Publications by authors named "Will G James"

9 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Antimyeloperoxidase antibodies rapidly induce alpha-4-integrin-dependent glomerular neutrophil adhesion.

Blood 2009 Jun 21;113(25):6485-94. Epub 2009 Apr 21.

Centre for Inflammatory Diseases, Monash University Department of Medicine, Clayton, Australia.

Patients with antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCAs) frequently develop severe vasculitis and glomerulonephritis. Although ANCAs, particularly antimyeloperoxidase (anti-MPO), have been shown to promote leukocyte adhesion in postcapillary venules, their ability to promote adhesion in the glomerular vasculature is less clear. We used intravital microscopy to examine glomerular leukocyte adhesion induced by anti-MPO. In mice pretreated with LPS, 50 microg anti-MPO induced LFA-1-dependent adhesion in glomeruli. In concert with this finding, in mice pretreated with LPS, more than 80% of circulating neutrophils bound anti-MPO within 5 minutes of intravenous administration. However, even in the absence of LPS, more than 40% of circulating neutrophils bound anti-MPO in vivo, a response not seen in MPO(-/-) mice. In addition, a higher dose of anti-MPO (200 microg) induced robust glomerular leukocyte adhesion in the absence of LPS. The latter response was beta2-integrin independent, instead requiring the alpha4-integrin, which was up-regulated on neutrophils in response to anti-MPO. These data indicate that anti-MPO antibodies bind to circulating neutrophils, and can induce glomerular leukocyte adhesion via multiple pathways. Lower doses induce adhesion only after an infection-related stimulus, whereas higher doses are capable of inducing responses in the absence of an additional inflammatory stimulus, via alternative adhesion mechanisms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood-2008-12-192617DOI Listing
June 2009

A key role for G-CSF-induced neutrophil production and trafficking during inflammatory arthritis.

Blood 2008 Dec 29;112(13):5193-201. Epub 2008 Sep 29.

The Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research, Parkville, Victoria, Australia.

We have previously shown that G-CSF-deficient (G-CSF(-/-)) mice are markedly protected from collagen-induced arthritis (CIA), which is the major murine model of rheumatoid arthritis, and now investigate the mechanisms by which G-CSF can promote inflammatory disease. Serum G-CSF levels were significantly elevated during CIA. Reciprocal bone marrow chimeras using G-CSF(-/-), G-CSFR(-/-), and wild-type (WT) mice identified nonhematopoietic cells as the major producers of G-CSF and hematopoietic cells as the major responders to G-CSF during CIA. Protection against CIA was associated with relative neutropenia. Depletion of neutrophils or blockade of the neutrophil adhesion molecule, Mac-1, dramatically attenuated the progression of established CIA in WT mice. Intravital microscopy of the microcirculation showed that both local and systemic administration of G-CSF significantly increased leukocyte trafficking into tissues in vivo. G-CSF-induced trafficking was Mac-1 dependent, and G-CSF up-regulated CD11b expression on neutrophils. Multiphoton microscopy of synovial vessels in the knee joint during CIA revealed significantly fewer adherent Gr-1(+) neutrophils in G-CSF(-/-) mice compared with WT mice. These data confirm a central proinflammatory role for G-CSF in the pathogenesis of inflammatory arthritis, which may be due to the promotion of neutrophil trafficking into inflamed joints, in addition to G-CSF-induced neutrophil production.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood-2008-02-139535DOI Listing
December 2008

Differential roles of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 in leukocyte-endothelial cell interactions in skin and brain of MRL/faslpr mice.

J Leukoc Biol 2008 Jul 21;84(1):68-76. Epub 2008 Apr 21.

Centre for Inflammatory Diseases, Monash University, Victoria, Australia.

MRL/fas(lpr) mice, which undergo a systemic autoimmune disease with similarities to systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), display reduced pathology and prolonged survival if rendered deficient in ICAM-1. However, it remains unclear whether this is a result of the ability of ICAM-1 to promote the immune response or mediate leukocyte recruitment. Therefore, the aim of these studies was to compare the role of ICAM-1 in the elevated leukocyte-endothelial interactions, which affect MRL/fas(lpr) mice. Intravital microscopy was used to compare leukocyte rolling and adhesion in postcapillary venules in the dermal and cerebral (pial) microcirculations of wild-type (ICAM+/+) and ICAM-1-deficient (ICAM-1-/-) MRL/fas(lpr) mice. In the dermal microcirculation of 16-week MRL/fas(lpr) mice, leukocyte adhesion was increased relative to nondiseased MRL+/+ mice. However, this increase was abolished in ICAM-1-/- MRL/fas(lpr) mice. ICAM-1 deficiency was also associated with reduced dermal pathology. In contrast, in the pial microcirculation, the elevation in leukocyte adhesion observed in ICAM+/+ MRL/fas(lpr) mice also occurred in ICAM-1-/- MRL/fas(lpr) mice. VCAM-1 expression was detectable in both vascular beds, but higher levels were detected in the pial vasculature. Furthermore, VCAM-1 blockade significantly reduced leukocyte adhesion and rolling in the cerebral microcirculation of ICAM-1-/- MRL/fas(lpr) mice. Therefore, ICAM-1 was critical for leukocyte adhesion in the skin but not the brain, where VCAM-1 assumed the major function. Given the ongoing development of anti-adhesion molecule therapies and their potential in inflammatory diseases such as SLE, these data indicate that implementation of these therapies in SLE should take into account the potential for tissue-specific functions of adhesion molecules.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1189/jlb.1107796DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3178507PMC
July 2008

The cytoplasmic domain of tissue factor in macrophages augments cutaneous delayed-type hypersensitivity.

J Leukoc Biol 2008 Apr 7;83(4):902-11. Epub 2008 Jan 7.

Centre for Inflammatory Diseases, Department of Medicine, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria, Australia.

In addition to its procoagulant role, tissue factor (TF) has important coagulation-independent roles, including in inflammation. The cytoplasmic domain of TF has been implicated in some of these coagulation-independent roles, particularly cell signaling. To assess the contribution of the cytoplasmic domain of TF to cell-mediated adaptive immunity, the development of cutaneous delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) was studied in mice lacking the cytoplasmic domain of TF (TF(deltaCT/deltaCT) mice). DTH responses in sensitized mice were significantly attenuated in TF(deltaCT/deltaCT) mice, and leukocyte-endothelial cell interactions, assessed by intravital microscopy, were impaired significantly. Studies in chimeric mice, created by bone marrow transplantation, showed that the absence of the cytoplasmic domain of TF in leukocytes rather than endothelial cells was responsible for reduced DTH and leukocyte recruitment. DTH responses to OVA could be induced in wild-type mice but not in TF(deltaCT/deltaCT) mice by transfer of activated CD4(+) OVA-specific TCR transgenic T cells, demonstrating that the defective DTH response in TF(deltaCT/deltaCT) mice was independent of any defect in T cell activation. Macrophage and neutrophil accumulation and expression of TNF-alpha mRNA and phospho-p38-MAPK were reduced significantly in TF(deltaCT/deltaCT) mice, and their macrophages had reduced P-selectin-binding capacity and reduced in vivo emigration in response to MCP-1. These results indicate that leukocyte expression of the cytoplasmic domain of TF contributes to antigen-specific cellular adaptive immune responses via effects on leukocyte recruitment and activation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1189/jlb.0607353DOI Listing
April 2008

Immune complexes mediate rapid alterations in microvascular permeability: roles for neutrophils, complement, and platelets.

Microcirculation 2007 Sep-Oct;14(7):709-22

Centre for Inflammatory Diseases, Monash University, Victoria, Australia.

Objective: Immune complex-induced responses involve multiple cellular and molecular mechanisms. However, how these pathways interact in the initiation of immune complex-induced response is poorly understood. Therefore the aim of this study was to investigate the immediate response of the microvasculature to immune complex formation.

Methods: The reverse passive Arthus (RPA) model was applied to the mouse cremaster muscle. Intravital microscopy was used to examine alterations in florescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-dextran leakage from microvessels, and endothelial interactions of leukocytes and platelets in postcapillary venules.

Results: Immune complex deposition induced rapid increases in microvascular permeability and leukocyte adhesion and emigration. Inhibition of platelet-activating factor (PAF) and leukotrienes inhibited the increase in permeability. Depletion of C3 reduced immune complex-mediated leukocyte recruitment and permeability, and a similar effect on permeability was observed following inhibition of leukocyte adhesion. Mast cell stabilization reduced increases in leukocyte adhesion and emigration but accelerated the increase in microvascular permeability. Platelet-endothelial interactions also increased during the RPA response, and platelet depletion delayed the changes in permeability and inhibited leukocyte recruitment.

Conclusions: This study demonstrates that immune complexes induce a rapid induction of complement-dependent leukocyte recruitment, and neutrophil-dependent microvascular dysfunction. Furthermore, this study identifies a role for platelets in promoting immune complex-induced leukocyte recruitment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10739680701404879DOI Listing
December 2007

Macrophage migration inhibitory factor deficiency attenuates macrophage recruitment, glomerulonephritis, and lethality in MRL/lpr mice.

J Immunol 2006 Oct;177(8):5687-96

Department of Medicine, Centre for Inflammatory Diseases, Monash Institute of Medical Research, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia.

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a serious systemic autoimmune disease of unknown etiology. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a proinflammatory cytokine that is operative in innate and adaptive immunity and important in immune-mediated diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and atherosclerosis. The functional relevance of MIF in systemic autoimmune diseases such as SLE is unknown. Using the lupus-prone MRL/lpr mice, we aim to examine the expression and function of MIF in this murine model of systemic autoimmune disease. These experiments revealed that renal MIF expression was significantly higher in MRL/lpr mice compared with nondiseased control mice (MRL/MpJ), and MIF was also markedly up-regulated in skin lesions of MRL/lpr mice. To examine the effect of MIF on development of systemic autoimmune disease, we generated MRL/lpr mice with a targeted disruption of the MIF gene (MIF(-/-)MRL/lpr), and compared their disease manifestations to MIF(+/+)MRL/lpr littermates. MIF(-/-)MRL/lpr mice exhibited significantly prolonged survival, and reduced renal and skin manifestations of SLE. These effects occurred in the absence of major changes in T and B cell markers or alterations in autoantibody production. In contrast, renal macrophage recruitment and glomerular injury were significantly reduced in MIF(-/-)MRL/lpr mice, and this was associated with reduction in the monocyte chemokine MCP-1. Taken together, these data suggest MIF as a critical effector of organ injury in SLE.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.177.8.5687DOI Listing
October 2006

TLR4 contributes to disease-inducing mechanisms resulting in central nervous system autoimmune disease.

J Immunol 2004 Dec;173(11):7070-7

Immunology Research Group, Department of Physiology and Biophysics, University of Calgary, Alberta, Canada.

Environmental factors strongly influence the development of autoimmune diseases, including multiple sclerosis. Despite this clear association, the mechanisms through which environment mediates its effects on disease are poorly understood. Pertussis toxin (PTX) functions as a surrogate for environmental factors to induce animal models of autoimmunity, such as experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Although very little is known about the molecular mechanisms behind its function in disease development, PTX has been hypothesized to facilitate immune cell entry to the CNS by increasing permeability across the blood-brain barrier. Using intravital microscopy of the murine cerebromicrovasculature, we demonstrate that PTX alone induces the recruitment of leukocytes and of active T cells to the CNS. P-selectin expression was induced by PTX, and leukocyte/endothelial interactions could be blocked with a P-selectin-blocking Ab. P-selectin blockade also prevented PTX-induced increase in permeability across the blood-brain barrier. Therefore, permeability is a secondary result of recruitment, rather than the primary mechanism by which PTX induces disease. Most importantly, we show that PTX induces intracellular signals through TLR4, a receptor intimately associated with innate immune mechanisms. We demonstrate that PTX-induced leukocyte recruitment is dependent on TLR4 and give evidence that the disease-inducing mechanisms initiated by PTX are also at least partly dependent on TLR4. We propose that this innate immune pathway is a novel mechanism through which environment can initiate autoimmune disease of the CNS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.173.11.7070DOI Listing
December 2004

Critical role of the alpha 4 integrin/VCAM-1 pathway in cerebral leukocyte trafficking in lupus-prone MRL/fas(lpr) mice.

J Immunol 2003 Jan;170(1):520-7

Centre for Inflammatory Diseases, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria, Australia.

MRL/fas(lpr) mice are affected by a systemic autoimmune disease that results in leukocyte recruitment to a wide range of vascular beds, including the cerebral microvasculature. The mechanisms responsible for the leukocyte trafficking to the brain in these animals are not known. Therefore, the aim of this study was to directly examine the cerebral microvasculature in MRL/fas(lpr) mice and determine the molecular mechanisms responsible for this leukocyte recruitment. Intravital microscopy was used to assess leukocyte-endothelial cell interactions (rolling, adhesion) in the pial microcirculation of MRL(+/+) (control) and MRL/fas(lpr) mice at 8, 12, and 16 wk of age. Leukocyte rolling and adhesion were rarely observed in MRL(+/+) mice of any age. MRL/fas(lpr) mice displayed similar results at 8 and 12 wk. However, at 16 wk, significant increases in leukocyte rolling and adhesion were observed in these mice. Histological analysis revealed that the interacting cells were exclusively mononuclear. Leukocyte rolling was reduced, but not eliminated in P-selectin(-/-)-MRL/fas(lpr) mice. However, leukocyte adhesion was not reduced in these mice, indicating that P-selectin-dependent rolling was not required for leukocyte recruitment to the cerebral vasculature in this model of systemic inflammation. E-selectin blockade also had no effect on leukocyte rolling. In contrast, blockade of either the alpha4 integrin or VCAM-1 eliminated P-selectin-independent leukocyte rolling. alpha4 Integrin blockade also significantly inhibited leukocyte adhesion. These studies demonstrate that the systemic inflammatory response that affects MRL/fas(lpr) mice results in leukocyte rolling and adhesion in the cerebral microcirculation, and that the alpha4 integrin/VCAM-1 pathway plays a central role in mediating these interactions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.170.1.520DOI Listing
January 2003

Leukocyte-endothelial cell interactions are enhanced in dermal postcapillary venules of MRL/fas(lpr) (lupus-prone) mice: roles of P- and E-selectin.

J Immunol 2002 May;168(9):4728-36

Center for Inflammatory Diseases, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria, Australia.

MRL/fas(lpr) mice are affected by a systemic autoimmune disease that results in widespread leukocytic infiltration of the vasculature, including in the skin. The molecular pathways responsible for this leukocyte recruitment are poorly understood. Therefore, the aim of these experiments was to examine the mechanisms of leukocyte trafficking in the dermal microvasculature of MRL/fas(lpr) mice. Intravital microscopy was used to examine leukocyte rolling and adhesion in dermal postcapillary venules of MRL/fas(lpr) mice at 8, 12, and 16 wk of age. When compared with age-matched BALB/c and MRL(+/+) (nondiseased) mice, leukocyte rolling and adhesion in MRL/fas(lpr) mice were significantly enhanced at 12 wk of age, and remained elevated at 16 wk of age. At 8 and 12 wk, leukocyte rolling in all three strains was almost entirely inhibited by an anti-P-selectin mAb. In contrast, at 16 wk some (approximately 10%) leukocyte rolling persisted following P-selectin blockade. This residual rolling was predominantly inhibitable with an anti-E-selectin mAb; however, treatment with anti-E-selectin mAb alone had a minimal effect. P-selectin-deficient MRL/fas(lpr) mice also displayed leukocyte rolling that was significantly lower than in wild-type MRL/fas(lpr) mice. However, in these mice, leukocyte adhesion remained at the elevated levels observed in wild-type MRL/fas(lpr) mice. This adhesion was eliminated by chronic treatment with anti-E-selectin mAb. These findings indicate that leukocyte-endothelial cell interactions are enhanced in the dermal microvasculature of MRL/fas(lpr) mice above the age of 12 wk. Furthermore, the data suggest that the endothelial selectins share overlapping roles in mediating this enhanced leukocyte recruitment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.168.9.4728DOI Listing
May 2002