Publications by authors named "Wesley Kephart"

33 Publications

Dose-Response of Paraxanthine on Cognitive Function: A Double Blind, Placebo Controlled, Crossover Trial.

Nutrients 2021 Dec 15;13(12). Epub 2021 Dec 15.

Exercise & Sport Nutrition Lab, Human Clinical Research Facility, Department of Health & Kinesiology, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843, USA.

Paraxanthine (PXN) is a metabolite of caffeine that has recently been reported to enhance cognition at a dose of 200 mg.

Objective: To determine the acute and short-term (7-day) effects of varying doses of PXN on cognitive function and side effects.

Methods: In a double blind, placebo-controlled, crossover, and counterbalanced manner, 12 healthy male and female volunteers (22.7 ± 4 years, 165 ± 7 cm, 66.5 ± 11 kg, 24.4 ± 3 kg/m) ingested 200 mg of a placebo (PLA), 50 mg of PXN (ENFINITY™, Ingenious Ingredients, L.P.) + 150 mg PLA, 100 mg PXN + 100 mg PLA, or 200 mg of PXN. With each treatment experiment, participants completed side effect questionnaires and donated a fasting blood sample. Participants then performed a series of tests assessing cognition, executive function, memory, and reaction time. Participants then ingested one capsule of PLA or PXN treatments. Participants then completed side effects and cognitive function tests after 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 h of treatment ingestion. Participants continued ingesting one dose of the assigned treatment daily for 6-days and returned to the lab on day 7 to donate a fasting blood sample, assess side effects, and perform cognitive function tests. Participants repeated the experiment while ingesting remaining treatments in a counterbalanced manner after at least a 7-day washout period until all treatments were assessed.

Results: The Sternberg Task Test (STT) 4-Letter Length Present Reaction Time tended to differ among groups ( = 0.06). Assessment of mean changes from baseline with 95% CI's revealed several significant differences among treatments in Berg-Wisconsin Card Sorting Correct Responses, Preservative Errors (PEBL), and Preservative Errors (PAR Rules). There was also evidence of significant differences among treatments in the Go/No-Go Task tests in Mean Accuracy as well as several time points of increasing complexity among STT variables. Finally, there was evidence from Psychomotor Vigilance Task Test assessment that response time improved over the series of 20 trials assessed as well as during the 6-h experiment in the PXN treatment. Acute and short-term benefits compared to PLA were seen with each dose studied but more consistent effects appeared to be at 100 mg and 200 mg doses. No significant differences were observed among treatments in clinical chemistry panels or the frequency or severity of reported side effects. Results provide evidence that acute ingestion of 100 mg and 200 mg of PXN may affect some measures of cognition, memory, reasoning, and response time as well as help sustain attention. Additionally, that acute and daily ingestion of PXN for 7 days is not associated with any clinically significant side effects.

Conclusions: PXN may serve as an effective nootropic agent at doses as low as 50 mg.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu13124478DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8708375PMC
December 2021

Acute Paraxanthine Ingestion Improves Cognition and Short-Term Memory and Helps Sustain Attention in a Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Crossover Trial.

Nutrients 2021 Nov 9;13(11). Epub 2021 Nov 9.

Human Clinical Research Facility, Exercise & Sport Nutrition Lab, Department of Health & Kinesiology, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843, USA.

This study examined the effects of acute paraxanthine (PXN) ingestion on markers of cognition, executive function, and psychomotor vigilance. In a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled, crossover, and counterbalanced manner, 13 healthy male and female participants were randomly assigned to consume a placebo (PLA) or 200 mg of PXN (ENFINITY™, Ingenious Ingredients, L.P.). Participants completed stimulant sensitivity and side effect questionnaires and then performed the Berg Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (BCST), the Go/No-Go test (GNG), the Sternberg task test (STT), and the psychomotor vigilance task test (PVTT). Participants then ingested one capsule of PLA or PXN treatment. Participants completed side effect and cognitive function tests after 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 h after ingestion of the supplement. After 7 days, participants repeated the experiment while consuming the alternative treatment. Data were analyzed by general linear model (GLM) univariate analyses with repeated measures using body mass as a covariate, and by assessing mean and percent changes from baseline with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) expressed as means (LL, UL). PXN decreased BCST errors (PXN -4.7 [-0.2, -9.20], = 0.04; PXN -17.5% [-36.1, 1.0], = 0.06) and perseverative errors (PXN -2.2 [-4.2, -0.2], = 0.03; PXN -32.8% [-64.4, 1.2], = 0.04) at hour 6. GNG analysis revealed some evidence that PXN ingestion better maintained mean accuracy over time and Condition R Round 2 response time (e.g., PXN -25.1 [-52.2, 1.9] ms, = 0.07 faster than PLA at 1 h), suggesting better sustained attention. PXN ingestion improved STT two-letter length absent and present reaction times over time as well as improving six-letter length absent reaction time after 2 h (PXN -86.5 ms [-165, -7.2], = 0.03; PXN -9.0% [-18.1, 0.2], = 0.05), suggesting that PXN enhanced the ability to store and retrieve random information of increasing complexity from short-term memory. A moderate treatment x time effect size (η = 0.08) was observed in PVTT, where PXN sustained vigilance during Trial 2 after 2 h (PXN 840 ms [103, 1576], = 0.03) and 4 h (PXN 1466 ms [579, 2353], = 0.002) compared to PL. As testing progressed, the response time improved during the 20 trials and over the course of the 6 h experiment in the PXN treatment, whereas it significantly increased in the PL group. The results suggest that acute PXN ingestion (200 mg) may affect some measures of short-term memory, reasoning, and response time to cognitive challenges and help sustain attention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu13113980DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8622427PMC
November 2021

Effects of Inositol-Enhanced Bonded Arginine Silicate Ingestion on Cognitive and Executive Function in Gamers.

Nutrients 2021 Oct 24;13(11). Epub 2021 Oct 24.

Exercise & Sport Nutrition Laboratory, Human Clinical Research Facility, Department of Health & Kinesiology, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843, USA.

Inositol stabilized arginine silicate (ASI) ingestion has been reported to increase nitric oxide levels while inositol (I) has been reported to enhance neurotransmission. The current study examined whether acute ASI + I (Inositol-enhanced bonded arginine silicate) ingestion affects cognitive function in e-sport gamers. In a double blind, randomized, placebo controlled, and crossover trial, 26 healthy male (n = 18) and female (n = 8) experienced gamers (23 ± 5 years, 171 ± 11 cm, 71.1 ± 14 kg, 20.7 ± 3.5 kg/m) were randomly assigned to consume 1600 mg of ASI + I (nooLVL, Nutrition 21) or 1600 mg of a maltodextrin placebo (PLA). Prior to testing, participants recorded their diet, refrained from consuming atypical amounts of stimulants and foods high in arginine and nitrates, and fasted for 8 h. During testing sessions, participants completed stimulant sensitivity questionnaires and performed cognitive function tests (i.e., Berg-Wisconsin Card Sorting task test, Go/No-Go test, Sternberg Task Test, Psychomotor Vigilance Task Test, Cambridge Brain Sciences Reasoning and Concentration test) and a light reaction test. Participants then ingested treatments in a randomized manner. Fifteen minutes following ingestion, participants repeated tests (Pre-Game). Participants then played their favorite video game for 1-h and repeated the battery of tests (Post-Game). Participants observed a 7-14-day washout period and then replicated the study with the alternative treatment. Data were analyzed by General Linear Model (GLM) univariate analyses with repeated measures using weight as a covariate, paired -tests (not adjusted to weight), and mean changes from baseline with 95% Confidence Intervals (CI). Pairwise comparison revealed that there was a significant improvement in Sternberg Mean Present Reaction Time (ASI + I vs. PLA; < 0.05). In Post-Game assessments, 4-letter Absent Reaction Time ( < 0.05), 6-letter Present Reaction Time ( < 0.01), 6-letter Absent Reaction Time ( < 0.01), Mean Present Reaction Time ( < 0.02), and Mean Absent Reaction Time ( < 0.03) were improved with ASI + I vs. PLA. There was a non-significant trend in Pre-Game Sternberg 4-letter Present Reaction time in ASI + I vs. PLA ( < 0.07). ASI + I ingestion better maintained changes in Go/No-Go Mean Accuracy and Reaction Time, Psychomotor Vigilance Task Reaction Time, and Cambridge Post-Game Visio-spatial Processing and Planning. Results provide evidence that ASI + I ingestion prior to playing video games may enhance some measures of short-term and working memory, reaction time, reasoning, and concentration in experienced gamers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu13113758DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8618773PMC
October 2021

Ketogenic diet increases mitochondria volume in the liver and skeletal muscle without altering oxidative stress markers in rats.

Heliyon 2018 Nov 24;4(11):e00975. Epub 2018 Nov 24.

School of Kinesiology, Auburn University, Auburn, AL, USA.

Ketogenic diets (KD) consist of high fat, moderate protein and low carbohydrates. Studies have suggested that KD may influence oxidative stress by affecting mitochondrial quantity and/or quality, and perhaps lengthen lifespan. Therefore, we determined the effects of KD on multi-organ mitochondria volume and oxidative stress markers in rats. Ten month-old male Fisher 344 rats (n = 8 per group) were provided with one of two isocaloric diets: standard chow (SC) or KD. Rats were euthanized if: a) vitality scores exceeded a score of 16, b) rapid weight loss, or c) veterinarian deemed euthanasia necessary. The median lifespan of rats was higher in KD (762 days) compared to SC (624 days). Citrate synthase activity (i.e. estimate of mitochondria volume) was higher in the liver (p = 0.034) and gastrocnemius (p = 0.041) of KD compared to SC. Liver superoxide dismutase 1 and catalase antioxidant protein levels were higher in KD, albeit not significant (p = 0.094 and p = 0.062, respectively). No significant differences in protein levels of other antioxidants or markers of lipid and protein oxidative damage were observed in either the gastrocnemius, liver, or brain. In summary, KD increased mitochondria volume in liver and gastrocnemius and median lifespan in rats. Additionally, our data show that the increase in mitochondrial volume occurred without changes in oxidative damage or antioxidant protein levels in the gastrocnemius, liver, or brain.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2018.e00975DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6260463PMC
November 2018

Effect of 1-week betalain-rich beetroot concentrate supplementation on cycling performance and select physiological parameters.

Eur J Appl Physiol 2018 Nov 28;118(11):2465-2476. Epub 2018 Aug 28.

School of Kinesiology, Auburn University, Auburn, AL, USA.

Purpose: Betalains are indole-derived pigments found in beet root, and recent studies suggest that they may exert ergogenic effects. Herein, we examined if supplementation for 7 days with betalain-rich beetroot concentrate (BLN) improved cycling performance or altered hemodynamic and serum analytes prior to, during and following a cycling time trial (TT).

Methods: Twenty-eight trained male cyclists (29 ± 10 years, 77.3 ± 13.3 kg, and 3.03 ± 0.62 W/kg) performed a counterbalanced crossover study whereby BLN (100 mg/day) or placebo (PLA) supplementation occurred over 7 days with a 1-week washout between conditions. On the morning of day seven of each supplementation condition, participants consumed one final serving of BLN or PLA and performed a 30-min cycling TT with concurrent assessment of several physiological variables and blood markers.

Results: BLN supplementation improved average absolute power compared to PLA (231.6 ± 36.2 vs. 225.3 ± 35.8 W, p = 0.050, d = 0.02). Average relative power, distance traveled, blood parameters (e.g., pH, lactate, glucose, NOx) and inflammatory markers (e.g., IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, TNFα) were not significantly different between conditions. BLN supplementation significantly improved exercise efficiency (W/ml/kg/min) in the last 5 min of the TT compared to PLA (p = 0.029, d = 0.45). Brachial artery blood flow in the BLN condition, immediately post-exercise, tended to be greater compared to PLA (p = 0.065, d = 0.32).

Conclusions: We report that 7 days of BLN supplementation modestly improves 30-min TT power output, exercise efficiency as well as post-exercise blood flow without increasing plasma NOx levels or altering blood markers of inflammation, oxidative stress, and/or hematopoiesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00421-018-3973-1DOI Listing
November 2018

Correction to: Ten weeks of branched-chain amino acid supplementation improves select performance and immunological variables in trained cyclists.

Amino Acids 2018 10;50(10):1495

School of Kinesiology, Molecular and Applied Sciences Laboratory, Auburn University, 301 Wire Road, Office 286, Auburn, AL, 36849, USA.

For the author R. Mac Thompson, the first name should be R. Mac and the last name should be Thompson. On SpringerLink the name is listed correctly, but on PubMed he is listed as Mac Thompson R.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00726-018-2632-5DOI Listing
October 2018

Author Correction: Soy protein supplementation is not androgenic or estrogenic in college-aged men when combined with resistance exercise training.

Sci Rep 2018 Aug 10;8(1):12221. Epub 2018 Aug 10.

Molecular and Applied Sciences Laboratory, School of Kinesiology, Auburn University, Auburn, AL, USA.

A correction to this article has been published and is linked from the HTML and PDF versions of this paper. The error has been fixed in the paper.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-30574-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6086892PMC
August 2018

Soy protein supplementation is not androgenic or estrogenic in college-aged men when combined with resistance exercise training.

Sci Rep 2018 07 24;8(1):11151. Epub 2018 Jul 24.

Molecular and Applied Sciences Laboratory, School of Kinesiology, Auburn University, Auburn, AL, USA.

It is currently unclear as to whether sex hormones are significantly affected by soy or whey protein consumption. Additionally, estrogenic signaling may be potentiated via soy protein supplementation due to the presence of phytoestrogenic isoflavones. Limited also evidence suggests that whey protein supplementation may increase androgenic signaling. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the effects of soy protein concentrate (SPC), whey protein concentrate (WPC), or placebo (PLA) supplementation on serum sex hormones, androgen signaling markers in muscle tissue, and estrogen signaling markers in subcutaneous (SQ) adipose tissue of previously untrained, college-aged men (n = 47, 20 ± 1 yrs) that resistance trained for 12 weeks. Fasting serum total testosterone increased pre- to post-training, but more so in subjects consuming WPC (p < 0.05), whereas serum 17β-estradiol remained unaltered. SQ estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) protein expression and hormone-sensitive lipase mRNA increased with training regardless of supplementation. Muscle androgen receptor (AR) mRNA increased while ornithine decarboxylase mRNA (a gene target indicative of androgen signaling) decreased with training regardless of supplementation (p < 0.05). No significant interactions of supplement and time were observed for adipose tissue ERα/β protein levels, muscle tissue AR protein levels, or mRNAs in either tissue indicative of altered estrogenic or androgenic activity. Interestingly, WPC had the largest effect on increasing type II muscle fiber cross sectional area values (Cohen's d = 1.30), whereas SPC had the largest effect on increasing this metric in type I fibers (Cohen's d = 0.84). These data suggest that, while isoflavones were detected in SPC, chronic WPC or SPC supplementation did not appreciably affect biomarkers related to muscle androgenic signaling or SQ estrogenic signaling. The noted fiber type-specific responses to WPC and SPC supplementation warrant future research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-29591-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6057888PMC
July 2018

Red Spinach Extract Increases Ventilatory Threshold during Graded Exercise Testing.

Sports (Basel) 2017 Oct 16;5(4). Epub 2017 Oct 16.

Department of Cell Biology and Physiology, Edward Via College of Osteopathic Medicine-Auburn Campus, Auburn, AL 36832, USA.

We examined the acute effect of a red spinach extract (RSE) (1000 mg dose; ~90 mg nitrate (NO 3 - )) on performance markers during graded exercise testing (GXT). For this randomized, double-blind, placebo (PBO)-controlled, crossover study, 15 recreationally-active participants (aged 23.1 ± 3.3 years; BMI: 27.2 ± 3.7 kg/m²) reported >2 h post-prandial and performed GXT 65⁻75 min post-RSE or PBO ingestion. Blood samples were collected at baseline (BL), pre-GXT (65⁻75 min post-ingestion; PRE), and immediately post-GXT (POST). GXT commenced with continuous analysis of expired gases. Plasma concentrations of NO 3 - increased PRE (+447 ± 294%; < 0.001) and POST (+378 ± 179%; < 0.001) GXT with RSE, but not with PBO (+3 ± 26%, -8 ± 24%, respectively; > 0.05). No effect on circulating nitrite (NO 2 - ) was observed with RSE (+3.3 ± 7.5%, +7.7 ± 11.8% PRE and POST, respectively; > 0.05) or PBO (-0.5 ± 7.9%, -0.2 ± 8.1% PRE and POST, respectively; > 0.05). When compared to PBO, there was a moderate effect of RSE on plasma NO 2 - at PRE (g = 0.50 [-0.26, 1.24] and POST g = 0.71 [-0.05, 1.48]). During GXT, VO₂ at the ventilatory threshold was significantly higher with RSE compared to PBO (+6.1 ± 7.3%; < 0.05), though time-to-exhaustion (-4.0 ± 7.7%; > 0.05) and maximal aerobic power (i.e., VO₂ peak; -0.8 ± 5.6%; > 0.05) were non-significantly lower with RSE. RSE as a nutritional supplement may elicit an ergogenic response by delaying the ventilatory threshold.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/sports5040080DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5969023PMC
October 2017

The Three-Month Effects of a Ketogenic Diet on Body Composition, Blood Parameters, and Performance Metrics in CrossFit Trainees: A Pilot Study.

Sports (Basel) 2018 Jan 9;6(1). Epub 2018 Jan 9.

School of Kinesiology, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849, USA.

Adopting low carbohydrate, ketogenic diets remains a controversial issue for individuals who resistance train given that this form of dieting has been speculated to reduce skeletal muscle glycogen levels and stifle muscle anabolism. We sought to characterize the effects of a 12-week ketogenic diet (KD) on body composition, metabolic, and performance parameters in participants who trained recreationally at a local CrossFit facility. Twelve participants (nine males and three females, 31 ± 2 years of age, 80.3 ± 5.1 kg body mass, 22.9 ± 2.3% body fat, 1.37 back squat: body mass ratio) were divided into a control group (CTL; = 5) and a KD group ( = 7). KD participants were given dietary guidelines to follow over 12 weeks while CTL participants were instructed to continue their normal diet throughout the study, and all participants continued their CrossFit training routine for 12 weeks. Pre, 2.5-week, and 12-week anaerobic performance tests were conducted, and pre- and 12-week tests were performed for body composition using dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and ultrasound, resting energy expenditure (REE), blood-serum health markers, and aerobic capacity. Additionally, blood beta hydroxybutyrate (BHB) levels were measured weekly. Blood BHB levels were 2.8- to 9.5-fold higher in KD versus CTL throughout confirming a state of nutritional ketosis. DXA fat mass decreased by 12.4% in KD ( = 0.053). DXA total lean body mass changes were not different between groups, although DXA dual-leg lean mass decreased in the KD group by 1.4% ( = 0.068), and vastus lateralis thickness values decreased in the KD group by ~8% ( = 0.065). Changes in fasting glucose, HDL cholesterol, and triglycerides were similar between groups, although LDL cholesterol increased ~35% in KD ( = 0.048). Between-group changes in REE, one-repetition maximum (1-RM) back squat, 400 m run times, and VO were similar between groups. While our -sizes were limited, these preliminary data suggest that adopting a ketogenic diet causes marked reductions in whole-body adiposity while not impacting performance measures in recreationally-trained CrossFit trainees. Whether decrements in dual-leg muscle mass and vastus lateralis thickness in KD participants were due to fluid shifts remain unresolved, and increased LDL-C in these individuals warrants further investigation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/sports6010001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5969192PMC
January 2018

Cross talk between androgen and Wnt signaling potentially contributes to age-related skeletal muscle atrophy in rats.

J Appl Physiol (1985) 2018 08 3;125(2):486-494. Epub 2018 May 3.

School of Kinesiology, Auburn University , Auburn, Alabama.

We sought to determine whether age-related gastrocnemius muscle mass loss was associated with parallel decrements in androgen receptor (AR) or select Wnt signaling markers. To test this hypothesis, serum-free and total testosterone (TEST) and gastrocnemius AR and Wnt signaling markers were analyzed in male Fischer 344 rats that were 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 mo (mo) old ( n = 9 per group). Free and total TEST was greatest in 6 mo rats, and AR protein and Wnt5 protein levels linearly declined with aging. There were associations between Wnt5 protein levels and relative gastrocnemius mass ( r = 0.395, P = 0.007) as well as AR and Wnt5 protein levels (r = 0.670, P < 0.001). We next tested the hypothesis that Wnt5 affects muscle fiber size by treating CC-derived myotubes with lower (75 ng/ml) and higher (150 ng/ml) concentrations of recombinant Wnt5a protein. Both treatments increased myotube size ( P < 0.05) suggesting this ligand may affect muscle fiber size in vivo. We next tested if Wnt5a protein levels were androgen-modulated by examining 10-mo-old male Fischer 344 rats ( n = 10-11 per group) that were orchiectomized and treated with testosterone-enanthate (TEST-E); trenbolone enanthate (TREN), a nonaromatizable synthetic testosterone analogue; or a vehicle (ORX only) for 4 wk. Interestingly, TEST-E and TREN treatments increased Wnt5a protein in the androgen-sensitive levator ani/bulbocavernosus muscle compared with ORX only ( P < 0.05). To summarize, aromatizable and nonaromatizable androgens increase Wnt5a protein expression in skeletal muscle, age-related decrements in muscle AR may contribute Wnt5a protein decrements, and our in vitro data imply this mechanism may contribute to age-related muscle loss. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Results from this study demonstrate androgen and Wnt5 protein expression decrease with aging, and this may be a mechanism involved with age-related muscle loss.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00768.2017DOI Listing
August 2018

Biomarkers associated with low, moderate, and high vastus lateralis muscle hypertrophy following 12 weeks of resistance training.

PLoS One 2018 5;13(4):e0195203. Epub 2018 Apr 5.

School of Kinesiology, Auburn University, Auburn, AL, United States of America.

We sought to identify biomarkers which delineated individual hypertrophic responses to resistance training. Untrained, college-aged males engaged in full-body resistance training (3 d/wk) for 12 weeks. Body composition via dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), vastus lateralis (VL) thickness via ultrasound, blood, VL muscle biopsies, and three-repetition maximum (3-RM) squat strength were obtained prior to (PRE) and following (POST) 12 weeks of training. K-means cluster analysis based on VL thickness changes identified LOW [n = 17; change (mean±SD) = +0.11±0.14 cm], modest (MOD; n = 29, +0.40±0.06 cm), and high (HI; n = 21, +0.69±0.14 cm) responders. Biomarkers related to histology, ribosome biogenesis, proteolysis, inflammation, and androgen signaling were analyzed between clusters. There were main effects of time (POST>PRE, p<0.05) but no cluster×time interactions for increases in DXA lean body mass, type I and II muscle fiber cross sectional area and myonuclear number, satellite cell number, and macronutrients consumed. Interestingly, PRE VL thickness was ~12% greater in LOW versus HI (p = 0.021), despite POST values being ~12% greater in HI versus LOW (p = 0.006). However there was only a weak correlation between PRE VL thickness scores and change in VL thickness (r2 = 0.114, p = 0.005). Forced post hoc analysis indicated that muscle total RNA levels (i.e., ribosome density) did not significantly increase in the LOW cluster (351±70 ng/mg to 380±62, p = 0.253), but increased in the MOD (369±115 to 429±92, p = 0.009) and HI clusters (356±77 to 470±134, p<0.001; POST HI>POST LOW, p = 0.013). Nonetheless, there was only a weak association between change in muscle total RNA and VL thickness (r2 = 0.079, p = 0.026). IL-1β mRNA levels decreased in the MOD and HI clusters following training (p<0.05), although associations between this marker and VL thickness changes were not significant (r2 = 0.0002, p = 0.919). In conclusion, individuals with lower pre-training VL thickness values and greater increases muscle total RNA levels following 12 weeks of resistance training experienced greater VL muscle growth, although these biomarkers individually explained only ~8-11% of the variance in hypertrophy.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0195203PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5886420PMC
July 2018

Acute and chronic resistance training downregulates select LINE-1 retrotransposon activity markers in human skeletal muscle.

Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 2018 03 20;314(3):C379-C388. Epub 2017 Dec 20.

School of Kinesiology, Auburn University , Auburn, Alabama.

Herein, we examined if acute or chronic resistance exercise affected markers of skeletal muscle long interspersed nuclear element-1 (LINE-1) retrotransposon activity. In study 1, 10 resistance-trained college-aged men performed three consecutive daily back squat sessions, and vastus lateralis biopsies were taken before (Pre), 2 h following session 1 (Post1), and 3 days following session 3 (Post2). In study 2, 13 untrained college-aged men performed a full-body resistance training program (3 days/wk), and vastus lateralis biopsies were taken before ( week 0) and ~72 h following training cessation ( week 12). In study 1, LINE-1 mRNA decreased 42-48% at Post1 and 2 ( P < 0.05), and reverse transcriptase (RT) activity trended downward at Post2 (-37%, P = 0.067). In study 2, LINE-1 mRNA trended downward at week 12 (-17%, P = 0.056) while LINE-1 promoter methylation increased (+142%, P = 0.041). Open reading frame (ORF)2p protein expression (-24%, P = 0.059) and RT activity (-26%, P = 0.063) also trended downward by week 12. Additionally, changes in RT activity versus satellite cell number were inversely associated ( r = -0.725, P = 0.008). Follow-up in vitro experiments demonstrated that 48-h treatments with lower doses (1 μM and 10 μM) of efavirenz and nevirapine (non-nucleoside RT inhibitors) increased myoblast proliferation ( P < 0.05). However, we observed a paradoxical decrease in myoblast proliferation with higher doses (50 μM) of efavirenz and delavirdine. This is the first report suggesting that resistance exercise downregulates markers of skeletal muscle LINE-1 activity. Given our discordant in vitro findings, future research is needed to thoroughly assess whether LINE-1-mediated RT activity enhances or blunts myoblast, or primary satellite cell, proliferative capacity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpcell.00192.2017DOI Listing
March 2018

Concomitant external pneumatic compression treatment with consecutive days of high intensity interval training reduces markers of proteolysis.

Eur J Appl Physiol 2017 Dec 26;117(12):2587-2600. Epub 2017 Oct 26.

School of Kinesiology, Auburn University, Auburn, AL, USA.

Purpose: To compare the effects of external pneumatic compression (EPC) and sham when used concurrently with high intensity interval training (HIIT) on performance-related outcomes and recovery-related molecular measures.

Methods: Eighteen recreationally endurance-trained male participants (age: 21.6 ± 2.4 years, BMI: 25.7 ± 0.5 kg/m, VO: 51.3 ± 0.9 mL/kg/min) were randomized to balanced sham and EPC treatment groups. Three consecutive days of HIIT followed by EPC/sham treatment (Days 2-4) and 3 consecutive days of recovery (Days 5-7) with EPC/sham only on Days 5-6 were employed. Venipuncture, flexibility and pressure-to-pain threshold (PPT) measurements were made throughout. Vastus lateralis muscle was biopsied at PRE (i.e., Day 1), 1-h post-EPC/sham treatment on Day 2 (POST1), and 24-h post-EPC/sham treatment on Day 7 (POST2). 6-km run time trial performance was tested at PRE and POST2.

Results: No group × time interaction was observed for flexibility, PPT, or serum measures of creatine kinase (CK), hsCRP, and 8-isoprostane. However, there was a main effect of time for serum CK (p = 0.005). Change from PRE in 6-km run times at POST2 were not significantly different between groups. Significant between-groups differences existed for change from PRE in atrogin-1 mRNA (p = 0.018) at the POST1 time point (EPC: - 19.7 ± 8.1%, sham: + 7.7 ± 5.9%) and atrogin-1 protein concentration (p = 0.013) at the POST2 time point (EPC: - 31.8 ± 7.5%, sham: + 96.0 ± 34.7%). In addition, change from PRE in poly-Ub proteins was significantly different between groups at both the POST1 (EPC: - 26.0 ± 10.3%, sham: + 34.8 ± 28.5%; p = 0.046) and POST2 (EPC: - 33.7 ± 17.2%, sham: + 21.4 ± 14.9%; p = 0.037) time points.

Conclusions: EPC when used concurrently with HIIT and in subsequent recovery days reduces skeletal muscle markers of proteolysis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00421-017-3746-2DOI Listing
December 2017

Molecular, neuromuscular, and recovery responses to light versus heavy resistance exercise in young men.

Physiol Rep 2017 Sep 27;5(18). Epub 2017 Sep 27.

School of Kinesiology, Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama

Recent evidence suggests that resistance training with light or heavy loads to failure results in similar adaptations. Herein, we compared how both training modalities affect the molecular, neuromuscular, and recovery responses following exercise. Resistance-trained males (mean ± SE: 22 ± 2 years, 84.8 ± 9.0 kg, 1.79 ± 0.06 m;  = 15) performed a crossover design of four sets of leg extensor exercise at 30% (light RE) or 80% (heavy RE) one repetition maximum (1RM) to repetition failure, and heavy RE or light RE 1 week later. Surface electromyography (EMG) was monitored during exercise, and vastus lateralis muscle biopsies were collected at baseline (PRE), 15 min (15mPOST), and 90 min following RE (90mPOST) for examination of molecular targets and fiber typing. Isokinetic dynamometry was also performed before (PRE), immediately after (POST), and 48 h after (48hPOST) exercise. Dependent variables were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVAs and significance was set at  ≤ 0.05. Repetitions completed were greater during light RE ( < 0.01), while EMG amplitude was greater during heavy RE ( ≤ 0.01). POST isokinetic torque was reduced following light versus heavy RE ( < 0.05). Postexercise expression of mRNAs and phosphoproteins associated with muscle hypertrophy were similar between load conditions. Additionally, p70s6k (Thr389) phosphorylation and fast-twitch fiber proportion exhibited a strong relationship after both light and heavy RE ( > 0.5). While similar mRNA and phosphoprotein responses to both modalities occurred, we posit that heavy RE is a more time-efficient training method given the differences in total repetitions completed, lower EMG amplitude during light RE, and impaired recovery response after light RE.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.14814/phy2.13457DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5617935PMC
September 2017

The 1-Week and 8-Month Effects of a Ketogenic Diet or Ketone Salt Supplementation on Multi-Organ Markers of Oxidative Stress and Mitochondrial Function in Rats.

Nutrients 2017 Sep 15;9(9). Epub 2017 Sep 15.

School of Kinesiology, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849, USA.

We determined the short- and long-term effects of a ketogenic diet (KD) or ketone salt (KS) supplementation on multi-organ oxidative stress and mitochondrial markers. For short-term feedings, 4 month-old male rats were provided isocaloric amounts of KD ( = 10), standard chow (SC) ( = 10) or SC + KS (~1.2 g/day, = 10). For long-term feedings, 4 month-old male rats were provided KD ( = 8), SC ( = 7) or SC + KS ( = 7) for 8 months and rotarod tested every 2 months. Blood, brain (whole cortex), liver and gastrocnemius muscle were harvested from all rats for biochemical analyses. Additionally, mitochondria from the brain, muscle and liver tissue of long-term-fed rats were analyzed for mitochondrial quantity (maximal citrate synthase activity), quality (state and respiration) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) assays. Liver antioxidant capacity trended higher in short-term KD- and SC + KS-fed versus SC-fed rats, and short-term KD-fed rats exhibited significantly greater serum ketones compared to SC + KS-fed rats indicating that the diet (not KS supplementation) induced ketonemia. In long term-fed rats: (a) serum ketones were significantly greater in KD- versus SC- and SC + KS-fed rats; (b) liver antioxidant capacity and glutathione peroxidase protein was significantly greater in KD- versus SC-fed rats, respectively, while liver protein carbonyls were lowest in KD-fed rats; and (c) gastrocnemius mitochondrial ROS production was significantly greater in KD-fed rats versus other groups, and this paralleled lower mitochondrial glutathione levels. Additionally, the gastrocnemius pyruvate-malate mitochondrial respiratory control ratio was significantly impaired in long-term KD-fed rats, and gastrocnemius mitochondrial quantity was lowest in these animals. Rotarod performance was greatest in KD-fed rats versus all other groups at 2, 4 and 8 months, although there was a significant age-related decline in performance existed in KD-fed rats which was not evident in the other two groups. In conclusion, short- and long-term KD improves select markers of liver oxidative stress compared to SC feeding, although long-term KD feeding may negatively affect skeletal muscle mitochondrial physiology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu9091019DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5622779PMC
September 2017

Effects of Whey, Soy or Leucine Supplementation with 12 Weeks of Resistance Training on Strength, Body Composition, and Skeletal Muscle and Adipose Tissue Histological Attributes in College-Aged Males.

Nutrients 2017 Sep 4;9(9). Epub 2017 Sep 4.

School of Kinesiology, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849, USA.

We sought to determine the effects of L-leucine (LEU) or different protein supplements standardized to LEU (~3.0 g/serving) on changes in body composition, strength, and histological attributes in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue. Seventy-five untrained, college-aged males (mean ± standard error of the mean (SE); age = 21 ± 1 years, body mass = 79.2 ± 0.3 kg) were randomly assigned to an isocaloric, lipid-, and organoleptically-matched maltodextrin placebo (PLA, = 15), LEU ( = 14), whey protein concentrate (WPC, = 17), whey protein hydrolysate (WPH, = 14), or soy protein concentrate (SPC, = 15) group. Participants performed whole-body resistance training three days per week for 12 weeks while consuming supplements twice daily. Skeletal muscle and subcutaneous (SQ) fat biopsies were obtained at baseline (T1) and ~72 h following the last day of training (T39). Tissue samples were analyzed for changes in type I and II fiber cross sectional area (CSA), non-fiber specific satellite cell count, and SQ adipocyte CSA. On average, all supplement groups including PLA exhibited similar training volumes and experienced statistically similar increases in total body skeletal muscle mass determined by dual X-ray absorptiometry (+2.2 kg; time = 0.024) and type I and II fiber CSA increases (+394 μm² and +927 μm²; time < 0.001 and 0.024, respectively). Notably, all groups reported increasing Calorie intakes ~600-800 kcal/day from T1 to T39 (time < 0.001), and all groups consumed at least 1.1 g/kg/day of protein at T1 and 1.3 g/kg/day at T39. There was a training, but no supplementation, effect regarding the reduction in SQ adipocyte CSA (-210 μm²; time = 0.001). Interestingly, satellite cell counts within the WPC ( < 0.05) and WPH ( < 0.05) groups were greater at T39 relative to T1. In summary, LEU or protein supplementation (standardized to LEU content) does not provide added benefit in increasing whole-body skeletal muscle mass or strength above PLA following 3 months of training in previously untrained college-aged males that increase Calorie intakes with resistance training and consume above the recommended daily intake of protein throughout training. However, whey protein supplementation increases skeletal muscle satellite cell number in this population, and this phenomena may promote more favorable training adaptations over more prolonged periods.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu9090972DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5622732PMC
September 2017

Aging in Rats Differentially Affects Markers of Transcriptional and Translational Capacity in Soleus and Plantaris Muscle.

Front Physiol 2017 20;8:518. Epub 2017 Jul 20.

School of Kinesiology, Auburn UniversityAuburn, AL, United States.

Alterations in transcriptional and translational mechanisms occur during skeletal muscle aging and such changes may contribute to age-related atrophy. Herein, we examined markers related to global transcriptional output (i.e., myonuclear number, total mRNA and RNA pol II levels), translational efficiency [i.e., eukaryotic initiation and elongation factor levels and muscle protein synthesis (MPS) levels] and translational capacity (ribosome density) in the slow-twitch soleus and fast-twitch plantaris muscles of male Fischer 344 rats aged 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months ( = 9-10 per group). We also examined alterations in markers of proteolysis and oxidative stress in these muscles (i.e., 20S proteasome activity, poly-ubiquinated protein levels and 4-HNE levels). Notable plantaris muscle observations included: (a) fiber cross sectional area (CSA) was 59% ( < 0.05) and 48% ( < 0.05) greater in 12 month vs. 3 month and 24 month rats, respectively, suggesting a peak lifetime value near 12 months and age-related atrophy by 24 months, (b) MPS levels were greatest in 18 month rats ( < 0.05) despite the onset of atrophy, (c) while regulators of ribosome biogenesis [c-Myc and upstream binding factor (UBF) protein levels] generally increased with age, ribosome density linearly decreased from 3 months of age and RNA polymerase (Pol) I protein levels were lowest in 24 month rats, and d) 20S proteasome activity was robustly up-regulated in 6 and 24 month rats ( < 0.05). Notable soleus muscle observations included: (a) fiber CSA was greatest in 6 month rats and was maintained in older age groups, and (b) 20S proteasome activity was modestly but significantly greater in 24 month vs. 3/12/18 month rats ( < 0.05), and (c) total mRNA levels (suggestive of transcriptional output) trended downward in older rats despite non-significant between-group differences in myonuclear number and/or RNA Pol II protein levels. Collectively, these findings suggest that plantaris, not soleus, atrophy occurs following 12 months of age in male Fisher rats and this may be due to translational deficits (i.e., changes in MPS and ribosome density) and/or increases in proteolysis rather than increased oxidative stress and/or alterations in global transcriptional mechanisms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2017.00518DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5517446PMC
July 2017

A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial to Determine the Effectiveness and Safety of a Thermogenic Supplement in Addition to an Energy-Restricted Diet in Apparently Healthy Females.

J Diet Suppl 2017 Nov 7;14(6):653-666. Epub 2017 Apr 7.

d Molecular and Applied Sciences Laboratory , School of Kinesiology, Auburn University , Auburn , AL , USA.

The increasing interest in weight loss has seen a concurrent rise in the supplemental use of thermogenics to aid weight loss efforts. To date, the effectiveness and safety of supplemental proprietary blend thermogenics, in conjunction with high-protein energy-restricted diets have not been thoroughly evaluated. The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of a low-calorie, high-protein diet with and without the concomitant use of a thermogenic supplement on body weight and body composition in apparently healthy females. Subjects were divided into three groups, Bizzy Diet+FitMiss Burn (BURN, N = 12), Bizzy Diet+Placebo (PLA, N = 13), and Control (CON, N = 14), and underwent two testing sessions separated by approximately 3 weeks. Resting blood pressure (BP), resting heart rate (RHR), clinical safety markers, body weight (BW), and body composition were assessed during each testing session. Repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed a significant effect for time relative to BW, total body fat mass (FM), leg FM, and trunk FM. Post hoc analysis revealed that the BURN and PLA groups experienced significant decreases in both BW and total body FM compared to CON (p <.05). There were no significant interactions for BP, RHR, or clinical safety markers over the course of the study. The Bizzy Diet, both with and without the addition of FitMiss Burn thermogenic, appears to be safe for short-term use and may lead to greater improvement in body composition and BW in an apparently healthy female population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/19390211.2017.1304484DOI Listing
November 2017

Effects of twelve weeks of capsaicinoid supplementation on body composition, appetite and self-reported caloric intake in overweight individuals.

Appetite 2017 06 21;113:264-273. Epub 2017 Feb 21.

Human Performance Laboratory, University of Mary Hardin-Baylor, Belton, TX 76513, United States. Electronic address:

We examined if 12 weeks of capsaicinoid (CAP) supplementation affected appetite, body composition and metabolic health markers. Seventy seven healthy male and female volunteers (30 ± 1 y, 171.2 ± 9.8 cm, 81.0 ± 2.2 kg, 27.5 ± 0.6 kg/m) were randomly assigned to ingest either low-dose CAP (2 mg/d; L-CAP, n = 27), high-dose CAP (4 mg/d; H-CAP, n = 22) from Capsimax or placebo (corn starch; PLA, n = 28) for 12 weeks. At baseline (0 WK), 6 weeks (6 WK) and 12 weeks (12 WK) waist: hip ratio, body composition via dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA, 0 WK and 12 WK only), self-reported Calorie intakes, appetite levels via Council on Nutrition Appetite Questionnaire (CNAQ) and serum metabolic health markers (0 WK and 12 WK only) were analyzed. Moreover, an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was administered at 0 WK and 12 WK, and serum glucose and insulin responses were examined 30-120 min post test-drink consumption. Waist: hip ratio significantly decreased in L-CAP from 0 WK to 6 WK (p < 0.05), although supplementation did not significantly affect body composition. H-CAP consumed less kcal/d compared to PLA at 12 WK (difference = 257 kcal/d, p < 0.05) and L-CAP participants at 12 WK (difference = 247, p < 0.05). Twenty-three percent (9/39) of the originally-enrolled H-CAP participants reported GI distress, although no participants in the L-CAP group reported such adverse events. Interestingly, H-CAP participants presented significant increases in serum insulin as well as significant decreases in serum HDL cholesterol levels from WK0 to WK12. However, supplementation did not affect the insulin response to the administered OGTT and/or other indices of insulin sensitivity. These data suggest that H-CAP supplementation reduces self-reported energy intake after 12 weeks of supplementation, and L-CAP supplementation also reduces waist: hip ratio. Longer-term effects of capsaicinoid supplementation on basal insulin and cholesterol levels warrant further investigation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.appet.2017.02.025DOI Listing
June 2017

Impact of external pneumatic compression target inflation pressure on transcriptome-wide RNA expression in skeletal muscle.

Physiol Rep 2016 11;4(22)

Department of Cell Biology and Physiology, Edward Via College of Osteopathic Medicine - Auburn Campus, Auburn, Alabama.

Next-generation RNA sequencing was employed to determine the acute and subchronic impact of peristaltic pulse external pneumatic compression (PEPC) of different target inflation pressures on global gene expression in human vastus lateralis skeletal muscle biopsy samples. Eighteen (N = 18) male participants were randomly assigned to one of the three groups: (1) sham (n = 6), 2) EPC at 30-40 mmHg (LP-EPC; n = 6), and 3) EPC at 70-80 mmHg (MP-EPC; n = 6). One hour treatment with sham/EPC occurred for seven consecutive days. Vastus lateralis skeletal muscle biopsies were performed at baseline (before first treatment; PRE), 1 h following the first treatment (POST1), and 24 h following the last (7th) treatment (POST2). Changes from PRE in gene expression were analyzed via paired comparisons within each group. Genes were filtered to include only those that had an RPKM ≥ 1.0, a fold-change of ≥1.5 and a paired t-test value of <0.01. For the sham condition, two genes at POST1 and one gene at POST2 were significantly altered. For the LP-EPC condition, nine genes were up-regulated and 0 genes were down-regulated at POST1 while 39 genes were up-regulated and one gene down-regulated at POST2. For the MP-EPC condition, two genes were significantly up-regulated and 21 genes were down-regulated at POST1 and 0 genes were altered at POST2. Both LP-EPC and MP-EPC acutely alter skeletal muscle gene expression, though only LP-EPC appeared to affect gene expression with subchronic application. Moreover, the transcriptome response to EPC demonstrated marked heterogeneity (i.e., genes and directionality) with different target inflation pressures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.14814/phy2.13029DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5357997PMC
November 2016

A Ketogenic Diet in Rodents Elicits Improved Mitochondrial Adaptations in Response to Resistance Exercise Training Compared to an Isocaloric Western Diet.

Front Physiol 2016 8;7:533. Epub 2016 Nov 8.

School of Kinesiology, Auburn University Auburn, AL, USA.

Ketogenic diets (KD) can facilitate weight loss, but their effects on skeletal muscle remain equivocal. In this experiment we investigated the effects of two diets on skeletal muscle mitochondrial coupling, mitochondrial complex activity, markers of oxidative stress, and gene expression in sedentary and resistance exercised rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (9-10 weeks of age, 300-325 g) were fed isocaloric amounts of either a KD (17 g/day, 5.2 kcal/g, 20.2% protein, 10.3% CHO, 69.5% fat, = 16) or a Western diet (WD) (20 g/day, 4.5 kcal/g, 15.2% protein, 42.7% CHO, 42.0% fat, = 16) for 6 weeks. During these 6 weeks animals were either sedentary (SED, = 8 per diet group) or voluntarily exercised using resistance-loaded running wheels (EXE, = 8 per diet group). Gastrocnemius was excised and used for mitochondrial isolation and biochemical analyses. In the presence of a complex II substrate, the respiratory control ratio (RCR) of isolated gastrocnemius mitochondria was higher ( < 0.05) in animals fed the KD compared to animals fed the WD. Complex I and IV enzyme activity was higher ( < 0.05) in EXE animals regardless of diet. SOD2 protein levels and GLUT4 and PGC1α mRNA expression were higher ( < 0.05) in EXE animals regardless of diet. Our data indicate that skeletal muscle mitochondrial coupling of complex II substrates is more efficient in chronically resistance trained rodents fed a KD. These findings may provide merit for further investigation, perhaps on humans.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2016.00533DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5099251PMC
November 2016

Differential vascular reactivity responses acutely following ingestion of a nitrate rich red spinach extract.

Eur J Appl Physiol 2016 Dec 30;116(11-12):2267-2279. Epub 2016 Sep 30.

School of Kinesiology, Auburn University, Auburn, AL, 36849, USA.

Introduction: Inorganic nitrate ingestion has been posited to affect arterial blood pressure and vascular function.

Purpose: We sought to determine the acute effect of a red spinach extract (RSE) high in inorganic nitrate on vascular reactivity 1-h after ingestion in peripheral conduit and resistance arteries.

Methods: Fifteen (n = 15; males 8, females 7) apparently healthy subjects (aged 23.1 ± 3.3 years; BMI 27.2 ± 3.7 kg/m) participated in this crossover design, double-blinded study. Subjects reported to the lab ≥2-h post-prandial and consumed RSE (1000 mg dose; ~90 mg nitrate) or placebo (PBO). Venipuncture was performed on three occasions: baseline, 30-min post-ingestion and between 65 to 75-min post-ingestion. Baseline vascular measurements [i.e., calf venous occlusion plethysmography, brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD)], 30-min of continuous blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) analysis, and follow-up vascular measurements beginning at 40-min post-ingestion were also performed.

Results: Humoral nitrate following RSE ingestion was significantly higher at 30- (+54 %; P = 0.039) and 65 to 75-min post-ingestion compared to baseline (+255 %, P < 0.001) and PBO at the same time points (P < 0.05). No significant changes in BP or HR occurred in either condition. Peak reactive hyperemia (RH) calf blood flow increased significantly (+13.7 %; P = 0.016) following RSE ingestion, whereas it decreased (-14.0 %; P = 0.008) following PBO ingestion. No significant differential FMD responses were detected (P > 0.05), though RH was decreased following the baseline measure in both conditions.

Conclusions: RSE significantly increased plasma nitrate 30-min post-ingestion, but acute microvascular (i.e., resistance vasculature) reactivity increases were isolated to the lower limb and no appreciable change in brachial artery FMD was observed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00421-016-3478-8DOI Listing
December 2016

Testosterone inhibits expression of lipogenic genes in visceral fat by an estrogen-dependent mechanism.

J Appl Physiol (1985) 2016 Sep 18;121(3):792-805. Epub 2016 Aug 18.

School of Kinesiology, Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama; Department of Cell Biology and Physiology, Edward Via College of Osteopathic Medicine-Auburn Campus, Auburn, Alabama

The influence of the aromatase enzyme on the chronic fat-sparing effects of testosterone requires further elucidation. Our purpose was to determine whether chronic anastrozole (AN, an aromatase inhibitor) treatment alters testosterone-mediated lipolytic/lipogenic gene expression in visceral fat. Ten-month-old Fischer 344 rats (n = 6/group) were subjected to sham surgery (SHAM), orchiectomy (ORX), ORX + treatment with testosterone enanthate (TEST, 7.0 mg/wk), or ORX + TEST + AN (0.5 mg/day), with drug treatment beginning 14 days postsurgery. At day 42, ORX animals exhibited nearly undetectable serum testosterone and 29% higher retroperitoneal fat mass than SHAM animals (P < 0.001). TEST produced a ∼380-415% higher serum testosterone than SHAM (P < 0.001) and completely prevented ORX-induced visceral fat gain (P < 0.001). Retroperitoneal fat was 21% and 16% lower in ORX + TEST than SHAM (P < 0.001) and ORX + TEST + AN (P = 0.007) animals, while serum estradiol (E) was 62% (P = 0.024) and 87% (P = 0.010) higher, respectively. ORX stimulated lipogenic-related gene expression in visceral fat, demonstrated by ∼84-154% higher sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1 (SREBP-1, P = 0.023), fatty acid synthase (P = 0.01), and LPL (P < 0.001) mRNA than SHAM animals, effects that were completely prevented in ORX + TEST animals (P < 0.01 vs. ORX for all). Fatty acid synthase (P = 0.061, trend) and LPL (P = 0.043) mRNA levels were lower in ORX + TEST + AN than ORX animals and not different from SHAM animals but remained higher than in ORX + TEST animals (P < 0.05). In contrast, the ORX-induced elevation in SREBP-1 mRNA was not prevented by TEST + AN, with SREBP-1 expression remaining ∼117-171% higher than in SHAM and ORX + TEST animals (P < 0.01). Across groups, visceral fat mass and lipogenic-related gene expression were negatively associated with serum testosterone, but not E Aromatase inhibition constrains testosterone-induced visceral fat loss and the downregulation of key lipogenic genes at the mRNA level, indicating that E influences the visceral fat-sparing effects of testosterone.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00238.2016DOI Listing
September 2016

Post-exercise branched chain amino acid supplementation does not affect recovery markers following three consecutive high intensity resistance training bouts compared to carbohydrate supplementation.

J Int Soc Sports Nutr 2016 26;13:30. Epub 2016 Jul 26.

School of Kinesiology, Molecular and Applied Sciences Laboratory, Auburn University, 301 Wire Road, Office 286, Auburn, AL 36849 USA ; Edward Via College of Osteopathic Medicine - Auburn Campus, Auburn, AL USA.

Background: Amino acid supplementation has been shown to potentially reduced exercise-induced muscle soreness. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine if branched chain amino acid and carbohydrate (BCAACHO) versus carbohydrate-only sports drink (CHO) supplementation attenuated markers of muscle damage while preserving performance markers following 3 days of intense weight training.

Methods: Healthy resistance-trained males (n = 30) performed preliminary testing (T1) whereby they: 1) donated a baseline blood draw, 2) performed knee extensor dynamometry to obtain peak quadriceps isometric and isokinetic torque as well as electromyography (EMG) activity at 60°/s and 120°/s, and 3) performed a one repetition maximum (1RM) barbell back squat. The following week participants performed 10 sets x 5 repetitions at 80 % of their 1RM barbell back squat for 3 consecutive days and 48 h following the third lifting bout participants returned for (T2) testing whereby they repeated the T1 battery. Immediately following and 24 h after the three lifting bouts, participants were randomly assigned to consume one of two commercial products in 600 mL of tap water: 1) BCAAs and CHO (3 g/d L-leucine, 1 g/d L-isoleucine and 2 g/d L-valine with 2 g of CHO; n = 15), or 2) 42 g of CHO only (n = 15). Additionally, venous blood was drawn 24 h following the first and second lifting bouts and 48 h following the third bout to assess serum myoglobin concentrations, and a visual analog scale was utilized prior, during, and after the 3-d protocol to measure subjective perceptions of muscular soreness.

Results: There were similar decrements in 1RM squat strength and isokinetic peak torque measures in the BCAA-CHO and CHO groups. Serum myoglobin concentrations (p = 0.027) and perceived muscle soreness (p < 0.001) increased over the intervention regardless of supplementation. A group*time interaction was observed for monocyte percentages (p = 0.01) whereby BCAA-CHO supplementation attenuated increases in this variable over the duration of the protocol compared to CHO supplementation.

Conclusion: BCAA-CHO supplementation did not reduce decrements in lower body strength or improve select markers of muscle damage/soreness compared to CHO supplementation over three consecutive days of intense lower-body training.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12970-016-0142-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4962429PMC
June 2017

Effects of a ketogenic diet on adipose tissue, liver, and serum biomarkers in sedentary rats and rats that exercised via resisted voluntary wheel running.

Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 2016 08 29;311(2):R337-51. Epub 2016 Jun 29.

School of Kinesiology, Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama; Edward Via College of Osteopathic Medicine-Auburn Campus, Auburn, Alabama; and

We investigated the effects of different diets on adipose tissue, liver, serum morphology, and biomarkers in rats that voluntarily exercised. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (∼9-10 wk of age) exercised with resistance-loaded voluntary running wheels (EX; wheels loaded with 20-60% body mass) or remained sedentary (SED) over 6 wk. EX and SED rats were provided isocaloric amounts of either a ketogenic diet (KD; 20.2%-10.3%-69.5% protein-carbohydrate-fat), a Western diet (WD; 15.2%-42.7-42.0%), or standard chow (SC; 24.0%-58.0%-18.0%); n = 8-10 in each diet for SED and EX rats. Following the intervention, body mass and feed efficiency were lowest in KD rats, independent of exercise (P < 0.05). Absolute and relative (body mass-adjusted) omental adipose tissue (OMAT) masses were greatest in WD rats (P < 0.05), and OMAT adipocyte diameters were lowest in KD-fed rats (P < 0.05). None of the assayed OMAT or subcutaneous (SQ) protein markers were affected by the diets [total acetyl coA carboxylase (ACC), CD36, and CEBPα or phosphorylated NF-κB/p65, AMPKα, and hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL)], although EX unexpectedly altered some OMAT markers (i.e., higher ACC and phosphorylated NF-κB/p65, and lower phosphorylated AMPKα and phosphorylated HSL). Liver triglycerides were greatest in WD rats (P < 0.05), and liver phosphorylated NF-κB/p65 was lowest in KD rats (P < 0.05). Serum insulin, glucose, triglycerides, and total cholesterol were greater in WD and/or SC rats compared with KD rats (P < 0.05), and serum β-hydroxybutyrate was greater in KD vs. SC rats (P < 0.05). In conclusion, KD rats presented a healthier metabolic profile, albeit the employed exercise protocol minimally impacts any potentiating effects that KD has on fat loss.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpregu.00156.2016DOI Listing
August 2016

The serine protease, dipeptidyl peptidase IV as a myokine: dietary protein and exercise mimetics as a stimulus for transcription and release.

Physiol Rep 2016 Jun;4(12)

School of Kinesiology, Auburn University, 301 Wire Road, Auburn, Alabama, 36849

Dipeptidyl-peptidase IV (DPP-IV) is an enzyme with numerous roles within the body, mostly related to regulating energy metabolism. DPP-IV is also a myokine, but the stimulus for its release is poorly understood. We investigated the transcription and release of DPP-IV from skeletal muscle in a three-part study using C2C12 myotube cultures, an acute rat exercise and postexercise feeding model, and human feeding or human exercise models. When myotubes were presented with leucine only, hydrolyzed whey protein, or chemicals that cause exercise-related signaling to occur in cell culture, all caused an increase in the mRNA expression of DPP-IV (1.63 to 18.56 fold change, P < 0.05), but only whey protein caused a significant increase in DPP-IV activity in the cell culture media. When rats were fed whey protein concentrate immediately following stimulated muscle contractions, DPP-IV mRNA in both the exercised and nonexercised gastrocnemius muscles significantly increased 2.5- to 3.7-fold (P < 0.05) 3-6 h following the exercise/feeding bout; of note exercise alone or postexercise leucine-only feeding had no significant effect. In humans, plasma and serum DPP-IV activities were not altered by the ingestion of whey protein up to 1 h post consumption, after a 10 min bout of vigorous running, or during the completion of three repeated lower body resistance exercise bouts. Our cell culture and rodent data suggest that whey protein increases DPP-IV mRNA expression and secretion from muscle cells. However, our human data suggest that DPP-IV is not elevated in the bloodstream following acute whey protein ingestion or exercise.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.14814/phy2.12827DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4923230PMC
June 2016

A putative low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet elicits mild nutritional ketosis but does not impair the acute or chronic hypertrophic responses to resistance exercise in rodents.

J Appl Physiol (1985) 2016 05 30;120(10):1173-85. Epub 2015 Dec 30.

Applied Science and Performance Institute, Tampa, Florida

We examined whether acute and/or chronic skeletal muscle anabolism is impaired with a low-carbohydrate diet formulated to elicit ketosis (LCKD) vs. a mixed macronutrient Western diet (WD). Male Sprague-Dawley rats (9-10 wk of age, 300-325 g) were provided isoenergetic amounts of a LCKD or a WD for 6 wk. In AIM 1, basal serum and gastrocnemius assessments were performed. In AIM 2, rats were resistance exercised for one bout and were euthanized 90-270 min following exercise for gastrocnemius analyses. In AIM 3, rats voluntarily exercised daily with resistance-loaded running wheels, and hind limb muscles were analyzed for hypertrophy markers at the end of the 6-wk protocol. In AIM 1, basal levels of gastrocnemius phosphorylated (p)-rps6, p-4EBP1, and p-AMPKα were similar between diets, although serum insulin (P < 0.01), serum glucose (P < 0.001), and several essential amino acid levels (P < 0.05) were lower in LCKD-fed rats. In AIM 2, LCKD- and WD-fed rats exhibited increased postexercise muscle protein synthesis levels (P < 0.0125), but no diet effect was observed (P = 0.59). In AIM 3, chronically exercise-trained LCKD- and WD-fed rats presented similar increases in relative hind limb muscle masses compared with their sedentary counterparts (12-24%, P < 0.05), but there was no between-diet effects. Importantly, the LCKD induced "mild" nutritional ketosis, as the LCKD-fed rats in AIM 2 exhibited ∼1.5-fold greater serum β-hydroxybutyrate levels relative to WD-fed rats (diet effect P = 0.003). This study demonstrates that the tested LCKD in rodents, while only eliciting mild nutritional ketosis, does not impair the acute or chronic skeletal muscle hypertrophic responses to resistance exercise.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00837.2015DOI Listing
May 2016

Ten weeks of branched-chain amino acid supplementation improves select performance and immunological variables in trained cyclists.

Amino Acids 2016 03 9;48(3):779-789. Epub 2015 Nov 9.

School of Kinesiology, Molecular and Applied Sciences Laboratory, Auburn University, 301 Wire Road, Office 286, Auburn, AL, 36849, USA.

We examined if supplementing trained cyclists (32 ± 2 year, 77.8 ± 2.6 kg, and 7.4 ± 1.2 year training) with 12 g/day (6 g/day L-Leucine, 2 g/day L-Isoleucine and 4 g/day L-Valine) of either branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs, n = 9) or a maltodextrin placebo (PLA, n = 9) over a 10-week training season affected select body composition, performance, and/or immune variables. Before and after the 10-week study, the following was assessed: (1) 4-h fasting blood draws; (2) dual X-ray absorptiometry body composition; (3) Wingate peak power tests; and (4) 4 km time-trials. No group × time interactions existed for total lean mass (P = 0.27) or dual-leg lean mass (P = 0.96). A significant interaction existed for body mass-normalized relative peak power (19 % increase in the BCAA group pre- to post-study, P = 0.01), and relative mean power (4 % increase in the BCAA group pre- to post-study, P = 0.01). 4 km time-trial time to completion approached a significant interaction (P = 0.08), as the BCAA group improved in this measure by 11 % pre- to post-study, though this was not significant (P = 0.15). There was a tendency for the BCAA group to present a greater post-study serum BCAA: L-Tryptophan ratio compared to the PLA group (P = 0.08). A significant interaction for neutrophil number existed (P = 0.04), as there was a significant 18 % increase within the PLA group from the pre- to post-study time point (P = 0.01). Chronic BCAA supplementation improves sprint performance variables in endurance cyclists. Additionally, given that BCAA supplementation blunted the neutrophil response to intense cycling training, BCAAs may benefit immune function during a prolonged cycling season.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00726-015-2125-8DOI Listing
March 2016
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