Publications by authors named "William A Dunson"

6 Publications

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Understanding the Prevalence of Prediabetes and Diabetes in Patients With Cancer in Clinical Practice: A Real-World Cohort Study.

J Natl Compr Canc Netw 2021 Mar 10;19(6):709-718. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

2Huntsman Cancer Institute, and.

Background: This study aimed to understand the prevalence of prediabetes (preDM) and diabetes mellitus (DM) in patients with cancer overall and by tumor site, cancer treatment, and time point in the cancer continuum.

Methods: This cohort study was conducted at Huntsman Cancer Institute at the University of Utah. Patients with a first primary invasive cancer enrolled in the Total Cancer Care protocol between July 2016 and July 2018 were eligible. Prevalence of preDM and DM was based on ICD code, laboratory tests for hemoglobin A1c, fasting plasma glucose, nonfasting blood glucose, or insulin prescription.

Results: The final cohort comprised 3,512 patients with cancer, with a mean age of 57.8 years at cancer diagnosis. Of all patients, 49.1% (n=1,724) were female. At cancer diagnosis, the prevalence of preDM and DM was 6.0% (95% CI, 5.3%-6.8%) and 12.2% (95% CI, 11.2%-13.3%), respectively. One year after diagnosis the prevalence was 16.6% (95% CI, 15.4%-17.9%) and 25.0% (95% CI, 23.6%-26.4%), respectively. At the end of the observation period, the prevalence of preDM and DM was 21.2% (95% CI, 19.9%-22.6%) and 32.6% (95% CI, 31.1%-34.2%), respectively. Patients with myeloma (39.2%; 95% CI, 32.6%-46.2%) had the highest prevalence of preDM, and those with pancreatic cancer had the highest prevalence of DM (65.1%; 95% CI, 57.0%-72.3%). Patients who underwent chemotherapy, radiotherapy, or immunotherapy had a higher prevalence of preDM and DM compared with those who did not undergo these therapies.

Conclusions: Every second patient with cancer experiences preDM or DM. It is essential to foster interprofessional collaboration and to develop evidence-based practice guidelines. A better understanding of the impact of cancer treatment on the development of preDM and DM remains critical.
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March 2021

Modified early warning score-based clinical decision support: cost impact and clinical outcomes in sepsis.

JAMIA Open 2020 Jul 21;3(2):261-268. Epub 2020 Apr 21.

Department of Biomedical Informatics, University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA.

Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the clinical and financial impact of a quality improvement project that utilized a modified Early Warning Score (mEWS)-based clinical decision support intervention targeting early recognition of sepsis decompensation.

Materials And Methods: We conducted a retrospective, interrupted time series study on all adult patients who received a diagnosis of sepsis and were exposed to an acute care floor with the intervention. Primary outcomes (total direct cost, length of stay [LOS], and mortality) were aggregated for each study month for the post-intervention period (March 1, 2016-February 28, 2017,  = 2118 visits) and compared to the pre-intervention period (November 1, 2014-October 31, 2015,  = 1546 visits).

Results: The intervention was associated with a decrease in median total direct cost and hospital LOS by 23% ( = .047) and .63 days ( = .059), respectively. There was no significant change in mortality.

Discussion: The implementation of an mEWS-based clinical decision support system in eight acute care floors at an academic medical center was associated with reduced total direct cost and LOS for patients hospitalized with sepsis. This was seen without an associated increase in intensive care unit utilization or broad-spectrum antibiotic use.

Conclusion: An automated sepsis decompensation detection system has the potential to improve clinical and financial outcomes such as LOS and total direct cost. Further evaluation is needed to validate generalizability and to understand the relative importance of individual elements of the intervention.
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July 2020

Insect species interactions and resource effects in treeholes: are helodid beetles bottom-up facilitators of midge populations?

Oecologia 1997 Jan;109(2):303-312

Department of Biology, 208 Mueller Laboratory, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA fax: 814.865.9131, , , , , , US.

The insect community living in central Pennsylvania treeholes in autumn consists primarily of larvae of two species of helodid beetles, Prionocyphon discoideus and Helodes pulchella, and larvae of one species of ceratopogonid midge,Culicoides guttipennis. We manipulated treehole volume and the densities of these insects in laboratory microcosms. We hypothesized that: (1) helodid beetle larvae, which are shredders, would enhance growth and survival of ceratopogonid midge larvae (deposit feeders) in a processing chain commensalism, and (2) the quantity of resources expressed as water volume plus leaf litter would affect helodids and protozoans directly. Intraspecific competition was not found in midges, nor was interspecific competition between the two helodid species. Protozoan population densities decreased or grew slower in the presence of insects and in smaller microcosms. Development time and adult wing length of the midge (C. guttipennis) were affected by both total microcosm volume and insect species combination. Under resource limitation, midges grew larger in the presence of helodids, and in general, midges were larger in treatments with higher ratios of helodids to midges. Water chemistry in the microcosms was affected both temporally and by insect presence. Hydrogen ion levels decreased over time, and microcosms with no insects had lower hydrogen ion levels. Specific conductance increased in all treatments over time, and microcosms with no insects had lower conductivity than most treatments. Helodid larvae have a positive effect on midges, possibly due to a processing chain facilitation. If helodids are keystone decomposers in this system, their presence could affect resource availability and affect other organisms in the community. Similar processing chain commensalisms occur in other phytotelmata. These types of interactions may therefore be important in the structure and function of detritus-based communities.
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January 1997

Impacts of hydroperiod on growth and survival of larval amphibians in temporary ponds of Central Pennsylvania, USA.

Oecologia 1995 Jun;102(4):397-403

Department of Biology, The Pennsylvania State University, 208 Mueller Laboratory, 16802, University Park, PA, USA.

The effects of variable hydroperiod (three levels) and initial density of amphibians (two levels) on survival, growth rate, and time to and mass at metamorphosis were studied for wood frogs (Rana sylvatica), Jefferson salamanders (Ambystoma jeffersonianum), and spotted salamanders (A. maculatum). Experiments were carried out in 260-1 mesocosms set up outdoors in a forest. These pond simulations were designed to mimic conditions that occur in palustrine temporary wetlands in central Pennsylvania. No animals reached metamorphosis in the short hydroperiod (56 days). However a greater proportion (66%) of tadpoles of R. sylvatica survived to the end of the 56-day, treatment than the 84- or 158-day treatments (29 and 14%, respectively), from which all survivors metamorphosed. In contrast, neither of the salamanders metamorphosed by 84 days; survival to metamorphosis at 158 days was 15% for A. jeffersonianum and 10% for A. maculatum. Average instantaneous growth rates for A. jeffersonianum decreased with each increase in hydroperiod. Growth of R. sylvatica was greater in the 56-day hydroperiod than in hydroperiods of 84 or 158 days. Initial amphibian density had no effect on growth or survival of any species. It appears that salamander larvae were predatory on tadpoles, since survival of R. sylvatica was negatively correlated with survival of A. jeffersonianum in 84-day treatments and with growth of A. maculatum in 158-day treatments.
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June 1995

Interaction of pH, density, and priority effects on the survivorship and growth of two species of hylid tadpoles.

Oecologia 1991 Nov;88(3):331-339

Department of Biological Science, Florida State University, 32306-2043, Tallahassee, FL, USA.

We examined the interactions of an abiotic factor (pH) and a biotic factor (density) on the survival and growth of two species of anuran larvae (Hyla gratiosa and Hyla femoralis) in outdoor tanks. Three levels of pH (4.3, 4.6, or 6.0) and three levels of density (0, 30 or 60 embryos) were arranged in a blocked design and replicated three times for Hyla gratiosa. At the end of this experiment the effects of pH (4.3, 4.6, or 6.0), density of H. femoralis (30 or 60), and prior use by H. gratiosa (at 0, 30, or 60 larvae per tank) on the survival and growth of H. femoralis, were examined. Higher density increased larval period and decreased size at metamorphosis of H. gratiosa. Lower pH decreased survival rate and also decreased size at metamorphosis. Body sodium concentrations were lowest at the low pH values. Lower pH increased the susceptibility of H. gratiosa tadpoles to the adverse effects of higher densities. For H. femoralis higher density decreased survival, increased larval period and decreased size at metamorphosis. Hyla femoralis also had lower survivorship at low pH and exhibited decreased size at metamorphosis. However, unlike the results with Hyla gratiosa, there were no interactive effects between pH and density for any of the life-history traits studied. The effect of previous colonization by H. gratiosa on H. femoralis survival was facilitative. Body sodium concentrations of H. femoralis were lowest at the highest pH value. Metamorphs of the same size had much lower levels of sodium in H. femoralis than H. gratiosa. In general, H. femoralis was less affected by pH variation than H. gratiosa. These results demonstrate that abiotic factors can interact strongly with biotic effects such as density and they suggest that interspecific interactions can be strongly modulated by the background abiotic environment.
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November 1991