Publications by authors named "Wilhelm Sorteberg"

42 Publications

Invasive tests for predicting shunt response in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus: the risk aspect.

Acta Neurochir (Wien) 2021 Nov 6. Epub 2021 Nov 6.

Department of Neurosurgery, Oslo University Hospital-Rikshospitalet, Pb 4950 Nydalen, N-0424, Oslo, Norway.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00701-021-05050-4DOI Listing
November 2021

(-)-OSU6162 in the treatment of fatigue and other sequelae after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study.

J Neurosurg 2021 Oct 29:1-11. Epub 2021 Oct 29.

3Department of Neurosurgery, Oslo University Hospital.

Objective: Fatigue after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) is common and usually long-lasting, and it has a considerable negative impact on health-related quality of life (HRQOL), social functioning, and the ability to return to work (RTW). No effective treatment exists. The dopaminergic regulator (-)-OSU6162 has shown promising results regarding the mitigation of fatigue in various neurological diseases, and therefore the authors aimed to investigate the efficacy of (-)-OSU6162 in alleviating fatigue and other sequelae after aSAH.

Methods: A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, single-center trial was performed in which 96 participants with post-aSAH fatigue were administered 30-60 mg/day of (-)-OSU6162 or placebo over a period of 12 weeks. Efficacy was assessed using the Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS), the Mental Fatigue Scale (MFS), the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), the Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II), the SF-36 questionnaire, and a neuropsychological test battery. Assessments were performed at baseline, after 1, 4, 8, and 12 weeks of treatment, and at follow-up, 8 weeks after treatment.

Results: The 96 participants with post-aSAH fatigue were randomized to treatment with (-)-OSU6162 (n = 49) or placebo (n = 47). The FSS, MFS, and BDI scores improved significantly in both groups after 12 weeks of treatment, whereas the BAI scores improved in the placebo group only. HRQOL improved significantly in the SF-36 domain "Vitality" in both groups. Neuropsychological test performances were within the normal range at baseline and not affected by treatment. The FSS score was distinctly improved in patients with complete RTW upon treatment with (-)-OSU6162. Concomitant use of antidepressants improved the efficacy of (-)-OSU6162 on the FSS score at week 1 beyond the placebo response, and correspondingly the use of beta- or calcium-channel blockers improved the (-)-OSU6162 efficacy beyond the placebo response in MFS scores at week 4 of treatment. There was a significant correlation between improvement in FSS, BAI, and BDI scores and the plasma concentration of (-)-OSU6162 at the dose of 60 mg/day. No serious adverse events were attributable to the treatment, but dizziness was reported more often in the (-)-OSU6162 group.

Conclusions: Fatigue and other sequelae after aSAH were similarly alleviated by treatment with (-)-OSU6162 and placebo. (-)-OSU6162 improved fatigue, as measured with the FSS score, significantly in patients with complete RTW. There seemed to be synergetic effects of (-)-OSU6162 and medications interfering with dopaminergic pathways that should be explored further. The strong placebo response may be exploited in developing nonpharmacological treatment programs for post-aSAH fatigue.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2021.7.JNS211305DOI Listing
October 2021

A woman in her seventies with acute onset of blindness.

Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen 2021 09 27;141. Epub 2021 Sep 27.

Background: Dural arteriovenous fistulae are among the most common causes of pulsatile tinnitus. Selective angiography can be necessary for a definitive diagnosis, but in rare cases has been reported to cause sudden cortical blindness.

Case Presentation: We present a woman in her seventies for whom cerebral angiography revealed a dural arteriovenous fistula. Two hours after the angiography she experienced sudden bilateral blindness. A local cause of sudden visual loss was excluded by clinical examination, cerebral bleeding was excluded by CT scan, vascular spasms and occlusions were excluded by CT angiography and acute infarction over the bilateral parieto-occipital cortex was excluded by MRI. The CT scan did, however, show contrast enhancement in the visual cortex from the contrast given during the previously performed cerebral angiography. The patient's vision spontaneously recovered within six days after the angiography, with no residual neurological deficits in her subsequent clinical follow up. Surgery was later performed on her dural arteriovenous fistula, which successfully treated the pulsatile tinnitus.

Interpretation: Transient cortical blindness is a rare but dramatic complication after cerebral angiography, thought to be caused by the transient neurotoxic effects of iodine-containing contrast agents. When other causes of sudden blindness are excluded, the patient can be reassured about the excellent prognosis for this condition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4045/tidsskr.20.1034DOI Listing
September 2021

Endovascular versus surgical treatment of cranial dural arteriovenous fistulas: a single-center 8-year experience.

Acta Neurochir (Wien) 2022 Jan 6;164(1):151-161. Epub 2021 Sep 6.

Department of Neurosurgery, Oslo University Hospital - Rikshospitalet, P.B. 0454 Nydalen, 0424, Oslo, Norway.

Background: Cranial dural arteriovenous fistulas (dAVFs) are rare lesions managed mainly with endovascular treatment (EVT) and/or surgery. We hypothesize that there may be subtypes of dAVFs responding better to a specific treatment modality in terms of successful obliteration and cessation of symptoms and/or risks.

Methods: All dAVFs treated during 2011-2018 at our hospital were analyzed retrospectively. Presenting symptoms, radiological variables, treatment modality, complications, and residual symptoms were related to dAVF type using the original Djindjian classification.

Results: We treated 112 dAVFs in 107 patients (71, 66% males). They presented with hemorrhage (n = 23; 21%), non-hemorrhagic symptoms (n = 75; 70%), or were discovered incidentally (n = 9; 8%). There were 25 (22%) type I, 29 (26%) type II, 26 (23%) type III, and 32 (29%) type IV fistulas. EVT was the primary treatment modality in 72/112 (64%) dAVFs whereas 40/112 (36%) underwent primary surgery with angiographic obliteration rates of 60% and 90%, respectively. Using a secondary treatment modality in 23 dAVFs, we obtained a final obliteration rate of 93%, including all type III/IV and 26/27 (96%) type II dAVFs. Except for headache, residual symptoms were rare and minor. Permanent neurological complications consisted of five cranial nerve deficits.

Conclusions: We recommend EVT as first treatment modality in types I, II, and in non-hemorrhagic type III/IV dAVFs. We recommend surgery as first treatment choice in acute hemorrhagic dAVFs and as secondary choice in type III/IV dAVFs not successfully occluded by EVT. Combining the two modalities provides obliteration in 9/10 dAVF cases at a low procedural risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00701-021-04950-9DOI Listing
January 2022

Fatigue After Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: Clinical Characteristics and Associated Factors in Patients With Good Outcome.

Front Behav Neurosci 2021 12;15:633616. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Neurosurgery, Division of Clinical Neuroscience, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway.

Fatigue after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (post-aSAH fatigue) is a frequent, often long-lasting, but still poorly studied sequel. The aim of the present study was to characterize the nature of post-aSAH fatigue with an itemized analysis of the Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS) and Mental Fatigue Scale (MFS). We further wanted to assess the association of fatigue with other commonly observed problems after aSAH: mood disorders, cognitive problems, health-related quality of life (HRQoL), weight gain, and return to work (RTW). Ninety-six good outcome aSAH patients with fatigue completed questionnaires measuring fatigue, depression, anxiety, and HRQoL. All patients underwent a physical and neurological examination. Cognitive functioning was assessed with a neuropsychological test battery. We also registered prior history of fatigue and mood disorders as well as occupational status and RTW. The patients experienced fatigue as being among their three most disabling symptoms and when characterizing their fatigue they emphasized the questionnaire items "low motivation," "mental fatigue," and "sensitivity to stress." Fatigue due to exercise was their least bothersome aspect of fatigue and weight gain was associated with depressive symptoms rather than the severity of fatigue. Although there was a strong association between fatigue and mood disorders, especially for depression, the overlap was incomplete. Post-aSAH fatigue related to reduced HRQoL. RTW was remarkably low with only 10.3% of patients returning to their previous workload. Fatigue was not related to cognitive functioning or neurological status. Although there was a strong association between fatigue and depression, the incomplete overlap supports the notion of these two being distinct constructs. Moreover, post-aSAH fatigue can exist without significant neurological or cognitive impairments, but is related to reduced HRQoL and contributes to the low rate of RTW.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnbeh.2021.633616DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8149596PMC
May 2021

How preventable are rebleeds? : Reply to: Letter to the editor of Acta Neurochirurgica: "Predictive factors and timelines of rebleeding in Aneurysmal SAH: What have we gleaned?"

Acta Neurochir (Wien) 2021 05 25;163(5):1481-1483. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Department of Neurosurgery, Oslo University Hospital, Rikshospitalet, P.B. 0454 Nydalen, 0424, Oslo, Norway.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00701-021-04775-6DOI Listing
May 2021

Timelines and rebleeds in patients admitted into neurosurgical care for aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage.

Acta Neurochir (Wien) 2021 03 6;163(3):771-781. Epub 2021 Jan 6.

Department of Neurosurgery, Oslo University Hospital, Rikshospitalet, P.B. 0454, 0424, Nydalen, Oslo, Norway.

Background: Mortality and morbidity of aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (aSAH) remain high, and prognosis is influenced by multiple non-modifiable factors such as aSAH severity. By analysing the chronology of aSAH management, we aim at identifying modifiable factors with emphasis on the occurrence of rebleeds in a setting with 24/7 surgical and endovascular availability of aneurysm repair and routine administration of tranexamic acid.

Methods: Retrospective analysis of institutional quality registry data of aSAH cases admitted into neurosurgical care during the time period 01 January 2013-31 December 2017. We registered time and mode of aneurysm repair, haemorrhage patterns, course of treatment, mortality and functional outcome. Rebleeding was scored along the entire timeline from ictus to discharge from the primary stay.

Results: We included 544 patients (368, 67.6% female), aged 58 ± 14 years (range 1-95 years). Aneurysm repair was performed in 486/544 (89.3%) patients at median 7.4 h after arrival and within 3, 6, 12 and 24 h in 26.8%, 44.7%, 73.0% and 96.1%, respectively. There were circadian variations in time to repair and in rebleeds. Rebleeding prior to aneurysm repair occurred in 9.7% and increased with aSAH severity and often in conjunction with patient relocations or interventions. Rebleeds occurred more often during surgical repair outside regular working hours, whereas rebleeds after repair (1.8%) were linked to endovascular repair.

Conclusions: The risk of rebleed is imminent throughout the entire timeline of aSAH management even with ultra-early aneurysm repair. Several modifiable factors can be linked to the occurrence of rebleeds and they should be identified and optimised within neurosurgical departments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00701-020-04673-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7886745PMC
March 2021

Survey of European neurosurgeons' management of unruptured intracranial aneurysms: inconsistent practice and organization.

Acta Neurochir (Wien) 2021 01 1;163(1):113-121. Epub 2020 Sep 1.

Faculty of Health, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway.

Background: The discovery of an unruptured intracranial aneurysm creates a dilemma between observation and treatment. Neurosurgeons' routines for risk assessment and treatment decision-making are unknown. The position of evidence-based medicine in European neurosurgery is considered to be weak, high-grade guidelines do not exist and variations between institutions are probable. We aimed to explore European neurosurgeons' management routines for newly discovered unruptured intracranial aneurysms.

Methods: In cooperation with the European Association of Neurosurgical Societies (EANS), we conducted an online, cross-sectional survey of 420 European neurosurgeons during Spring/Summer 2016 (1533 non-Norwegians invited through the EANS, and 16 Norwegians invited through heads of departments because of the need for additional information for a separate study). We asked about demographic variables, routines for management and risk assessment of newly discovered unruptured intracranial aneurysms and presented a case. We collected information about gross domestic product (GDP) per capita from the International Monetary Fund.

Results: The response rate to the invite from the EANS was 26%, with respondents from 47 countries. More than half of the respondents (n = 226 [54%]) reported that their department treated less than 25 unruptured aneurysms yearly. Forty percent said their department used aneurysm size cut-off to guide treatment decisions, with a mean size of 6 mm. Presented with a case, respondents from countries with a lower GDP per capita recommended intervention more often than respondents from higher-income countries. Vascular neurosurgeons more commonly recommended observation.

Conclusion: The answers to this self-reported survey indicate that many centers have a treatment volume lower than recommended by international guidelines, and that there are socioeconomic differences in care. Better documentation of treatment and outcome, for example with clinical quality registries, is needed to drive improvements of care.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00701-020-04539-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7778617PMC
January 2021

Survival and outcome in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage in Glasgow coma score 3-5.

Acta Neurochir (Wien) 2020 03 24;162(3):533-544. Epub 2020 Jan 24.

Department of Neurosurgery, Oslo University Hospital, Rikshospitalet, P.B. 0454, Nydalen, 0424, Oslo, Norway.

Background: Outcome of early, aggressive management of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) in patients with Hunt and Hess grade V is hitherto limited, and we therefore present our results.

Methods: Retrospective study analyzing the medical data of 228 aSAH patients in Glasgow Coma Score 3-5 admitted to our hospital during the years 2002-2012. Background and treatment variables were registered. Outcome was evaluated after 3 and 12 months.

Results: We intended to treat 176 (77.2%) patients, but only 146 went on to aneurysm repair. Of 52 patients managed conservatively, 27 had abolished cerebral circulation around arrival and 25 were deemed unsalvageable. One-year overall mortality was 65.8% and most (84.7%) of the fatalities occurred within 30 days. One-year mortality was higher in patients > 70 years. Without aneurysm repair, mortality was 100%. After 1 year, 21.9% of all patients lived independently and 4.8% lived permanently in an institution. Outcome in the 78 survivors (34.2%) was favorable in 64.1% in terms of modified Rankin Scale score 0-2, and 85.9% of survivors were able to live at home. Return to work was low for all 228 patients with 14.0% of those employed prior to the hemorrhage having returned to paid work, and respectively, 26.3% in the subgroup of survivors.

Conclusions: Even with aggressive, early treatment, 1-year mortality is high in comatose aSAH patients with 65.8%. A substantial portion of the survivors have a favorable outcome at 1 year (64.1%, corresponding to 21.9% of all patients admitted) and 85.9% of the survivors could live at home alone or aided.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00701-019-04190-yDOI Listing
March 2020

The path from ictus to Neurosurgery: chronology and transport logistics of patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage in the South-Eastern Norway Health Region.

Acta Neurochir (Wien) 2019 08 13;161(8):1497-1506. Epub 2019 Jun 13.

Department of Neurosurgery, Oslo University Hospital, Rikshospitalet, P.B. 0454, Nydalen, 0424, Oslo, Norway.

Background: Guidelines state that patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (aSAH) require neurosurgical treatment as early as possible. Little is known about the time frame of transport from the ictus scene to Neurosurgery in large, partially remote catchment areas. We therefore analysed the chronology and transport logistics of aSAH patients in the South-Eastern Norway Health Region and related them to the frequency of aneurysm rebleed and 1-year mortality.

Methods: Retrospective analysis of aSAH patients bleeding within our region admitted to Neurosurgery during a 5-year period. Date, time and site of ictus and arrival at Neurosurgery, distance and mode of transport and admission were obtained from our institutional quality register and the emergency medical communication centre log. We scored the patients' clinical condition, rebleeds and 1-year mortality.

Results: Five hundred forty-four patients were included. Median time from ictus to arrival Neurosurgery was 4.5 h. Transport by road ambulance was most common at distances between the ictus scene and Neurosurgery below 50 km, whereas airborne transport became increasingly more common at larger distances. Direct admissions, frequency of intubation and airborne transport to Neurosurgery increased with the severity of haemorrhage, leading to shorter transport times. The risk of rebleed was 0.8%/hour of transport. The rebleed rate was independent of distances travelled, but increased with the severity of aSAH, reaching up to 6.54%/hour in poor-grade patients. Distance and time of transport had no impact on 1-year mortality, whereas poor-grade aSAH and rebleed were strong predictors of mortality.

Conclusions: Poor-grade aSAH patients have a high risk of rebleed independent of the distance between the ictus scene and Neurosurgery. As rebleeding triples 1-year mortality, patients with Glasgow Coma Score < 9 with suspected aSAH should be admitted directly to Neurosurgery without delay after best possible cardiovascular and airway optimisation on site by competent personnel.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00701-019-03971-9DOI Listing
August 2019

The post-aSAH syndrome: a self-reported cluster of symptoms in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.

J Neurosurg 2019 Apr 19;132(5):1556-1565. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

2Neurosurgery, Oslo University Hospital; and.

Objective: Although many patients recover to a good functional outcome after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH), residual symptoms are very common and may have a large impact on the patient's daily life. The particular cluster of residual symptoms after aSAH has not previously been described in detail and there is no validated questionnaire that covers the typical problems reported after aSAH. Many of the symptoms are similar to post-concussion syndrome, which often is evaluated with the Rivermead Post-Concussion Symptoms Questionnaire (RPQ). In the present study, the authors therefore performed an exploratory use of the RPQ as a template to describe post-aSAH syndrome.

Methods: The RPQ was administered to 128 patients in the chronic phase after aSAH along with a battery of quality-of-life questionnaires. The patients also underwent a medical examination besides cognitive and physical testing. Based on their RPQ scores, patients were dichotomized into a "syndrome" group or "recovery" group.

Results: A post-aSAH syndrome was seen in 33% of the patients and their symptom burden on all RPQ subscales was significantly higher than that of patients who had recovered on all RPQ subscales. The symptom cluster consisted mainly of fatigue, cognitive problems, and emotional problems. Physical problems were less frequently reported. Patients with post-aSAH syndrome scored significantly worse on mobility and pain scores, as well as on quality-of-life questionnaires. They also had significantly poorer scores on neuropsychological tests of verbal learning, verbal short- and long-term memory, psychomotor speed, and executive functions. Whereas 36% of the patients in the recovery group were able to return to their premorbid occupational status, this was true for only 1 patient in the syndrome group.

Conclusions: Approximately one-third of aSAH patients develop a post-aSAH syndrome. These patients struggle with fatigue and cognitive and emotional problems. Patients with post-aSAH syndrome report more pain and reduced quality of life compared to patients without this cluster of residual symptoms and have larger cognitive deficits. In this sample, patients with post-aSAH syndrome were almost invariably excluded from return to work. The RPQ is a simple questionnaire covering the specter of residual symptoms after aSAH. Being able to acknowledge these patients' complaints as a defined syndrome using the RPQ should help patients to accept and cope, thereby alleviating possible secondary distress produced.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2019.1.JNS183168DOI Listing
April 2019

"Bucket" cerebrospinal fluid bulk flow: when the terrain disagrees with the map.

Acta Neurochir (Wien) 2019 02 17;161(2):259-261. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Oslo University Hospital, Rikshospitalet, Oslo, Norway.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00701-018-3775-6DOI Listing
February 2019

Efficiency and complications of Woven EndoBridge (WEB) devices for treatment of larger, complex intracranial aneurysms-a single-center experience.

Acta Neurochir (Wien) 2019 02 13;161(2):393-401. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Institute of Clinical Medicine, University in Oslo, Problemveien 17, 0315, Oslo, Norway.

Background: Several recently published multicenter studies have reported high treatment feasibility, high safety, and good 6-month to 1-year efficiency when treating smaller intracranial aneurysms (IA) with WEB deployment. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the long-term efficiency and complications related to WEB treatment of larger, complex intracranial aneurysms in a small single-center cohort.

Methods: Patients with ruptured and unruptured IA were treated with WEB devices; data were collected prospectively and analyzed retrospectively. The study evaluates complications and clinical and radiological findings at immediate and last available follow-up.

Results: The study included 16 patients with 16 aneurysms and a median follow-up time of 36 months, range 13-49 months; 9/16 were females. Median age 59 with range 39-71 years. Mean aneurysm size 11.3 ± 1.7 mm, predominant location at the basilar artery bifurcation and anterior communicating artery. Three out of sixteen IAs were ruptured. Even though 75% of the IAs were immediately occluded completely, retreatment was eventually necessary in 7/15 (46.7%). Increasing neck remnants and recurrences were mainly observed past 1-year follow-up. The WEB device showed modifications over time, with six devices showing signs of compression in the long term. There was one fatality due to aneurysm rupture after 4 years.

Conclusions: The long-term efficiency of WEB deployment in larger, complex aneurysms is low with about half of the cases needing at least one retreatment. A large fraction of WEB collapse past 1-year follow-up.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00701-018-3752-0DOI Listing
February 2019

Predictors of cognitive function in the acute phase after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.

Acta Neurochir (Wien) 2019 01 8;161(1):177-184. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Department of Neurosurgery, Oslo University Hospital, Rikshospitalet, P.B. 4950, Nydalen, 0424, Oslo, Norway.

Background: Cognitive dysfunction is the most common form of neurological impairment after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) in the chronic phase. Cognitive deficits in the acute phase after aSAH, however, remain scarcely investigated. The aim of the present study was to test cognitive function and to identify medical predictors of cognitive deficits in the acute phase of aSAH.

Methods: Prospective study including 51 patients treated for aSAH. Patients were treated in accordance with a standardized institutional protocol and subjected to neuropsychological evaluation around discharge from neurosurgical care. The neuropsychological test results were transformed into a global cognitive impairment index where an index value of 0.00 is considered normal and 1.00 is considered maximally pathological. Patients with an index score of less than 0.75 were considered having good global cognitive function while those with an index score equal to or above 0.75 were considered having poor global cognitive function. Univariate and multiple regression analysis were used to identify medical predictors of cognitive function.

Results: Fifty-seven percent of the patients had poor cognitive function. They showed severe cognitive deficits, with most tests falling well below two standard deviations from the expected normal mean. Poor cognitive function was not reflected in a poor modified Rankin score in almost half of the cases. Patients with good cognitive function showed only mild cognitive deficits with most tests falling only slightly below the normal mean. Delayed memory was the most affected function in both groups. Univariate analysis identified acute hydrocephalus and aSAH-acquired cerebral infarction to be predictors of poor cognitive function. Cerebrospinal fluid drainage in excess of 2000 ml six-folded the risk of poor cognitive function, whereas a new cerebral infarction 11-folded the respective risk of poor cognitive function.

Conclusion: More than half of aSAH patients have severe cognitive deficits in the acute phase. The modified Rankin Score should be combined with neuropsychological screening in the acute phase after aSAH to get a more accurate description of the patients' disabilities. Acute hydrocephalus and aSAH-acquired cerebral infarction are the strongest predictors of poor cognitive function in the acute phase.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00701-018-3760-0DOI Listing
January 2019

Magnitude and direction of aqueductal cerebrospinal fluid flow: large variations in patients with intracranial aneurysms with or without a previous subarachnoid hemorrhage.

Acta Neurochir (Wien) 2019 02 15;161(2):247-256. Epub 2018 Nov 15.

Institute of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.

Background: Net cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow within the cerebral aqueduct is usually considered to be antegrade, i.e., from the third to the fourth ventricle with volumes ranging between 500 and 600 ml over 24 h. Knowledge of individual CSF flow dynamics, however, is hitherto scarcely investigated. In order to explore individual CSF flow rate and direction, we assessed net aqueductal CSF flow in individuals with intracranial aneurysms with or without a previous subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH).

Methods: A prospective observational study was performed utilizing phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging (PC-MRI) to determine the magnitude and direction of aqueductal CSF flow with an in-depth, pixel-by-pixel approach. Estimation of net flow was used to calculate CSF flow volumes over 24 h. PC-MRI provides positive values when flow is retrograde.

Results: The study included eight patients with intracranial aneurysms. Four were examined within days after their SAH; three were studied in the chronic stage after SAH while one patient had an unruptured intracranial aneurysm. There was a vast variation in magnitude and direction of aqueductal CSF flow between individuals. Net aqueductal CSF flow was retrograde, i.e., directed towards the third ventricle in 5/8 individuals. For the entire patient cohort, the estimated net aqueductal CSF volumetric flow rate (independent of direction) was median 898 ml/24 h (ranges 69 ml/24 h to 12.9 l/24 h). One of the two individuals who had a very high estimated net aqueductal CSF volumetric flow rate, 8.7 l/24 h retrograde, later needed a permanent CSF shunt.

Conclusions: The magnitude and direction of net aqueductal CSF flow vary extensively in patients with intracranial aneurysms. Following SAH, PC-MRI may offer the possibility to perform individualized assessments of the CSF circulation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00701-018-3730-6DOI Listing
February 2019

Adenosine-assisted clipping of intracranial aneurysms.

Neurosurg Rev 2018 Apr 17;41(2):585-592. Epub 2017 Aug 17.

Department of Neurosurgery, Oslo University Hospital-Rikshospitalet, 0027, Oslo, Norway.

Temporary parent vessel clip occlusion in aneurysm surgery is not always practical or feasible. Adenosine-induced transient cardiac arrest may serve as an alternative. We retrospectively reviewed our clinical database between September 2011 and July 2014. All patients who underwent microsurgical clipping of intracranial aneurysms under adenosine-induced asystole were included. A total of 18 craniotomies were performed, and 18 aneurysms were clipped under adenosine-induced asystole (7 basilar arteries, 8 internal carotid arteries, 1 middle cerebral artery, and 1 anterior communicating artery) in 16 patients (10 females, 6 males). Nine cases were elective and seven after subarachnoid hemorrhage. Mean age was 54 years (range 39-70). The indications for adenosine use were proximal control in narrow surgical corridors in 13 cases and "aneurysm softening" in 4 cases. A single dose was used in 14 patients; 3 patients had multiple boluses. The median (range) total dose was 30 (18-135) mg. Adenosine induced a bradycardia with concomitant arterial hypotension in all patients, and the majority also had asystole for 5-15 sec. Transient cardiac arrhythmias were noted in one patient (AFib in need of electroconversion after two boluses). Nine clinical scenarios where adenosine-induced temporary cardiac arrest and deep hypotension was an effective adjunct to temporary clipping during microsurgical clipping of intracranial aneurysms were identified.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10143-017-0896-yDOI Listing
April 2018

Predictors of early in-hospital death after decompressive craniectomy in swollen middle cerebral artery infarction.

Acta Neurochir (Wien) 2017 02 10;159(2):301-306. Epub 2016 Dec 10.

Department of Neurology, Medical Division, Akershus University Hospital, Lørenskog, Norway.

Background: Swollen middle cerebral artery infarction is a life-threatening disease and decompressive craniectomy is improving survival significantly. Despite decompressive surgery, however, many patients are not discharged from the hospital alive. We therefore wanted to search for predictors of early in-hospital death after craniectomy in swollen middle cerebral artery infarction.

Methods: All patients operated with decompressive craniectomy due to swollen middle cerebral artery infarction at the Department of Neurosurgery, Oslo University Hospital Rikshospitalet, Oslo, Norway, between May 1998 and October 2010, were included. Binary logistic regression analyses were performed and candidate variables were age, sex, time from stroke onset to decompressive craniectomy, NIHSS on admission, infarction territory, pineal gland displacement, reduction of pineal gland displacement after surgery, and craniectomy size.

Results: Fourteen out of 45 patients (31%) died during the primary hospitalization (range, 3-44 days). In the multivariate logistic regression model, middle cerebral artery infarction with additional anterior and/or posterior cerebral artery territory involvement was found as the only significant predictor of early in-hospital death (OR, 12.7; 95% CI, 0.01-0.77; p = 0.029).

Conclusions: The present study identified additional territory infarction as a significant predictor of early in-hospital death. The relatively small sample size precludes firm conclusions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00701-016-3049-0DOI Listing
February 2017

Effect of early mobilization and rehabilitation on complications in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.

J Neurosurg 2017 Feb 8;126(2):518-526. Epub 2016 Apr 8.

Neurosurgery, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo.

OBJECTIVE Early rehabilitation is effective in an array of acute neurological disorders but it is not established as part of treatment guidelines after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). This may in part be due to the fear of aggravating the development of cerebral vasospasm, which is the most feared complication of aSAH. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of early rehabilitation and mobilization on complications during the acute phase and within 90 days after aSAH. METHODS This was a prospective, interventional study that included patients with aSAH at the neuro-intermediate ward after aneurysm repair. The control group received standard treatment, whereas the early rehab group underwent early rehabilitation and mobilization in addition to standard treatment. Clinical and radiological characteristics of patients with aSAH, progression in mobilization, and treatment variables were registered. The frequency and severity of cerebral vasospasm, cerebral infarction acquired in conjunction with the aSAH, and acute and chronic hydrocephalus, as well as pulmonary and thromboembolic complications, were compared between the 2 groups. RESULTS Clinical and radiological characteristics of patients with aSAH were similar between the groups. The early rehab group was mobilized beginning on the first day after aneurysm repair. The significantly quicker and higher degree of mobilization in the early rehab group did not increase complications. Clinical cerebral vasospasm was not as frequent in the early rehab group and it also tended to be less severe. Each step of mobilization achieved during the first 4 days after aneurysm repair reduced the risk of severe vasospasm by 30%. Acute and chronic hydrocephalus were similar in both groups, but there was a tendency toward earlier shunt implantation among patients in the control group. Pulmonary infections, thromboembolic events, and death before discharge or within 90 days after the ictus were similar between the 2 groups. CONCLUSIONS Early rehabilitation of patients after aSAH is safe and feasible. The earlier and higher degree of mobilization does not increase neurosurgical complications. Rather, the frequency and severity of cerebral vasospasm following aSAH are alleviated and are not aggravated by early rehabilitation. Clinical trial registration no.: NCT01656317 ( www.clinicaltrials.gov ).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2015.12.JNS151744DOI Listing
February 2017

Outcome of Surgery for Idiopathic Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus: Role of Preoperative Static and Pulsatile Intracranial Pressure.

World Neurosurg 2016 Feb 30;86:186-193.e1. Epub 2015 Sep 30.

Department of Neurosurgery, Oslo University Hospital, Rikshospitalet, Oslo, Norway.

Objectives: To examine the outcome of surgery for idiopathic normal-pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) and how outcome relates to the preoperative static and pulsatile intracranial pressure (ICP).

Methods: An observational cohort study included all patients with iNPH managed at our department during the years 2002-2012 in whom overnight ICP monitoring was part of the preoperative work-up. Clinical data were retrieved from a quality registry and ICP scores from a pressure database.

Results: The study included 472 patients, 316 in the surgery group and 156 in the nonsurgery group. Among those treated surgically, 278 (90%) showed clinical improvement (Responders) whereas 32 (10%) had no improvement (Nonresponders). Among Responders, only about one third reached the best clinical scores; moreover, the difference in clinical score between Responders and Nonresponders declined with time after surgery, particularly after 3-4 years. The surgery was accompanied by acute intracranial hematomas in 11 patients (3.5%), of whom 4 (1.3%) died. Survival (age at death) was significantly greater among the Responders than in Nonresponders. Although the static ICP was normal in all patients, the pulsatile ICP was significantly greater in Responders than in Non-responders.

Conclusions: The pulsatile ICP was greater in shunt Responders than Nonresponders. Although the clinical improvement declined over time and the majority did not experience complete relief of symptoms, shunt Responders lived significantly longer than Nonresponders. The present observations suggest that the current surgical treatment regimens for iNPH (primarily shunt surgery) address only some aspects of the disease process, in particular the aspect of brain water disturbance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wneu.2015.09.067DOI Listing
February 2016

The effect of tracheotomy on drug consumption in patients with acute aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: an observational study.

BMC Anesthesiol 2015 8;15:47. Epub 2015 Apr 8.

Department of Neurosurgery, Oslo University Hospital - Rikshospitalet, Oslo, Norway.

Background: Patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) are common in intensive care units (ICU). In patients with aSAH, sedation is used as a neuroprotective measure in order to secure adequate cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP). Compared with the use of an endotracheal tube, a tracheotomy has the advantage of securing the airway at a much lower level of distress, and aSAH patients can often be awakened more rapidly. Little is known about the impact of tracheotomy on the consumption of sedative/analgesic and vasoactive drugs and the maintenance of CPP within defined limits in aSAH patients.

Methods: We conducted an observational study of aSAH patients who underwent percutaneous tracheotomy. A prospective registry of patient data was supplemented with retrospective retrievals from medical records. Sedative, analgesic and vasoactive drug doses were registered for 3 days prior to and after percutaneous tracheotomy, respectively. Blood pressure, CPP, and the mode of mechanical ventilation were registered 24 h prior to and after tracheotomy.

Results: Between January 2001 and June 2009, 902 aSAH patients were admitted to our hospital; 74 (8%) were deeply comatose/dying upon arrival. The ruptured aneurysm was repaired in 828 patients (surgical repair 50%) and percutaneous tracheotomy was performed 182 times in 178 patients (59 men and 119 women). This subpopulation (178 of 828 patients) was significantly older (56 vs. 53 years) and presented with a more severe Hunt & Hess grade (p < 0.001). Percutaneous tracheotomy caused a marked decline in mean daily consumption of the analgesics/sedatives fentanyl, midazolam, and propofol, as well as the vasoactive drugs noradrenaline and dopamine. These declines were statistically and clinically significant. The mean CPP was 76 mmHg (SD 8.6) the day before and 79 mmHg (SD 9.6) 24 h after percutaneous tracheotomy. After percutaneous tracheotomy, mechanical ventilatory support could be reduced to a patient-controlled ventilatory support mode in a significant number of patients (p < 0.001).

Conclusions: Percutaneous tracheotomy in aSAH patients is a swift procedure with low risk that is associated with a significant decline in the consumption of sedative/analgesic and vasoactive drugs while clinical surveillance parameters remain stable or improve.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12871-015-0029-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4399106PMC
December 2015

Predictors of shunt dependency after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: results of a single-center clinical trial.

Acta Neurochir (Wien) 2014 Nov 22;156(11):2059-69. Epub 2014 Aug 22.

Faculty of Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.

Background: Hydrocephalus (HC) after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) is a common sequel. Proper selection of patients in need of permanent cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) diversion is, however, not straightforward. The aim of this study was to identify predictors of CSF shunt dependency following aSAH.

Methods: We re-analyzed data acquired from aSAH patients previously enrolled in a prospective, controlled single-center clinical trial in which shunt dependency was not one of the end points. In the present study patients were allocated into two groups: those receiving a shunt (here denoted as shunt dependent) and those not receiving a shunt, based on a clinical decision process. Predictors of shunt dependency were identified by applying uni- and multivariable analysis. We tested a set of predefined possible risk factors based on the results of the clinical trial, including the impact of CSF drainage volume exceeding 1,500 ml during the 1st week after ictus.

Results: Ninety patients were included in the study. Significant predictors of shunt dependency were poor clinical grade at admission [odds ratio (OR) 4.7, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.2-18.4], large amounts of subarachnoid blood (OR 3.8, 95% CI 1.0-14.0), large ventricular size on preoperative cerebral computer tomographic (CT) scans (OR 1.0, 95% CI 1.0-1.1), and CSF volume drainage exceeding 1,500 ml during the 1st week after the ictus (OR 16.3, 95% CI 4.0-67.1). Age ≥70 years, larger amounts of intraventricular blood, vertebrobasilar aneurysm, and endovascular treatment tended to increase the likelihood of receiving a shunt. Outcome was not significantly different between shunted and non-shunted patients.

Conclusions: In this cohort of patients with clinical grade aSAH at admission, larger amounts of subarachnoid blood and large ventricular size on preoperative cerebral CT, and CSF drainage in excess of 1,500 ml during the 1st week after the ictus were significant predictors of shunt dependency. Shunt dependency did not hamper outcome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00701-014-2200-zDOI Listing
November 2014

Long-term outcome and quality of life after craniectomy in speech-dominant swollen middle cerebral artery infarction.

Neurocrit Care 2015 Feb;22(1):6-14

Department of Neurosurgery, Oslo University Hospital Rikshospitalet, Postboks 4950 Nydalen, 0424, Oslo, Norway,

Background: Decompressive craniectomy in malignant middle cerebral artery infarction (MMCAI) reduces mortality. Whether speech-dominant side infarction results in less favorable outcome is unclear. This study compared functional outcome, quality of life, and mental health among patients with speech-dominant and non-dominant side infarction.

Methods: All patients undergoing decompressive craniectomy for MMCAI were included. Demographics, side of infarction, and speech-dominant hemisphere were recorded. Outcome at follow-up was assessed by global functioning (modified Rankin Scale score), neurological impairment (National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score), dependency (Barthel Index), anxiety and depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale), and quality of life (Short Form-36).

Results: Twenty-nine out of 45 patients (mean age ± SD, 48.1 ± 11.6 years; 58 % male) were alive at follow-up, and 26 were eligible for analysis [follow-up, median (interquartile range): 66 months (32-93)]. The speech-dominant hemisphere was affected in 13 patients. Outcome for patients with speech-dominant and non-dominant side MMCAI was similar regarding neurological impairment (National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score, mean ± SD: 10.3 ± 7.0 vs. 8.9 ± 2.7, respectively; p = 0.51), global functioning [modified Rankin Scale score, median (IQR): 3.0 [2-4] vs. 4.0 [3-4]; p = 0.34], dependence (Barthel Index, mean ± SD: 16.2 ± 5.0 vs. 13.1 ± 4.8; p = 0.12), and anxiety and depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale, mean ± SD: anxiety, 5.0 ± 4.5 vs. 7.3 ± 5.8; p = 0.30; depression, 5.0 ± 5.2 vs. 5.9 ± 3.9; p = 0.62). The mean quality of life scores (Short Form-36) were not significantly different between the groups.

Conclusions: There was no statistical or clinical difference in functional outcome and quality of life in patients with speech-dominant compared to non-dominant side infarction. The side affected should not influence suitability for decompressive craniectomy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12028-014-0056-yDOI Listing
February 2015

The effect of baseline pressure errors on an intracranial pressure-derived index: results of a prospective observational study.

Biomed Eng Online 2014 Jul 23;13:99. Epub 2014 Jul 23.

Department of Neurosurgery, Oslo University Hospital, Rikshospitalet, Oslo, Norway.

Background: In order to characterize the intracranial pressure-volume reserve capacity, the correlation coefficient (R) between the ICP wave amplitude (A) and the mean ICP level (P), the RAP index, has been used to improve the diagnostic value of ICP monitoring. Baseline pressure errors (BPEs), caused by spontaneous shifts or drifts in baseline pressure, cause erroneous readings of mean ICP. Consequently, BPEs could also affect ICP indices such as the RAP where in the mean ICP is incorporated.

Methods: A prospective, observational study was carried out on patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) undergoing ICP monitoring as part of their surveillance. Via the same burr hole in the scull, two separate ICP sensors were placed close to each other. For each consecutive 6-sec time window, the dynamic mean ICP wave amplitude (MWA; measure of the amplitude of the single pressure waves) and the static mean ICP, were computed. The RAP index was computed as the Pearson correlation coefficient between the MWA and the mean ICP for 40 6-sec time windows, i.e. every subsequent 4-min period (method 1). We compared this approach with a method of calculating RAP using a 4-min moving window updated every 6 seconds (method 2).

Results: The study included 16 aSAH patients. We compared 43,653 4-min RAP observations of signals 1 and 2 (method 1), and 1,727,000 6-sec RAP observations (method 2). The two methods of calculating RAP produced similar results. Differences in RAP ≥ 0.4 in at least 7% of observations were seen in 5/16 (31%) patients. Moreover, the combination of a RAP of ≥ 0.6 in one signal and <0.6 in the other was seen in ≥ 13% of RAP-observations in 4/16 (25%) patients, and in ≥ 8% in another 4/16 (25%) patients. The frequency of differences in RAP >0.2 was significantly associated with the frequency of BPEs (5 mmHg ≤ BPE <10 mmHg).

Conclusions: Simultaneous monitoring from two separate, close-by ICP sensors reveals significant differences in RAP that correspond to the occurrence of BPEs. As differences in RAP are of magnitudes that may alter patient management, we do not advocate the use of RAP in the management of neurosurgical patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1475-925X-13-99DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4125597PMC
July 2014

Baseline pressure errors (BPEs) extensively influence intracranial pressure scores: results of a prospective observational study.

Biomed Eng Online 2014 Jan 28;13. Epub 2014 Jan 28.

Department of Neurosurgery, Oslo University Hospital - Rikshospitalet, Oslo, Norway.

Background: Monitoring of intracranial pressure (ICP) is a cornerstone in the surveillance of neurosurgical patients. The ICP is measured against a baseline pressure (i.e. zero - or reference pressure). We have previously reported that baseline pressure errors (BPEs), manifested as spontaneous shift or drifts in baseline pressure, cause erroneous readings of mean ICP in individual patients. The objective of this study was to monitor the frequency and severity of BPEs. To this end, we performed a prospective, observational study monitoring the ICP from two separate ICP sensors (Sensors 1 and 2) placed in close proximity in the brain. We characterized BPEs as differences in mean ICP despite near to identical ICP waveform in Sensors 1 and 2.

Methods: The study enrolled patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage in need of continuous ICP monitoring as part of their intensive care management. The two sensors were placed close to each other in the brain parenchyma via the same burr hole. The monitoring was performed as long as needed from a clinical perspective and the ICP recordings were stored digitally for analysis. For every patient the mean ICP as well as the various ICP wave parameters of the two sensors were compared.

Results: Sixteen patients were monitored median 164 hours (ranges 70 - 364 hours). Major BPEs, as defined by marked differences in mean ICP despite similar ICP waveform, were seen in 9 of them (56%). The BPEs were of magnitudes that had the potential to alter patient management.

Conclusions: Baseline Pressure Errors (BPEs) occur in a significant number of patients undergoing continuous ICP monitoring and they may alter patient management. The current practice of measuring ICP against a baseline pressure does not comply with the concept of State of the Art. Monitoring of the ICP waves ought to become the new State of the Art as they are not influenced by BPEs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1475-925X-13-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3922657PMC
January 2014

Directional intraoperative Doppler ultrasonography during surgery on cranial dural arteriovenous fistulas.

Neurosurgery 2013 Dec;73(2 Suppl Operative):ons211-22; discussion ons222-3

*Department of Neurosurgery, Oslo University Hospital Rikshospitalet, Oslo, Norway; ‡Faculty of Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.

Background: Directional intraoperative Doppler (dioDoppler) ultrasonography is well established as a tool in the surgery of intracranial aneurysms and cerebral arteriovenous malformations. The literature provides little information about the possible usefulness of this method during surgery on cranial dural arteriovenous fistulas (dAVFs).

Objective: To present our experience with the use of dioDoppler during surgery on cranial dAVFs.

Methods: All patients undergoing craniotomy for cranial dAVF from January 2007 to October 2012 in which dioDoppler was used were included in the study. We reviewed patient records, operating protocols, radiological images, dioDoppler files, and intraoperative videos.

Results: During the study period, 12 patients with cranial dAVFs underwent surgical treatment facilitated by dioDoppler. Four patients were operated on acutely for cerebral bleeds, and 8 patients were treated for various cerebral symptoms and the assumption of a significant risk for intracranial bleed. Three advantages of dioDoppler were unequivocal identification of veins with cortical/deep venous reflux from the fistula, verification of completeness of occlusion of the fistula, and identification of dural arterial feeders not visualized under the microscope.

Conclusion: Reviewing our experience, we found that dioDoppler sonography is an easy, safe, effective, reliable, and instantaneous tool during surgery on cranial dAVFs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1227/NEU.0000000000000061DOI Listing
December 2013

An intracranial pressure-derived index monitored simultaneously from two separate sensors in patients with cerebral bleeds: comparison of findings.

Biomed Eng Online 2013 Feb 13;12:14. Epub 2013 Feb 13.

Department of Neurosurgery, Oslo University Hospital, Rikshospitalet, and Faculty of Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.

Background: In an attempt to characterize the intracranial pressure-volume compensatory reserve capacity, the correlation coefficient (R) between the ICP wave amplitude (A) and the ICP (P) level (RAP) has been applied in the surveillance of neurosurgical patients. However, as the ICP level may become altered by electrostatic discharges, human factors, technical factors and technology issues related to the ICP sensors, erroneous ICP scores may become revealed to the physician, and also become incorporated into the calculated RAP index. To evaluate the problem with regard to the RAP, we compared simultaneous RAP values from two separate ICP signals in the same patient.

Materials And Methods: We retrieved our recordings in 20 patients with cerebral bleeds wherein the ICP had been recorded simultaneously from two different sensors. Sensor 1 was always a solid sensor while sensor 2 was a solid sensor (Category A), a fluid sensor (Category B), an air-pouch sensor (Category C), or a fibre-optic sensor (Category D). The simultaneous signals were analyzed with automatic identification of the cardiac induced ICP waves, with subsequent determination and comparison of the Pearson correlation coefficient between mean wave amplitude (MWA) and mean ICP (RAP) for 40 6-s time windows every 4-min period.

Results: A total of 23,056 4-min RAP observations were compared. A difference in RAP≥0.4 between the two signals was seen in 4% of the observations in Category A-, in 44% of observations in Category B-, in 20% of observations in Category C-, and in 28% of observations in Category D patients, respectively. Moreover, the combination of a RAP of <0.6 in one signal and ≥0.6 in the other was seen in >20% of scores in 3/5 Category A-, in 3/5 Category B-, in 5/7 Category C- and 1/3 Category D patients.

Conclusions: Simultaneous monitoring of the ICP-derived index RAP from two separate ICP sensors reveals marked differences in the index values. These differences in RAP may be explained by erroneous scoring of the ICP level. This will hamper the usefulness of RAP as a guide in the management of neurosurgical patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1475-925X-12-14DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3608258PMC
February 2013

Simultaneous monitoring of static and dynamic intracranial pressure parameters from two separate sensors in patients with cerebral bleeds: comparison of findings.

Biomed Eng Online 2012 Sep 7;11:66. Epub 2012 Sep 7.

Department of Neurosurgery, Oslo University Hospital, Rikshospitalet, Oslo, Norway.

Background: We recently reported that in an experimental setting the zero pressure level of solid intracranial pressure (ICP) sensors can be altered by electrostatics discharges. Changes in the zero pressure level would alter the ICP level (mean ICP); whether spontaneous changes in mean ICP happen in clinical settings is not known. This can be addressed by comparing the ICP parameters level and waveform of simultaneous ICP signals. To this end, we retrieved our recordings in patients with cerebral bleeds wherein the ICP had been recorded simultaneously from two different sensors.

Materials And Methods: During a time period of 10 years, 17 patients with cerebral bleeds were monitored with two ICP sensors simultaneously; sensor 1 was always a solid sensor while Sensor 2 was a solid -, a fluid - or an air-pouch sensor. The simultaneous signals were analyzed with automatic identification of the cardiac induced ICP waves. The output was determined in consecutive 6-s time windows, both with regard to the static parameter mean ICP and the dynamic parameters (mean wave amplitude, MWA, and mean wave rise time, MWRT). Differences in mean ICP, MWA and MWRT between the two sensors were determined. Transfer functions between the sensors were determined to evaluate how sensors reproduce the ICP waveform.

Results: Comparing findings in two solid sensors disclosed major differences in mean ICP in 2 of 5 patients (40%), despite marginal differences in MWA, MWRT, and linear phase magnitude and phase. Qualitative assessment of trend plots of mean ICP and MWA revealed shifts and drifts of mean ICP in the clinical setting. The transfer function analysis comparing the solid sensor with either the fluid or air-pouch sensors revealed more variable transfer function magnitude and greater differences in the ICP waveform derived indices.

Conclusions: Simultaneous monitoring of ICP using two solid sensors may show marked differences in static ICP but close to identity in dynamic ICP waveforms. This indicates that shifts in ICP baseline pressure (sensor zero level) occur clinically; trend plots of the ICP parameters also confirm this. Solid sensors are superior to fluid - and air pouch sensors when evaluating the dynamic ICP parameters.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1475-925X-11-66DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3506507PMC
September 2012

Pressure-derived versus pressure wave amplitude-derived indices of cerebrovascular pressure reactivity in relation to early clinical state and 12-month outcome following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.

J Neurosurg 2012 May 10;116(5):961-71. Epub 2012 Feb 10.

Department of Neurosurgery, Oslo University Hospital–Rikshospitalet, University of Oslo, Norway.

Object: Indices of cerebrovascular pressure reactivity (CPR) represent surrogate markers of cerebral autoregulation. Given that intracranial pressure (ICP) wave amplitude-guided management, as compared with static ICP-guided management, improves outcome following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), indices of CPR derived from pressure wave amplitudes should be further explored. This study was undertaken to investigate the value of CPR indices derived from static ICP-arterial blood pressure (ABP) values (pressure reactivity index [PRx]) versus ICP-ABP wave amplitudes (ICP-ABP wave amplitude correlation [IAAC]) in relation to the early clinical state and 12-month outcome in patients with aneurysmal SAH.

Methods: The authors conducted a single-center clinical trial enrolling patients with aneurysmal SAH. The CPR indices of PRx and IAAC of Week 1 after hemorrhage were related to the early clinical state (Glasgow Coma Scale [GCS] score) and 12-month outcome (modified Rankin Scale score).

Results: Ninety-four patients were included in the study. The IAAC, but not the PRx, increased with decreasing GCS score; that is, the higher the IAAC, the worse the clinical state. The PRx could differentiate between survivors and nonsurvivors only, whereas the IAAC clearly distinguished the groups "independent," "dependent," and "dead." In patients with an average IAAC ≥ 0.2, mortality was approximately 3-fold higher than in those with an IAAC < 0.2.

Conclusions: The IAAC, which is based on single ICP-ABP wave identification, relates significantly to the early clinical state and 12-month outcome following aneurysmal SAH. Impaired cerebrovascular pressure regulation during the 1st week after a bleed relates to a worse outcome. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION NO.: NCT00248690.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2012.1.JNS111313DOI Listing
May 2012

A randomized and blinded single-center trial comparing the effect of intracranial pressure and intracranial pressure wave amplitude-guided intensive care management on early clinical state and 12-month outcome in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.

Neurosurgery 2011 Nov;69(5):1105-15

Department of Neurosurgery, Oslo University Hospital-Rikshospitalet, Oslo, Norway.

Background: In patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), preliminary results indicate that the amplitude of the single intracranial pressure (ICP) wave is a better predictor of the early clinical state and 6-month outcome than the mean ICP.

Objective: To perform a randomized and blinded single-center trial comparing the effect of mean ICP vs mean ICP wave amplitude (MWA)-guided intensive care management on early clinical state and outcome in patients with aneurysmal SAH.

Methods: Patients were randomized to 2 different types of ICP management: maintenance of mean ICP less than 20 mm Hg and MWA less than 5 mm Hg. Early clinical state was assessed daily using the Glasgow Coma Scale. The primary efficacy variable was 12-month outcome in terms of the Rankin Stroke Score.

Results: Ninety-seven patients were included in the study. There were no significant differences in treatment between the 2 groups apart from a larger volume of cerebrospinal fluid drained during week 1 in the MWA group. There was a tendency toward higher Glasgow Coma Scale scores in the MWA group during weeks 1 (P = .08) and 2 (P = .07). Outcome in terms of Rankin Stroke Score at 12 months was significantly better in the MWA group (P < .05).

Conclusion: This randomized and blinded trial disclosed a significant better primary efficacy variable (Rankin Stroke Score after 12 months) in the MWA patient group. We suggest that proactive intensive care management with MWA-tailored cerebrospinal fluid drainage during the first week improves aneurysmal SAH outcome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1227/NEU.0b013e318227e0e1DOI Listing
November 2011
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