12.

Roy J. Carver Metabolomics Center, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign, 601 S. Goodwin Avenue M/C 110, Urbana, IL 61801, USA.

Tanaproget is a first-in-class nonsteroidal progesterone receptor agonist that is being investigated for use in contraception. A major in vitro and in vivo metabolite of tanaproget formed in humans was initially characterized as a glucuronide of tanaproget. However, whether the glucuronide was linked to the nitrogen or sulfur of the benzoxazine-2-thione group in tanaproget could not be determined by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) and LC-tandem mass spectrometry analysis. To obtain additional structural details for this metabolite, additional quantities were generated from rat liver microsomal incubations and purified by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for NMR analysis. The NMR data for the metabolite confirmed that the glucuronide was covalently bound to either the sulfur or the nitrogen of the benzoxazine-2-thione moiety. The lack of key through-bond (scalar) and through-space (dipolar) one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) NMR couplings and correlations in the metabolite spectra (due primarily to low sample concentration) precluded an unambiguous structure elucidation. Subsequent synthesis of the S- and N-glucuronides of tanaproget from tanaproget facilitated the unambiguous regio- and stereochemical assignment of the metabolite by comparison of 1D NMR chemical shifts and scalar coupling constants, 2D NMR correlations, and HPLC and LC/MS characteristics between the synthetic compounds and the metabolite. From extensive comparison of the spectral and chromatographic data of the microsomally derived metabolite and the synthetic compounds, the metabolite has been determined to be the S-(beta)-D-glucuronide of tanaproget.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1124/dmd.105.008763DOI Listing
August 2006