Publications by authors named "William Bonnette"

8 Publications

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Discovery of Isoxazole Amides as Potent and Selective SMYD3 Inhibitors.

ACS Med Chem Lett 2020 Feb 27;11(2):133-140. Epub 2019 Dec 27.

Medicinal Chemistry, Medicine Design, Oncology R&D, Data and Computational Sciences, and Protein Cellular and Structural Sciences, Medicine Design, Medicinal Science and Technology, GlaxoSmithKline, 1250 South Collegeville Road, Collegeville, Pennsylvania 19426, United States.

We report herein the discovery of isoxazole amides as potent and selective SET and MYND Domain-Containing Protein 3 (SMYD3) inhibitors. Elucidation of the structure-activity relationship of the high-throughput screening (HTS) lead compound provided potent and selective SMYD3 inhibitors. The SAR optimization, cocrystal structures of small molecules with SMYD3, and mode of inhibition (MOI) characterization of compounds are described. The synthesis and biological and pharmacokinetic profiles of compounds are also presented.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsmedchemlett.9b00493DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7025381PMC
February 2020

Pharmacologic Characterization of JNJ-42226314, [1-(4-Fluorophenyl)indol-5-yl]-[3-[4-(thiazole-2-carbonyl)piperazin-1-yl]azetidin-1-yl]methanone, a Reversible, Selective, and Potent Monoacylglycerol Lipase Inhibitor.

J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2020 03 9;372(3):339-353. Epub 2019 Dec 9.

Janssen Research & Development, LLC, San Diego, California.

The serine hydrolase monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) is the rate-limiting enzyme responsible for the degradation of the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) into arachidonic acid and glycerol. Inhibition of 2-AG degradation leads to elevation of 2-AG, the most abundant endogenous agonist of the cannabinoid receptors (CBs) CB1 and CB2. Activation of these receptors has demonstrated beneficial effects on mood, appetite, pain, and inflammation. Therefore, MAGL inhibitors have the potential to produce therapeutic effects in a vast array of complex human diseases. The present report describes the pharmacologic characterization of [1-(4-fluorophenyl)indol-5-yl]-[3-[4-(thiazole-2-carbonyl)piperazin-1-yl]azetidin-1-yl]methanone (JNJ-42226314), a reversible and highly selective MAGL inhibitor. JNJ-42226314 inhibits MAGL in a competitive mode with respect to the 2-AG substrate. In rodent brain, the compound time- and dose-dependently bound to MAGL, indirectly led to CB1 occupancy by raising 2-AG levels, and raised norepinephrine levels in cortex. In vivo, the compound exhibited antinociceptive efficacy in both the rat complete Freund's adjuvant-induced radiant heat hypersensitivity and chronic constriction injury-induced cold hypersensitivity models of inflammatory and neuropathic pain, respectively. Though 30 mg/kg induced hippocampal synaptic depression, altered sleep onset, and decreased electroencephalogram gamma power, 3 mg/kg still provided approximately 80% enzyme occupancy, significantly increased 2-AG and norepinephrine levels, and produced neuropathic antinociception without synaptic depression or decreased gamma power. Thus, it is anticipated that the profile exhibited by this compound will allow for precise modulation of 2-AG levels in vivo, supporting potential therapeutic application in several central nervous system disorders. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: Potentiation of endocannabinoid signaling activity via inhibition of the serine hydrolase monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) is an appealing strategy in the development of treatments for several disorders, including ones related to mood, pain, and inflammation. [1-(4-Fluorophenyl)indol-5-yl]-[3-[4-(thiazole-2-carbonyl)piperazin-1-yl]azetidin-1-yl]methanone is presented in this report to be a novel, potent, selective, and reversible noncovalent MAGL inhibitor that demonstrates dose-dependent enhancement of the major endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol as well as efficacy in models of neuropathic and inflammatory pain.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1124/jpet.119.262139DOI Listing
March 2020

Modular Protein Ligation: A New Paradigm as a Reagent Platform for Pre-Clinical Drug Discovery.

Sci Rep 2019 09 11;9(1):13078. Epub 2019 Sep 11.

GlaxoSmithKline, 1250S Collegeville Rd., Collegeville, Pa, 19426, USA.

Significant resource is spent by drug discovery project teams to generate numerous, yet unique target constructs for the multiple platforms used to drive drug discovery programs including: functional assays, biophysical studies, structural biology, and biochemical high throughput screening campaigns. To improve this process, we developed Modular Protein Ligation (MPL), a combinatorial reagent platform utilizing Expressed Protein Ligation to site-specifically label proteins at the C-terminus with a variety of cysteine-lysine dipeptide conjugates. Historically, such proteins have been chemically labeled non-specifically through surface amino acids. To demonstrate the feasibility of this approach, we first applied MPL to proteins of varying size in different target classes using different recombinant protein expression systems, which were then evaluated in several different downstream assays. A key advantage to the implementation of this paradigm is that one construct can generate multiple final products, significantly streamlining the reagent generation for multiple early drug discovery project teams.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-49149-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6739470PMC
September 2019

Development of a high-content imaging assay for screening compound aggregation.

Anal Biochem 2018 10 21;559:30-33. Epub 2018 Aug 21.

Platform of Technology and Science, GlaxoSmithKline, 1250 S Collegeville Rd, Collegeville, PA, 19426, United States.

Aggregated compounds can promiscuously and nonspecifically associate with proteins resulting in either false inhibition or activation of many different protein target classes. We developed a high-content imaging assay in a 384-well format using fluorescently labeled target proteins and an Operetta cell imager to screen for compound aggregates that interact with target proteins. The high-throughput assay can not only directly detect the interaction between compound aggregators and the target of interest, but also determine the critical aggregation concentration (CAC) of a given promiscuous small molecule.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ab.2018.08.019DOI Listing
October 2018

A High-Throughput Dose-Response Cellular Thermal Shift Assay for Rapid Screening of Drug Target Engagement in Living Cells, Exemplified Using SMYD3 and IDO1.

SLAS Discov 2018 01 28;23(1):34-46. Epub 2017 Sep 28.

1 GlaxoSmithKline, Collegeville, PA, USA.

A persistent problem in early small-molecule drug discovery is the frequent lack of rank-order correlation between biochemical potencies derived from initial screens using purified proteins and the diminished potency and efficacy observed in subsequent disease-relevant cellular phenotypic assays. The introduction of the cellular thermal shift assay (CETSA) has bridged this gap by enabling assessment of drug target engagement directly in live cells based on ligand-induced changes in protein thermal stability. Initial success in applying CETSA across multiple drug target classes motivated our investigation into replacing the low-throughput, manually intensive Western blot readout with a quantitative, automated higher-throughput assay that would provide sufficient capacity to use CETSA as a primary hit qualification strategy. We introduce a high-throughput dose-response cellular thermal shift assay (HTDR-CETSA), a single-pot homogenous assay adapted for high-density microtiter plate format. The assay features titratable BacMam expression of full-length target proteins fused to the DiscoverX 42 amino acid ePL tag in HeLa suspension cells, facilitating enzyme fragment complementation-based chemiluminescent quantification of ligand-stabilized soluble protein. This simplified format can accommodate determination of full-dose CETSA curves for hundreds of individual compounds/analyst/day in replicates. HTDR-CETSA data generated for substrate site and alternate binding mode inhibitors of the histone-lysine N-methyltransferase SMYD3 in HeLa suspension cells demonstrate excellent correlation with rank-order potencies observed in cellular mechanistic assays and direct translation to target engagement of endogenous Smyd3 in cancer-relevant cell lines. We envision this workflow to be generically applicable to HTDR-CETSA screening spanning a wide variety of soluble intracellular protein target classes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2472555217732014DOI Listing
January 2018

Structure-Based Design of a Novel SMYD3 Inhibitor that Bridges the SAM-and MEKK2-Binding Pockets.

Structure 2016 05 7;24(5):774-781. Epub 2016 Apr 7.

Cancer Epigenetics Discovery Performance Unit, GlaxoSmithKline, Collegeville, PA 19426, USA. Electronic address:

SMYD3 is a lysine methyltransferase overexpressed in colorectal, breast, prostate, and hepatocellular tumors, and has been implicated as an oncogene in human malignancies. Methylation of MEKK2 by SMYD3 is important for regulation of the MEK/ERK pathway, suggesting the possibility of selectively targeting SMYD3 in RAS-driven cancers. Structural and kinetic characterization of SMYD3 was undertaken leading to a co-crystal structure of SMYD3 with a MEKK2-peptide substrate bound, and the observation that SMYD3 follows a partially processive mechanism. These insights allowed for the design of GSK2807, a potent and selective, SAM-competitive inhibitor of SMYD3 (Ki = 14 nM). A high-resolution crystal structure reveals that GSK2807 bridges the gap between the SAM-binding pocket and the substrate lysine tunnel of SMYD3. Taken together, our data demonstrate that small-molecule inhibitors of SMYD3 can be designed to prevent methylation of MEKK2 and these could have potential use as anticancer therapeutics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.str.2016.03.010DOI Listing
May 2016

Long-Range Inhibitor-Induced Conformational Regulation of Human IRE1α Endoribonuclease Activity.

Mol Pharmacol 2015 Dec 5;88(6):1011-23. Epub 2015 Oct 5.

Oncology R&D (K.F., J.Y., L.E.S., K.A.E., J.R., D.A.H., C.A.B., D.S.S, M.P.D.), Biological Sciences (R.T., G.Z., H.Q., S.C., A.E.C., S.S.), and Chemical Sciences, GlaxoSmithKline Research and Development, Collegeville, Pennsylvania (N.O.C., A.S., W.B., N.C.)

Activation of the inositol-requiring enzyme-1 alpha (IRE1α) protein caused by endoplasmic reticulum stress results in the homodimerization of the N-terminal endoplasmic reticulum luminal domains, autophosphorylation of the cytoplasmic kinase domains, and conformational changes to the cytoplasmic endoribonuclease (RNase) domains, which render them functional and can lead to the splicing of X-box binding protein 1 (XBP 1) mRNA. Herein, we report the first crystal structures of the cytoplasmic portion of a human phosphorylated IRE1α dimer in complex with (R)-2-(3,4-dichlorobenzyl)-N-(4-methylbenzyl)-2,7-diazaspiro(4.5)decane-7-carboxamide, a novel, IRE1α-selective kinase inhibitor, and staurosporine, a broad spectrum kinase inhibitor. (R)-2-(3,4-dichlorobenzyl)-N-(4-methylbenzyl)-2,7-diazaspiro(4.5)decane-7-carboxamide inhibits both the kinase and RNase activities of IRE1α. The inhibitor interacts with the catalytic residues Lys599 and Glu612 and displaces the kinase activation loop to the DFG-out conformation. Inactivation of IRE1α RNase activity appears to be caused by a conformational change, whereby the αC helix is displaced, resulting in the rearrangement of the kinase domain-dimer interface and a rotation of the RNase domains away from each other. In contrast, staurosporine binds at the ATP-binding site of IRE1α, resulting in a dimer consistent with RNase active yeast Ire1 dimers. Activation of IRE1α RNase activity appears to be promoted by a network of hydrogen bond interactions between highly conserved residues across the RNase dimer interface that place key catalytic residues poised for reaction. These data implicate that the intermolecular interactions between conserved residues in the RNase domain are required for activity, and that the disruption of these interactions can be achieved pharmacologically by small molecule kinase domain inhibitors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1124/mol.115.100917DOI Listing
December 2015

A DNA Hypomethylation Signature Predicts Antitumor Activity of LSD1 Inhibitors in SCLC.

Cancer Cell 2015 Jul;28(1):57-69

Cancer Epigenetics Department, GlaxoSmithKline, Collegeville, PA 19426, USA.

Epigenetic dysregulation has emerged as an important mechanism in cancer. Alterations in epigenetic machinery have become a major focus for targeted therapies. The current report describes the discovery and biological activity of a cyclopropylamine containing inhibitor of Lysine Demethylase 1 (LSD1), GSK2879552. This small molecule is a potent, selective, orally bioavailable, mechanism-based irreversible inactivator of LSD1. A proliferation screen of cell lines representing a number of tumor types indicated that small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) is sensitive to LSD1 inhibition. The subset of SCLC lines and primary samples that undergo growth inhibition in response to GSK2879552 exhibit DNA hypomethylation of a signature set of probes, suggesting this may be used as a predictive biomarker of activity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ccell.2015.06.002DOI Listing
July 2015