Publications by authors named "William D Frea"

3 Publications

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Recess is time-in: using peers to improve social skills of children with autism.

J Autism Dev Disord 2008 May;38(5):815-26

Garden Grove Unified School District in Orange County, California State University, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

Children with autism face enormous struggles when attempting to interact with their typically developing peers. More children are educated in integrated settings; however, play skills usually need to be explicitly taught, and play environments must be carefully prepared to support effective social interactions. This study incorporated the motivational techniques of Pivotal Response Training through peer-mediated practice to improve social interactions for children with autism during recess activities. A multiple baseline design across subjects was used to assess social skills gains in two elementary school children. The results demonstrated an increase in important social skills, namely social initiations and turn taking, during recess.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10803-007-0449-2DOI Listing
May 2008

Using time-delay to improve social play skills with peers for children with autism.

J Autism Dev Disord 2008 Feb 2;38(2):312-23. Epub 2007 Jun 2.

California State University, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

Interventions that teach social communication and play skills are crucial for the development of children with autism. The time delay procedure is effective in teaching language acquisition, social use of language, discrete behaviors, and chained activities to individuals with autism and developmental delays. In this study, three boys with autism, attending a non-public school, were taught play activities that combined a play sequence with requesting peer assistance, using a graduated time delay procedure. A multiple-baseline across subjects design demonstrated the success of this procedure to teach multiple-step social play sequences. Results indicated an additional gain of an increase in pretend play by one of the participants. Two also demonstrated a generalization of the skills learned through the time delay procedure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10803-007-0395-zDOI Listing
February 2008

Contextualized behavioral support in early intervention for children with autism and their families.

J Autism Dev Disord 2002 Dec;32(6):519-33

University of California, Los Angeles, USA.

Parent education programs have become an effective mode of treatment delivery for teaching families effective behavioral strategies to manage challenging behavior in young children with autism. Functional assessment and functional communication training (FCT) are empirically validated procedures that have recently been introduced into parent education programming to help resolve challenging behaviors. The success of these procedures, however, is contingent on family members' ability to integrate them into the specific contexts in which challenging behaviors occur. Consequently, the application of these procedures in home settings necessitates consideration of the family context in the assessment and treatment planning process. A study is presented that investigated the use of information on family context (i.e., caregiving demands, family support, patterns of social interaction) to direct the assessment and intervention planning process. More specifically, information on family context was used to individualize behavioral support plans designed to support family use of functional communication training within important family routines. Through parent-investigator collaboration we individualized the manner in which functional communication training procedures were taught and implemented so they were contextually relevant. Utilizing a multiple baseline design, the challenging behaviors and functional communication of three children with autism were monitored across baseline, intervention (i.e., FCT, and contextulized FCT), and follow-up phases. Multiple routines for each participant were selected and monitored across all phases to evaluate changes in the dependent measures within training and generalization routines. A self-report questionnaire was administered intermittently to parents to determine if consideration of family context improved the "goodness of fit" of the functional communication training treatment packages across FCT and contextualized FCT intervention phases. Results from the study indicate that consideration of family context in the assessment and intervention planning process does not jeopardize and may contribute to the stability and durability of reductions in challenging behavior achieved with functional assessment and functional communication training procedures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/a:1021298729297DOI Listing
December 2002