Publications by authors named "William D Tap"

124 Publications

Avapritinib Versus Regorafenib in Locally Advanced Unresectable or Metastatic GI Stromal Tumor: A Randomized, Open-Label Phase III Study.

J Clin Oncol 2021 Aug 3:JCO2100217. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

Department of Medical Oncology, Sarcoma Center, West German Cancer Center, DKTK-Partner-Site, University of Duisburg-Essen, Essen, Germany.

Purpose: Primary or secondary mutations in or platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha () underlie tyrosine kinase inhibitor resistance in most GI stromal tumors (GISTs). Avapritinib selectively and potently inhibits KIT- and PDGFRA-mutant kinases. In the phase I NAVIGATOR study (NCT02508532), avapritinib showed clinical activity against PDGFRA D842V-mutant and later-line KIT-mutant GIST. VOYAGER (NCT03465722), a phase III study, evaluated efficacy and safety of avapritinib versus regorafenib as third-line or later treatment in patients with unresectable or metastatic GIST.

Patients And Methods: VOYAGER randomly assigned patients 1:1 to avapritinib 300 mg once daily (4 weeks continuously) or regorafenib 160 mg once daily (3 weeks on and 1 week off). Primary end point was progression-free survival (PFS) by central radiology per RECIST version 1.1 modified for GIST. Secondary end points included objective response rate, overall survival, safety, disease control rate, and duration of response. Regorafenib to avapritinib crossover was permitted upon centrally confirmed disease progression.

Results: Four hundred seventy-six patients were randomly assigned (avapritinib, n = 240; regorafenib, n = 236). Median PFS was not statistically different between avapritinib and regorafenib (hazard ratio, 1.25; 95% CI, 0.99 to 1.57; 4.2 5.6 months; = .055). Overall survival data were immature at cutoff. Objective response rates were 17.1% and 7.2%, with durations of responses of 7.6 and 9.4 months for avapritinib and regorafenib; disease control rates were 41.7% (95% CI, 35.4 to 48.2) and 46.2% (95% CI, 39.7 to 52.8). Treatment-related adverse events (any grade, grade ≥ 3) were similar for avapritinib (92.5% and 55.2%) and regorafenib (96.2% and 57.7%).

Conclusion: Primary end point was not met. There was no significant difference in median PFS between avapritinib and regorafenib in patients with molecularly unselected, late-line GIST.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.21.00217DOI Listing
August 2021

Association of Combination of Conformation-Specific KIT Inhibitors With Clinical Benefit in Patients With Refractory Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors: A Phase 1b/2a Nonrandomized Clinical Trial.

JAMA Oncol 2021 Sep;7(9):1343-1350

Plexxikon Inc, Berkeley, California.

Importance: Many cancer subtypes, including KIT-mutant gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs), are driven by activating mutations in tyrosine kinases and may initially respond to kinase inhibitors but frequently relapse owing to outgrowth of heterogeneous subclones with resistance mutations. KIT inhibitors commonly used to treat GIST (eg, imatinib and sunitinib) are inactive-state (type II) inhibitors.

Objective: To assess whether combining a type II KIT inhibitor with a conformation-complementary, active-state (type I) KIT inhibitor is associated with broad mutation coverage and global disease control.

Design, Setting, And Participants: A highly selective type I inhibitor of KIT, PLX9486, was tested in a 2-part phase 1b/2a trial. Part 1 (dose escalation) evaluated PLX9486 monotherapy in patients with solid tumors. Part 2e (extension) evaluated PLX9486-sunitinib combination in patients with GIST. Patients were enrolled from March 2015 through February 2019; data analysis was performed from May 2020 through July 2020.

Interventions: Participants received 250, 350, 500, and 1000 mg of PLX9486 alone (part 1) or 500 and 1000 mg of PLX9486 together with 25 or 37.5 mg of sunitinib (part 2e) continuously in 28-day dosing cycles until disease progression, treatment discontinuation, or withdrawal.

Main Outcomes And Measures: Pharmacokinetics, safety, and tumor responses were assessed. Clinical efficacy end points (progression-free survival and clinical benefit rate) were supplemented with longitudinal monitoring of KIT mutations in circulating tumor DNA.

Results: A total of 39 PLX9486-naive patients (median age, 57 years [range, 39-79 years]; 22 men [56.4%]; 35 [89.7%] with refractory GIST) were enrolled in the dose escalation and extension parts. The recommended phase 2 dose of PLX9486 was 1000 mg daily. At this dose, PLX9486 could be safely combined with 25 or 37.5 mg daily of sunitinib continuously. Patients with GIST who received PLX9486 at a dose of 500 mg or less, at the recommended phase 2 dose, and with sunitinib had median (95% CI) progression-free survivals of 1.74 (1.54-1.84), 5.75 (0.99-11.0), and 12.1 (1.34-NA) months and clinical benefit rates (95% CI) of 14% (0%-58%), 50% (21%-79%), and 80% (52%-96%), respectively.

Conclusions And Relevance: In this phase 1b/2a nonrandomized clinical trial, type I and type II KIT inhibitors PLX9486 and sunitinib were safely coadministered at the recommended dose of both single agents in patients with refractory GIST. Results suggest that cotargeting 2 complementary conformational states of the same kinase was associated with clinical benefit with an acceptable safety profile.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02401815.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamaoncol.2021.2086DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8267845PMC
September 2021

Pexidartinib improves physical functioning and stiffness in patients with tenosynovial giant cell tumor: results from the ENLIVEN randomized clinical trial.

Acta Orthop 2021 Aug 12;92(4):493-499. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center and Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY, USA.

Background and purpose - The ENLIVEN trial showed that, after 25 weeks, pexidartinib statistically significantly reduced tumor size more than placebo in patients with symptomatic, advanced tenosynovial giant cell tumor (TGCT) for whom surgery was not recommended. Here, we detail the effect of pexidartinib on patient-reported physical function and stiffness in ENLIVEN.Patients and methods - This was a planned analysis of patient-reported outcome data from ENLIVEN, a double-blinded, randomized phase 3 trial of adults with symptomatic, advanced TGCT treated with pexidartinib or placebo. Physical function was assessed using the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS)-physical function (PF), and worst stiffness was assessed using a numerical rating scale (NRS). A mixed model for repeated measures was used to compare changes in PROMIS-PF and worst stiffness NRS scores from baseline to week 25 between treatment groups. Response rates for the PROMIS-PF and worst stiffness NRS at week 25 were calculated based on threshold estimates from reliable change index and anchor-based methods.Results - Between baseline and week 25, greater improvements in physical function and stiffness were experienced by patients receiving pexidartinib than patients receiving placebo (change in PROMIS-PF = 4.1 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.8-6.3] vs. -0.9 [CI -3.0 to 1.2]; change in worst stiffness NRS = -2.5 [CI -3.0 to -1.9] vs. -0.3 [CI -0.9 to 0.3]). Patients receiving pexidartinib had higher response rates than patients receiving placebo for meaningful improvements in physical function and stiffness. Improvements were sustained after 50 weeks of pexidartinib treatment.Interpretation - Pexidartinib treatment provided sustained, meaningful improvements in physical function and stiffness for patients with symptomatic, advanced TGCT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17453674.2021.1922161DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8382018PMC
August 2021

Ultra-rare sarcomas: A consensus paper from the Connective Tissue Oncology Society community of experts on the incidence threshold and the list of entities.

Cancer 2021 Aug 28;127(16):2934-2942. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Department of Epidemiology, Regional Health Council, Biomedical Research Institute of Murcia-Arrixaca, Murcia University, Murcia, Spain.

Background: Among sarcomas, which are rare cancers, many types are exceedingly rare; however, a definition of ultra-rare cancers has not been established. The problem of ultra-rare sarcomas is particularly relevant because they represent unique diseases, and their rarity poses major challenges for diagnosis, understanding disease biology, generating clinical evidence to support new drug development, and achieving formal authorization for novel therapies.

Methods: The Connective Tissue Oncology Society promoted a consensus effort in November 2019 to establish how to define ultra-rare sarcomas through expert consensus and epidemiologic data and to work out a comprehensive list of these diseases. The list of ultra-rare sarcomas was based on the 2020 World Health Organization classification, The incidence rates were estimated using the Information Network on Rare Cancers (RARECARENet) database and NETSARC (the French Sarcoma Network's clinical-pathologic registry). Incidence rates were further validated in collaboration with the Asian cancer registries of Japan, Korea, and Taiwan.

Results: It was agreed that the best criterion for a definition of ultra-rare sarcomas would be incidence. Ultra-rare sarcomas were defined as those with an incidence of approximately ≤1 per 1,000,000, to include those entities whose rarity renders them extremely difficult to conduct well powered, prospective clinical studies. On the basis of this threshold, a list of ultra-rare sarcomas was defined, which comprised 56 soft tissue sarcoma types and 21 bone sarcoma types.

Conclusions: Altogether, the incidence of ultra-rare sarcomas accounts for roughly 20% of all soft tissue and bone sarcomas. This confirms that the challenges inherent in ultra-rare sarcomas affect large numbers of patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cncr.33618DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8319065PMC
August 2021

Comprehensive Molecular Profiling of Desmoplastic Small Round Cell Tumor.

Mol Cancer Res 2021 07 22;19(7):1146-1155. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Department of Pediatrics, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York.

Desmoplastic small round cell tumor (DSRCT) is characterized by the t(11;22) (p13:q12) translocation. Few additional putative drivers have been identified, and research has suffered from a lack of model systems. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) data from 68 matched tumor-normal samples, whole-genome sequencing data from 10 samples, transcriptomic and affymetrix array data, and a bank of DSRCT patient-derived xenograft (PDX) are presented. fusions were noted to be simple, balanced events. Recurrent mutations were uncommon, but were noted in (3%), (6%), (5%), and (3%), and recurrent loss of heterozygosity (LOH) at 11p, 11q, and 16q was identified in 18%, 22%, and 34% of samples, respectively. Comparison of tumor-normal matched versus unmatched analysis suggests overcalling of somatic mutations in prior publications of DSRCT NGS data. Alterations in fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 () were identified in 5 of 68 (7%) of tumor samples, whereas differential overexpression of was confirmed orthogonally using 2 platforms. PDX models harbored the pathognomic fusion and were highly representative of corresponding tumors. Our analyses confirm DSRCT as a genomically quiet cancer defined by the balanced translocation, t(11;22)(p13:q12), characterized by a paucity of secondary mutations but a significant number of copy number alterations. Against this genomically quiet background, recurrent activating alterations of stood out, and suggest that this receptor tyrosine kinase, also noted to be highly expressed in DSRCT, should be further investigated. Future studies of DSRCT biology and preclinical therapeutic strategies should benefit from the PDX models characterized in this study. IMPLICATIONS: These data describe the general quiescence of the desmoplastic small round cell tumor (DSRCT) genome, present the first available bank of DSRCT model systems, and nominate as a key receptor tyrosine kinase in DSRCT, based on high expression, recurrent amplification, and recurrent activating mutations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1541-7786.MCR-20-0722DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8293793PMC
July 2021

A phase 1b study of the Notch inhibitor crenigacestat (LY3039478) in combination with other anticancer target agents (taladegib, LY3023414, or abemaciclib) in patients with advanced or metastatic solid tumors.

Invest New Drugs 2021 Aug 8;39(4):1089-1098. Epub 2021 Mar 8.

Department of Investigational Cancer Therapeutics, Division of Cancer Medicine, University of Texas Medical Center/MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, 77030, USA.

Notch signaling plays an important role in development and tissue homeostasis. Deregulation of Notch signaling has been implicated in multiple malignancies. Crenigacestat (LY3039478), a potent Notch inhibitor, decreases Notch signaling and its downstream biologic effects. I6F-MC-JJCD was a multicenter, nonrandomized, open-label, Phase 1b study with 5 separate, parallel dose-escalations in patients with advanced or metastatic cancer from a variety of solid tumors, followed by a dose-confirmation phase in prespecified tumor types. This manuscript reports on 3 of 5 groups. The primary objective was to determine the recommended Phase 2 dose of crenigacestat in combination with other anticancer agents (taladegib, LY3023414 [dual inhibitor of phosphoinositide 3-kinase; mechanistic target of rapamycin], or abemaciclib). Secondary objectives included evaluation of safety, tolerability, efficacy, and pharmacokinetics. Patients (N = 63) received treatment between November 2016 and July 2019. Dose-limiting toxicities occurred in 12 patients, mostly gastrointestinal (diarrhea, nausea, vomiting). The maximum-tolerated dose of crenigacestat was 25 mg in Part B (LY3023414), 50 mg in Part C (abemaciclib), and not established in Part A (taladegib) due to toxicities. Patients had at least 1 adverse event (AE) and 75.0-82.6% were ≥ Grade 3 all-causality AEs. No patient had complete or partial response. Disease control rates were 18.8% (Part B) and 26.1% (Part C). The study was terminated before dose confirmation cohorts were triggered. This study demonstrated that crenigacestat combined with different anticancer agents (taladegib, LY3023414, or abemaciclib) was poorly tolerated, leading to lowered dosing and disappointing clinical activity in patients with advanced or metastatic solid tumors. NCT02784795 and date of registration: May 27, 2016.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10637-021-01094-6DOI Listing
August 2021

Prospective Evaluation of Doxorubicin Cardiotoxicity in Patients with Advanced Soft-tissue Sarcoma Treated in the ANNOUNCE Phase III Randomized Trial.

Clin Cancer Res 2021 Jul 25;27(14):3861-3866. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center and Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, New York.

Purpose: Few prospective studies have assessed anthracycline-associated cardiotoxicity in patients with sarcoma. We evaluated cardiotoxicity in patients with soft-tissue sarcomas administered doxorubicin in the phase III ANNOUNCE trial (NCT02451943).

Patients And Methods: Patients were anthracycline-naïve adults with locally advanced or metastatic disease and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) ≥50%. Patients could receive eight cycles of doxorubicin at 75 mg/m. The cardioprotectant, dexrazoxane, was allowed at investigator discretion. Symptomatic cardiac adverse events (AEs) were recorded using Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities and graded using Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events 4.0. LVEF deterioration was measured by echocardiogram or multigated acquisition scan, defined as a decrease to <50%, or decrease from baseline value >10%.

Results: A total of 504 patients received ≥1 cycles of doxorubicin [median cumulative dose, 450.3 mg/m (range, 72.3-634.0)]. Median follow-up of cardiac AEs was 28 weeks. Dexrazoxane was coadministered more frequently to patients receiving higher cumulative doxorubicin doses (38.6% receiving <450 mg/m, 88.5% receiving 450-<600 mg/m, and 90% receiving ≥600 mg/m) and did not affect treatment efficacy. LVEF deterioration was seen in 62 of 153 (40.5%) patients who received a cumulative dose <450 mg/m, 82 of 159 patients (51.6%) who received 450-<600 mg/m, and 50 of 89 patients (56.2%) who received ≥600 mg/m. Grade ≥3 cardiac dysfunction occurred in 2% of patients at <450 mg/m, 3% at 450-<600 mg/m, and 1.1% at ≥600 mg/m. Incidence of treatment-related cardiac AEs was low across all dose ranges.

Conclusions: Although follow-up was short, these results suggest doxorubicin can be administered at high cumulative doses (>450 mg/m), with a low rate of cardiotoxicities, in the context of dexrazoxane coadministration..
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-20-4592DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8282740PMC
July 2021

Continuing to Broaden Eligibility Criteria to Make Clinical Trials More Representative and Inclusive: ASCO-Friends of Cancer Research Joint Research Statement.

Clin Cancer Res 2021 May 9;27(9):2394-2399. Epub 2021 Feb 9.

American Society of Clinical Oncology, Alexandria, Virginia.

Purpose: Restrictive clinical trial eligibility criteria (EC) limit the number of patients who can enroll and potentially benefit from protocol-driven, investigational treatment plans and reduce the generalizability of trial results to the broader population. Following publication of expert stakeholder recommendations for broadening EC in 2017, the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) and Friends of Cancer Research () convened working groups to produce additional recommendations and analyze the potential impact on clinical trials using real-world data.

Experimental Design: Multistakeholder working groups were appointed by an ASCO- leadership group to propose recommendations for more inclusive EC related to: washout periods, concomitant medications, prior therapies, laboratory reference ranges and test intervals, and performance status.

Results: The four working groups, ASCO Board of Directors, and leadership support the recommendations included in this statement to modernize EC related to washout periods, concomitant medications, prior therapies, laboratory references ranges and test intervals, and performance status to make trial populations more inclusive and representative of cancer patient populations.

Conclusions: Implementation of the recommendations is intended to result in greater ease of determining patient eligibility. Increased opportunities for patient participation in research will help address longstanding underrepresentation of certain groups in clinical trials and produce evidence that is more informative for a broader patient population. More patients eligible will also likely speed clinical trial accrual..
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-20-3852DOI Listing
May 2021

Avapritinib in unresectable or metastatic PDGFRA D842V-mutant gastrointestinal stromal tumours: Long-term efficacy and safety data from the NAVIGATOR phase I trial.

Eur J Cancer 2021 03 16;145:132-142. Epub 2021 Jan 16.

Department of Medical Oncology, University Hospital Essen, Sarcoma Center, University of Duisburg-Essen, Essen, Germany.

Background: PDGFRA D842V mutations occur in 5-10% of gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GISTs), and previously approved tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are inactive against this mutation. Consequently, patients have a poor prognosis. We present an updated analysis of avapritinib efficacy and long-term safety in this patient population.

Methods: NAVIGATOR (NCT02508532), a two-part, open-label, dose-escalation/dose-expansion phase I study, enrolled adult patients with unresectable GISTs. Patients with PDGFRA D842V-mutant GIST were a prespecified subgroup within the overall safety population, which included patients who received ≥1 avapritinib dose. Primary end-points were overall response rate (ORR) and avapritinib safety profile. Secondary end-points were clinical benefit rate (CBR), duration of response (DOR) and progression-free survival (PFS). Overall survival (OS) was an exploratory end-point.

Results: Between 7 October 2015 and 9 March 2020, 250 patients enrolled in the safety population; 56 patients were included in the PDGFRA D842V population, 11 were TKI-naïve. At data cut-off, median follow-up was 27.5 months. Safety profile was comparable between the overall safety and PDGFRA D842V populations. In the PDGFRA D842V population, the most frequent adverse events were nausea (38 [68%] patients) and diarrhoea (37 [66%]), and cognitive effects occurred in 32 (57%) patients. The ORR was 91% (51/56 patients). The CBR was 98% (55/56 patients). The median DOR was 27.6 months (95% confidence interval [CI]: 17.6-not reached [NR]); median PFS was 34.0 months (95% CI: 22.9-NR). Median OS was not reached.

Conclusion: Targeting PDGFRA D842V-mutant GIST with avapritinib resulted in an unprecedented, durable clinical benefit, with a manageable safety profile. Avapritinib should be considered as first-line therapy for these patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejca.2020.12.008DOI Listing
March 2021

Avapritinib in Patients With Advanced Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors Following at Least Three Prior Lines of Therapy.

Oncologist 2021 04 1;26(4):e639-e649. Epub 2021 Feb 1.

Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.

Background: Most gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) driven by KIT or platelet-derived growth factor receptor A (PDGFRA) mutations develop resistance to available tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) treatments. NAVIGATOR is a two-part, single-arm, dose escalation and expansion study designed to evaluate safety and antineoplastic activity of avapritinib, a selective, potent inhibitor of KIT and PDGFRA, in patients with unresectable or metastatic GIST.

Materials And Methods: Eligible patients were 18 years or older with histologically or cytologically confirmed unresectable GIST and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status ≤2 and initiated avapritinib at 300 mg or 400 mg once daily. Primary endpoints were safety in patients who initiated avapritinib at 300 mg or 400 mg once daily and overall response rate (ORR) in patients in the safety population with three or more previous lines of TKI therapy.

Results: As of November 16, 2018, in the safety population (n = 204), the most common adverse events (AEs) were nausea (131 [64%]), fatigue (113 [55%]), anemia (102 [50%]), cognitive effects (84 [41%]), and periorbital edema (83 [41%]); 17 (8%) patients discontinued due to treatment-related AEs, most frequently confusion, encephalopathy, and fatigue. ORR in response-evaluable patients with GIST harboring KIT or non-D842V PDGFRA mutations and with at least three prior therapies (n = 103) was 17% (95% confidence interval [CI], 10-25). Median duration of response was 10.2 months (95% CI, 7.2-10.2), and median progression-free survival was 3.7 months (95% CI, 2.8-4.6).

Conclusion: Avapritinib has manageable toxicity with meaningful clinical activity as fourth-line or later treatment in some patients with GIST with KIT or PDGFRA mutations.

Implications For Practice: In the NAVIGATOR trial, avapritinib, an inhibitor of KIT and platelet-derived growth factor receptor A tyrosine kinases, provided durable responses in a proportion of patients with advanced gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) who had received three or more prior therapies. Avapritinib had a tolerable safety profile, with cognitive adverse events manageable with dose interruptions and modification in most cases. These findings indicate that avapritinib can elicit durable treatment responses in some patients with heavily pretreated GIST, for whom limited treatment options exist.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/onco.13674DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8018324PMC
April 2021

Pexidartinib Long-Term Hepatic Safety Profile in Patients with Tenosynovial Giant Cell Tumors.

Oncologist 2021 05 24;26(5):e863-e873. Epub 2020 Dec 24.

University Hospital Essen, University of Duisburg-Essen, Germany.

Background: Pexidartinib is approved in the U.S. for tenosynovial giant cell tumors (TGCTs). Herein, we assessed the hepatic safety profile of pexidartinib across patients with TGCTs receiving pexidartinib.

Materials, And Methods: Hepatic adverse reactions (ARs) were assessed by type and magnitude of liver test abnormalities, classified as (a) isolated aminotransferase elevations (alanine [ALT] or aspartate [AST], without significant alkaline phosphatase [ALP] or bilirubin elevations), or (b) mixed or cholestatic hepatotoxicity (increase in ALP with or without ALT/AST and bilirubin elevations, based on adjudication). Median follow-up from initial pexidartinib treatment was 39 months (range, 32-82) in 140 patients with TGCTs across clinical studies NCT01004861, NCT02371369, NCT02734433, and NCT03291288.

Results: In total, 95% of patients with TGCTs (133/140) treated with pexidartinib (median duration of exposure, 19 months [range, 1-76]), experienced a hepatic AR. A total of 128 patients (91%) had reversible, low-grade dose-dependent isolated AST/ALT elevations without significant ALP elevations. Five patients (4%) experienced serious mixed or cholestatic injury. No case met Hy's law criteria. Onset of hepatic ARs was predominantly in the first 2 months. All five serious hepatic AR cases recovered 1-7 months following pexidartinib discontinuation. Five patients from the non-TGCT population (N = 658) experienced serious hepatic ARs, two irreversible cases.

Conclusion: This pooled analysis provides information to help form the basis for the treating physician's risk assessment for patients with TCGTs, a locally aggressive but typically nonmetastatic tumor. In particular, long-term treatment with pexidartinib has a predictable effect on hepatic aminotransferases and unpredictable risk of serious cholestatic or mixed liver injury.

Implications For Practice: This is the first long-term pooled analysis to report on the long-term hepatic safety of pexidartinib in patients with tenosynovial giant cell tumors associated with severe morbidity or functional limitations and not amenable to improvement with surgery. These findings extend beyond what has been previously published, describing the observed instances of hepatic toxicity following pexidartinib treatment across the clinical development program. This information is highly relevant for medical oncologists and orthopedic oncologists and provides guidance for its proper use for appropriate patients within the Pexidartinib Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Safety program.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/onco.13629DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8100574PMC
May 2021

Clinical Outcome of Leiomyosarcomas With Somatic Alteration in Homologous Recombination Pathway Genes.

JCO Precis Oncol 2020 6;4. Epub 2020 Nov 6.

Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY.

Purpose: To detect alterations in DNA damage repair (DDR) genes, measure homologous recombination deficiency (HRD), and correlate these findings with clinical outcome in patients with leiomyosarcoma (LMS).

Patients And Methods: Patients with LMS treated at Memorial Sloan Kettering (MSK) Cancer Center who consented to prospective targeted next-generation sequencing with MSK-IMPACT were screened for oncogenic somatic variants in one of 33 DDR genes; where feasible, an experimental HRD score was calculated from IMPACT data. Progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were estimated after stratifying patients by DDR gene alteration status and HRD score.

Results: Of 211 patients with LMS, 20% had an oncogenic DDR gene alteration. Univariable analysis of PFS in 117 patients who received standard frontline chemotherapy in the metastatic setting found that an altered homologous recombination pathway gene was significantly associated with shorter PFS (hazard ratio [HR], 1.79; 95% CI, 1.04 to 3.07; = .035). Non- homologous recombination gene alteration was associated with shorter PFS (HR, 2.61; 95% CI, 1.35 to 5.04; = .004) compared with -altered and wild-type homologous recombination genes. Univariable analysis of OS from diagnosis in the entire cohort of 211 patients found that age, tumor size, number of metastatic sites, localized disease, and non- homologous recombination gene alteration were significantly associated with OS. On multivariable analysis, non- homologous recombination pathway gene alteration remained significant (HR, 4.91; 95% CI, 2.47 to 9.76; < .001). High HRD score was not associated with a different PFS or OS.

Conclusion: Patients with LMS with homologous recombination pathway gene alterations have poor clinical outcomes, particularly those with non- gene alterations. HRD score calculated from a targeted exome panel did not discern disparate clinical outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/PO.20.00122DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7713532PMC
November 2020

Long-term outcomes of pexidartinib in tenosynovial giant cell tumors.

Cancer 2021 Mar 16;127(6):884-893. Epub 2020 Nov 16.

Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Milan, Italy.

Background: The objective of this study was to report on the long-term effects of pexidartinib on tenosynovial giant cell tumor (TGCT).

Methods: This was a pooled analysis encompassing 3 pexidartinib-treated TGCT cohorts: 1) a phase 1 extension study (NCT01004861; 1000 mg/d; n = 39), 2) ENLIVEN patients randomized to pexidartinib (1000 mg/d for 2 weeks and then 800 mg/d; n = 61), and 3) ENLIVEN crossover patients (NCT02371369; 800 mg/d; n = 30). Eligible patients were 18 years old or older and had a histologically confirmed TGCT that was unresectable and symptomatic. Efficacy endpoints included the best overall response (complete or partial response) and the duration of response (DOR) by the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) and the tumor volume score (TVS). The safety assessment included the frequency of treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) and hepatic laboratory abnormalities (aminotransferase elevations and mixed/cholestatic hepatotoxicity). The data cutoff was May 31, 2019.

Results: One hundred thirty patients with TGCT received pexidartinib (median treatment duration, 19 months; range, 1 to 76+ months); 54 (42%) remained on treatment at the end of the analysis (26 months after initial data cut of March 2017). The RECIST overall response rate (ORR) was 60%; the TVS ORR was 65%. The median times to response were 3.4 (RECIST) and 2.8 months (TVS), with 48 of the responding patients (62%) achieving a RECIST partial response by 6 months and with 72 (92%) doing so by 18 months. The median DOR was reached for TVS (46.8 months). Reported TEAEs were mostly low-grade, with hair color changes being most frequent (75%). Most liver abnormalities (92%) were aminotransferase elevations; 4 patients (3%) experienced mixed/cholestatic hepatotoxicity (all within the first 2 months of treatment), which was reversible in all cases (recovery spanned 1-7 months).

Conclusions: This study demonstrates the prolonged efficacy and tolerability of long-term pexidartinib treatment for TGCT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cncr.33312DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7946703PMC
March 2021

Prognostic Factors After Neoadjuvant Imatinib for Newly Diagnosed Primary Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor.

J Gastrointest Surg 2021 07 9;25(7):1828-1836. Epub 2020 Nov 9.

Department of Surgery, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, USA.

Introduction: Neoadjuvant imatinib (Neo-IM) therapy may facilitate R0 resection in primary gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) that are large or in difficult anatomic locations. While response to preoperative tyrosine kinase inhibitors is associated with better outcome in metastatic GIST, little is known about prognostic factors after Neo-IM in primary GIST.

Study Design: Patients with primary GIST with or without synchronous metastases who underwent Neo-IM were retrospectively analyzed from a prospective maintained institutional database for Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST), tumor viability, and mitotic rate. Overall survival (OS) was estimated by Kaplan-Meier and compared by log-rank test. Cox proportionate hazard models were used for univariate and multivariate analysis.

Results: One hundred and fifty patients were treated for a median of 7.1 months (range 0.2-160). By RECIST, partial response, stable disease, and progressive disease were seen in 40%, 51%, and 9%, respectively. By pathologic analysis, ≤ 50% of the tumor was viable in 72%, and the mitotic rate was ≤ 5/50HPF in 74%. On multivariate analysis, RECIST response and tumor viability were not associated with OS, while post-treatment high mitotic rate (hazard ratio (HR) for death 5.3, CI 2.3-12.4), R2 margins (HR 6.0, CI 2.3-15.5), and adjuvant imatinib (HR 0.4, CI 0.2-0.9) were (p < 0.05). Five-year OS was 81 vs. 38% for low vs. high mitotic rate; 81, 59, and 39% for R0, R1, and R2 margins; and 75 vs 61% for adjuvant vs. no adjuvant imatinib therapy (p < 0.05).

Conclusions: In primary GIST undergoing Neo-IM therapy, progression was uncommon, but substantial down-sizing occurred in the minority. High tumor mitotic rate and incomplete resection following Neo-IM were associated with poor outcome, while adjuvant imatinib was associated with prolonged survival.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11605-020-04843-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8386278PMC
July 2021

Population Pharmacokinetic Analysis of Pexidartinib in Healthy Subjects and Patients With Tenosynovial Giant Cell Tumor or Other Solid Tumors.

J Clin Pharmacol 2021 04 11;61(4):480-492. Epub 2020 Oct 11.

Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Milan, Italy.

Pexidartinib is a kinase inhibitor that induces tumor response and improvements in symptoms and functional outcomes in adult patients with symptomatic tenosynovial giant cell tumor (TGCT). A population pharmacokinetic (PK) model for pexidartinib and its metabolite, ZAAD, was developed, and effects of demographic and clinical factors on the PK of pexidartinib and ZAAD were estimated. The analysis included pooled data from 7 studies in healthy volunteers (N = 159) and 2 studies in patients with TGCT or other solid tumors (N = 216). A structural 2-compartment model with sequential zero- and first-order absorption and lag time, and linear elimination from the central compartment adequately described pexidartinib and ZAAD PKs. Clearance of pexidartinib was estimated at 5.83 L/h in a typical patient with reference covariates (male, non-Asian, weight = 80 kg, creatinine clearance ≥90 mL/min, aspartate aminotransferase ≤80 U/L, and total bilirubin ≤20.5 μmol/L). In the covariate analysis, Asians and healthy subjects had modestly lower pexidartinib exposure (21% decrease each) in terms of steady-state area under the curve values from 0 to 24 hours (AUC ). Effects of body weight, sex, and hepatic function parameters on pexidartinib AUC were generally <20%. Patients with TGCT with mild renal impairment were predicted to have approximately 23% higher AUC than those with normal renal function. The effects of covariates on ZAAD exposure were similar to those on pexidartinib. These results indicate small and generally clinically nonmeaningful effects of patient demographic and clinical characteristics on pexidartinib and ZAAD PK profiles.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcph.1753DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7969430PMC
April 2021

Imaging features and clinical course of undifferentiated round cell sarcomas with CIC-DUX4 and BCOR-CCNB3 translocations.

Skeletal Radiol 2021 Mar 25;50(3):521-529. Epub 2020 Aug 25.

Department of Radiology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Ave, New York, NY, 10065, USA.

Objective: To describe the pre-treatment imaging features and clinical course of undifferentiated round cell sarcomas with CIC-DUX4 and BCOR-CCNB3 translocations.

Materials And Methods: In this retrospective study, several pre-treatment imaging features (tumor location, size, enhancement pattern, necrosis, flow voids, calcification, and FDG avidity) and the clinical course of patients were evaluated.

Results: In 12 patients with CIC-DUX4 sarcomas (median age, 24 years; range, 12-75), sarcomas were located in the soft tissue (n = 10), bone (n = 1), and lungs (n = 1). On MRI, all 10 CIC-DUX4 sarcomas presented as a large necrotic mass (mean size 6.7 cm, range 2.3-11.3) with 100% demonstrating contrast enhancement, 60% showing flow voids, and 20% demonstrating fluid-fluid levels. On PET, the mean SUVmax was 13.2 (range, 8.5-18.1). Among 12 patients with follow-up, 3 died within a year of diagnosis. The most common site of metastases was the lungs (5/12). In 5 patients with BCOR-CCNB3 sarcomas (median age, 14 years; range, 2-17), sarcomas were located in the spine (n = 2), femur (n = 1), tibia (n = 1), and pelvis (n = 1). On radiograph or CT, 2 were lytic, 3 were sclerotic. Soft tissue calcifications occurred in 40% of BCOR-CCNB3 sarcomas. On MRI, all 3 BCOR-CCNB3 tumors enhanced with 33% demonstrating flow voids and 66% exhibiting necrosis. On PET, the mean SUVmax was 6.3 (range 5.7-6.9).

Conclusion: CIC-DUX4 sarcomas often present as necrotic and hypermetabolic soft tissue masses while sarcomas with BCOR-CCNB3 translocations are vascular bone lesions with necrosis at imaging. CIC-DUX4 sarcomas are clinically more aggressive than BCOR-CCNB3 sarcomas.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00256-020-03589-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8436215PMC
March 2021

HLA Genotyping in Synovial Sarcoma: Identifying HLA-A*02 and Its Association with Clinical Outcome.

Clin Cancer Res 2020 10 14;26(20):5448-5455. Epub 2020 Aug 14.

Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York.

Purpose: To determine if a targeted exome panel utilizing matched normal DNA can accurately detect germline and somatic HLA genes in patients with synovial sarcoma (SS) and whether select HLA-A*02 genotypes are prognostic or predictive of outcome in metastatic SS.

Experimental Design: Patients with metastatic SS consented to HLA typing by a Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments (CLIA)-certified test to determine eligibility for a clinical trial of NY-ESO-1-specific engineered T cells restricted to carriers of HLA-A*02:01, -A*02:05, or -A*02:06 (HLA-A*02 eligible). HLA genotype was determined from Memorial Sloan Kettering Integrated Molecular Profiling of Actionable Cancer Targets (MSK-IMPACT), where feasible, and somatic loss of heterozygosity (LOH) in HLA alleles was identified. Overall survival (OS) was estimated and stratified by HLA-A*02 eligibility.

Results: A total of 23 patients had HLA genotyping by a CLIA-certified lab and MSK-IMPACT. Ninety percent (108/110) of the sequenced alleles were concordant between IMPACT and the outside lab. LOH of HLA genes was detected in three tumors, one had loss of HLA-A*02:01. In total, 66 patients were screened for T-cell therapy and 20 (30%) were HLA-A*02 eligible on outside testing. Univariate analysis of OS from the time of metastasis found HLA-A*02 eligibility was marginally associated with shorter OS [HR = 1.95; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.995-3.813; = 0.052]. On multivariate analysis, older age and larger tumor size, but not HLA-A*02 eligibility, were significantly associated with decreased OS. HLA-A*02 eligibility did not impact OS after chemotherapy or pazopanib in the metastatic setting.

Conclusions: Targeted gene panels like MSK-IMPACT may accurately report HLA type and identify loss of somatic HLA alleles. In a multivariable model, HLA-A*02 eligibility was not significantly associated with OS in patients with metastatic SS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-20-0832DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7572879PMC
October 2020

The epigenomics of sarcoma.

Nat Rev Cancer 2020 10 11;20(10):608-623. Epub 2020 Aug 11.

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.

Epigenetic regulation is critical to physiological control of development, cell fate, cell proliferation, genomic integrity and, fundamentally, transcriptional regulation. This epigenetic control occurs at multiple levels including through DNA methylation, histone modification, nucleosome remodelling and modulation of the 3D chromatin structure. Alterations in genes that encode chromatin regulators are common among mesenchymal neoplasms, a collection of more than 160 tumour types including over 60 malignant variants (sarcomas) that have unique and varied genetic, biological and clinical characteristics. Herein, we review those sarcomas in which chromatin pathway alterations drive disease biology. Specifically, we emphasize examples of dysregulation of each level of epigenetic control though mechanisms that include alterations in metabolic enzymes that regulate DNA methylation and histone post-translational modifications, mutations in histone genes, subunit loss or fusions in chromatin remodelling and modifying complexes, and disruption of higher-order chromatin structure. Epigenetic mechanisms of tumorigenesis have been implicated in mesenchymal tumours ranging from chondroblastoma and giant cell tumour of bone to chondrosarcoma, malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumour, synovial sarcoma, epithelioid sarcoma and Ewing sarcoma - all diseases that present in a younger patient population than most cancers. Finally, we review current and potential future approaches for the development of sarcoma therapies based on this emerging understanding of chromatin dysregulation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41568-020-0288-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8380451PMC
October 2020

Mesenchymal chondrosarcoma: imaging features and clinical findings.

Skeletal Radiol 2021 Feb 30;50(2):333-341. Epub 2020 Jul 30.

Department of Radiology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, USA.

Objective: To describe imaging and clinical features of primary mesenchymal chondrosarcoma (MCS) and evaluate for presence of a distinct biphasic pattern on imaging.

Material And Methods: Patients with a pathologic diagnosis of MCS were identified along with imaging of their primary tumor. Size, location, appearance (lytic, sclerotic, or mixed), presence, extent and distribution of calcifications, cortical destruction, soft tissue extension, periosteal reaction, contrast enhancement, and radiotracer uptake were recorded. The presence of T2-hyperintense tumor lobules on MRI and a biphasic morphology (distinct calcified and non-calcified components) on CT were assessed. Presence and location of metastases were documented.

Results: Twenty-three patients (mean age 28.0 ± 13.8 years) were reviewed (13 skeletal, 10 extraskeletal). Overall mean tumor size was 10.2 ± 7.2 cm, 7.1 ± 7.3 cm in non-metastatic and 13.2 ± 5.9 cm (p = 0.004) in metastatic cases. Locations were extremities (n = 11), head/neck (n = 4), chest wall (n = 4), pelvis (n = 3), and retroperitoneum (n = 1). Skeletal MCS were aggressive mixed lytic and sclerotic (n = 8), purely lytic (n = 4), or juxtacortical (n = 1) lesions with cortical destruction and soft tissue extension. Chondroid calcifications were common (80%). On MRI, the presence of T2-hyperintense lobules was seen in 35%. A biphasic morphology on imaging was seen in 30%. Metastases were common (52%) with the most common site being the lungs (75%). All tumors were hypermetabolic with a mean SUVmax of 14.3 (5.6-34) on PET/CT.

Conclusion: Skeletal MCS commonly present as aggressive lytic bone lesions with chondroid calcifications. A biphasic morphology was seen in one-third of cases. Metastases were common at initial presentation and more commonly seen with larger tumors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00256-020-03558-xDOI Listing
February 2021

Avapritinib in advanced PDGFRA D842V-mutant gastrointestinal stromal tumour (NAVIGATOR): a multicentre, open-label, phase 1 trial.

Lancet Oncol 2020 07;21(7):935-946

Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA, USA.

Background: Targeting of KIT and PDGFRA with imatinib revolutionised treatment in gastrointestinal stromal tumour; however, PDGFRA Asp842Val (D842V)-mutated gastrointestinal stromal tumour is highly resistant to tyrosine kinase inhibitors. We aimed to assess the safety, tolerability, and antitumour activity of avapritinib, a novel KIT and PDGFRA inhibitor that potently inhibits PDGFRA D842V, in patients with advanced gastrointestinal stromal tumours, including patients with KIT and PDGFRA D842V-mutant gastrointestinal stromal tumours (NAVIGATOR).

Methods: NAVIGATOR is a two-part, open-label, dose-escalation and dose-expansion, phase 1 study done at 17 sites across nine countries (Belgium, France, Germany, Poland, Netherlands, South Korea, Spain, the UK, and the USA). Patients aged 18 years or older, with an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 2 or less, and with adequate end-organ function were eligible to participate. The dose-escalation part of the study included patients with unresectable gastrointestinal stromal tumours. The dose-expansion part of the study included patients with an unresectable PDGFRA D842V-mutant gastrointestinal stromal tumour regardless of previous therapy or gastrointestinal stromal tumour with other mutations that either progressed on imatinib and one or more tyrosine kinase inhibitor, or only received imatinib previously. On the basis of enrolment trends, ongoing review of study data, and evolving knowledge regarding the gastrointestinal stromal tumour treatment paradigm, it was decided by the sponsor's medical director together with the investigators that patients with PDGFRA D842V mutations would be analysed separately; the results from this group of patients is reported in this Article. Oral avapritinib was administered once daily in the dose-escalation part (starting dose of 30 mg, with increasing dose levels once daily in continuous 28-day cycles until the maximum tolerated dose or recommended phase 2 dose was determined; in the dose-expansion part, the starting dose was the maximum tolerated dose from the dose-escalation part). Primary endpoints were maximum tolerated dose, recommended phase 2 dose, and safety in the dose-escalation part, and overall response and safety in the dose-expansion part. Safety was assessed in all patients from the dose-escalation part and all patients with PDGFRA D842V-mutant gastrointestinal stromal tumour in the dose-expansion part, and activity was assessed in all patients with PDGFRA D842V-mutant gastrointestinal stromal tumour who received avapritinib and who had at least one target lesion and at least one post-baseline disease assessment by central radiology. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02508532.

Findings: Between Oct 26, 2015, and Nov 16, 2018 (data cutoff), 46 patients were enrolled in the dose-escalation part, including 20 patients with a PDGFRA D842V-mutant gastrointestinal stromal tumour, and 36 patients with a PDGFRA D842V-mutant gastrointestinal stromal tumour were enrolled in the dose-expansion part. At data cutoff (Nov 16, 2018), 38 (46%) of 82 patients in the safety population (median follow-up of 19·1 months [IQR 9·2-25·5]) and 37 (66%) of the 56 patients in the PDGFRA D842V population (median follow-up of 15·9 months [IQR 9·2-24·9]) remained on treatment. The maximum tolerated dose was 400 mg, and the recommended phase 2 dose was 300 mg. In the safety population (patients with PDGFRA D842V-mutant gastrointestinal stromal tumour from the dose-escalation and dose-expansion parts, all doses), treatment-related grade 3-4 events occurred in 47 (57%) of 82 patients, the most common being anaemia (14 [17%]); there were no treatment-related deaths. In the PDGFRA D842V-mutant population, 49 (88%; 95% CI 76-95) of 56 patients had an overall response, with five (9%) complete responses and 44 (79%) partial responses. No dose-limiting toxicities were observed at doses of 30-400 mg per day. At 600 mg, two patients had dose-limiting toxicities (grade 2 hypertension, dermatitis acneiform, and memory impairment in patient 1, and grade 2 hyperbilirubinaemia in patient 2).

Interpretation: Avapritinib has a manageable safety profile and has preliminary antitumour activity in patients with advanced PDGFRA D842V-mutant gastrointestinal stromal tumours.

Funding: Blueprint Medicines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1470-2045(20)30269-2DOI Listing
July 2020

The clinical heterogeneity of round cell sarcomas with EWSR1/FUS gene fusions: Impact of gene fusion type on clinical features and outcome.

Genes Chromosomes Cancer 2020 09 28;59(9):525-534. Epub 2020 May 28.

Department of Pathology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York, USA.

The genetic hallmark of classic Ewing sarcoma is a recurrent fusion between EWSR1 and FUS gene with a member of the ETS transcription factor family. In contrast, tumors with non-ETS gene partners have been designated until recently "Ewing-like sarcoma," as a provisional molecular entity, as their clinical and pathologic features were still evolving. However, this group was reclassified as "round cell sarcoma with EWSR1-non-ETS fusions" in the latest 2020 WHO classification. Moreover, round cell sarcomas with either CIC or BCOR gene abnormalities, initially classified under Ewing family of tumors, are now regarded as stand-alone pathologic entities based on their distinct features. In this study we investigated the clinical characteristics of 226 confirmed Ewing sarcoma patients (EWSR1-FLI1 [n = 176], EWSR1/FUS-ERG [n = 35], EWSR1/FUS-FEV [n = 12], and EWSR1-ETV1/4 [n = 3]) and 14 round cell sarcoma patients with EWSR1-non-ETS fusion (EWSR1/FUS-NFATC2 [n = 10], EWSR1-PATZ1 [n = 3], and EWSR1-VEZF1 [n = 1]). The impact on overall survival (OS) was assessed in 90 patients with available follow-up, treated between 2011 and 2018. Patients with fusions involving FEV and NFATC2 genes showed an older median age at diagnosis, compared to those with EWSR1-FLI1 (P = .005), while extraskeletal location was more common in tumors with noncanonical EWSR1-FLI1 fusions (P = .001). Axial and pelvic primary sites were more common in patients with EWSR1-FLI1 (72%), while tumors with NFATC2 fusions were more frequent in the limb (78%, P = .006). The 3-year OS in patients with EWSR1-FLI1 was 91%, compared to only 60% in patients with alternative fusions (P = .037); the latter group showing a higher rate of metastases at presentation. However, this OS difference was not significant in patients with localized tumor (P = .585). Our study demonstrates significant correlations between fusion subtype and age at presentation, primary tumor sites, and OS, in both conventional Ewing sarcoma and round cell sarcoma with EWSR1-non ETS fusions patients. Larger studies are needed to determine survival differences in localized tumors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/gcc.22857DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7372700PMC
September 2020

Genomic Landscape of Uterine Sarcomas Defined Through Prospective Clinical Sequencing.

Clin Cancer Res 2020 07 16;26(14):3881-3888. Epub 2020 Apr 16.

Gynecologic Medical Oncology Service, Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York.

Purpose: We examined whether prospective molecular characterization of advanced metastatic disease can reveal grade and/or histology-specific differences to inform diagnosis and facilitate enrollment onto clinical trials.

Experimental Design: Patients with uterine sarcoma consented to a prospective study of next-generation sequencing (NGS). Clinical annotations were extracted from their medical record. Tumor and matched normal DNA were subjected to NGS, and the genomic landscape was explored for survival correlations and therapeutic targetability.

Results: Tumors from 107 women were sequenced and included leiomyosarcoma ( = 80), high-grade non-leiomyosarcoma ( = 22), low-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma (LG-ESS, = 4), and smooth muscle tumor of uncertain malignant potential (STUMP, = 2). Genomic profiling influenced histologic diagnosis in three cases. Common uterine leiomyosarcoma alterations were loss-of-function mutations in (56%), (51%), and (31%). Homozygous deletions of were present in 5% of these patients. alteration frequency was higher in the metastases samples as compared with the primary samples. Genomes of low-grade tumors were largely silent, while 50.5% of high-grade tumors had whole-genome duplication. Two metastatic uterine leiomyosarcoma cases were hypermutated. Both had prolonged disease-free survival. Potentially actionable mutations were identified in 48 patients (45%), 8 (17%) of whom received matched therapy with 2 achieving clinical responses. Among patients with uterine leiomyosarcoma with somatic alterations, sustained partial responses were observed with PARP inhibitor-containing therapy.

Discussion: Prospective genomic profiling can contribute to diagnostic precision and inform treatment selection in patients with uterine sarcomas. There was evidence of clinical benefit in patients with uterine leiomyosarcoma with somatic alterations treated with PARP inhibitors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-19-3959DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7367750PMC
July 2020

Effect of Doxorubicin Plus Olaratumab vs Doxorubicin Plus Placebo on Survival in Patients With Advanced Soft Tissue Sarcomas: The ANNOUNCE Randomized Clinical Trial.

JAMA 2020 04;323(13):1266-1276

Sarcoma Unit, Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust and Institute of Cancer Research, London, United Kingdom.

Importance: Patients with advanced soft tissue sarcoma (STS) have a median overall survival of less than 2 years. In a phase 2 study, an overall survival benefit in this population was observed with the addition of olaratumab to doxorubicin over doxorubicin alone.

Objective: To determine the efficacy of doxorubicin plus olaratumab in patients with advanced/metastatic STS.

Design, Setting, And Participants: ANNOUNCE was a confirmatory, phase 3, double-blind, randomized trial conducted at 110 sites in 25 countries from September 2015 to December 2018; the final date of follow-up was December 5, 2018. Eligible patients were anthracycline-naive adults with unresectable locally advanced or metastatic STS, an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0 to 1, and cardiac ejection fraction of 50% or greater.

Interventions: Patients were randomized 1:1 to receive doxorubicin, 75 mg/m2 (day 1), combined with olaratumab (n = 258), 20 mg/kg in cycle 1 and 15 mg/kg in subsequent cycles, or placebo (n = 251) on days 1 and 8 for up to 8 21-day cycles, followed by olaratumab/placebo monotherapy.

Main Outcomes And Measures: Dual primary end points were overall survival with doxorubicin plus olaratumab vs doxorubicin plus placebo in total STS and leiomyosarcoma (LMS) populations.

Results: Among the 509 patients randomized (mean age, 56.9 years; 58.2% women; 46.0% with LMS), all were included in the primary analysis and had a median length of follow-up of 31 months. No statistically significant difference in overall survival was observed between the doxorubicin plus olaratumab group vs the doxorubicin plus placebo group in either population (total STS: hazard ratio, 1.05 [95% CI, 0.84-1.30], P = .69, median overall survival, 20.4 months vs 19.7 months; LMS: hazard ratio, 0.95 [95% CI, 0.69-1.31], P = .76, median overall survival, 21.6 months vs 21.9 months). Adverse events of grade 3 or greater reported in 15% or more of total patients with STS were neutropenia (46.3% vs 49.0%), leukopenia (23.3% vs 23.7%), and febrile neutropenia (17.5% vs 16.5%).

Conclusions And Relevance: In this phase 3 clinical trial of patients with advanced STS, treatment with doxorubicin plus olaratumab vs doxorubicin plus placebo resulted in no significant difference in overall survival. The findings did not confirm the overall survival benefit observed in the phase 2 trial.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02451943.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.2020.1707DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7139275PMC
April 2020

Phase I Study of the Mutant IDH1 Inhibitor Ivosidenib: Safety and Clinical Activity in Patients With Advanced Chondrosarcoma.

J Clin Oncol 2020 05 24;38(15):1693-1701. Epub 2020 Mar 24.

Sylvester Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Miami, Miami, FL.

Purpose: Surgery is the primary therapy for localized chondrosarcoma; for locally advanced and/or metastatic disease, no known effective systemic therapy exists. Mutations in the isocitrate dehydrogenase 1/2 (IDH1/2) enzymes occur in up to 65% of chondrosarcomas, resulting in accumulation of the oncometabolite D-2-hydroxyglutarate (2-HG). Ivosidenib (AG-120) is a selective inhibitor of mutant IDH1 approved in the United States for specific cases of acute myeloid leukemia. We report outcomes of patients with advanced chondrosarcoma in an ongoing study exploring ivosidenib treatment.

Patients And Methods: This phase I multicenter open-label dose-escalation and expansion study of ivosidenib monotherapy enrolled patients with mutant advanced solid tumors, including chondrosarcoma. Ivosidenib was administered orally (100 mg twice daily to 1,200 mg once daily) in continuous 28-day cycles. Responses were assessed every other cycle using RECIST (version 1.1).

Results: Twenty-one patients (escalation, n = 12; expansion, n = 9) with advanced chondrosarcoma received ivosidenib (women, n = 8; median age, 55 years; range, 30-88 years; 11 had received prior systemic therapy). Treatment-emergent adverse events (AEs) were mostly grade 1 or 2. Twelve patients experienced grade ≥ 3 AEs; only one event was judged treatment related (hypophosphatemia, n = 1). Plasma 2-HG levels decreased substantially in all patients (range, 14%-94.2%), to levels seen in healthy individuals. Median progression-free survival (PFS) was 5.6 months (95% CI, 1.9 to 7.4 months); the PFS rate at 6 months was 39.5%. Eleven (52%) of 21 patients experienced stable disease.

Conclusion: In patients with chondrosarcoma, ivosidenib showed minimal toxicity, substantial 2-HG reduction, and durable disease control. Future studies of ivosidenib monotherapy or rational combination approaches should be considered in patients with advanced mutant chondrosarcoma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.19.02492DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7238491PMC
May 2020

Analysis of the Chemotherapy-Free Interval following Image-Guided Ablation in Sarcoma Patients.

Sarcoma 2020 14;2020:3852420. Epub 2020 Feb 14.

Interventional Radiology Service, Department of Radiology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, USA.

One way to enhance quality of life for patients with metastatic sarcoma is to maximize time off chemotherapy-a chemotherapy-free interval. While image-guided ablation of sarcoma metastases may reduce the need for chemotherapy, it remains unknown how long ablation could extend the chemotherapy-free interval. The purpose of our study was to determine the chemotherapy-free interval in comparison to overall survival and progression-free survival in sarcoma patients who undergo ablation procedures. An IRB-approved, single institution, HIPAA compliant database was queried for sarcoma patients who underwent image-guided ablation procedures between 2007 and 2018. Patient demographics, histologic subtype, and other clinical characteristics were recorded. Kaplan-Meier analysis was performed to compute median overall survival, median progression-free survival (local and distant), and the median chemotherapy-free interval (systemic and cytotoxic) after ablation. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed using the log-rank test and Cox proportional-hazards model, respectively. A total of 100 sarcoma patients were included in the analysis. The most common histologic subtype was leiomyosarcoma (38%). Median overall survival after ablation of sarcoma metastases was 52.4 months (95% CI: 46.9-64.0 months). The median systemic chemotherapy-free interval following ablation of sarcoma metastases was 14.7 months (95% CI: 8.6-34.3 months). The median cytotoxic chemotherapy-free interval following ablation of sarcoma metastases was 81.3 months (95% CI: 34.3-median not reached). In conclusion, ablation of sarcoma metastases can provide an extended systemic chemotherapy-free interval of greater than 1 year. Ablation of sarcoma metastases may improve patient quality of life by extending the chemotherapy-free interval.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/3852420DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7044489PMC
February 2020

Clinical Cancer Advances 2020: Annual Report on Progress Against Cancer From the American Society of Clinical Oncology.

J Clin Oncol 2020 04 4;38(10):1081. Epub 2020 Feb 4.

University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX.

A Message From Asco’s President: Shortly before I was elected President of ASCO, I attended the 65th birthday party of a current patient. She had been diagnosed 10 years earlier with metastatic breast cancer and hadn't been sure she wanted to move forward with further treatment. With encouragement, she elected to participate in a clinical trial of an investigational drug that is now widely used to treat breast cancer. Happily, here we were, celebrating with her now-married daughters, their husbands, and three beautiful grandchildren, ages 2, 4, and 8. Such is the importance of clinical trials and promising new therapies.Clinical research is about saving and improving the lives of individuals with cancer. It's a continuing story that builds on the efforts of untold numbers of researchers, clinicians, caregivers, and patients. ASCO's report tells part of this story, sharing the most transformative research of the past year. The report also includes our latest thinking on the most urgent research priorities in oncology.ASCO's 2020 Advance of the Year-Refinement of Surgical Treatment of Cancer-highlights how progress drives more progress. Surgery has played a fundamental role in cancer treatment. It was the only treatment available for many cancers until the advent of radiation and chemotherapy. The explosion in systemic therapies since then has resulted in significant changes to when and how surgery is performed to treat cancer. In this report, we explore how treatment successes have led to less invasive approaches for advanced melanoma, reduced the need for surgery in renal cell carcinoma, and increased the number of patients with pancreatic cancer who can undergo surgery.Many research advances are made possible by federal funding. With the number of new US cancer cases set to rise by roughly a third over the next decade, continued investment in research at the national level is crucial to continuing critical progress in the prevention, screening, diagnosis, and treatment of cancer.While clinical research has translated to longer survival and better quality of life for many patients with cancer, we can't rest on our laurels. With ASCO's Research Priorities to Accelerate Progress Against Cancer, introduced last year and updated this year, we've identified the critical gaps in cancer prevention and care that we believe to be most pressing. These priorities are intended to guide the direction of research and speed progress.Of course, the effectiveness or number of new treatments is meaningless if patients don't have access to them. High-quality cancer care, including clinical trials, is out of reach for too many patients. Creating an infrastructure to support patients is a critical part of the equation, as is creating connections between clinical practices and research programs. We have much work to do before everyone with cancer has equal access to the best treatments and the opportunity to participate in research. I know that ASCO and the cancer community are up for this challenge.Sincerely,Howard A. "Skip" Burris III, MD, FACP, FASCOASCO President, 2019-2020.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.19.03141DOI Listing
April 2020

Objective Response Rate Among Patients With Locally Advanced or Metastatic Sarcoma Treated With Talimogene Laherparepvec in Combination With Pembrolizumab: A Phase 2 Clinical Trial.

JAMA Oncol 2020 03;6(3):402-408

Evelyn H. Lauder Breast Center, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York.

Importance: Patients with advanced sarcoma have limited treatment options. Talimogene laherparepvec (T-VEC) has been shown to increase tumor-specific immune activation via augmenting antigen presentation and T-cell priming.

Objective: To examine whether T-VEC in combination with pembrolizumab is associated with increased tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte infiltration and programmed death-ligand 1 expression and thus with increased antitumor activity in patients with locally advanced or metastatic sarcoma.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This open-label, single-institution phase 2 interventional trial of T-VEC plus pembrolizumab enrolled 20 patients with locally advanced or metastatic sarcoma between March 16 and December 4, 2017, for whom at least 1 standard systemic therapy had failed. The median duration of therapy was 16 weeks (range, 7-67 weeks). Reported analyses include data through December 14, 2018.

Intervention: Patients received pembrolizumab (200-mg flat dose) intravenously and T-VEC (first dose, ≤4 mL × 106 plaque-forming units [PFU]/mL; second and subsequent doses, ≤4 mL × 108 PFU/mL) injected into palpable tumor site(s) on day 1 of each 21-day cycle.

Main Outcomes And Measures: The primary end point was objective response rate (ORR; complete response and partial response) at 24 weeks determined by Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors (RECIST), version 1.1, criteria. Secondary end points included best ORR by immune-related RECIST criteria, progression-free survival rate at 24 weeks, overall survival, and safety.

Results: All 20 patients (12 women [60%]; median age, 63.5 years [range, 24-90 years]) were evaluable for response. The study met its primary end point of evaluating the best ORR at 24 weeks determined by RECIST, version 1.1, criteria; the best ORR was 30% (95% CI, 12%-54%; n = 6). The ORR overall was 35% (95% CI, 15%-59%; n = 7). The incidence of grade 3 treatment-related adverse events was low (4 patients [20%]). There were no grade 4 treatment-related adverse events or treatment-related deaths.

Conclusions And Relevance: In this phase 2 clinical trial, treatment with T-VEC plus pembrolizumab was associated with antitumor activity in advanced sarcoma across a range of sarcoma histologic subtypes, with a manageable safety profile. This combination therapy met its predefined primary study end point; further evaluation of T-VEC in combination with pembrolizumab for patients with select sarcoma subtypes is planned.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT03069378.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamaoncol.2019.6152DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6990941PMC
March 2020

Genomic Profiling Identifies Association of Mutation with Longer Relapse-Free and Metastasis-Free Survival in High-Grade Chondrosarcoma.

Clin Cancer Res 2020 01 15;26(2):419-427. Epub 2019 Oct 15.

Department of Pathology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York.

Purpose: Chondrosarcomas are the second most common primary malignant bone tumors. Although histologic grade is the most important factor predicting the clinical outcome of chondrosarcoma, it is subject to interobserver variability. Isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 () and hotspot mutations were recently found to be frequently mutated in central chondrosarcomas. However, a few published articles have been controversial regarding the association between mutation status and clinical outcomes in chondrosarcomas.

Experimental Design: We performed hotspot sequencing of and genes in 89 central chondrosarcomas and targeted next-generation sequencing in 54 of them, and then correlated the mutation status with the patient's clinical outcome.

Results: Although no association was discovered between mutation status and the patient's overall survival, / mutation was found to be associated with longer relapse-free and metastasis-free survival in high-grade chondrosarcomas. Genomic profiling reveals gene amplification and mutation, for the first time, in addition to promoter mutation in a subset (6/30, 20%) of high-grade and dedifferentiated chondrosarcomas. These abnormalities in telomere genes are concurrent with / mutation and with deletion or mutation, suggesting a possible association and synergy among these genes in chondrosarcoma progression. We found 21% of patients with chondrosarcoma also had histories of second malignancies unrelated to cartilaginous tumors, suggesting possible unknown genetic susceptibility to chondrosarcoma.

Conclusions: mutations are associated with longer relapse-free and metastasis-free survival in high-grade chondrosarcomas, and they tend to co-occur with mutations and with and alterations in a subset of high-grade chondrosarcomas.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-18-4212DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6980683PMC
January 2020

Safety and Efficacy of Hepatic Artery Embolization in Treating Solitary Fibrous Tumor Metastatic to the Liver.

Sarcoma 2019 3;2019:3060658. Epub 2019 Sep 3.

Department of Interventional Radiology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, USA.

The aim of this study was to evaluate safety and survival following hepatic artery embolization (HAE) for metastatic solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) in the liver. All patients with SFT metastatic to liver treated with HAE were retrospectively analyzed. Tumor response was evaluated using mRECIST. Objective response, overall survival (OS), and progression-free survival (PFS) were evaluated using Kaplan-Meier and multivariate Cox proportional hazard ratio. Adverse events were graded according to the National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 5.0. Twelve patients (6 males and 6 females, mean age: 42.5 ± 13 years; 24-65) were treated with 33 embolizations. Anatomical sites of origin for SFT were the head and neck ( = 6; 50%), pelvis ( = 2), pleura ( = 2), retroperitoneal ( = 1), and thigh ( = 1). The median follow-up from first HAE was 4.5 years (3-7.9). 84% of the patients showed objective response [42% complete response (CR) plus 42% partial response (PR)] to HAE by mRECIST (95% CI, 60-99%). Patients with CR to HAE had significantly higher OS compared to others ( < 0.02). The postembolization median OS was 4 years (95% CI, 2.3-5.2), and mean PFS, for intra- or extrahepatic progression of disease, was 6 months (95%, CI, 3.2-7.1). One patient developed pneumonia/sepsis and died 27 days postembolization, possibly not directly related to embolization. No grade III or IV adverse events were identified in the remaining patients. In conclusion, HAE for metastatic liver SFT is a relatively safe treatment option with high response rate and should be considered as a treatment option for metastatic liver SFT. In our cohort of patients with metastatic SFT to the liver, we observed a median OS of 4 years following HAE. Further studies are needed to confirm the efficacy of HAE.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2019/3060658DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6745165PMC
September 2019

Prognostic stratification of clinical and molecular epithelioid hemangioendothelioma subsets.

Mod Pathol 2020 04 19;33(4):591-602. Epub 2019 Sep 19.

Department of Pathology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Manhattan, NY, USA.

Epithelioid hemangioendothelioma is a low-grade malignant vascular tumor with an intermediate clinical behavior between benign hemangiomas and high-grade angiosarcomas. Pathologic or molecular factors to predict this clinical heterogeneity are not well defined. A WWTR1-CAMTA1 fusion is present in most classic epithelioid hemangioendothelioma, regardless of their clinical behavior, suggesting that additional genetic abnormalities might be responsible in driving a more aggressive biology. A small subset of cases show distinct morphology and are characterized genetically by a YAP1-TFE3 fusion. Two histologic grades have been described in classic epithelioid hemangioendothelioma of the soft tissue. However, proposed criteria do not apply to other clinical presentations and have not been assessed in the YAP1-TFE3 positive tumors. Furthermore, no previous studies have compared the survival of these two molecular subsets. In this study we investigate the clinicopathologic and molecular findings of a large cohort of 93 translocation-positive epithelioid hemangioendothelioma managed at our institution. Patient characteristics, histologic features, treatment outcomes, and genetic abnormalities were investigated and these factors were correlated with overall survival. In 18 patients (15 with WWTR1-CAMTA1 and 3 with YAP1-TFE3) Memorial Sloan Kettering-IMPACT targeted DNA sequencing was performed to identify secondary genetic alterations showing more than half of tumors had a genetic alteration beyond the disease-defining gene fusion. Patients with conventional epithelioid hemangioendothelioma with WWTR1-CAMTA1 fusion had a less favorable outcome compared with the YAP1-TFE3 subset, the 5-year overall survival being 59% versus 86%, respectively. Soft tissue epithelioid hemangioendothelioma were frequently solitary, followed an uneventful clinical course being often managed with curative surgery. Multifocality, pleural involvement, lymph node or distant metastases had a significantly worse outcome. Patients with pleural disease or lymph node metastases had an aggressive clinical course akin to high-grade sarcomas, with 22% and 30%, respectively, alive at 5 years, compared with >70% survival rate in patients lacking these two adverse factors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41379-019-0368-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7228463PMC
April 2020
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