Publications by authors named "Wilder A Palomino"

11 Publications

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Decidual vascularization during organogenesis after perigestational alcohol ingestion.

Reproduction 2019 07;158(1):109-122

Universidad de Buenos Aires, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Perigestational alcohol consumption up to early organogenesis can produce abnormal maternal vascularization via altered decidual VEGF/receptor expression. CF-1 female mice were administered with 10% ethanol in drinking water for 17 days prior to and up to day 10 of gestation. Control females received water without ethanol. Treated females had reduced frequency of implantation sites with expanded vascular lumen (P < 0.05), α-SMA-immunoreactive spiral arteries in proximal mesometrial decidua, reduced PCNA-positive endothelial cells (P < 0.01) and diminished uterine NK cell numbers (P < 0.05) in proximal decidua compared to controls. The VEGF expression (laser capture microscopy, RT-PCR, western blot and immunohistochemistry) was reduced in decidual tissue after perigestational alcohol consumption (P < 0.05). The uNK-DBA+ cells of treated females had reduced VEGF immunoexpression compared to controls (P < 0.01). Very low decidual and endothelial cell KDR immunoreactivity and reduced decidual gene and protein KDR expression was found in treated females compared to controls (P < 0.001). Instead, strong FLT-1 immunoexpression was detected in decidual and uNK cells (P < 0.05) in the proximal decidua from treated females compared to controls. In conclusion, perigestational alcohol ingestion induces the reduction of lumen expansion of spiral arteries, concomitant with reduced endothelial cell proliferation and uNK cell population, and uncompleted remodeling of the artery smooth muscle. These effects were supported by low decidual VEGF and KDR gene and protein expression and increased FLT-1 expression, suggesting that VEGF and KDR reduction may contribute, in part, to mechanisms involved in deficient decidual angiogenesis after perigestational alcohol consumption in mouse.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1530/REP-18-0230DOI Listing
July 2019

The endometria of women with endometriosis exhibit dysfunctional expression of complement regulatory proteins during the mid secretory phase.

J Reprod Immunol 2018 02 27;125:1-7. Epub 2017 Oct 27.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of South Carolina - Greenville, Greenville Health System, 890 West Faris Road, Suite 470, Greenville, SC 29605, USA. Electronic address:

The control of complement activation within embryo-endometrium environment is critical for embryo survival. Cell evasion from complement attack requires interaction of complement regulatory proteins (CRPs) with cell adhesion αvβ3 integrin. We aim to compare the expression of CRPs in endometria of women with and without endometriosis and to examine the molecular interaction of decay accelerating factor (DAF) with αvβ3 integrin. Endometrial expression of Membrane cofactor protein (CD46), Decay accelerating factor (DAF), Membrane attack complex inhibitory factor (CD59) and β3 integrin subunit were determined through menstrual cycle by immunohistochemistry. DAF protein quantity was determined by Western blot and mRNA levels measured in epithelial cells isolated by laser capture microdissection (LCM). Using in vitro assay, we examined DAF and β3 integrin expression through paracrine regulation between endometrial compartments. To determine whether β3 integrin and DAF interacts in vivo, endometrial samples were subjected to immunoprecipitation and colocalization using dual immunofluorescence technique. DAF and β3 integrin expression were significantly low in samples from women with endometriosis during mid secretory phase. This observation was supported by decreased DAF protein quantity; faint DAF and β3 integrin interaction and reduced mRNA levels in cells dissected by LCM. Moreover epithelial DAF and β3 integrin expression through paracrine regulation by progesterone from stromal compartment was disrupted in endometriosis. Endometria from women with endometriosis exhibits aberrant expression of complement proteins. The abnormal DAF expression potentially compromises embryo survival, contributing to understand the implantation failure in women with endometriosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jri.2017.10.046DOI Listing
February 2018

KRAS Activation and over-expression of SIRT1/BCL6 Contributes to the Pathogenesis of Endometriosis and Progesterone Resistance.

Sci Rep 2017 07 28;7(1):6765. Epub 2017 Jul 28.

Obstetrics and Gynecology, Greenville Health System, Greenville, SC, 29605, USA.

Endometriosis is an inflammatory condition that is associated with progesterone resistance and cell proliferation, resulting in pain, infertility and pregnancy loss. We previously demonstrated phosphorylation of STAT3 in eutopic endometrium of infertile women with this disorder leading to over-expression of the oncogene BCL6 and stabilization of hypoxia-induced factor 1 alpha (HIF-1α). Here we report coordinated activation of KRAS and over-expression of Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), a histone deacetylase and gene silencer, in the eutopic endometrium from women with endometriosis throughout the menstrual cycle. The mice with conditional activation of KRAS in the PGR positive cells reveal an increase of SIRT1 expression in the endometrium compared to control mice. The expression of progesterone receptor target genes including the Indian Hedgehog pathway genes are significantly down-regulated in the mutant mice. SIRT1 co-localizes with BCL6 in the nuclei of affected individuals and both proteins bind to and suppress the promoter of GLI1, a critical mediator of progesterone action in the Indian Hedgehog pathway, by ChIP analysis. In eutopic endometrium, GLI1 expression is reduced in women with endometriosis. Together, these data suggest that KRAS, SIRT1 and BCL6 are coordinately over-expressed in eutopic endometrium of women with endometriosis and likely participate in the pathogenesis of endometriosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-04577-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5533722PMC
July 2017

Endometrial BCL6 Overexpression in Eutopic Endometrium of Women With Endometriosis.

Reprod Sci 2016 09 24;23(9):1234-41. Epub 2016 May 24.

Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA

The objective of this study was to examine B-cell CLL/lymphoma 6 (BCL6) expression in human eutopic endometrium across the menstrual cycle in women with and without endometriosis and to establish a cutoff for future studies. This design was a series of case-control studies in tertiary University teaching hospitals. We examined BCL6 expression by messenger RNA and immunohistochemically in prospectively collected samples in both the proliferative (P) and the secretory phases. BCL6 is minimally increased in the mid-secretory phase of the menstrual cycle compared to the P phase in normal patients. BCL6 protein expression was significantly higher in the secretory phase of patients with endometriosis (n = 29) versus fertile controls without endometriosis at laparoscopy (n = 20; P < .0001). Normal fertile controls (n = 28) recruited for endometrial biopsy also had low levels of secretory phase BCL6 expression compared to women with unexplained infertility (UI; n = 119). A receiving-operator characteristic analysis of these data revealed an area under the curve of 94% (95% confidence interval 85%-100%; P < .0001) with an HSCORE cutoff of 1.4 to differentiate cases with and without endometriosis. Using this cutoff value, BCL6 was positive in 88% of cases with UI. Laparoscopic examination of a subset of 65 patients confirmed abnormalities in 98% of cases; 61 (93.8%) were found to have endometriosis, 3 (4.6%) with hydrosalpinx, and 1 (1.5%) with a normal pelvis. These data suggest that BCL6 is a promising candidate as a single diagnostic biomarker for detection of endometriosis in women with otherwise UI and may be associated with endometrial dysfunction, including progesterone resistance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1933719116649711DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5933165PMC
September 2016

Estrogen metabolites in human corpus luteum physiology: differential effects on angiogenic activity.

Fertil Steril 2016 07 17;106(1):230-237.e1. Epub 2016 Mar 17.

Institute for Maternal and Child Research, Santiago, Chile; Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, San Borja-Arriaran Clinical Hospital, University of Chile, Santiago, Chile. Electronic address:

Objective: To determine tissue concentrations of E2, estrone, P, and estrogens metabolites (EMs) 2-methoxyestradiol, 2-methoxyestrone, 4-hydroxyestrone, and 16-ketoestradiol in corpus luteum (CL) of different ages, and after hCG administration; and to examine the effects of EMs on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) secretion and angiogenic activity released by cultured luteinizing granulosa cells in the presence and absence of hCG.

Design: Experimental study.

Setting: University.

Patient(s): Thirty-two healthy women of reproductive age.

Intervention(s): Corpus luteum was collected at the time of minilaparotomy for tubal sterilization, at varying stages of the luteal phase (LP). Late-LP CL was collected 24 hours after IM administration of 10,000 IU hCG. Granulosa cells were isolated from follicular aspirates obtained from healthy women participating in our IVF program for male factor infertility.

Main Outcomes Measure(s): Estrogen metabolite concentrations were determined in CL tissue, and VEGF was assessed in conditioned medium. The angiogenic activity was analyzed by bioassay.

Result(s): Concentrations of EMs with proangiogenic activity (16-ketoestradiol and 4-hydroxyestrone) were higher in early and mid-LP CL vs. late-LP CL. These EMs and hCG increased VEGF production and angiogenic activity. Conversely, late-LP CL had significantly higher levels of 2-methoxyestrone and 2-methoxyestradiol, which have antiangiogenic activity. Administration of hCG reduced the production of these EMs.

Conclusion(s): Our findings suggest that the EMs are important paracrine modulators of CL function. Administration of hCG increases the production of EMs with proangiogenic activity and reduces the secretion of those EMs with antiangiogenic action, suggesting a novel mechanism by which the late-LP CL is rescued in conception cycles.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fertnstert.2016.03.003DOI Listing
July 2016

COUP-TFII regulates human endometrial stromal genes involved in inflammation.

Mol Endocrinol 2013 Dec 31;27(12):2041-54. Epub 2013 Oct 31.

Molecular and Cellular Biology, Baylor College of Medicine, One Baylor Plaza, Houston, TX 77030.

Chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter-transcription factor II (COUP-TFII; NR2F2) is an orphan nuclear receptor involved in cell-fate specification, organogenesis, angiogenesis, and metabolism. Ablation of COUP-TFII in the mouse uterus causes infertility due to defects in embryo attachment and impaired uterine stromal cell decidualization. Although the function of COUP-TFII in uterine decidualization has been described in mice, its role in the human uterus remains unknown. We observed that, as in mice, COUP-TFII is robustly expressed in the endometrial stroma of healthy women, and its expression is reduced in the ectopic lesions of women with endometriosis. To interrogate the role of COUP-TFII in human endometrial function, we used a small interfering RNA-mediated loss of function approach in primary human endometrial stromal cells. Attenuation of COUP-TFII expression did not completely block decidualization; rather it had a selective effect on gene expression. To better elucidate the role of COUP-TFII in endometrial stroma cell biology, the COUP-TFII transcriptome was defined by pairing microarray comparison with chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by deep sequencing. Gene ontology analysis demonstrates that COUP-TFII regulates a subset of genes in endometrial stroma cell decidualization such as those involved in cell adhesion, angiogenesis, and inflammation. Importantly this analysis shows that COUP-TFII plays a role in controlling the expression of inflammatory cytokines. The determination that COUP-TFII plays a role in inflammation may add insight into the role of COUP-TFII in embryo implantation and in endometrial diseases such as endometriosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/me.2013-1191DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3857200PMC
December 2013

2-Methoxyestradiol in the human corpus luteum throughout the luteal phase and its influence on lutein cell steroidogenesis and angiogenic activity.

Fertil Steril 2013 Nov 15;100(5):1397-404. Epub 2013 Aug 15.

Institute for Maternal and Child Research (IDIMI), Faculty of Medicine, San Borja-Arriaran Clinical Hospital, University of Chile, Santiago, Chile.

Objective: To quantitate 2-methoxyestradiol (2-ME) in human corpus luteum (CL) of different ages and to determine the expression of cytochrome-P450-1A1 (CYP1A1) and catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT) in CL and the action of 2-ME on P, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) secretion, and luteal angiogenesis.

Design: Experimental study.

Setting: University division of reproductive endocrinology.

Patient(s): Twenty-four women of reproductive age.

Intervention(s): CL was collected from 15 women during the minilaparotomy for tubal sterilization. Granulosa lutein cells were harvested 36 hours after hCG administration in patients undergoing IVF.

Main Outcomes Measure(s): Levels of 2-ME were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography in CL. CYP1A1 and COMT were assessed by immunohistochemistry and Western blot. P and VEGF were measured by radioimmunoassay and ELISA. The angiogenic potential was analyzed using EA.hy926 cells.

Result(s): Plasma levels of E₂ decreased in the late luteal phase in association with an increase in luteal tissue of 2-ME concentrations. Concomitantly, there was a significant reduction of angiogenic activity in late CL. There was no significant variation in CYP1A1 and COMT expression in all CL. In physiological doses, 2-ME inhibited basal VEGF by granulosa lutein cells and diminished the angiogenic activity in conditioned media but did not prevent P and VEGF production stimulated by hCG.

Conclusion(s): These data suggest the participation of 2-ME in physiological luteolysis by reducing angiogenesis. However, 2-ME did not prevent in vitro hCG stimulation of P biosynthesis, providing a mechanism for CL rescue in the cycle of conception.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fertnstert.2013.07.1980DOI Listing
November 2013

Characterization of antiestrogenic activity of the Chinese herb, prunella vulgaris, using in vitro and in vivo (Mouse Xenograft) models.

Biol Reprod 2009 Feb 15;80(2):375-83. Epub 2008 Oct 15.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Greenville Hospital System, Greenville, South Carolina 29605, USA.

Prunella vulgaris (PV), a commonly used Chinese herb, also known as Self-heal, has a wide range of reported medicinal activities. By screening multiple herbs using the endometrial cancer cell line, ECC-1, and an alkaline phosphatase detection assay, we found that PV displayed significant antiestrogenic activity. We investigated the possible usefulness of antiestrogenic activity using both in vitro and in vivo models of endometrial function. Using the well-differentiated, hormone-responsive endometrial cell line, ECC-1, PV extract, at concentrations that were not toxic to the cells, significantly reduced alkaline phosphatase activity and cell proliferation in response to estrogen in a dose-dependent manner. The expression of CYR61, an estrogen-induced protein, was blocked in ECC-1 cells by both the antiestrogen ICI 182,780 and PV extract. Interestingly, PV extract did not appear to directly inhibit estrogen signaling. Rather, we found that its activities were probably related to an ability to function as an aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) agonist in ECC-1 cells. In support of this hypothesis, we noted that PV induced CYP1A1, CYP1B1, and AHR repressor expression in a dose-dependent manner--responses that were blocked by small interfering RNA treatment to reduce AHR and specific AHR antagonists. Ovariectomized immunodeficient RAG-2/gamma(c) knockout mice implanted with human endometrial xenografts developed implants only when treated with estrogen. Mice treated with estrogen and PV tea in their drinking water had fewer and smaller xenograft implants compared with their estrogen-treated counterparts that drank only water (P < 0.05). Analysis of the resulting implants by immunohistochemistry demonstrated persistent estrogen receptor (ER), but reduced proliferation and CYR61 expression. Mouse uterine tissue weight in PV-treated mice was not different from controls, and cycle fecundity of intact C57 female mice was unaffected by PV tea treatment. PV, or Self-heal, exhibits significant antiestrogenic properties, both in vitro and in vivo. This activity is likely due to the ability of PV-activated AHR to interfere with estrogen. This herb may be useful as an adjunct for the treatment of estrogen-dependent processes like endometriosis and breast and uterine cancers. Full characterization of this herb will likely provide new insights into the crosstalk between AHR and ESR1, with potential for therapeutic applications in women.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1095/biolreprod.107.065375DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2746405PMC
February 2009

Endometrial expression of Cyr61: a marker of estrogenic activity in normal and abnormal endometrium.

Obstet Gynecol 2007 Jul;110(1):146-54

Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island, USA.

Objective: To compare the expression of Cyr61 in normal cycling endometrium with endometrium from women with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) and endometrial hyperplasia and adenocarcinoma.

Methods: This is a retrospective study of 59 samples of normal and abnormal endometrium. Endometrial biopsies were obtained from normal fertile controls throughout the menstrual cycle and compared with endometrium from ovulatory and anovulatory women with PCOS and complex endometrial hyperplasia and endometrioid adenocarcinoma. Cyr61 expression was evaluated by using immunohistochemistry and reverse transcription PCR for Cyr61, estrogen receptor (ER)-alpha, a marker of cell proliferation (Ki67), and another marker of early estrogen action, cFos. Regulation of Cyr61 protein was studied in a steroid-responsive endometrial carcinoma cell line, ECC1.

Results: Cyr61 protein was regulated by estrogen. In normal endometrium, Cyr61 was highest in the proliferative phase and lowest in the normal midsecretory phase. In contrast, elevated levels of Cyr61, ER-alpha, Ki67, and cFos were all found in the midsecretory endometrium of ovulatory PCOS patients, endometrial cancer patients, and hyperplasia patients.

Conclusion: Cyr61 is overexpressed in PCOS endometrium, reflecting a heightened responsiveness to estrogen. As a unique marker of estrogen action, Cyr61 may be an early biomarker for the development of hyperplasia or adenocarcinoma in this group of women.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.AOG.0000269047.46078.28DOI Listing
July 2007

Estrogen receptor-alpha (ER-alpha) and defects in uterine receptivity in women.

Reprod Biol Endocrinol 2006 ;4 Suppl 1:S9

Division of Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility, University Medical Group, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Greenville Hospital System, Greenville, SC, USA.

Endometriosis is a disorder that affects 5% of the normal population but is present in up to 40% of women with pelvic pain and/or infertility. Recent evidence suggests that the endometrium of women with endometriosis exhibits progesterone insensitivity. One endometrial protein that fluctuates in response to progesterone is the estrogen receptor-alpha (ER alpha), being down-regulated at the time of peak progesterone secretion during the window of implantation. Here we demonstrate that the biomarker of uterine receptivity, beta 3 integrin subunit, is reduced or absent in some women with endometriosis and that such defects are accompanied by inappropriate over-expression of ER alpha during the mid-secretory phase. Using a well-differentiated endometrial cell line we showed that the beta 3 integrin protein is negatively regulated by estrogen and positively regulated by epidermal growth factor (EGF). By competing against estrogen with various selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) and estrogen receptor agonists and antagonists, inhibition of expression of the beta 3 integrin by estrogen can be mitigated. In conclusion, we hypothesize that certain types of uterine receptivity defects may be caused by the loss of appropriate ER alpha down-regulation in the mid-secretory phase, leading to defects in uterine receptivity. Such changes might be effectively treated by timely administration of the appropriate anti-estrogens to artificially block ER alpha and restore normal patterns of gene expression. Such treatments will require further clinical studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1477-7827-4-S1-S9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1679803PMC
May 2008

ECC-1 cells: a well-differentiated steroid-responsive endometrial cell line with characteristics of luminal epithelium.

Biol Reprod 2006 Sep 17;75(3):387-94. Epub 2006 May 17.

Center for Women's Medicine, Division of Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility, Greenville Hospital System, Greenville, South Carolina 29605, USA.

Endometrial cancer cell lines have provided a valuable model to study endometrial epithelial cells in vitro. Since the first development of HEC1B over 35 yr ago, many different cell lines have been isolated and described. One valuable cell line that maintains hormone responsiveness and unique stability over time is the ECC-1 cell line, developed originally by the late P.G. Satyaswaroop. In this study, we investigated some of the properties of these cells and present their salient characteristics. Like Ishikawa cells, ECC-1 cells maintain both estrogen receptors (ESR1 [ER alpha] and ESR2 [ER beta]), progesterone receptors (PR A and B; PGRs), and androgen receptors (ARs), along with the p160 steroid receptor coactivators NCOA1 (formerly SRC1), NCOA2 (formerly TIF2), and NCOA3 (formerly AIB1). The karyotype of these cells is abnormal, with multiple structural rearrangements in all cells analyzed. Unlike Ishikawa cells that express glandular epithelial antigens, ECC-1 cells maintain a luminal phenotype, with expression of KRT13 (cytokeratin 13) and KRT18 (cytokeratin 18). Apparent differences in the regulation of ESR2 also were evident in ECC-1 cells compared to Ishikawa cells. Like other endometrial cell lines, ECC-1 cells express the steroid receptor coactivators and exhibit epidermal growth factor-stimulated expression of known luminal proteins thought to be involved in implantation, including the hyaluronate receptor CD44 and SPP1 (formerly osteopontin) and CD55 (decay-accelerating factor). These characteristics appear to be stable and persistent over multiple cell passages, making this well-differentiated cell line an excellent choice to study endocrine and paracrine regulation of endometrial epithelium in vitro.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1095/biolreprod.106.051870DOI Listing
September 2006