Publications by authors named "Whitley Stone"

18 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Effects of dynamic and isometric resistance training protocols on metabolic profile in hemodialysis patients: a randomized controlled trial.

Appl Physiol Nutr Metab 2021 Mar 2. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

Universidade Catolica de Brasilia, 28106, Physical Education, Taguatinga, DF, Brazil.

To compare the effect of dynamic (DRT) and isometric (IRT) resistance training on glycemic homeostasis, lipid profile, and nitric oxide (NO) in hemodialysis (HD) patients. Patients were randomly distributed into three groups: control (CTL; n=65), DRT (n=65), and IRT (n=67). Patients were tested for fasting blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin, oral glucose tolerance test, insulin resistance, lipid profile, leptin, insulin, adiponectin, C-reactive protein, and NO were assessed pre- and post-intervention period. Patients underwent to strength and body composition assessments. Subjects allocated in both DRT and IRT groups took part in a 24-week resistance training program, three times per week. Each training session was approximately one hour before dialysis and consisted of 3 sets of 8-12 repetitions at low intensity. Total workload was higher in the DRT as compared with the IRT. This heightened workload related to better glycemic homeostasis in HD patients as measured by regulation of insulin, adiponectin, and leptin, while improvement of triglycerides, free-fat mass, and muscle strength. Additionally, NO levels were increased on DRT group. NO was significantly correlated with glucose intolerance (r=-0.42, p=0.0155) and workload (r=0.46, p=0.0022). The IRT group only improved strength (p<0.05). 24-week of DRT improved glycemic homeostasis, lipid profile, and NO in HD patients. Although IRT seems to play an important role in increasing strength, DRT might be a better choice to promote metabolic adjustments in HD patients. Clinical Trial http://www.ensaiosclinicos.gov.br/rg/RBR-3gpg5w/; nº RBR-3gpg5w Novelty Bullets: -DRT might be a better choice for metabolic improvements in CKD patients. -Exercise-training might treat metabolic imbalance in CKD patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/apnm-2020-0900DOI Listing
March 2021

Improving the prognosis of renal patients: The effects of blood flow-restricted resistance training on redox balance and cardiac autonomic function.

Exp Physiol 2021 Apr 3;106(4):1099-1109. Epub 2021 Mar 3.

Graduate Program in Physical Education, Catholic University of Brasília, DF, Brazil.

New Findings: What is the central question of this study? Can resistance training with and without blood flow restriction improve redox balance and positively impact the autonomic cardiac modulation in chronic kidney disease patients? What is the main finding and its importance? Resistance training with and without blood flow restriction improved antioxidant defence (paraoxonase 1), decreased the pro-oxidative myeloperoxidase, improved cardiac autonomic function and slowed the decrease in renal function. We draw attention to the important clinical implications for the management of redox balance and autonomic cardiac function in chronic kidney disease patients.

Abstract: Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are prone to cardiovascular diseases secondary to abnormalities in both autonomic cardiac function and redox balance [myeloperoxidase (MPO) to paraoxonase 1 (PON1) ratio]. Although aerobic training improves both autonomic balance and redox balance in patients with CKD, the cardioprotective effects of resistance training (RT), with and without blood flow restriction (BFR), remain unknown. We aimed to compare the effects of RT and RT+BFR on antioxidant defence (PON1), pro-oxidative status (MPO), cardiac autonomic function (quantified by heart rate variability analysis) and renal function. Conservative CKD (stages 1 to 5 who do not need hemodialysis) patients (n = 105, 33 female) of both sexes were randomized into three groups: control (CTL; 57.6 ± 5.2 years; body mass index, 33.23 ± 1.62 kg/m ), RT (58.09 ± 6.26 years; body mass index 33.63 ± 2.05 kg/m ) and RT+BFR (58.06 ± 6.47 years; body mass index, 33.32 ± 1.87 kg/m ). Patients completed 6 months of RT or RT+BFR on three non-consecutive days per week under the supervision of strength and conditioning professionals. Training loads were adjusted every 2 months. Heart rate variability was recorded with a Polar-RS800 and data were analysed for time and frequency domains using Kubios software. The redox balance markers were PON1 and MPO, which were analysed in plasma samples. Renal function was estimated as estimated glomerular filtration rate. The RT and RT+BFR decreased pro-oxidative MPO (RT, ∼34 ng/ml and RT+BFR, ∼27 ng/ml), improved both antioxidant defence (PON1: RT, ∼23 U/L and RT+BFR, ∼31 U/L) and cardiac autonomic function (R-R interval: RT, ∼120.4 ms and RT+BFR, ∼117.7 ms), and slowed the deterioration of renal function (P < 0.0001). Redox balance markers were inversely correlated with heart rate variability time-domain indices. Our data indicated that both training models were effective as non-pharmacological tools to increase the antioxidant defences, decrease oxidative stress and improve the cardiac autonomic function of CKD patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1113/EP089341DOI Listing
April 2021

Low-load resistance training with blood flow restriction prevent renal function decline: The role of the redox balance, angiotensin 1-7 and vasopressin.

Physiol Behav 2021 Mar 16;230:113295. Epub 2020 Dec 16.

Post-Graduate Program of Physical Education of Catholic University of Brasilia, Federal District, Brazil-71966-700. Electronic address:

Aims: We sought to investigate the effect of resistance training (RT) and low-load RT with moderate blood flow restriction (RT+BFR) on blood pressure, exercise pressor response, redox balance and vasoactive peptides, body composition and muscle strength in patients with stage two of chronic kidney disease (CKD).

Methods: We conducted a 6-month randomized controlled exercise intervention in 90 male and female hypertensive CKD patients (58±9 years with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR; of 66.1 ± 1.2 mL/kg/1.73m). Participants were randomized to one of three groups (n = 30/group); control group (CTL), RT, and RT+BFR. RT and RT+BFR performed three weekly training sessions using similar periodization for six months (two-month mesocycles), but of different intensities.

Results: There was similarly effects between RT and RT+BFR in reducing systolic and diastolic blood pressure during daytime and 24hour period (RT: 10.4%; RT+BFR: 10.3% of decrease), fat mass, F-isoprostanes, asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) and vasopressin (p<0.05 pre-vs post). Also promoted the increase of angiotensin 1-7, nitric oxide (NO), catalase, Trolox equivalent and muscle strength (p<0.05). Both training models attenuated the decline of estimated glomerular filtration rate (p<0.0001 vs CTL). However, only RT+BFR was associated with lower discomfort during exercise (p<0.0001 pre-vs post). Statistical significance was considered with p < 0.05.

Conclusion: These findings suggest low-load RT+BFR as a promising non-pharmacological strategy to control blood pressure, oxidative stress, vasoactive peptides, and consequently, attenuate the decrease of the eGFR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.physbeh.2020.113295DOI Listing
March 2021

Comparison of field- and laboratory-based estimates of muscle quality index between octogenarians and young older adults: an observational study.

J Exerc Rehabil 2020 Oct 27;16(5):458-466. Epub 2020 Oct 27.

Department of Gerontology, Catholic University of Brasilia (UCB), Brasilia, Brazil.

Muscle quality (the ratio of strength to lean muscle mass) might be a better indicator of muscle function than strength alone. Differences in muscle quality index (MQI) between octogenarians and young older adults remain unclear. The aims of the present cross-sectional study were to compare (1) MQI between octogenarians and young older adults, (2) lab versus field-based MQI tools, and (3) determine possible confounding factors affecting MQI in older adults. Compiled data from two cross-sectional studies included 175 younger and older adults (31 men and 144 women) with a mean age of 75.93±9.49 years. Participants with age ≥80 years old were defined as octogenarians (n=79) and <80 years was defined as young older adults (n=96). Laboratory MQI was derived from the ratio of grip strength to arm muscle mass (in kg) measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Field-based MQI was quantified from the ratio of grip strength to body mass index (BMI). Octogenarians displayed lower field (=0.003) and laboratory MQI (<0.001) as compared with young older adults. There was a strong correlation effect between field MQI and laboratory MQI (=0.001, =0.85). BMI (=0.001), and diabetes mellitus (=0.001) negatively affected MQI. Women presented lower MQI (=0.001) values than men. In light of this information, rehabilitation specialists should consider the use of field-based MQI as a tool for evaluation and follow-up of older population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12965/jer.2040668.334DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7609849PMC
October 2020

New Author Guidelines in Statistical Reporting: Embracing an Era Beyond p < .05.

Int J Exerc Sci 2020 1;13(1):1-5. Epub 2020 Sep 1.

Department of Kinesiology and Nutrition Sciences, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, Las Vegas, NV, USA.

Statistical reporting of quantitative research data has been plagued by potential bias and reporting suppression due to a single numerical output: the -value. While there is great importance in its merit, creating a pass-fail system (set at point of .05) has created a culture of researchers submitting their project's data to a filing cabinet if it does not yield "statistical significance" based on this value. The editors of the International Journal of Exercise Science are following the American Statistical Association's call for statistical reform by adjusting our reporting guidelines to the following requirements: [1.] make an intentional effort to move away from statements "statistically significant" or "not significant;" [2] all -values are to be reported in their raw, continuous form; [3.] measures of the magnitude of effect must be presented with all -values; [4.] either an a-priori power analysis with relevant citations should be included or post-hoc power calculations should accompany -values and measures of effect. The ultimate goal of this editorial is to join with other scholars to push the field toward transparency in reporting and critical, thoughtful evaluation of research.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7523905PMC
September 2020

Ethical Issues Relating to Scientific Discovery in Exercise Science.

Int J Exerc Sci 2019 1;12(1):1-8. Epub 2020 Sep 1.

School of Kinesiology, Recreation, and Sport, Western Kentucky University, Bowling Green, KY, USA.

This work aims to present concepts related to ethical issues in conducting and reporting scientific research in a clear and straightforward manner. Considerations around research design including authorship, sound research practices, non-discrimination in subject recruitment, objectivity, respect for intellectual property, and financial interests are detailed. Further, concepts relating to the conducting of research including the competency of the researcher, conflicts of interest, accurately representing data, and ethical practices in human and animal research are presented. Attention pertaining to the dissemination of research including plagiarism, duplicate submission, redundant publication, and figure manipulation is offered. Other considerations including responsible mentoring, respect for colleagues, and social responsibility are set forth. The will now require a statement in all subsequent published manuscripts that the authors have complied with each of the ethics statements contained in this work.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7523901PMC
September 2020

Biomarkers and Redox Balance in Aging Rats after Dynamic and Isometric Resistance Training.

Int J Sports Med 2021 Mar 18;42(3):283-290. Epub 2020 Sep 18.

Graduate Program in Physical Education, Catholic University of Brasília, Brasília, Brazil.

Aging muscle is prone to sarcopenia and its associated telomere shortening and increased oxidative stress. Telomeres are protected by a shelterin protein complex, proteins expressed in response to DNA damage. Aerobic exercise training has shown to positively modulate these proteins while aging, but the effects of resistance training are less clear. This investigation was to examine the role of dynamic and isometric RT on markers of senescence and muscle apoptosis: checkpoint kinase 2, 53 kDa protein, shelterin telomere repeat binding 1 and 2, DNA repair, telomere length and redox state in the quadriceps muscle. Fifteen 49-week-old male rats were divided into three groups: control, dynamic resistance training, and isometric resistance training. Dynamic and isometric groups completed five sessions per week during 16 weeks at low to moderate intensity (20-70% maximal load). Only dynamic group decreased expression of 53 kDa protein, proteins from shelterin complex, oxidative stress, and improved antioxidant defense. There was no difference among groups regarding telomere length. In conclusion, dynamic resistance training was more effective than isometric in reducing markers of aging and muscle apoptosis in elderly rats. This modality should be considered as valuable tool do counteract the deleterious effects of aging.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/a-1231-5410DOI Listing
March 2021

Evaluation of Repetitive Jumping Intensity on the Digi-Jump Machine.

Int J Exerc Sci 2020 1;13(2):818-825. Epub 2020 Aug 1.

School of Kinesiology, Recreation & Sport, Western Kentucky University, Bowling Green, KY, USA.

Cardiorespiratory endurance is an important element of aerobic fitness, particularly in weight management and reducing risk for cardiovascular disease. While there are numerous options for aerobic exercise, rope jumping is often overlooked. In addition to regular exercise and a healthy diet, the American Heart Association strongly recommends rope jumping. The first purpose of this study was to determine the steady state metabolic cost of repetitive jumping on the Digi-Jump machine to evaluate whether exercise on this device is more or less strenuous than similar exercise with a jump rope, as demonstrated in previous literature. A second purpose was to determine the relative intensity of exercise on the Digi-Jump by comparing to VO as measured on a treadmill. Twenty-seven participants completed two trials, one jumping trial at a rate of 120 jumps per minute with the jumping height set at 0.5 inch for 5-min on the Digi-Jump, and one graded exercise test using the Bruce protocol. Oxygen uptake (VO), heart rate (HR), respiratory exchange ratio (RER), and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured each minute during each trial. Results of this study indicated that steady state VO during the 5-min jump test was reached at the 3 min. Steady state variables during the jumping trial expressed as percentage of max were as follows: VO was 57.1% of VO; HR was 80.9% of HR; RER was 86%of RER; and RPE was 75.2% of RPE. These data indicate that repetitive jumping is a strenuous activity and similar in intensity to jumping rope, even if the trial is done on the Digi-Jump machine with free-swinging arms and without a jump rope.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7449324PMC
August 2020

Effect of high-velocity and traditional resistance exercise on serum antioxidants and inflammation biomarkers in older women: A randomized crossover trial.

Exp Gerontol 2020 10 24;139:111026. Epub 2020 Jul 24.

Department of Physical Education, Catholic University of Brasilia (UCB), Brasilia, Brazil. Electronic address:

Introduction: Contrary to the production of oxidant and inflammation biomarkers, antioxidant enzymes decrease with age and the adaptive response to oxidative stress is reduced. The effects of the different resistance exercise protocols to attenuate these conditions are largely unexplored.

Objective: We compared the acute effects of traditional resistance exercise (TRE) and high velocity RE (HVRE) on inflammatory biomarkers and antioxidant activity in elderly women.

Methods: Fourteen elderly women (67 ± 7 years) were randomly assigned to TRE or HVRE. Blood samples were collected to measure inflammatory markers and antioxidant enzymes at three time-points (pre-exercise, post-exercise, 30 min post-exercise).

Results: TRE and HVRE induced acute reductions over time on tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-6 (IL-6), soluble receptor of IL-6 (sIL-6R), as well in catalase, glutathione and superoxide dismutase antioxidant levels without differences between groups. In addition, TRE and HVRE groups displayed acute increments in interleukin-10 (IL-10) and IL-10/IL-6 ratio over time, while the HVRE protocol displayed higher IL-10 values post-exercise and 30 min post-exercise time points as compared with TRE. Based on magnitude based inference, subjects from the HVRE group demonstrated superior responsiveness for IL-6 and IL-10 as compared with the TRE group. All participants from the HVRE group displayed a minimal clinical important difference on IL-10 levels as compared to only two persons from the TRE group.

Conclusion: Both RE protocols were capable of positive changes in inflammatory and antioxidant status in elderly subjects, but HVRE demonstrated a superior response on IL-10. The HVRE may be incorporated to exercise recommendation in this population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.exger.2020.111026DOI Listing
October 2020

Resistance training improves sleep quality, redox balance and inflammatory profile in maintenance hemodialysis patients: a randomized controlled trial.

Sci Rep 2020 07 16;10(1):11708. Epub 2020 Jul 16.

Graduate Program of Physical Education, Catholic University of Brasilia (USB), EPTC, QS07, LT1 s/n. Bloco G Sala 117, Águas Claras, Taguatinga, Brasília, DF, 71966-700, Brazil.

Patients in maintenance hemodialisys (HD) present sleep disorders, increased inflammation, unbalanced redox profiles, and elevated biomarkers representing endothelial dysfunction. Resistance training (RT) has shown to mitigate the loss of muscle mass, strength, improve inflammatory profiles, and endothelial function while decreasing oxidative stress for those in HD. However, the relation between those factors and sleep quality are inadequately described. The aim of this study was to verify the effects of 3 months of RT on sleep quality, redox balance, nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability, inflammation profile, and asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) in patients undergoing HD. Our primary goal was to describe the role of RT on sleep quality. Our secondary goal was to evaluate the effect of RT on NO, metabolism markers, and inflammatory and redox profiles as potential mechanisms to explain RT-induced sleep quality changes. Fifty-five men undergoing maintenance hemodialysis were randomized into either a control (CTL, n = 25) and RT group (RTG; n = 30). Participants in the RT group demonstrated an improvement in sleep pattern, redox, inflammatory profiles, and biomarkers of endothelial function (NO and ADMA). This group also increased muscle strength (total workload in RT exercises of upper and lower limbs). These findings support that RT may improve the clinical status of HD patients by improving their sleep quality, oxidative and inflammatory parameters.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-68602-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7367305PMC
July 2020

Post Exercise Hypotension Following Concurrent Exercise: Does Order of Exercise Modality Matter?

Int J Exerc Sci 2020 1;13(2):36-48. Epub 2020 Feb 1.

Kinesiology, Recreation, and Sport, Western Kentucky University, Bowling Green, KY, USA.

Cardiovascular (CV) and resistance training (RT) can moderate negative effects of aging, disease, and inactivity. Post-exercise hypotension (PEH) has been used as a non-pharmacological means to control and reduce BP. Few have evaluated PEH response following a bout of exercise combining CV and RT, whether or not there is an order effect, or if PEH continues when activities of daily living (ADLs) are resumed. Participants ( = 10) completed a non-exercise control, a graded exercise test (GXT), and two concurrent sessions (CVRT and RTCV). Each session was followed by a 60-minute laboratory and 3-hour ADLs PEH assessment, respectively. Two-way and Welch-one-way repeated measures ANOVAs were used to determine differences between among conditions in PEH. There was a significant interaction between BP and condition following the 60-minute laboratory measure ( = .030, η = .166) and the ADLs BP assessments ( = .008, η = .993), respectively. PEH occurred following concurrent exercise conditions at minute 45 for RTCV (118 ± 8, = .041; 95% CI [0.223, 17.443]) and minutes 50 (117 ± 9; = .036 95% CI [0.441, 21.097]) and 55 (118 + 8; < .001; 95% CI [5.884, 14.731]) following CVRT. BP was elevated during ADLs following the control session compared to the GXT, RTCV, and CVRT. Regardless of the order, concurrent exercise is effective in potentiating PEH. Elevation in BP associated with ADLs can be mitigated if exercise is performed previously.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7039488PMC
February 2020

Effects of Pre-exhaustion Versus Traditional Resistance Training on Training Volume, Maximal Strength, and Quadriceps Hypertrophy.

Front Physiol 2019 19;10:1424. Epub 2019 Nov 19.

Graduation Program in Physical Education, Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, Brazil.

Background: The pre-exhaustion (PreEx) method is used as a resistance training (RT) method to increase muscle mass, yet the chronic effects of this method are poorly understood.

Objective: Although readily prescribed as a RT method for promotion of muscle hypertrophy, few researches give light to gains made after chronic PreEx RT. Therefore, we compared the effects of traditional versus PreEx RT programs on muscle strength, body composition, and muscular hypertrophy in adult males.

Methods: Untrained subjects (age: 31.37 ± 6.83 years; height: 175.29 ± 5.52 cm; body mass: 82.04 ± 13.61 kg; 1RM leg press: 339.86 ± 61.17 kg; 1RM leg extension: 121.71 ± 11.93 kg) were submitted to 9 weeks of RT with weekly sessions. Traditional (TRT) group ( = 12) performed three sets at 45° of leg press exercise at 75% of 1RM, PreEx group ( = 12) completed a set to failure on a leg extension machine prior to the leg press, and the control (CON) group ( = 7) did not train. Maximum strength, muscle thickness, and body composition were analyzed.

Results: PreEx group increased in maximal strength on leg press (16 ± 8%) and leg extension (17 ± 11%), while the TRT group improved by 15 ± 9 and 11 ± 4%, respectively. The thickness of the quadriceps muscles increased for both intervention groups. Specifically, the post-training thickness of the vastus lateralis was significantly higher for PreEx (55%) compared to the CON group. The TRT group presented a greater loss of total and thigh fat mass when compared with the PreEx method. These results were found in the presence of a lower training load for the PreEx group.

Conclusion: The PreEx training can decrease the total training volume while maintaining results in strength and hypertrophy when comparing to TRT. However, TRT may be optimal if the goal is to decrease fat mass.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2019.01424DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6882301PMC
November 2019

Effects of Combined Resistance Plus Aerobic Training on Body Composition, Muscle Strength, Aerobic Capacity, and Renal Function in Kidney Transplantation Subjects.

J Strength Cond Res 2019 Nov 7. Epub 2019 Nov 7.

Department of Physical Education, Federal University of Maranhao (UFMA), São Luis, Brazil.

Lima, PS, de Campos, AS, de Faria Neto, O, Ferreira, TCA, Amorim, CEN, Stone, WJ, Prestes, J, Garcia, AMC, and Urtado, CB. Effects of combined resistance plus aerobic training on body composition, muscle strength, aerobic capacity, and renal function in kidney transplantation subjects. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2019-Immunosuppression and a sedentary lifestyle may exacerbate complications such as early graft dysfunction and muscle loss, and reduce patient survival after kidney transplantation (KT). Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate changes in body composition (BC), muscular strength, aerobic, and renal function in KT subjects submitted to combined resistance plus aerobic training. Twelve KT subjects were randomly assigned into groups: (G1) 12 weeks of combined training (3 males and 4 females, 54 ± 3 years); or (G2) nonexercise control (5 females, 43 ± 18 years). The subjects were evaluated for BC (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), estimated V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak, right-hand maximal grip strength (RHMGS) and left-hand maximal grip strength (LHMGS), and renal function. Post-training revealed that G1 reduced body fat percentage (p = 0.046), uric acid (Δ = -0.87; p = 0.023), urea (Δ = -9.43; p = 0.032), and creatinine (Δ = -0.15; p = 0.045), increased fat-free mass, estimated V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak, RHMGS, LHMGS (p < 0.05), and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) (Δ = 11.64; p = 0.017). G2 increased urea (Δ = 8.20; p = 0.017), creatinine (Δ = 0.37; p = 0.028), and decreased eGFR (Δ = -16.10; p = 0.038). After 12 weeks, urea (Δ = 24.94; p = 0.013), uric acid (Δ = 1.64; p = 0.044), and creatinine (Δ = 0.9; p = 0.011) were lower, whereas eGFR (Δ = 36.51; p = 0.009) was higher in G1. These data indicate that combined training instigates positive changes in BC, muscular strength, aerobic capacity, and renal function after KT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000003274DOI Listing
November 2019

Dynamic, Not Isometric Resistance Training Improves Muscle Inflammation, Oxidative Stress and Hypertrophy in Rats.

Front Physiol 2019 22;10. Epub 2019 Jan 22.

Graduate Program in Physical Education, Catholic University of Brasília, Brasília, Brazil.

This study aimed to compare the effects of dynamic (DRT) and isometric (IRT) resistance training on blood glucose, muscle redox capacity, inflammatory state, and muscle strength and hypertrophy. Fifteen 12-week-old male Wistar rats were randomly allocated into three groups: control group (CTL), DRT, and IRT, = 5 animals per group. The animals were submitted to a maximal weight carried (MWC; every 15 days) and maximum isometric resistance (MIR; pre- and post-training) tests. Both training protocols were performed five times a week during 12 weeks, consisting of one set of eight uninterrupted climbs for 1 min with a 30% overload of MWC. The animals in the IRT group remained under isometry for 1 min. The DRT group experienced greater MWC from pre- to post-training compared to the CTL and IRT groups ( < 0.0001). The DRT and IRT groups displayed similar gains in MIR ( = 0.3658). The DRT group exhibited improved glycemic homeostasis ( = 0.0111), redox ( < 0.0001), and inflammatory ( < 0.0001) balance as compared with CTL and IRT groups. In addition, the improved glycemic profile was associated with an increase in muscle strength and hypertrophy, improvement in redox balance and inflammation status. We conclude that DRT was more effective than IRT on increasing cross-sectional area, but not muscle strength, in parallel to improved blood glucose, inflammatory status, and redox balance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2019.00004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6349781PMC
January 2019

Strength and Step Activity After Eccentric Resistance Training in Those With Incomplete Spinal Cord Injuries.

Top Spinal Cord Inj Rehabil 2018 7;24(4):343-352. Epub 2018 Aug 7.

Department of Health and Human Performance, Middle Tennessee State University, Murfreesboro, Tennessee.

Individuals with spinal cord injuries (SCIs) often experience general weakness in the lower extremities that undermines daily step activity. To investigate the efficacy of eccentrically biased resistance training on lower extremity strength and physical activity of individuals with spinal injuries. Individuals with long-standing incomplete SCIs ( = 11) capable of completing a 10-meter walk assessment were included. All participants who completed the familiarization period finished the training. Individuals trained two times per week for 12 weeks on a lower body eccentric resistance training machine. It was hypothesized that the outcome variables (eccentric strength, isometric strength, and daily step physical activity) would improve as a result of the training intervention. : Eccentric strength [(1.27, 12.71) = 8.42, = 1738.35, H-F = .009] and isometric strength [(1.97, 19.77) = 7.10, = 11.29, H-F = .005] improved as a result of the training while daily step activity remained unchanged [(2.00, 18.00) = 2.73, = 216,836.78, H-F = .092]. Eccentric resistance training improves eccentric and isometric strength. These physiological adaptations may translate to improved gait mechanics, but further study is required to identify this potential crossover effect.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1310/sci17-00052DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6241222PMC
December 2018

From the Editors: A Guide for Peer Review in the Field of Exercise Science.

Int J Exerc Sci 2018 1;11(1):1112-1119. Epub 2018 Oct 1.

School of Kinesiology, Recreation, and Sport, Western Kentucky University, Bowling Green, KY, USA.

Since its inception, the mission of the International Journal of Exercise Science (IJES) has been to engage student researchers, to provide an outlet for peer-review and possible publication of their work, and to grant an opportunity for them to gain experience as peer-reviewers. The Editors of IJES take pride in providing these opportunities for student involvement, and we are constantly seeking new and innovative ways to enhance students' professional development. As our readership has expanded across the globe and our scope has broadened to cross many Kinesiology related disciplines, we believe it is timely to revisit the purpose of peer-review, give advice on best practices, and provide a template for reviews. Presenting these guiding principles should simplify and streamline both the review and the revision processes for students and professionals alike.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6179432PMC
October 2018

Ambulation and physical function after eccentric resistance training in adults with incomplete spinal cord injury: A feasibility study.

J Spinal Cord Med 2019 07 23;42(4):526-533. Epub 2018 Jan 23.

b Health and Human Performance , Middle Tennessee State University , Murfreesboro, Tennessee , USA.

Strengthening the lower extremities has shown to positively influence walking mechanics in those with neurological deficiencies. Eccentric resistance training (ERT) is a potent stimulus for the development of muscular strength with low metabolic demand. Thereby, ERT may benefit those with incomplete spinal cord injuries (iSCI) seeking to improve ambulatory capacity. This study was aimed to determine the effect of ERT on walking speed, mobility, independence, and at home function following iSCI. Methods: Individuals with longstanding iSCI trained twice a week for 12 weeks on an eccentrically biased recumbent stepper. Walking speed (10 meter walk test; 10MWT), mobility (timed up and go), independence (Walking Index for Spinal Cord Injury; WISCI), and at home function (Spinal Cord Independence Measure; SCIM) were assessed at baseline, after 6 weeks, and after 12 weeks of ERT. There were improvements in walking mobility (158.36 + 165.84 seconds to 56.31 + 42.42 seconds, P = .034, d = 0.62), speed (0.34 + 0.42  m/s to 0.43 + 0.50  m/s, P = .005, d = .23), and independence (8 + 7 to 13 + 7, P = .004, d = .73) after 12 weeks of ERT. At home function remained unchanged (22 + 10 to 24 + 10, P = .10, d = .12). Improving lower extremity strength translated to walking performance and independence in those with iSCI. Additionally, ERT may diminish therapist burden in programs designed to improve ambulatory capacity or strength in those with iSCI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10790268.2017.1417804DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6718937PMC
July 2019

LOWER EXTREMITY KINEMATICS OF ACL-REPAIRED AND NON-INJURED FEMALES WHEN USING KNEE SAVERS®.

Int J Sports Phys Ther 2017 Oct;12(5):737-746

Department of Physical Therapy, Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, IN, USA.

Background: Knee Savers® (KS) are an ergonomic aid purported to lessen the risk of injuries linked to deep squats. While widely used in sports such as baseball and softball, KS have not been tested to determine their effect upon lower extremity kinematics in any population.

Purpose: The purpose of the study was to determine if KS influenced the lower extremity kinematics when females with previous anterior cruciate ligament (ACL)-reconstruction and healthy participants completed an end-range squat.

Study Design: A repeated measures, counter-balanced laboratory study design was used.

Methods: Twenty female participants (mean (SD) - age: 21.65 (2.06) yrs, height: 175.26 (9.29) cm, weight: 64.66 (7.72) kg) with a history of ACL-repair (n=10) or non-injury (n=10) completed this study. Participants completed a standardized trial of three deep squats with and without KS. Movement was analyzed using 2D video analysis methods increasingly available in clinical environments.

Results: During the ascending phases of a squatting motion, there was significantly greater medial ( = .009) and lateral ( = .005) motion of the patella in the frontal plane for non-injured participants, when compared to the ACL-repaired group. No significant differences were found in sagittal plane lower extremity kinematics when squatting with and without KS. Ascending angular velocity was slower in ACL-repaired than non-injured females ( = .008) and slower with the KS than without KS for non-injured females ( = .007).

Conclusions: When squatting with and without KS, the non-injured group experienced more frontal plane motion at the knee, compared to the ACL-repaired group. However, while KS are purported to influence lower extremity joint positions during the bottom phase of a deep squat, the data from the current study did not support this claim. Additionally, KS appear to slow ascending velocity for those without a history of ACL-repair. These findings may have clinically meaningful implications for athletes who use KS during sport activities.

Level Of Evidence: Level 2.
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Source
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5685415PMC
October 2017