Publications by authors named "Werner Paulus"

271 Publications

Genetic and epigenetic characterization of posterior pituitary tumors.

Acta Neuropathol 2021 Oct 18. Epub 2021 Oct 18.

Department of Pathology, Neuropathology, University of Virginia Health System, Charlottesville, Virginia, USA.

Pituicytoma (PITUI), granular cell tumor (GCT), and spindle cell oncocytoma (SCO) are rare tumors of the posterior pituitary. Histologically, they may be challenging to distinguish and have been proposed to represent a histological spectrum of a single entity. We performed targeted next-generation sequencing, DNA methylation profiling, and copy number analysis on 47 tumors (14 PITUI; 12 GCT; 21 SCO) to investigate molecular features and explore possibilities of clinically meaningful tumor subclassification. We detected two main epigenomic subgroups by unsupervised clustering of DNA methylation data, though the overall methylation differences were subtle. The largest group (n = 23) contained most PITUIs and a subset of SCOs and was enriched for pathogenic mutations within genes in the MAPK/PI3K pathways (12/17 [71%] of sequenced tumors: FGFR1 (3), HRAS (3), BRAF (2), NF1 (2), CBL (1), MAP2K2 (1), PTEN (1)) and two with accompanying TERT promoter mutation. The second group (n = 16) contained most GCTs and a subset of SCOs, all of which mostly lacked identifiable genetic drivers. Outcome analysis demonstrated that the presence of chromosomal imbalances was significantly associated with reduced progression-free survival especially within the combined PITUI and SCO group (p = 0.031). In summary, we observed only subtle DNA methylation differences between posterior pituitary tumors, indicating that these tumors may be best classified as subtypes of a single entity. Nevertheless, our data indicate differences in mutation patterns and clinical outcome. For a clinically meaningful subclassification, we propose a combined histo-molecular approach into three subtypes: one subtype is defined by granular cell histology, scarcity of identifiable oncogenic mutations, and favorable outcome. The other two subtypes have either SCO or PITUI histology but are segregated by chromosomal copy number profile into a favorable group (no copy number changes) and a less favorable group (copy number imbalances present). Both of the latter groups have recurrent MAPK/PI3K genetic alterations that represent potential therapeutic targets.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00401-021-02377-1DOI Listing
October 2021

Correction to: The Simpson grading: defining the optimal threshold for gross total resection in meningioma surgery.

Neurosurg Rev 2021 Sep 21. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

Department of Neurosurgery, University Hospital Münster, Albert-Schweitzer-Campus 1, Building A1, 48149, Munster, Germany.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10143-021-01629-8DOI Listing
September 2021

Correction to: Predicting the risk of postoperative recurrence and high-grade histology in patients with intracranial meningiomas using routine preoperative MRI.

Neurosurg Rev 2021 Sep 21. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

Department of Neurosurgery, University Hospital Münster, Münster, Albert-Schweitzer-Campus 1, Building A1, 48149, Münster, North Rhine Westphalia, Germany.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10143-021-01630-1DOI Listing
September 2021

IDH2 R172 Mutations Across Poorly Differentiated Sinonasal Tract Malignancies: Forty Molecularly Homogenous and Histologically Variable Cases With Favorable Outcome.

Am J Surg Pathol 2021 09;45(9):1190-1204

Departments of Neuropathology.

IDH2 R172 mutations occur in sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma (SNUC), large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC), sinonasal adenocarcinomas, and olfactory neuroblastoma (ONB). We performed a clinical, pathologic, and genetic/epigenetic analysis of a large IDH2-mutated sinonasal tumor cohort to explore their distinct features. A total 165 sinonasal/skull base tumors included 40 IDH2 mutants studied by light microscopy, immunohistochemistry, and genome-wide DNA methylation, and 125 IDH2 wild-type tumors used for comparison. Methylation profiles were analyzed by unsupervised hierarchical clustering, t-distributed stochastic neighbor embedding dimensionality reduction and assessed for copy number alterations (CNA). Thirty-nine histologically assessable cases included 25 (64.1%) SNUC, 8 (20.5%) LCNEC, 2 (5.1%) poorly differentiated adenocarcinomas, 1 (2.7%) ONB, and 3 (7.7%) IDH2-mutated tumors with ONB features. All cases were high-grade showing necrosis (82.4%), prominent nucleoli (88.9%), and median 21 mitoses/10 HPFs. AE1/AE3 and/or CAM 5.2 were positive in all and insulinoma-associated protein 1 (INSM1) in 80% cases. All IDH2 mutants formed one distinct group by t-distributed stochastic neighbor embedding dimensionality reduction separating from all IDH2 wild-type tumors. There was no correlation between methylation clusters and histopathologic diagnoses. Recurrent CNA included 1q gain (79.3%), 17p loss (75.9%), and 17q gain (58.6%). No CNA differences were observed between SNUC and LCNEC. IDH2 mutants showed better disease-specific survival than SMARCB1-deficient (P=0.027) and IDH2 wild-type carcinomas overall (P=0.042). IDH2-mutated sinonasal tumors are remarkably homogeneous at the molecular level and distinct from IDH2 wild-type sinonasal malignancies. Biology of IDH2-mutated sinonasal tumors might be primarily defined by their unique molecular fingerprint rather than by their respective histopathologic diagnoses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PAS.0000000000001697DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8373679PMC
September 2021

Inhibition of nuclear export restores nuclear localization and residual tumor suppressor function of truncated SMARCB1/INI1 protein in a molecular subset of atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors.

Acta Neuropathol 2021 08 18;142(2):361-374. Epub 2021 May 18.

Institute of Neuropathology, University Hospital Münster, Pottkamp 2, 48149, Münster, Germany.

Loss of nuclear SMARCB1 (INI1/hSNF5/BAF47) protein expression due to biallelic mutations of the SMARCB1 tumor suppressor gene is a hallmark of atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors (ATRT), but the presence of cytoplasmic SMARCB1 protein in these tumors has not yet been described. In a series of 102 primary ATRT, distinct cytoplasmic SMARCB1 staining on immunohistochemistry was encountered in 19 cases (19%) and was highly over-represented in cases showing pathogenic sequence variants leading to truncation or mutation of the C-terminal part of SMARCB1 (15/19 vs. 4/83; Chi-square: 56.04, p = 1.0E-10) and, related to this, in tumors of the molecular subgroup ATRT-TYR (16/36 vs. 3/66; Chi-square: 24.47, p = 7.6E-7). Previous reports have indicated that while SMARCB1 lacks a bona fide nuclear localization signal, it harbors a masked nuclear export signal (NES) and that truncation of the C-terminal region results in unmasking of this NES leading to cytoplasmic localization. To determine if cytoplasmic localization found in ATRT is due to unmasking of NES, we generated GFP fusions of one of the SMARCB1 truncating mutations (p.Q318X) found in the tumors along with a p.L266A mutation, which was shown to disrupt the interaction of SMARCB1-NES with exportin-1. We found that while the GFP-SMARCB1(Q318X) mutant localized to the cytoplasm, the double mutant GFP-SMARCB1(Q318X;L266A) localized to the nucleus, confirming NES requirement for cytoplasmic localization. Furthermore, cytoplasmic SMARCB1(Q318X) was unable to cause senescence as determined by morphological observations and by senescence-associated β-galactosidase assay, while nuclear SMARCB1(Q318X;L266A) mutant regained this function. Selinexor, a selective exportin-1 inhibitor, was effective in inhibiting the nuclear export of SMARCB1(Q318X) and caused rapid cell death in rhabdoid tumor cells. In conclusion, inhibition of nuclear export restores nuclear localization and residual tumor suppressor function of truncated SMARCB1. Therapies aimed at preventing nuclear export of mutant SMARCB1 protein may represent a promising targeted therapy in ATRT harboring truncating C-terminal SMARCB1 mutations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00401-021-02328-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8270878PMC
August 2021

Histopathological patterns in atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors are related to molecular subgroup.

Brain Pathol 2021 09 3;31(5):e12967. Epub 2021 May 3.

Institute of Neuropathology, University Hospital Münster, Münster, Germany.

Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (AT/RT) is a highly malignant tumor that may not only contain rhabdoid tumor cells but also poorly differentiated small-round-blue cells as well as areas with mesenchymal or epithelial differentiation. Little is known on factors associated with histopathological diversity. Recent studies demonstrated three molecular subgroups of AT/RT, namely ATRT-TYR, ATRT-SHH, and ATRT-MYC. We thus aimed to investigate if morphological patterns might be related to molecular subgroup status. Hematoxylin-eosin stained sections of 114 AT/RT with known molecular subgroup status were digitalized and independently categorized by nine blinded observers into four morphological categories, that is, "rhabdoid," "small-round-blue," "epithelial," and "mesenchymal." The series comprised 48 ATRT-SHH, 40 ATRT-TYR, and 26 ATRT-MYC tumors. Inter-observer agreement was moderate but significant (Fleiss' kappa = 0.47; 95% C.I. 0.41-0.53; p < 0.001) and there was a highly significant overall association between morphological categories and molecular subgroups for each of the nine observers (p < 0.0001). Specifically, the category "epithelial" was found to be over-represented in ATRT-TYR (p < 0.000001) and the category "small-round-blue" to be over-represented in ATRT-SHH (p < 0.01). The majority of ATRT-MYC was categorized as "mesenchymal" or "rhabdoid," but this association was less compelling. The specificity of the category "epithelial" for ATRT-TYR was highest and accounted for 97% (range: 88-99%) whereas sensitivity was low [49% (range: 35%-63%)]. In line with these findings, cytokeratin-positivity was highly overrepresented in ATRT-TYR. In conclusion, morphological features of AT/RT might reflect molecular alterations and may also provide a first hint on molecular subgroup status, which will need to be confirmed by DNA methylation profiling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bpa.12967DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8412123PMC
September 2021

TERT promoter mutation and chromosome 6 loss define a high-risk subtype of ependymoma evolving from posterior fossa subependymoma.

Acta Neuropathol 2021 06 23;141(6):959-970. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

German Cancer Consortium (DKTK), Partner Site Berlin, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Germany.

Subependymomas are benign tumors characteristically encountered in the posterior fossa of adults that show distinct epigenetic profiles assigned to the molecular group "subependymoma, posterior fossa" (PFSE) of the recently established DNA methylation-based classification of central nervous system tumors. In contrast, most posterior fossa ependymomas exhibit a more aggressive biological behavior and are allocated to the molecular subgroups PFA or PFB. A subset of ependymomas shows epigenetic similarities with subependymomas, but the precise biology of these tumors and their potential relationships remain unknown. We therefore set out to characterize epigenetic traits, mutational profiles, and clinical outcomes of 50 posterior fossa ependymal tumors of the PFSE group. On histo-morphology, these tumors comprised 12 ependymomas, 14 subependymomas and 24 tumors with mixed ependymoma-subependymoma morphology. Mixed ependymoma-subependymoma tumors varied in their extent of ependymoma differentiation (2-95%) but consistently exhibited global epigenetic profiles of the PFSE group. Selective methylome analysis of microdissected tumor components revealed CpG signatures in mixed tumors that coalesce with their pure counterparts. Loss of chr6 (20/50 cases), as well as TERT mutations (21/50 cases), were frequent events enriched in tumors with pure ependymoma morphology (p < 0.001) and confined to areas with ependymoma differentiation in mixed tumors. Clinically, pure ependymoma phenotype, chr6 loss, and TERT mutations were associated with shorter progression-free survival (each p < 0.001). In conclusion, our results suggest that subependymomas may acquire genetic and epigenetic changes throughout tumor evolution giving rise to subclones with ependymoma morphology (resulting in mixed tumors) that eventually overpopulate the subependymoma component (pure PFSE ependymomas).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00401-021-02300-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8113189PMC
June 2021

Atypical Teratoid/Rhabdoid Tumor (AT/RT) With Molecular Features of Pleomorphic Xanthoastrocytoma.

Am J Surg Pathol 2021 09;45(9):1228-1234

Institute of Neuropathology.

Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (AT/RT) is a highly malignant central nervous system tumor predominantly occurring in infants that may also arise in older children and adults. Rare secondary AT/RT developing from other tumors such as pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma (PXA) are on record, but AT/RT presenting with molecular features of PXA have not been described. Here, we report 3 malignant central nervous system tumors in children (10, 13, and 18 y old). All tumors were located in the temporal lobe. In 2 cases, there was no history of a low-grade precursor lesion; in 1 case anaplastic PXA had been diagnosed 3 months earlier. Histopathologically, all tumors were composed of RT cells and showed frank signs of malignancy as well as loss of nuclear SMARCB1/INI1 protein expression. Two cases displayed homozygous deletions of the SMARCB1 region while the third case showed an exon 7 mutation (c.849_850delGT; p.Met283Ilefs*77). Of note, DNA methylation profiles did not group with AT/RT or other tumor entities using the Heidelberg Brain Tumor Classifier (version v11b4). By unsupervised t-distributed stochastic neighbor embedding analysis and hierarchical clustering analysis, however, all tumors clearly grouped with PXA. Genome-wide copy number analysis revealed homozygous CDNK2A/B deletions and gains of whole chromosome 7. BRAF V600E mutations could be demonstrated in all cases. In conclusion, the possibility of AT/RT with molecular features of PXA needs to be taken into account and warrants molecular characterization of AT/RT especially in older children. Since treatments targeting mutated BRAF are available, identification of such cases may also have therapeutic consequences.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PAS.0000000000001694DOI Listing
September 2021

First German Guideline on Diagnostics and Therapy of Clinically Non-Functioning Pituitary Tumors.

Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes 2021 Mar 9;129(3):250-264. Epub 2021 Mar 9.

Department of Internal Medicine I, Division of Endocrinology and Diabetes, University Hospital Würzburg, University of Würzburg, Würzburg, Germany.

Although non-functioning pituitary tumors are frequent, diagnostic and therapeutic concepts are not well standardized. We here present the first German multidisciplinary guideline on this topic. The single most important message is to manage the patients by a multidisciplinary team (consisting at least of an endocrinologist, a neurosurgeon, and a (neuro-) radiologist). The initial diagnostic work-up comprises a detailed characterization of both biochemical (focusing on hormonal excess or deficiency states) and morphological aspects (with magnetic resonance imaging of the sellar region). An ophthalmological examination is only needed in presence of symptoms or large tumors affecting the visual system. Asymptomatic, hormonally inactive tumors allow for a 'wait and scan' strategy. In contrast, surgical treatment by an experienced pituitary surgeon is standard of care in case of (impending) visual impairment. Therapeutic options for incompletely resected or recurrent tumors include re-operation, radiotherapy, and observation; the individual treatment plan should be developed multidisciplinary. Irrespective of the therapeutic approach applied, patients require long-term follow-up. Patient with larger pituitary tumors or former surgery/radiotherapy should be regularly counseled regarding potential symptoms of hormonal deficiency states.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/a-1373-4087DOI Listing
March 2021

Determination of the magnetic structures in orthoferrite CeFeOby neutron powder diffraction: first order spin reorientation and appearance of an ordered Ce-moment.

J Phys Condens Matter 2021 Apr 29;33(21). Epub 2021 Apr 29.

ICGM, University of Montpellier, CNRS, ENSCM, Montpellier, France.

High resolution and high intensity neutron powder diffraction are used to determine the temperature dependence of the crystallographic and magnetic structure of the orthoferrite CeFeO. The high temperature-type magnetic coupling of the Fe-sublattice described by the Γ() irreducible representation changes at the spin reorientation temperature= 228 K to a-type coupling of Γ(). The spin reorientation is of first order and sees a hysteresis of about 2.5 K at. Below 35 K faint magnetic peaks reflectingtype magnetic coupling appear and are argued to be related to the Ce-sublattice. Magnetic moments at 2 K amount to= 4.15 and= 0.11 . CeFeOis only the secondFeOcompound after DyFeOshowing this ground state magnetic structure of the Fe-sublattice. The orthorhombic structureis kept over the whole temperature range.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1361-648X/abe64aDOI Listing
April 2021

Neuropathology associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection.

Lancet 2021 01;397(10271):276-277

Department of Pathology and Immunology, Division of Clinical Pathology, Geneva University Hospitals, Geneva 1211, Switzerland. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(21)00095-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7825940PMC
January 2021

Sarcoma classification by DNA methylation profiling.

Nat Commun 2021 01 21;12(1):498. Epub 2021 Jan 21.

Department of General Pathology, Institute of Pathology, Heidelberg University Hospital, Heidelberg, Germany.

Sarcomas are malignant soft tissue and bone tumours affecting adults, adolescents and children. They represent a morphologically heterogeneous class of tumours and some entities lack defining histopathological features. Therefore, the diagnosis of sarcomas is burdened with a high inter-observer variability and misclassification rate. Here, we demonstrate classification of soft tissue and bone tumours using a machine learning classifier algorithm based on array-generated DNA methylation data. This sarcoma classifier is trained using a dataset of 1077 methylation profiles from comprehensively pre-characterized cases comprising 62 tumour methylation classes constituting a broad range of soft tissue and bone sarcoma subtypes across the entire age spectrum. The performance is validated in a cohort of 428 sarcomatous tumours, of which 322 cases were classified by the sarcoma classifier. Our results demonstrate the potential of the DNA methylation-based sarcoma classification for research and future diagnostic applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-20603-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7819999PMC
January 2021

Efficacy of decitabine in malignant meningioma cells: relation to promoter demethylation of distinct tumor suppressor and oncogenes and independence from TERT.

J Neurosurg 2020 Dec 11:1-10. Epub 2020 Dec 11.

1Department of Neurosurgery.

Objective: Chemotherapeutic options for meningiomas refractory to surgery or irradiation are largely unknown. Human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) promoter methylation with subsequent TERT expression and telomerase activity, key features in oncogenesis, are found in most high-grade meningiomas. Therefore, the authors investigated the impact of the demethylating agent decitabine (5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine) on survival and DNA methylation in meningioma cells.

Methods: hTERT promoter methylation, telomerase activity, TERT expression, and cell viability and proliferation were investigated prior to and after incubation with decitabine in two benign (HBL-52 and Ben-Men 1) and one malignant (IOMM-Lee) meningioma cell line. The global effects of decitabine on DNA methylation were additionally explored with DNA methylation profiling.

Results: High levels of TERT expression, telomerase activity, and hTERT promoter methylation were found in IOMM-Lee and Ben-Men 1 but not in HBL-52 cells. Decitabine induced a dose-dependent significant decrease of proliferation and viability after incubation with doses from 1 to 10 μM in IOMM-Lee but not in HBL-52 or Ben-Men 1 cells. However, effects in IOMM-Lee cells were not related to TERT expression, telomerase activity, or hTERT promoter methylation. Genome-wide methylation analyses revealed distinct demethylation of 14 DNA regions after drug administration in the decitabine-sensitive IOMM-Lee but not in the decitabine-resistant HBL-52 cells. Differentially methylated regions covered promoter regions of 11 genes, including several oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes that to the authors' knowledge have not yet been described in meningiomas.

Conclusions: Decitabine decreases proliferation and viability in high-grade but not in benign meningioma cell lines. The effects of decitabine are TERT independent but related to DNA methylation changes of promoters of distinct tumor suppressor genes and oncogenes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2020.7.JNS193097DOI Listing
December 2020

The genetic landscape of choroid plexus tumors in children and adults.

Neuro Oncol 2021 04;23(4):650-660

Institute of Neuropathology, University Hospital Münster, Münster, Germany.

Background: Choroid plexus tumors (CPTs) are intraventricular brain tumors predominantly arising in children but also affecting adults. In most cases, driver mutations have not been identified, although there are reports of frequent chromosome-wide copy-number alterations and TP53 mutations, especially in choroid plexus carcinomas (CPCs).

Methods: DNA methylation profiling and RNA-sequencing was performed in a series of 47 CPTs. Samples comprised 35 choroid plexus papillomas (CPPs), 6 atypical choroid plexus papillomas (aCPPs) and 6 CPCs plus three recurrences thereof. Targeted TP53 and TERT promotor sequencing was performed in all samples. Whole exome sequencing (WES) and linked-read whole genome sequencing (WGS) was performed in 25 and 4 samples, respectively.

Results: Tumors comprised the molecular subgroups "pediatric A" (N=11), "pediatric B" (N=12) and "adult" (N=27). Copy-number alterations mainly represented whole-chromosomal alterations with subgroup-specific enrichments (gains of Chr1, 2 and 21q in "pediatric B" and gains of Chr5 and 9 and loss of Chr21q in "adult"). RNA sequencing yielded a novel CCDC47-PRKCA fusion transcript in one adult choroid plexus papilloma patient with aggressive clinical course; an underlying Chr17 inversion was demonstrated by linked-read WGS. WES and targeted sequencing showed TP53 mutations in 7/47 CPTs (15%), five of which were children. On the contrary, TERT promoter mutations were encountered in 7/28 adult patients (25%) and associated with shorter progression-free survival (log-rank test, p=0.015).

Conclusion: Pediatric CPTs lack recurrent driver alterations except for TP53, whereas CPTs in adults show TERT promoter mutations or a novel CCDC47-PRKCA gene fusion, being associated with a more unfavorable clinical course.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/neuonc/noaa267DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8041331PMC
April 2021

Deposition patterns of iatrogenic lanthanum and gadolinium in the human body depend on delivered chemical binding forms.

J Trace Elem Med Biol 2021 Jan 24;63:126665. Epub 2020 Oct 24.

Institute of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, University of Münster, 48149 Münster, Germany. Electronic address:

Background: Recently, gadolinium from linear GBCAs has been reported to deposit in various regions of the body. Besides gadolinium, other lanthanides are used in medical care. In the current study, we investigated deposition of lanthanum in two patients who received lanthanum carbonate as a phosphate binder due to chronic kidney injury and compared it to additionally found Gd deposition.

Methods: Tissue specimens of two patients with long-term application of lanthanum carbonate as well as possible GBCA application were investigated. Spatial distribution of gadolinium and lanthanum was determined by quantitative laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) imaging of tissue sections. The deposition of gadolinium and lanthanum in different organs was compared, and the ratio of Gd concentration to La concentration (Gd-to-La-ratio) was investigated on an individual pixel base within the images.

Results: Deposition of Gd and La was found in all investigated tissues of both patients. Gd and La exhibited high spatial correlation for all samples, with the main deposition being located in the middle coat (tunica media) of blood vessels. The Gd-to-La-ratio was similar in the tissues investigated (between 8 ± 4 (mean ± standard deviation) and 10 ± 2), except for the thyroid vasculature and surrounding tissue (90 ± 17) as well as the cerebellum (270 ± 18). Here, the ratio was significantly increased towards higher Gd concentration.

Conclusion: The results of this study demonstrate long-term deposition of La and comparable localization of additionally found Gd in various tissues of the body. La deposition was relatively low, considering the total administered amount of lanthanum carbonate of up to 11.5 kg, indicating a low absorption and/or high excretion of lanthanum. However, the total amount of deposited La is significant and raises questions about possible adverse side effects. The ratio-approach allows for the usage of the additionally generated Gd data, without detailed knowledge about possible GBCA applications. The significantly decreased Gd-to-La-ratio in the brain might be explained by the lanthanum being released and taken up as free La ion in the stomach that impedes a crossing of the blood-brain-barrier while the intravenously injected GBCAs might dechelate first when they have already crossed the blood-brain-barrier.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtemb.2020.126665DOI Listing
January 2021

Predicting postoperative seizure development in meningiomas - Analyses of clinical, histological and radiological risk factors.

Clin Neurol Neurosurg 2021 01 16;200:106315. Epub 2020 Oct 16.

Department of Neurosurgery, University Hospital Münster, Albert-Schweitzer-Campus 1, A1, 48149 Münster, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.

Introduction: Seizures after meningioma surgery are common, with a distinct impact on postoperative life quality. Sufficient risk factors for seizure development are sparsely known but needed to improve perioperative patient counseling and, eventually, antiepileptic treatment.

Materials And Methods: Correlations between clinical, radiological and histological variables and the onset of new seizures following surgery for initially diagnosed cranial meningioma were retrospectively analyzed in uni- and multivariate analyses.

Results: 752 preoperatively seizure-naïve patients (569 females, 76 % and 183 males, 24 %) with a median age of 57 years were included. Postoperative seizures occurred in 69 cases (9 %). In univariate analyses, seizures were correlated with preoperative Karnofsky Score < 80 (OR: 1.91, 95 % CI 1.01-3.59; p = .045), convexity/parasagittal tumor location (OR: 1.77, 95 % CI 1.06-2.95; p = .030), heterogenous contrast-enhancement of the tumor (OR: 2.24, 95 % CI 1.14-4.39; p = .019) and intratumoral calcifications (OR: 3.35, 95 % CI 1.59-7.05; p = .001). Multivariable analyses revealed age at the time of surgery (OR: 1.04, 95 % CI 1.01-1.07; p = .009) and intratumoral calcifications on preoperative imaging (OR: 3.70, 95 % CI 1.73-7.92; p = .001) as risk factors for postoperative seizures. Based on multivariate analyses, a score for discrimination of patients at low (3 %), intermediate (11 %) and high risk (17 %) of postoperative seizures (AUC: 0.7, p < .001) was conducted. In subgroup analyses, postoperative hemorrhage (OR: 2.90, 95 % CI 1.13-7.46; p = .028) and hydrocephalus (OR: 3.65, 95 % CI 1.48-9.01; p = .005) were correlated with postoperative seizures.

Conclusion: Risk factors for postoperative seizures after meningioma surgery are sparse and can be basically taken from preoperative imaging. Among surgical complications, postoperative hemorrhage and hydrocephalus are strong seizure predictors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clineuro.2020.106315DOI Listing
January 2021

Risk factors for preoperative seizures in intracranial meningiomas.

J Neurosurg Sci 2020 Oct 15. Epub 2020 Oct 15.

Department of Neurosurgery, University Hospital Münster, Münster, Germany -

Background: About 25% of patients with intracranial meningioma display seizures at the time of initial presentation. Hence, identification of risk factors for preoperative seizures is crucial during perioperative care of meningioma patients.

Methods: Associations of preoperative seizures with clinical, radiological and histological variables were analyzed in 945 patients (689 females, 73% and 256 males, 27%; median age: 58 years) who underwent surgery for primary diagnosed intracranial meningioma.

Results: Preoperative seizures were found in 189 patients (20%). In univariate analyses, male gender (OR: 1.91, 95%CI 1.37-2.68; p<.001), grade II/III histology (OR: 2.24, 95%CI 1.46-3.46; p<.001), brain invasion (OR: 2.59, 95%CI 1.45-4.63; p=001), non-skull base tumor location (OR: 3.07, 95%CI 2.13-4.41; p<.001), heterogeneous contrast-enhancement (OR: 1.60, 95%CI 1.04-2.46; p=.031), intratumoral calcifications (OR: 1.91, 95%CI 1.17-3.10; p=.009), an irregular shape (OR: 2.07, 95%CI 1.32-3.26; p=.002) as well as tumor (OR: 1.01 per ccm, 95%CI 1.00-1.02; p=.001) and edema volumes (OR: 1.01 per ccm, 95%CI 1.00-1.01; p<.001) were correlated with seizures. Semiology was not related to any of the analyzed variables (p>.05, each). No associations were found between seizures and histological subtype of 832 grade I meningiomas (p=.391). In multivariate analyses, only non-skull base tumor location (OR: 3.12, 95%CI 1.74-5.59; p<.001) and a rising peritumoral edema volume (OR: 1.01 per ccm, 95%CI 1.00-1.01; p<.001) were identified as independent predictors for preoperative seizures.

Conclusions: Several mostly radiological variables were identified as risk factors for epilepsy. However, multivariate analyses confirmed only peritumoral edema and non-skull base tumor location as independent predictors for preoperative seizures. None of the variables predicts semiology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.23736/S0390-5616.20.05068-7DOI Listing
October 2020

The Simpson grading: defining the optimal threshold for gross total resection in meningioma surgery.

Neurosurg Rev 2021 Jun 18;44(3):1713-1720. Epub 2020 Aug 18.

Department of Neurosurgery, University Hospital Münster, Albert-Schweitzer-Campus 1, Building A1, 48149, Munster, Germany.

Classification of the extent of resection into gross and subtotal resection (GTR and STR) after meningioma surgery is derived from the Simpson grading. Although utilized to indicate adjuvant treatment or study inclusion, conflicting definitions of STR in terms of designation of Simpson grade III resections exist. Correlations of Simpson grading and dichotomized scales (Simpson grades I-II vs ≥ III and grade I-III vs ≥ IV) with postoperative recurrence/progression were compared using Cox regression models. Predictive values were further compared by time-dependent receiver operating curve (tdROC) analyses. In 939 patients (28% males, 72% females) harboring WHO grade I (88%) and II/III (12%) meningiomas, Simpson grade I, II, III, IV, and V resections were achieved in 29%, 48%, 11%, 11%, and < .5%, respectively. Recurrence/progression was observed in 112 individuals (12%) and correlated with Simpson grading (p = .003). The risk of recurrence/progression was increased after STR in both dichotomized scales but higher when subsuming Simpson grade ≥ IV than grade ≥ III resections (HR: 2.49, 95%CI 1.50-4.12; p < .001 vs HR: 1.67, 95%CI 1.12-2.50; p = .012). tdROC analyses showed moderate predictive values for the Simpson grading and significantly (p < .05) lower values for both dichotomized scales. AUC values differed less between the Simpson grading and the dichotomization into grade I-III vs ≥ IV than grade I-II vs ≥ III resections. Dichotomization of the extent of resection is associated with a loss of the prognostic value. The value for the prediction of progression/recurrence is higher when dichotomizing into Simpson grade I-III vs ≥ IV than into grade I-II vs ≥ III resections.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10143-020-01369-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8397672PMC
June 2021

Risk of tumor recurrence in intracranial meningiomas: comparative analyses of the predictive value of the postoperative tumor volume and the Simpson classification.

J Neurosurg 2020 Jul 17:1-8. Epub 2020 Jul 17.

1Department of Neurosurgery.

Objective: In meningiomas, the Simpson grading system is applied to estimate the risk of postoperative recurrence, but might suffer from bias and limited overview of the resection cavity. In contrast, the value of the postoperative tumor volume as an objective predictor of recurrence is largely unexplored. The objective of this study was to compare the predictive value of residual tumor volume with the intraoperatively assessed extent of resection (EOR).

Methods: The Simpson grade was determined in 939 patients after surgery for initially diagnosed intracranial meningioma. Tumor volume was measured on initial postoperative MRI within 6 months after surgery. Correlation between both variables and recurrence was compared using a tree-structured Cox regression model.

Results: Recurrence correlated with Simpson grading (p = 0.003). In 423 patients (45%) with available imaging, residual tumor volume covered a broad range (0-78.5 cm3). MRI revealed tumor remnants in 8% after gross-total resection (Simpson grade I-III, range 0.12-33.5 cm3) with a Cohen's kappa coefficient of 0.7153. Postoperative tumor volume was correlated with recurrence in univariate analysis (HR 1.05 per cm3, 95% CI 1.02-1.08 per cm3, p < 0.001). A tree-structured Cox regression model revealed any postoperative tumor volume > 0 cm3 as a critical cutoff value for the prediction of relapse. Multivariate analysis confirmed the postoperative tumor volume (HR 1.05, p < 0.001) but not the Simpson grading (p = 0.398) as a predictor for recurrence.

Conclusions: EOR according to Simpson grading was overrated in 8% of tumors compared to postoperative imaging. Because the predictive value of postoperative imaging is superior to the Simpson grade, any residual tumor should be carefully considered during postoperative care of meningioma patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2020.4.JNS20412DOI Listing
July 2020

Is Small Fiber Neuropathy Induced by Gadolinium-Based Contrast Agents?

Invest Radiol 2020 08;55(8):473-480

Institute of Neuropathology, University Hospital Münster, Münster, Germany.

Objectives: In recent years, complaints of patients about burning pain in arms and legs after the injection of gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs) have been reported. In the current study, we investigated changes of small fibers in the epidermis as a potential cause of the patient complaints in a mouse model.

Methods: Six groups of 8 mice were intravenously injected with either a macrocyclic GBCA (gadoteridol, gadoterate meglumine, gadobutrol), a linear GBCA (gadodiamide or gadobenate dimeglumine) (1 mmol/kg body weight), or saline (NaCl 0.9%). Four weeks after injection, animals were euthanized, and footpads were assessed using immunofluorescence staining. Intraepidermal nerve fiber density (IENFD) was calculated, and the median number of terminal axonal swellings (TASs) per IENFD was determined.

Results: Nonparametric Wilcoxon signed-rank test revealed significantly lower IENFDs for all GBCAs compared with the control group (P < 0.0001) with the linear GBCAs showing significantly lower IENFDs than the macrocyclic GBCAs (P < 0.0001). The linear GBCAs presented significantly more TAS per IENFD than the control group (P < 0.0001), whereas no significant increase of TAS per IENFD compared with the control group was found for macrocyclic GBCAs (P < 0.237).

Interpretation: It is unclear whether or at what dosage the decrease of IENFDs and the increase of TAS per IENFD found in the current animal model will appear in humans and if it translates into clinical symptoms. However, given the highly significant findings of the current study, more research in this field is required.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/RLI.0000000000000677DOI Listing
August 2020

Local Structures of Oxygen-Deficient Perovskite SrScGaO Polymorphs Explored by Total Neutron Scattering and EXAFS Spectroscopy.

Inorg Chem 2020 Jul 24;59(13):9434-9442. Epub 2020 Jun 24.

ICGM, Université de Montpellier, CNRS, ENSCM, Montpellier, France.

Depending on the synthesis route, the oxygen ion electrolyte SrScGaO shows two polymorphs, a brownmillerite and a cubic perovskite framework. In order to better explore oxygen diffusion pathways and mechanisms, we report here on a multitechnical approach to characterize local structural changes for SrScGaO polymorphs as a function of temperature, using a neutron pair distribution function (PDF) analysis together with an extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) analysis. While for the brownmillerite type structure PDF and Rietveld refinements yield identical structural descriptions, considerable differences are found for the cubic oxygen-deficient polymorph. On a local scale a brownmillerite type vacancy structure could be evidenced for the cubic phase, suggesting a complex short-range ordering and respective microstructure. Both PDF and EXAFS data confirm an octahedral and tetrahedral coordination for Sc and Ga, respectively, at a local scale for both polymorphs. Related changes in the bond distances and oxygen vacancy ordering are discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.inorgchem.0c01368DOI Listing
July 2020

Real-time in vivo kinetics of protoporphyrin IX after administration of 5-aminolevulinic acid in meningiomas and comparative analyses with glioblastomas.

Acta Neurochir (Wien) 2020 09 2;162(9):2197-2202. Epub 2020 May 2.

Department of Neurosurgery, University Hospital Münster, Münster, Germany.

Background: The usefulness of 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA)-mediated fluorescence-guided surgery (FGS) in meningiomas is intensely discussed. However, data about kinetics of 5-ALA and protoporphyrin (Pp) IX in meningiomas are lacking.

Methods: As the first study so far, we performed longitudinal intraoperative real-time ex situ measurements of fluorescence intensity and PpIX concentrations during FGS of ten benign and two atypical meningiomas. Kinetics were subsequently compared with data from 229 glioblastomas.

Results: Spectroscopy revealed fluorescence (median 2945.65 a.u.) and PpIX accumulation (median 18.31 μg/ml) in all 43 analyzed samples. Fluorescence intensity (2961.50 a.u. vs 118.41 a.u.; p < .001) and PpIX concentrations (18.72 μg/ml vs .98 μg/ml; p < .001) were higher in samples with (N = 30) than without (N = 2) visible intraoperative tumor fluorescence. ROC curve analyses revealed a PpIX cut-off concentration of 3.85 μg/ml (AUC = .992, p = .005) and a quantitative fluorescence cut-off intensity of 286.73 a.u. (AUC = .983, p = .006) for intraoperative visible tumor fluorescence. Neither fluorescence intensity (p = .356) nor PpIX (p = .631) differed between atypical and benign meningiomas. Fluorescence and PpIX peaked 7-8 h following administration of 5-ALA. Meningiomas displayed a higher fluorescence intensity (p = .012) and PpIX concentration (p = .005) than glioblastomas 5-6 h after administration of 5-ALA. Although fluorescence was basically maintained, PpIX appeared to be cleared faster in meningiomas than in glioblastomas.

Conclusions: Kinetics of PpIX and fluorescence intensity differ between meningiomas and glioblastomas in the early phase after 5-ALA administration. Modification of the timing of drug administration might impact visibility of intraoperative fluorescence and helpfulness of FGS and should be investigated in future analyses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00701-020-04353-2DOI Listing
September 2020

Stripe Discommensuration and Spin Dynamics of Half-Doped Pr_{3/2}Sr_{1/2}NiO_{4}.

Phys Rev Lett 2020 Apr;124(14):147202

Institut Charles Gerhardt Montpellier, Université de Montpellier, 34095 Montpellier, France.

We present inelastic neutron scattering measurements of magnetic excitations in stripe ordered Pr_{3/2}Sr_{1/2}NiO_{4} at T∼10  K. For the observed magnetic incommensurability ε=0.4, we have incorporated a stripe discommensuration model in our linear spin wave calculation and obtained best agreement with the measured spin wave dispersion, especially to explain the symmetrical outward shift of the magnetic peaks from Néel ordered zone center in energy range 35 to 45 meV. Our study indicates the prerequisite to consider a discommensurated spin stripe unit with proper out-of-plane and in-plane exchange interactions in between Ni^{2+} spins to describe the observed spin wave characteristics in Pr_{3/2}Sr_{1/2}NiO_{4}.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.124.147202DOI Listing
April 2020

Predicting the risk of postoperative recurrence and high-grade histology in patients with intracranial meningiomas using routine preoperative MRI.

Neurosurg Rev 2021 Apr 23;44(2):1109-1117. Epub 2020 Apr 23.

Department of Neurosurgery, University Hospital Münster, Münster, Albert-Schweitzer-Campus 1, Building A1, 48149, Münster, North Rhine Westphalia, Germany.

Risk factors for prediction of prognosis in meningiomas derivable from routine preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (pMRI) remain elusive. Correlations of tumor and edema volume, disruption of the arachnoid layer, heterogeneity of contrast enhancement, enhancement of the capsule, T2-intensity, tumor shape, and calcifications on pMRI with tumor recurrence and high-grade (WHO grade II/III) histology were analyzed in 565 patients who underwent surgery for WHO grade I (N = 516, 91%) or II/III (high-grade histology, N = 49, 9%) meningioma between 1991 and 2018. Edema volume (OR, 1.00; p = 0.003), heterogeneous contrast enhancement (OR, 3.10; p < 0.001), and an irregular shape (OR, 2.16; p = 0.015) were associated with high-grade histology. Multivariate analyses confirmed edema volume (OR, 1.00; p = 0.037) and heterogeneous contrast enhancement (OR, 2.51; p = 0.014) as risk factors for high-grade histology. Tumor volume (HR, 1.01; p = 0.045), disruption of the arachnoid layer (HR, 2.50; p = 0.003), heterogeneous contrast enhancement (HR, 2.05; p = 0.007), and an irregular tumor shape (HR, 2.57; p = 0.001) were correlated with recurrence. Multivariate analyses confirmed tumor volume (HR, 1.01; p = 0.032) and disruption of the arachnoid layer (HR, 2.44; p = 0.013) as risk factors for recurrence, independent of histology. Subgroup analyses revealed disruption of the arachnoid layer (HR, 9.41; p < 0.001) as a stronger risk factor for recurrence than high-grade histology (HR, 5.15; p = 0.001). Routine pMRI contains relevant information about the risk of recurrence or high-grade histology of meningioma patients. Loss of integrity of the arachnoid layer on MRI had a higher prognostic value than the WHO grading, and underlying histological or molecular alterations remain to be determined.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10143-020-01301-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8450214PMC
April 2021

cIMPACT-NOW update 6: new entity and diagnostic principle recommendations of the cIMPACT-Utrecht meeting on future CNS tumor classification and grading.

Brain Pathol 2020 07 19;30(4):844-856. Epub 2020 Apr 19.

Department of Neuropathology, Institute of Pathology, Ruprecht-Karls-University, Heidelberg, Germany.

cIMPACT-NOW (the Consortium to Inform Molecular and Practical Approaches to CNS Tumor Taxonomy) was established to evaluate and make practical recommendations on recent advances in the field of CNS tumor classification, particularly in light of the rapid progress in molecular insights into these neoplasms. For Round 2 of its deliberations, cIMPACT-NOW Working Committee 3 was reconstituted and convened in Utrecht, The Netherlands, for a meeting designed to review putative new CNS tumor types in advance of any future World Health Organization meeting on CNS tumor classification. In preparatory activities for the meeting and at the actual meeting, a list of possible entities was assembled and each type and subtype debated. Working Committee 3 recommended that a substantial number of newly recognized types and subtypes should be considered for inclusion in future CNS tumor classifications. In addition, the group endorsed a number of principles-relating to classification categories, approaches to classification, nomenclature, and grading-that the group hopes will also inform the future classification of CNS neoplasms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bpa.12832DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8018152PMC
July 2020

Clot Analog Attenuation in Non-contrast CT Predicts Histology: an Experimental Study Using Machine Learning.

Transl Stroke Res 2020 10 14;11(5):940-949. Epub 2020 Jan 14.

Department of Clinical Radiology, Neuroradiology, University Hospital Muenster, Albert-Schweitzer-Campus 1, Gebäude A1, 48149, Muenster, Germany.

Exact histological clot composition remains unknown. The purpose of this study was to identify the best imaging variables to be extrapolated on clot composition and clarify variability in the imaging of thrombi by non-contrast CT. Using a CT-phantom and covering a wide range of histologies, we analyzed 80 clot analogs with respect to X-ray attenuation at 24 and 48 h after production. The mean, maximum, and minimum HU values for the axial and coronal reconstructions were recorded. Each thrombus underwent a corresponding histological analysis, together with a laboratory analysis of water and iron contents. Decision trees, a type of supervised machine learning, were used to select the primary variable altering attenuation and the best parameter for predicting histology. The decision trees selected red blood cells (RBCs) for correlation with all attenuation parameters (p < 0.001). Conversely, maximum attenuation on axial CT offered the greatest accuracy for discriminating up to four groups of clot histology (p < 0.001). Similar RBC-rich thrombi displayed variable imaging associated with different iron (p = 0.023) and white blood cell contents (p = 0.019). Water content varied among the different histologies but did not in itself account for the differences in attenuation. Independent factors determining clot attenuation were the RBCs (β = 0.33, CI = 0.219-0.441, p < 0.001) followed by the iron content (β = 0.005, CI = 0.0002-0.009, p = 0.042). Our findings suggest that it is possible to extract more and valuable information from NCCT that can be extrapolated to provide insights into clot histological and chemical composition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12975-019-00766-zDOI Listing
October 2020

Age and DNA methylation subgroup as potential independent risk factors for treatment stratification in children with atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors.

Neuro Oncol 2020 07;22(7):1006-1017

Department of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology, University of Würzburg, Würzburg, Germany.

Background: Controversy exists as to what may be defined as standard of care (including markers for stratification) for patients with atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors (ATRTs). The European Rhabdoid Registry (EU-RHAB) recruits uniformly treated patients and offers standardized genetic and DNA methylation analyses.

Methods: Clinical, genetic, and treatment data of 143 patients from 13 European countries were analyzed (2009-2017). Therapy consisted of surgery, anthracycline-based induction, and either radiotherapy or high dose chemotherapy following a consensus among European experts. Fluorescence in situ hybridization, multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification, and sequencing were employed for assessment of somatic and germline mutations in SWItch/sucrose nonfermentable related, matrix associated, actin dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily B (SMARCB1). Molecular subgroups (ATRT-SHH, ATRT-TYR, and ATRT-MYC) were determined using DNA methylation arrays, resulting in profiles of 84 tumors.

Results: Median age at diagnosis of 67 girls and 76 boys was 29.5 months. Five-year overall survival (OS) and event-free survival (EFS) were 34.7 ± 4.5% and 30.5 ± 4.2%, respectively. Tumors displayed allelic partial/whole gene deletions (66%; 122/186 alleles) or single nucleotide variants (34%; 64/186 alleles) of SMARCB1. Germline mutations were detected in 26% of ATRTs (30/117). The patient cohort consisted of 47% ATRT-SHH (39/84), 33% ATRT-TYR (28/84), and 20% ATRT-MYC (17/84). Age <1 year, non-TYR signature (ATRT-SHH or -MYC), metastatic or synchronous tumors, germline mutation, incomplete remission, and omission of radiotherapy were negative prognostic factors in univariate analyses (P < 0.05). An adjusted multivariate model identified age <1 year and a non-TYR signature as independent negative predictors of OS: high risk (<1 y + non-TYR; 5-y OS = 0%), intermediate risk (<1 y + ATRT-TYR or ≥1 y + non-TYR; 5-y OS = 32.5 ± 8.7%), and standard risk (≥1 y + ATRT-TYR, 5-y OS = 71.5 ± 12.2%).

Conclusions: Age and molecular subgroup status are independent risk factors for survival in children with ATRT. Our model warrants validation within future clinical trials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/neuonc/noz244DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7339901PMC
July 2020
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