Publications by authors named "Werner Meier"

57 Publications

Prognostic nomogram for progression-free survival in patients with BRCA mutations and platinum-sensitive recurrent ovarian cancer on maintenance olaparib therapy following response to chemotherapy.

Eur J Cancer 2021 Sep 19;154:190-200. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

National Health and Medical Research Council Clinical Trials Centre, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2050, Australia; Department of Medical Oncology, St George Hospital, Kogarah, NSW 2217, Australia; Australia New Zealand Gynecological Oncology Group, Camperdown, New South Wales, Australia.

Background: The impact of maintenance therapy with PARP inhibitors (PARPi) on progression-free survival (PFS) in patients with BRCA mutations and platinum-sensitive recurrent ovarian cancer (PSROC) varies widely. Individual prognostic factors do not reliably distinguish patients who progress early from those who have durable benefit. We developed and validated a prognostic nomogram to predict PFS in these patients.

Methods: The nomogram was developed using data from a training patient cohort with BRCA mutations and high-grade serous PSROC on the placebo arm of two maintenance therapy trials, Study 19 and SOLO2/ENGOT-ov21. We performed multivariable Cox regression analysis based on pre-treatment characteristics to develop a nomogram that predicts PFS. We assessed the discrimination and validation of the nomogram in independent validation patient cohorts treated with maintenance olaparib.

Results: The nomogram includes four PFS predictors: CA-125 at randomisation, platinum-free interval, presence of measurable disease and number of prior lines of platinum therapy. In the training (placebo) cohort (internal validation C-index 0.64), median PFS in the model-predicted good, intermediate and poor-risk groups was: 7.7 (95% CI 5.3-11.3), 5.4 (4.8-5.8) and 2.9 (2.8-4.4) months, respectively. In the validation (olaparib) cohort (C-index 0.71), median PFS in the model-predicted good, intermediate and poor-risk groups was: not reached, 16.6 (13.1-22.4) and 8.3 (7.1-10.8) months, respectively. The nomogram showed good calibration in the validation cohort (calibration plot).

Conclusions: This nomogram can be used to predict PFS and counsel patients with BRCA mutations and PSROC prior to maintenance olaparib and for stratification of patients in trials of maintenance therapies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejca.2021.06.024DOI Listing
September 2021

Role of Pelvic Lymph Node Resection in Vulvar Squamous Cell Cancer: A Subset Analysis of the AGO-CaRE-1 Study.

Ann Surg Oncol 2021 Mar 15. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Department of Gynecology and Gynecologic Oncology, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany.

Background: As the population at risk for pelvic nodal involvement remains poorly described, the role of pelvic lymphadenectomy (LAE) in vulvar squamous cell cancer (VSCC) has been a matter of discussion for decades.

Methods: In the AGO-CaRE-1 study, 1618 patients with International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage IB or higher primary VSCC treated at 29 centers in Germany between 1998 and 2008 were documented. In this analysis, only patients with pelvic LAE (n = 70) were analyzed with regard to prognosis and correlation between inguinal and pelvic lymph node involvement.

Results: The majority of patients had T1b/T2 tumors (n = 47; 67.1%), with a median diameter of 40 mm (2-240 mm); 54/70 patients (77.1%) who received pelvic LAE had positive groin nodes. For 42 of these 54 patients, the number of affected groin nodes had been documented as a median of 3; 14/42 (33.3%) of these patients had histologically confirmed pelvic nodal metastases (median number of affected pelvic nodes 3 [1-12]). In these 14 patients, the median number of affected groin nodes was 7 (1-30), with a groin metastases median maximum diameter of 42.5 mm (12-50). Receiver operating characteristic analysis showed an area under the curve of 0.85, with 83.3% sensitivity and 92.6% specificity for the prediction of pelvic involvement in cases of six or more positive groin nodes. No cases of pelvic nodal involvement without groin metastases were observed. Prognosis in cases of pelvic metastasis was poor, with a median progression-free survival of only 12.5 months.

Conclusion: For the majority of node-positive patients with VSCC, pelvic nodal staging appears unnecessary since a relevant risk for pelvic nodal involvement only seems to be present in highly node-positive disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1245/s10434-021-09744-yDOI Listing
March 2021

Age, treatment and prognosis of patients with squamous cell vulvar cancer (VSCC) - analysis of the AGO-CaRE-1 study.

Gynecol Oncol 2021 May 26;161(2):442-448. Epub 2021 Feb 26.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Hospital, Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich, Munich, Germany.

Background: Despite an increasing incidence with simultaneous decreasing age of onset, vulvar squamous cell carcinoma (VSCC) is still a disease that mainly effects the elderly population. Data on the association of age with prognosis and treatment patterns in VSCC are sparse.

Methods: This is an analysis of the AGO-CaRE-1 cohort. Patients with VSCC (FIGO stage ≥1B), treated at 29 cancer centers in Germany from 1998 to 2008, were included in a centralized database (n = 1618). In this subgroup analysis patients were analyzed according to age [<50 yrs. (n = 220), 50-69 yrs. (n = 506), ≥70 yrs. (n = 521)] with regard to treatment patterns and prognosis. Only patients with documented age, surgical groin staging and known nodal status were included (n = 1247). Median follow-up was 27.5 months.

Results: At first diagnosis, women ≥70 yrs. presented with more advanced tumor stages (<0.001), larger tumor diameter (<0.001), poorer ECOG status (<0.001), more frequent HPV negative tumors (p = 0.03) as well as a higher rate of nodal involvement (<0.001). Disease recurrence occurred significantly more often in elderly patients (p = 0.001) and age as well as ECOG status, microscopic residual resection, tumor stage, grading, and (chemo)radiation were independent prognostic factors for death or recurrence in multivariate analysis. 2-year disease-free survival rates were 59.3% (≥70 yrs), 65.8% (50-69 yrs) and 81.1% (<50 yrs), respectively (p < 0.001).

Conclusions: Older women with VSCC present with advanced tumor stages at first diagnosis and have an increased risk of recurrence as well as a decreased 2-year DFS in comparison to younger patients. Potential reasons could be self-awareness and/or more aggressive tumor biology due to HPV independent disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ygyno.2021.02.025DOI Listing
May 2021

p53 and p16 expression profiles in vulvar cancer: a translational analysis by the Arbeitsgemeinschaft Gynäkologische Onkologie Chemo and Radiotherapy in Epithelial Vulvar Cancer study group.

Am J Obstet Gynecol 2021 06 14;224(6):595.e1-595.e11. Epub 2021 Jan 14.

Institute of Pathology, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany.

Background: There are 2 known pathways for tumorigenesis of vulvar squamous cell carcinoma-a human papillomavirus-dependent pathway characterized by p16 overexpression and a human papillomavirus-independent pathway linked to lichen sclerosus, characterized by TP53 mutation. A correlation of human papillomavirus dependency with a favorable prognosis has been proposed.

Objective: The objective of the study was to further understand the role of human papillomavirus and p53 status in vulvar squamous cell carcinoma and characterize its clinical relevance.

Study Design: The Arbeitsgemeinschaft Gynaecological Oncology Chemo and Radiotherapy in Epithelial Vulvar Cancer-1 study is a retrospective cohort study of 1618 patients with primary vulvar squamous cell carcinoma Fédération Internationale de Gynécologie et d'Obstétrique stage ≥1B treated at 29 gynecologic cancer centers in Germany between 1998 and 2008. For this translational substudy, formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue was collected. A tissue microarray was constructed (n=652 samples); p16 and p53 expression was determined by immunohistochemistry. Human papillomavirus status and subtype were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction.

Results: p16 immunohistochemistry was positive in 166 of 550 tumors (30.2%); p53 staining in 187 of 597 tumors (31.3%). Only tumors with available information regarding p16 and p53 immunohistochemistry and without p53 silent expression pattern were further analyzed (n=411); 3 groups were defined: p53+ (n=163), p16+/p53- (n=132), and p16-/p53- (n=116). Human papillomavirus DNA was detected in 85.6% of p16+/p53- tumors; human papillomavirus-16 was the most common subtype (86.3%). Patients with p16+ tumors were younger (64 vs 72 years for p53+, respectively, 69 years for p16-/p53- tumors; P<.0001) and showed lower rates of lymph-node involvement (28.0% vs 42.3% for p53+, respectively, 30.2% for p16-/p53- tumors; P=.050). Notably, 2-year-disease-free and overall survival rates were significantly different among the groups: disease-free survival, 47.1% (p53+), 60.2% (p16-/p53-), and 63.9% (p16+/p53-) (P<.001); overall survival, 70.4% (p53+), 75.4% (p16-/p53-), and 82.5% (p16+/p53-) (P=.002). In multivariate analysis, the p16+/p53- phenotype showed a consistently improved prognosis compared with the other groups (hazard ratio, 0.66; 95% confidence interval, 0.44-0.99; P=.042).

Conclusion: p16 overexpression is associated with an improved prognosis whereas p53 positivity is linked to an adverse outcome. Our data support the hypothesis of a clinically relevant third subgroup of vulvar squamous cell carcinoma with a p53-/p16- phenotype showing an intermediate prognosis that needs to be further characterized.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajog.2020.12.1220DOI Listing
June 2021

Pelvic Lymphadenectomy in Vulvar Cancer - Does it make sense?

Geburtshilfe Frauenheilkd 2020 Dec 3;80(12):1221-1228. Epub 2020 Dec 3.

Department of Gynecology and Gynecologic Oncology, University Medical Center Köln, Köln, Germany.

Since the publication of the updated German guideline in 2015, the recommendations for performing pelvic lymphadenectomy (LAE) in patients with vulvar cancer (VSCC) have changed considerably. The guideline recommends surgical lymph node staging in all patients with a higher risk of pelvic lymph node involvement. However, the current data do not allow the population at risk to be clearly defined, therefore, the indication for pelvic lymphadenectomy is still not clear. There are currently two published German patient populations who had pelvic LAE which can be used to investigate both the prognostic effect of histologically verified pelvic lymph node metastasis and the relation between inguinal and pelvic lymph node involvement. A total of 1618 patients with primary FIGO stage ≥ IB VSCC were included in the multicenter AGO CaRE-1 study (1998 - 2008), 70 of whom underwent pelvic LAE. During a retrospective single-center evaluation carried out at the University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf (UKE), a total of 514 patients with primary VSCC treated between 1996 - 2018 were evaluated, 21 of whom underwent pelvic LAE. In both cohorts, around 80% of the patients who underwent pelvic LAE were inguinally node-positive, with a median number of three affected groin lymph nodes. There were no cases of pelvic lymph node metastasis without inguinal lymph node metastasis in either of the two cohorts. Between 33 - 35% of the inguinal node-positive patients also had pelvic lymph node metastasis; the median number of affected groin lymph nodes in these patients was high (> 4), and the maximum median diameter of the largest inguinal metastasis was > 40 mm in both cohorts. Pelvic lymph node staging and pelvic radiotherapy is therefore probably not necessary for the majority of node-positive patients with VSCC, as the relevant risk of pelvic lymph node involvement was primarily found in node-positive patients with high-grade disease. More, ideally prospective data collections are necessary to validate the relation between inguinal and pelvic lymph node involvement.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/a-1120-0138DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7714620PMC
December 2020

Sensitivity and specificity of loss of heterozygosity analysis for the classification of rare germline variants in : results of the observational AGO-TR1 study (NCT02222883).

J Med Genet 2020 Dec 3. Epub 2020 Dec 3.

Center for Familial Breast and Ovarian Cancer, Center for Integrated Oncology (CIO), University Hospital Cologne, Cologne, Nordrhein-Westfalen, Germany

Variant-specific loss of heterozygosity (LOH) analyses may be useful to classify germline variants of unknown significance (VUS). The sensitivity and specificity of this approach, however, remains unknown. We performed comparative next-generation sequencing analyses of the genes using blood-derived and tumour-derived DNA of 488 patients with ovarian cancer enrolled in the observational AGO-TR1 trial (NCT02222883). Overall, 94 pathogenic, 90 benign and 24 VUS were identified in the germline. A significantly increased variant fraction (VF) of a germline variant in the tumour indicates loss of the wild-type allele; a decreased VF indicates loss of the variant allele. We demonstrate that significantly increased VFs predict pathogenicity with high sensitivity (0.84, 95% CI 0.77 to 0.91), poor specificity (0.63, 95% CI 0.53 to 0.73) and poor positive predictive value (PPV; 0.71, 95% CI 0.62 to 0.79). Significantly decreased VFs predict benignity with low sensitivity (0.26, 95% CI 0.17 to 0.35), high specificity (1.0, 95% CI 0.96 to 1.00) and PPV (1.0, 95% CI 0.85 to 1.00). Variant classification based on significantly increased VFs results in an unacceptable proportion of false-positive results. A significantly decreased VF in the tumour may be exploited as a reliable predictor for benignity, with no false-negative result observed. When applying the latter approach, VUS identified in four patients can now be considered benign. NCT02222883.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jmedgenet-2020-107353DOI Listing
December 2020

Association between obesity and vulvar cancer recurrence: an analysis of the AGO-CaRE-1 study.

Int J Gynecol Cancer 2020 07 28;30(7):920-926. Epub 2020 May 28.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Ludwig Maximilians University Munich, Munich, Bayern, Germany.

Objective: Obesity is associated with worse survival and an increased risk of relapse in several malignancies. The influence of obesity on vulvar cancer recurrence has not been previously described. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the association between obesity and tumor recurrence in patients with vulvar cancer.

Methods: This is an analysis of the AGO-CaRE-1 study. Patients diagnosed with squamous cell vulvar cancer (stage IB and higher), treated in 29 cancer centers between January 1998 and December 2008, were registered in a centralized database. The cohort was divided into two gropus depending on the body mass index (BMI) (<30 vs ≥30 kg/m²). Descriptive statistics, survival analyses, and multivariate Cox regression analyses were performed in order to evaluate the association between obesity and progression-free and overall survival.

Results: In 849 (52.4%) of 1618 patients in the database, the BMI was documented. Patients were grouped according to their BMI (<30 vs ≥30 kg/m²). There were 621 patients with a BMI <30 kg/m² and 228 patients with a BMI ≥30 kg/m². Besides age, there was no difference in baseline variables (tumor diameter, depth of infiltration, tumor stage, nodal metastasis, tumor grade). Treatment variables (R0 resection, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, continuation of adjuvant therapy) did not differ between groups. However, patients with BMI ≥30 kg/m² underwent radical vulvectomy more often (61.1% vs 51.8%, p=0.04). During follow-up there was a higher recurrence rate in the group with BMI ≥30 kg/m² (43.4% vs 28.3%, p<0.01) due to an increased rate of local recurrences (33.3% vs 18.5%, p<0.01). There was a significantly shorter time to recurrence in obese patients on univariate analysis (BMI ≥30 kg/m² vs <30 kg/m²: 43.8 months (95% CI 23.3 to 64.3) vs 102.3 months (95% CI 72.6 to 131.9), p=0.001) and on multivariate Cox regression analysis (HR 1.94 (95% CI 1.4 to 2.8), p<0.001).

Conclusions: In this study a BMI ≥30 kg/m² was associated with a shorter time to recurrence in patients with vulvar cancer and this was mainly attributed to a higher risk of local recurrence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/ijgc-2019-001187DOI Listing
July 2020

Bevacizumab and platinum-based combinations for recurrent ovarian cancer: a randomised, open-label, phase 3 trial.

Lancet Oncol 2020 05 16;21(5):699-709. Epub 2020 Apr 16.

Department of Gynecology and Gynecological Oncology, Kliniken Essen-Mitte, Essen, Germany.

Background: State-of-the art therapy for recurrent ovarian cancer suitable for platinum-based re-treatment includes bevacizumab-containing combinations (eg, bevacizumab combined with carboplatin-paclitaxel or carboplatin-gemcitabine) or the most active non-bevacizumab regimen: carboplatin-pegylated liposomal doxorubicin. The aim of this head-to-head trial was to compare a standard bevacizumab-containing regimen versus carboplatin-pegylated liposomal doxorubicin combined with bevacizumab.

Methods: This multicentre, open-label, randomised, phase 3 trial, was done in 159 academic centres in Germany, France, Australia, Austria, and the UK. Eligible patients (aged ≥18 years) had histologically confirmed epithelial ovarian, primary peritoneal, or fallopian tube carcinoma with first disease recurrence more than 6 months after first-line platinum-based chemotherapy, and an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0-2. Patients were stratified by platinum-free interval, residual tumour, previous antiangiogenic therapy, and study group language, and were centrally randomly assigned 1:1 using randomly permuted blocks of size two, four, or six to receive six intravenous cycles of bevacizumab (15 mg/kg, day 1) plus carboplatin (area under the concentration curve [AUC] 4, day 1) plus gemcitabine (1000 mg/m, days 1 and 8) every 3 weeks or six cycles of bevacizumab (10 mg/kg, days 1 and 15) plus carboplatin (AUC 5, day 1) plus pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (30 mg/m, day 1) every 4 weeks, both followed by maintenance bevacizumab (15 mg/kg every 3 weeks in both groups) until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. There was no masking in this open-label trial. The primary endpoint was investigator-assessed progression-free survival according to Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors version 1.1. Efficacy data were analysed in the intention-to-treat population. Safety was analysed in all patients who received at least one dose of study drug. This completed study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01837251.

Findings: Between Aug 1, 2013, and July 31, 2015, 682 eligible patients were enrolled, of whom 345 were randomly assigned to receive carboplatin-pegylated liposomal doxorubicin-bevacizumab (experimental group) and 337 were randomly assigned to receive carboplatin-gemcitabine-bevacizumab (standard group). Median follow-up for progression-free survival at data cutoff (July 10, 2018) was 12·4 months (IQR 8·3-21·7) in the experimental group and 11·3 months (8·0-18·4) in the standard group. Median progression-free survival was 13·3 months (95% CI 11·7-14·2) in the experimental group versus 11·6 months (11·0-12·7) in the standard group (hazard ratio 0·81, 95% CI 0·68-0·96; p=0·012). The most common grade 3 or 4 adverse events were hypertension (88 [27%] of 332 patients in the experimental group vs 67 [20%] of 329 patients in the standard group) and neutropenia (40 [12%] vs 73 [22%]). Serious adverse events occurred in 33 (10%) of 332 patients in the experimental group and 28 (9%) of 329 in the standard group. Treatment-related deaths occurred in one patient in the experimental group (<1%; large intestine perforation) and two patients in the standard group (1%; one case each of osmotic demyelination syndrome and intracranial haemorrhage).

Interpretation: Carboplatin-pegylated liposomal doxorubicin-bevacizumab is a new standard treatment option for platinum-eligible recurrent ovarian cancer.

Funding: F Hoffmann-La Roche.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1470-2045(20)30142-XDOI Listing
May 2020

Prognostic role of thrombocytosis in recurrent ovarian cancer: a pooled analysis of the AGO Study Group.

Arch Gynecol Obstet 2020 05 10;301(5):1267-1274. Epub 2020 Apr 10.

Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, University Hospital Giessen and Marburg, Marburg, Germany.

Purpose: Although thrombocytosis in patients with primary ovarian cancer has been widely investigated, there are only very few data about the role of thrombocytosis in recurrent ovarian cancer. The aim of our study was to investigate the impact of pretreatment thrombocytosis prior to chemotherapy on clinical outcome in patients with recurrent platinum eligible ovarian cancer.

Methods: In our retrospective analysis we included 300 patients who were treated by AGO Study Group Centers within three prospective, randomized phase-III-trials. All patients included had been treatment-free for at least 6 months after platinum-based chemotherapy. We excluded patients who underwent secondary cytoreductive surgery before randomization to the trial. Thrombocytosis was defined as a platelet count of ≥ 400⋅10/L.

Results: Pretreatment thrombocytosis was present in 37 out of 300 (12.3%) patients. Patients with thrombocytosis responded statistically significantly less to chemotherapy (overall response rate 35.3% and 41.6%, P = 0.046). The median progression-free survival (PFS) for patients with thrombocytosis was 6.36 months compared to 9.00 months for patients without thrombocytosis (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.19, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.84-1.69, P = 0.336). Median overall survival (OS) of patients with thrombocytosis was 16.33 months compared to 23.92 months of patients with a normal platelet count (HR = 1.46, 95% CI = 1.00-2.14, P = 0.047).

Conclusions: The present analysis suggests that pretreatment thrombocytosis is associated with unfavorable outcome with regard to response to chemotherapy and overall survival in recurrent ovarian cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00404-020-05529-yDOI Listing
May 2020

A Novel Panel of Rabbit Monoclonal Antibodies and Their Diverse Applications Including Inhibition of Epsilon Toxin Oligomerization.

Antibodies (Basel) 2018 Oct 25;7(4). Epub 2018 Oct 25.

Brain and Mind Research Institute, Weill Cornell Medical College of Cornell University, New York, NY, 10065, USA.

The pore-forming epsilon toxin (ETX) produced by is among the most lethal bacterial toxins known. Sensitive antibody-based reagents are needed to detect toxin, distinguish mechanisms of cell death, and prevent ETX toxicity. Using B-cell immuno-panning and cloning techniques, seven ETX-specific monoclonal antibodies were generated from immunized rabbits. ETX specificity and sensitivity were evaluated via western blot, ELISA, immunocytochemistry (ICC), and flow cytometry. ETX-neutralizing function was evaluated both in vitro and in vivo. All antibodies recognized both purified ETX and epsilon protoxin via western blot with two capable of detecting the ETX-oligomer complex. Four antibodies detected ETX via ELISA and three detected ETX bound to cells via ICC or flow cytometry. Several antibodies prevented ETX-induced cell death by either preventing ETX binding or by blocking ETX oligomerization. Antibodies that blocked ETX oligomerization inhibited ETX endocytosis and cellular vacuolation. Importantly, one of the oligomerization-blocking antibodies was able to protect against ETX-induced death post-ETX exposure in vitro and in vivo. Here we describe the production of a panel of rabbit monoclonal anti-ETX antibodies and their use in various biological assays. Antibodies possessing differential specificity to ETX in particular conformations will aid in the mechanistic studies of ETX cytotoxicity, while those with ETX-neutralizing function may be useful in preventing ETX-mediated mortality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/antib7040037DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6698963PMC
October 2018

Trebananib or placebo plus carboplatin and paclitaxel as first-line treatment for advanced ovarian cancer (TRINOVA-3/ENGOT-ov2/GOG-3001): a randomised, double-blind, phase 3 trial.

Lancet Oncol 2019 06 7;20(6):862-876. Epub 2019 May 7.

Gynecologic Oncology Group, Arizona Oncology (US Oncology Network), University of Arizona, Phoenix, AZ, USA; Creighton University, Phoenix, AZ, USA.

Background: Angiopoietin 1 and 2 regulate angiogenesis and vascular remodelling by interacting with the tyrosine kinase receptor Tie2, and inhibition of angiogenesis has shown promise in the treatment of ovarian cancer. We aimed to assess whether trebananib, a peptibody that inhibits binding of angiopoietin 1 and 2 to Tie2, improved progression-free survival when added to carboplatin and paclitaxel as first-line therapy in advanced epithelial ovarian, primary fallopian tube, or peritoneal cancer in a phase 3 clinical trial.

Methods: TRINOVA-3, a multicentre, multinational, phase 3, double-blind study, was done at 206 investigational sites (hospitals and cancer centres) in 14 countries. Eligible patients were aged 18 years or older with biopsy-confirmed International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage III to IV epithelial ovarian, primary peritoneal, or fallopian tube cancers, and an ECOG performance status of 0 or 1. Eligible patients were randomly assigned (2:1) using a permuted block method (block size of six patients) to receive six cycles of paclitaxel (175 mg/m) and carboplatin (area under the serum concentration-time curve 5 or 6) every 3 weeks, plus weekly intravenous trebananib 15 mg/kg or placebo. Maintenance therapy with trebananib or placebo continued for up to 18 additional months. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival, as assessed by the investigators, in the intention-to-treat population. Safety analyses included patients who received at least one dose of study treatment. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01493505, and is complete.

Findings: Between Jan 30, 2012, and Feb 25, 2014, 1164 patients were screened and 1015 eligible patients were randomly allocated to treatment (678 to trebananib and 337 to placebo). After a median follow-up of 27·4 months (IQR 17·7-34·2), 626 patients had progression-free survival events (405 [60%] of 678 in the trebananib group and 221 [66%] of 337 in the placebo group). Median progression-free survival did not differ between the trebananib group (15·9 months [15·0-17·6]) and the placebo group (15·0 months [12·6-16·1]) groups (hazard ratio 0·93 [95% CI 0·79-1·09]; p=0·36). 512 (76%) of 675 patients in the trebananib group and 237 (71%) of 336 in the placebo group had grade 3 or worse treatment-emergent adverse events; of which the most common events were neutropenia (trebananib 238 [35%] vs placebo 126 [38%]) anaemia (76 [11%] vs 40 [12%]), and leucopenia (81 [12%] vs 35 [10%]). 269 (40%) patients in the trebananib group and 104 (31%) in the placebo group had serious adverse events. Two fatal adverse events in the trebananib group were considered related to trebananib, paclitaxel, and carboplatin (lung infection and neutropenic colitis); two were considered to be related to paclitaxel and carboplatin (general physical health deterioration and platelet count decreased). No treatment-related fatal adverse events occurred in the placebo group.

Interpretation: Trebananib plus carboplatin and paclitaxel did not improve progression-free survival as first-line treatment for advanced ovarian cancer. The combination of trebananib plus carboplatin and paclitaxel did not produce new safety signals. These results show that trebananib in combination with carboplatin and paclitaxel is minimally effective in this patient population.

Funding: Amgen.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1470-2045(19)30178-0DOI Listing
June 2019

Deleterious somatic variants in 473 consecutive individuals with ovarian cancer: results of the observational AGO-TR1 study (NCT02222883).

J Med Genet 2019 09 12;56(9):574-580. Epub 2019 Apr 12.

Department of Gynecology & Obstetrics, University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Lübeck, Lübeck, Germany.

Background: For individuals with ovarian cancer (OC), therapy options mainly depend on germline status. What is the prevalence of deleterious somatic variants, that is, does genetic tumour testing identify subgroups of individuals who also might benefit from targeted therapy?

Methods: Paired analysis of tumour-derived versus blood-derived DNA to determine the prevalence of deleterious somatic variants in OC predisposition genes (, , , , and ) and the and genes in individuals with OC (AGO-TR1 study, NCT02222883). Results were complemented by , and promoter methylation analyses and stratified by histological subtype; 473 individuals were included.

Results: The combined analyses revealed that deleterious germline variants in established OC predisposition genes (all: 125/473, 26.4%; : 97/473, 20.5%), deleterious somatic variants in established OC predisposition genes excluding (all: 39/473, 8.2%; : 30/473, 6.3%) and promoter methylation (all: 67/473, 14.2%; : 57/473, 12.1%; : 10/473, 2.1%; : 0/473) were mutually exclusive, with a few exceptions. The same holds true for deleterious somatic and/or variants (33/473, 7.0%) found to be enriched in endometrioid and clear cell OC (16/35, 45.7%); 84.3 % of the deleterious single-nucleotide/indel germline variants in established OC predisposition genes showed significantly higher variant fractions (VFs) in the tumour-derived versus blood-derived DNA, indicating a loss of the wild-type alleles.

Conclusion: Tumour sequencing of the and genes along with and promoter methylation analyses identified large subgroups of germline mutation-negative individuals who may be addressed in interventional studies using PARP or PI3K/AKT/mTOR inhibitors.

Trial Registration Number: NCT02222883.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jmedgenet-2018-105930DOI Listing
September 2019

A Randomized Trial of Lymphadenectomy in Patients with Advanced Ovarian Neoplasms.

N Engl J Med 2019 02;380(9):822-832

From the Department of Gynecology and Gynecologic Oncology, Kliniken Essen-Mitte, Essen (P. Harter, A. du Bois), Department of Gynecology, Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin (J.S.), the Coordinating Center for Clinical Trials, Philipps University Marburg (A.R., C.S.-B.), and the Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, University Hospital Giessen and Marburg (U.W.), Marburg, the Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Kaiserswerther Diakonie (B.L.), and the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Heinrich-Heine-University Düsseldorf (W.M.), Düsseldorf, the Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, University Medicine Greifswald, Greifswald (A.M.), the Department of Gynecology, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf (S.M.), and the Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Albertinen Krankenhaus (I.L.), Hamburg, University Women's Hospital, Department of Gynecology and Reproductive Medicine and Center for Gynecologic Oncology, Jena University Hospital, Jena (I.B.R.), the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Munich rechts der Isar (B.S.), and the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Hospital, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München (A. Burges), Munich, West German Cancer Center, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, University of Duisburg-Essen, Duisburg (R.K.), the Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, University Hospital Kiel, Kiel (F.H.), University Medical Center Freiburg, Freiburg (A.H.), University Medical Center Mainz, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Mainz (A.H.), and the Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Hannover Medical School, Hannover (P. Hillemanns) - all in Germany; the Gynecologic Oncology Unit, Fondazione Istituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico (IRCCS) Istituto Nazionale Tumori (D.L., F.R.), and the Department of Gynecologic Oncology, European Institute of Oncology, University of Milan (G.A.), Milan, the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Catholic University of the Sacred Heart, Rome (G.S.), Gynecologic Oncology, Istituto Nazionale per lo Studio e la Cura dei Tumori di Napoli, IRCCS Fondazione G. Pascale, Naples (S.G.), and the Cancer Reference Center, Centro di Riferimento Oncologico, Aviano (G.G.) - all in Italy; the Department of Gynecological Oncology, University Hospitals Leuven, Leuven Cancer Institute, Leuven, Belgium (I.V.); the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical University Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria (C.M.); the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea (J.-W.K.); and the Gynecologic Oncology Center, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, First Faculty of Medicine, Charles University and General University Hospital, Prague, Czech Republic (D.C.).

Background: Systematic pelvic and paraaortic lymphadenectomy has been widely used in the surgical treatment of patients with advanced ovarian cancer, although supporting evidence from randomized clinical trials has been limited.

Methods: We intraoperatively randomly assigned patients with newly diagnosed advanced ovarian cancer (International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage IIB through IV) who had undergone macroscopically complete resection and had normal lymph nodes both before and during surgery to either undergo or not undergo lymphadenectomy. All centers had to qualify with regard to surgical skills before participation in the trial. The primary end point was overall survival.

Results: A total of 647 patients underwent randomization from December 2008 through January 2012, were assigned to undergo lymphadenectomy (323 patients) or not undergo lymphadenectomy (324), and were included in the analysis. Among patients who underwent lymphadenectomy, the median number of removed nodes was 57 (35 pelvic and 22 paraaortic nodes). The median overall survival was 69.2 months in the no-lymphadenectomy group and 65.5 months in the lymphadenectomy group (hazard ratio for death in the lymphadenectomy group, 1.06; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.83 to 1.34; P = 0.65), and median progression-free survival was 25.5 months in both groups (hazard ratio for progression or death in the lymphadenectomy group, 1.11; 95% CI, 0.92 to 1.34; P = 0.29). Serious postoperative complications occurred more frequently in the lymphadenectomy group (e.g., incidence of repeat laparotomy, 12.4% vs. 6.5% [P = 0.01]; mortality within 60 days after surgery, 3.1% vs. 0.9% [P = 0.049]).

Conclusions: Systematic pelvic and paraaortic lymphadenectomy in patients with advanced ovarian cancer who had undergone intraabdominal macroscopically complete resection and had normal lymph nodes both before and during surgery was not associated with longer overall or progression-free survival than no lymphadenectomy and was associated with a higher incidence of postoperative complications. (Funded by Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft and the Austrian Science Fund; LION ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00712218.).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1808424DOI Listing
February 2019

Long-term efficacy, tolerability and overall survival in patients with platinum-sensitive, recurrent high-grade serous ovarian cancer treated with maintenance olaparib capsules following response to chemotherapy.

Br J Cancer 2018 10 24;119(9):1075-1085. Epub 2018 Oct 24.

University College London Cancer Institute, London, UK.

Background: In Study 19, maintenance monotherapy with olaparib significantly prolonged progression-free survival vs placebo in patients with platinum-sensitive, recurrent high-grade serous ovarian cancer.

Methods: Study 19 was a randomised, placebo-controlled, Phase II trial enrolling 265 patients who had received at least two platinum-based chemotherapy regimens and were in complete or partial response to their most recent regimen. Patients were randomised to olaparib (capsules; 400 mg bid) or placebo. We present long-term safety and final mature overall survival (OS; 79% maturity) data, from the last data cut-off (9 May 2016).

Results: Thirty-two patients (24%) received maintenance olaparib for over 2 years; 15 (11%) did so for over 6 years. No new tolerability signals were identified with long-term treatment and adverse events were generally low grade. The incidence of discontinuations due to adverse events was low (6%). An apparent OS advantage was observed with olaparib vs placebo (hazard ratio 0.73, 95% confidence interval 0.55‒0.95, P = 0.02138) irrespective of BRCA1/2 mutation status, although the predefined threshold for statistical significance was not met.

Conclusions: Study 19 showed a favourable final OS result irrespective of BRCA1/2 mutation status and unprecedented long-term benefit with maintenance olaparib for a subset of platinum-sensitive, recurrent ovarian cancer patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41416-018-0271-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6219499PMC
October 2018

Prevalence of deleterious germline variants in risk genes including BRCA1/2 in consecutive ovarian cancer patients (AGO-TR-1).

PLoS One 2017 20;12(10):e0186043. Epub 2017 Oct 20.

Department of Women's Health, Tübingen University Hospital, Tübingen, Germany.

Background: Identification of families at risk for ovarian cancer offers the opportunity to consider prophylactic surgery thus reducing ovarian cancer mortality. So far, identification of potentially affected families in Germany was solely performed via family history and numbers of affected family members with breast or ovarian cancer. However, neither the prevalence of deleterious variants in BRCA1/2 in ovarian cancer in Germany nor the reliability of family history as trigger for genetic counselling has ever been evaluated.

Methods: Prospective counseling and germline testing of consecutive patients with primary diagnosis or with platinum-sensitive relapse of an invasive epithelial ovarian cancer. Testing included 25 candidate and established risk genes. Among these 25 genes, 16 genes (ATM, BRCA1, BRCA2, CDH1, CHEK2, MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, NBN, PMS2, PTEN, PALB2, RAD51C, RAD51D, STK11, TP53) were defined as established cancer risk genes. A positive family history was defined as at least one relative with breast cancer or ovarian cancer or breast cancer in personal history.

Results: In total, we analyzed 523 patients: 281 patients with primary diagnosis of ovarian cancer and 242 patients with relapsed disease. Median age at primary diagnosis was 58 years (range 16-93) and 406 patients (77.6%) had a high-grade serous ovarian cancer. In total, 27.9% of the patients showed at least one deleterious variant in all 25 investigated genes and 26.4% in the defined 16 risk genes. Deleterious variants were most prevalent in the BRCA1 (15.5%), BRCA2 (5.5%), RAD51C (2.5%) and PALB2 (1.1%) genes. The prevalence of deleterious variants did not differ significantly between patients at primary diagnosis and relapse. The prevalence of deleterious variants in BRCA1/2 (and in all 16 risk genes) in patients <60 years was 30.2% (33.2%) versus 10.6% (18.9%) in patients ≥60 years. Family history was positive in 43% of all patients. Patients with a positive family history had a prevalence of deleterious variants of 31.6% (36.0%) versus 11.4% (17.6%) and histologic subtype of high grade serous ovarian cancer versus other showed a prevalence of deleterious variants of 23.2% (29.1%) and 10.2% (14.8%), respectively. Testing only for BRCA1/2 would miss in our series more than 5% of the patients with a deleterious variant in established risk genes.

Conclusions: 26.4% of all patients harbor at least one deleterious variant in established risk genes. The threshold of 10% mutation rate which is accepted for reimbursement by health care providers in Germany was observed in all subgroups analyzed and neither age at primary diagnosis nor histo-type or family history sufficiently enough could identify a subgroup not eligible for genetic counselling and testing. Genetic testing should therefore be offered to every patient with invasive epithelial ovarian cancer and limiting testing to BRCA1/2 seems to be not sufficient.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0186043PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5650145PMC
November 2017

Outcome After Sentinel Lymph Node Dissection in Vulvar Cancer: A Subgroup Analysis of the AGO-CaRE-1 Study.

Ann Surg Oncol 2017 May 28;24(5):1314-1321. Epub 2016 Nov 28.

Elbland Hospital Meißen-Radebeul, Radebeul, Germany.

Purpose: Analyzing the large patient cohort of the multicenter AGO-CaRE-1 study, we compared isolated sentinel lymph node dissection (SLND) with radical lymph node dissection (LND) of the groin in relation to recurrence rates and survival.

Methods: The AGO-CaRE-1 study retrospectively collected data on treatment patterns and follow-up of vulvar cancer patients [International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage ≥1B] treated at 29 gynecologic cancer centers between 1998 and 2008. This subgroup analysis evaluated the influence of SLND alone on progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS).

Results: In 487 (63.1%) of 772 included patients with tumors smaller than 4 cm, an LND was performed and no metastatic lymph nodes were detected (LN0). Another 69/772 (8.9%) women underwent SLND alone, showing a negative SLN (SLN0). Tumors in the LN0 group were larger and showed a deeper invasion (LN0 vs. SLN0 tumor diameter: 20.0 vs. 13.0 mm, p < 0.001; depth of invasion: 4.0 vs. 3.0 mm, p = 0.002). After a median follow-up of 33 months (0-156), no significant differences in relation to isolated groin recurrence rates (SLN0 3.0% vs. LN0 3.4%, p = 0.845) were detected. Similarly, univariate 3-year PFS analysis showed no significant differences between both groups (SLN0 82.7% vs. LN0 77.6%, p = 0.230). A multivariate Cox regression analysis, including tumor diameter, depth of invasion, age, grading, and lymphovascular space invasion was performed: PFS [hazard ratio (HR) 0.970, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.517-1.821] and OS (HR 0.695, 95% CI 0.261-1.849) did not differ significantly between both cohorts.

Conclusion: This subgroup analysis of the large AGO-CaRE-1 study showed similar results for groin LND and SLND alone with regard to recurrence rates and survival in node-negative patients with tumors <4 cm.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1245/s10434-016-5687-0DOI Listing
May 2017

Role of tumour-free margin distance for loco-regional control in vulvar cancer-a subset analysis of the Arbeitsgemeinschaft Gynäkologische Onkologie CaRE-1 multicenter study.

Eur J Cancer 2016 12 10;69:180-188. Epub 2016 Nov 10.

Gynecologic Oncology Center, Kiel, Germany.

Aim Of The Study: A tumour-free pathological resection margin of ≥8 mm is considered state-of-the-art. Available evidence is based on heterogeneous cohorts. This study was designed to clarify the relevance of the resection margin for loco-regional control in vulvar cancer.

Methods: AGO-CaRE-1 is a large retrospective study. Patients (n = 1618) with vulvar cancer ≥ FIGO stage IB treated at 29 German gynecologic-cancer-centres 1998-2008 were included. This subgroup analysis focuses on solely surgically treated node-negative patients with complete tumour resection (n = 289).

Results: Of the 289 analysed patients, 141 (48.8%) had pT1b, 140 (48.4%) pT2 and 8 (2.8%) pT3 tumours. One hundred twenty-five (43.3%) underwent complete vulvectomy, 127 (43.9%) partial vulvectomy and 37 (12.8%) radical local excision. The median minimal resection margin was 5 mm (1 mm-33 mm); all patients received groin staging, in 86.5% with full dissection. Median follow-up was 35.1 months. 46 (15.9%) patients developed recurrence, thereof 34 (11.8%) at the vulva, after a median of 18.3 months. Vulvar recurrence rates were 12.6% in patients with a margin <8 mm and 10.2% in patients with a margin ≥8 mm. When analysed as a continuous variable, the margin distance had no statistically significant impact on local recurrence (HR per mm increase: 0.930, 95% CI: 0.849-1.020; p = 0.125). Multivariate analyses did also not reveal a significant association between the margin and local recurrence neither when analysed as continuous variable nor categorically based on the 8 mm cutoff. Results were consistent when looking at disease-free-survival and time-to-recurrence at any site (HR per mm increase: 0.949, 95% CI: 0.864-1.041; p = 0.267).

Conclusions: The need for a minimal margin of 8 mm could not be confirmed in the large and homogeneous node-negative cohort of the AGO-CaRE database.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejca.2016.09.038DOI Listing
December 2016

Quality of life during olaparib maintenance therapy in platinum-sensitive relapsed serous ovarian cancer.

Br J Cancer 2016 Nov 8;115(11):1313-1320. Epub 2016 Nov 8.

Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, 450 Brookline Avenue, Boston, MA 02215, USA.

Background: Maintenance monotherapy with the poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitor olaparib significantly prolongs progression-free survival over placebo in patients with platinum-sensitive relapsed serous ovarian cancer, with greatest benefit seen in patients with a BRCA1/2 mutation (BRCAm). Preservation of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is important during maintenance therapy; we evaluated the effect of olaparib on HRQoL in this Phase II trial (NCT00753545, Study 19).

Methods: Patients received olaparib 400 mg b.i.d. (capsules) or placebo until progression. Patient-reported HRQoL and disease-related symptoms were evaluated using the FACT-Ovarian (FACT-O) questionnaire (completed at baseline and every 28 days until progression), the FACT/NCCN Ovarian Symptom Index (FOSI) and the Trial Outcome Index (TOI). TOI of the FACT-O was the primary measure.

Results: Overall, 265 women were randomised to maintenance olaparib (n=136) or placebo (n=129). Compliance for HRQoL assessment was high (∼80% over time). Most patients in both arms reported a best response of 'no change' on TOI (81%) and other HRQoL measures. There were no statistically significant differences in time to worsening or improvement rates of TOI, FOSI and FACT-O scores in the overall, BRCAm and germline BRCAm populations.

Conclusions: Maintenance treatment with olaparib was well tolerated and had no adverse impact on HRQoL in this study of patients with platinum-sensitive relapsed serous ovarian cancer who had responded to their most recent platinum-based therapy (partial or complete response). Interpretation of the HRQoL results in this population may differ from patients who have not responded to their most recent platinum-based therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/bjc.2016.348DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5129820PMC
November 2016

Phase II Study Evaluating PegLiposomal Doxorubicin and Carboplatin Combination Chemotherapy in Gynecologic Sarcomas and Mixed Epithelial-Mesenchymal Tumors A Phase II Protocol of the Arbeitsgemeinschaft Gynaekologische Onkologie Study Group (AGO-GYN 7).

Int J Gynecol Cancer 2016 11;26(9):1636-1641

*Department of Gynecology & Gynecologic Oncology, Kliniken Essen-Mitte, Essen; †Department of Gynecology, Charité Medical University of Berlin, Berlin; ‡Coordinating Center for Clinical Trials, University Marburg; §Department of Gynecology, Gynecologic Endocrinology and Oncology, Philipps University Marburg, Marburg; ∥Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University, Frankfurt; ¶Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Lübeck, Lübeck; #Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Duisburg-Essen, Essen; **Department of Gynecologic Oncology and Gynecology, Gynaekologicum Bremen, Bremen; ††Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich, München; ‡‡Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Oberschwabenklinik Hospital St. Elisabeth Ravensburg, Ravensburg; §§Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Hospital Ulm, Ulm; ∥∥Department of Gynecology and Gynecologic Oncology, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg; ¶¶Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Carl Gustav Carus Technische University Dresden, Dresden; ##Gynecology Hannover, Hannover; ***Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Ev. Hospital Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf; †††Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Tübingen, Tübingen; and ‡‡‡Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, Germany.

Background: Gynecologic sarcomas are rare diseases with still undefined optimal treatment. Platinum and anthracyclines were reported as active agents in gynecologic sarcoma and carcinosarcoma. So far, data regarding the combination of carboplatin and pegylated liposomal doxorubicin for this patient population are missing.

Methods: This prospective single-arm multicenter phase II trial evaluated the efficacy of carboplatin AUC 6 in combination with pegylated liposomal doxorubicin 40 mg/m q28 in 40 patients with newly diagnosed or recurrent gynecologic sarcoma or carcinosarcoma.

Results: Twenty patients with carcinosarcoma and 20 patients with leiomyosarcoma or endometrial stromal sarcoma were included. The percentage of patients with grade 3/4 neutropenia was 50%, but we did not observe any febrile neutropenia. The rates of grade 1 and 2 palmo-plantar erythema were moderate with 25% and 10%, respectively. Response rate was 33.3%. The 12-month progression-free and overall survival times were 32.5% and 77.0%, respectively.

Conclusions: The combination of carboplatin and pegylated liposomal doxorubicin is feasible and has activity within the investigated study cohort.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/IGC.0000000000000831DOI Listing
November 2016

Overall survival in patients with platinum-sensitive recurrent serous ovarian cancer receiving olaparib maintenance monotherapy: an updated analysis from a randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind, phase 2 trial.

Lancet Oncol 2016 Nov 9;17(11):1579-1589. Epub 2016 Sep 9.

Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA, USA.

Background: In patients with platinum-sensitive recurrent serous ovarian cancer, maintenance monotherapy with the PARP inhibitor olaparib significantly improves progression-free survival versus placebo. We assessed the effect of maintenance olaparib on overall survival in patients with platinum-sensitive recurrent serous ovarian cancer, including those with BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations (BRCAm).

Methods: In this randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind, phase 2 trial involving 82 sites across 16 countries, patients with platinum-sensitive recurrent serous ovarian cancer who had received two or more courses of platinum-based chemotherapy and had responded to their latest regimen were randomly assigned (1:1) using a computer-generated sequence to receive oral maintenance olaparib (as capsules; 400 mg twice a day) or a matching placebo by an interactive voice response system. Patients were stratified by ancestry, time to progression on penultimate platinum, and response to most recent platinum. Patients and investigators were masked to treatment assignment by the use of unique identifiers generated during randomisation. The primary endpoint of the trial was progression-free survival. In this updated analysis, we present data for overall survival, a secondary endpoint, from the third data analysis after more than 5 years' follow-up (intention-to-treat population). We did the updated overall survival analysis, described in this Article at 77% data maturity, using a two-sided α of 0·95%. As the study was not powered to assess overall survival, this analysis should be regarded as descriptive and the p values are nominal. We analysed randomly assigned patients for overall survival and all patients who received at least one dose of treatment for safety. This trial is ongoing and is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00753545.

Findings: Between Aug 28, 2008, and Feb 9, 2010, 265 patients were randomly assigned to olaparib (n=136) or placebo (n=129). 136 patients had deleterious BRCAm. The data cutoff for this analysis was Sept 30, 2015. An overall survival advantage was seen with maintenance olaparib versus placebo in all patients (hazard ratio [HR] 0·73 [95% CI 0·55-0·96]; nominal p=0·025, which did not meet the required threshold for statistical significance [p<0·0095]; median overall survival was 29·8 months [95% CI 26·9-35·7] for those treated with olaparib vs 27·8 months [24·9-33·7] for those treated with placebo), and in patients with BRCAm (HR 0·62 [95% CI 0·41-0·94] nominal p=0·025; 34·9 months [95% CI 29·2-54·6] vs 30·2 months [23·1-40·7]). The overall survival data in patients with BRCA wild-type were HR 0·83 (95% CI 0·55-1·24, nominal p=0·37; 24·5 months [19·8-35·0] for those treated with olaparib vs 26·6 months [23·1-32·5] for those treated with placebo). 11 (15%) of 74 patients with BRCAm received maintenance olaparib for 5 years or more. Overall, common grade 3 or worse adverse events in the olaparib and placebo groups were fatigue (11 [8%] of 136 patients vs four [3%] of 128) and anaemia (eight [6%] vs one [1%]). 30 (22%) of 136 patients in the olaparib group and 11 (9%) of 128 patients in the placebo group reported serious adverse events. In patients treated for 2 years or more, adverse events in the olaparib and placebo groups included low-grade nausea (24 [75%] of 32 patients vs two [40%] of five), fatigue (18 [56%] of 32 vs two [40%] of five), vomiting (12 [38%] of 32 vs zero), and anaemia (eight [25%] of 32 vs one [20%] of five); generally, events were initially reported during the first 2 years of treatment.

Interpretation: Despite not reaching statistical significance, patients with BRCA-mutated platinum-sensitive recurrent serous ovarian cancer receiving olaparib maintenance monotherapy after platinum-based chemotherapy appeared to have longer overall survival, supporting the reported progression-free survival benefit. Clinically useful long-term exposure to olaparib was seen with no new safety signals. Taken together, these data support both the long-term clinical benefit and tolerability of maintenance olaparib in patients with BRCA-mutated platinum-sensitive recurrent serous ovarian cancer.

Funding: AstraZeneca.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1470-2045(16)30376-XDOI Listing
November 2016

JC Polyomavirus Abundance and Distribution in Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy (PML) Brain Tissue Implicates Myelin Sheath in Intracerebral Dissemination of Infection.

PLoS One 2016 18;11(5):e0155897. Epub 2016 May 18.

Neurology, Biogen Inc, Cambridge, MA, United States of America.

Over half of adults are seropositive for JC polyomavirus (JCV), but rare individuals develop progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), a demyelinating JCV infection of the central nervous system. Previously, PML was primarily seen in immunosuppressed patients with AIDS or certain cancers, but it has recently emerged as a drug safety issue through its association with diverse immunomodulatory therapies. To better understand the relationship between the JCV life cycle and PML pathology, we studied autopsy brain tissue from a 70-year-old psoriasis patient on the integrin alpha-L inhibitor efalizumab following a ~2 month clinical course of PML. Sequence analysis of lesional brain tissue identified PML-associated viral mutations in regulatory (non-coding control region) DNA, capsid protein VP1, and the regulatory agnoprotein, as well as 9 novel mutations in capsid protein VP2, indicating rampant viral evolution. Nine samples, including three gross PML lesions and normal-appearing adjacent tissues, were characterized by histopathology and subject to quantitative genomic, proteomic, and molecular localization analyses. We observed a striking correlation between the spatial extent of demyelination, axonal destruction, and dispersion of JCV along white matter myelin sheath. Our observations in this case, as well as in a case of PML-like disease in an immunocompromised rhesus macaque, suggest that long-range spread of polyomavirus and axonal destruction in PML might involve extracellular association between virus and the white matter myelin sheath.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0155897PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4871437PMC
July 2017

Olaparib maintenance therapy in patients with platinum-sensitive, relapsed serous ovarian cancer and a BRCA mutation: Overall survival adjusted for postprogression poly(adenosine diphosphate ribose) polymerase inhibitor therapy.

Cancer 2016 Jun 8;122(12):1844-52. Epub 2016 Apr 8.

University College London, London, United Kingdom.

Background: Maintenance treatment with the oral poly(adenosine diphosphate ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitor olaparib (Lynparza) in Study 19 (study number, D0810C00019; ClinicalTrials.gov identifier, NCT00753545) significantly improved progression-free survival in comparison with a placebo for patients with platinum-sensitive, relapsed serous ovarian cancer with a BRCA1/2 mutation (BRCAm), but an interim analysis revealed no statistically significant overall survival (OS) benefit. However, 23% of the patients receiving the placebo switched to a PARP inhibitor after progression. To investigate whether this had a confounding effect on OS, this article reports an exploratory post hoc analysis that excluded all patients from sites where 1 or more placebo patients received postprogression PARP inhibitor treatment.

Methods: In Study 19, 136 of the 265 patients receiving olaparib or a placebo had a BRCAm. Sixteen patients treated at 11 of the 82 investigational sites received a PARP inhibitor after progression; these sites were excluded from this analysis, and 97 BRCAm patients at 50 sites were included. OS was assessed with a Cox proportional hazards model analogous to the primary study analysis. A supporting rank-preserving structural failure time (RPSFT) model analysis was undertaken for all 136 BRCAm patients.

Results: The OS hazard ratio (HR) was 0.52 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.28-0.97) for the 97 BRCAm patients, whereas for the interim OS analysis with all 136 BRCAm patients, it was 0.73 (95% CI, 0.45-1.17). The supportive RPSFT analysis HR was approximately 0.66.

Conclusions: The numerical improvement in the OS HR suggests that in Study 19, postprogression PARP inhibitor treatment had a confounding influence on the interim OS analysis for BRCAm patients. There is a degree of uncertainty due to the small sample size and the lack of data maturity. Cancer 2016;122:1844-52. © 2016 American Cancer Society.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cncr.29995DOI Listing
June 2016

Standard first-line chemotherapy with or without nintedanib for advanced ovarian cancer (AGO-OVAR 12): a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 3 trial.

Lancet Oncol 2016 Jan 16;17(1):78-89. Epub 2015 Nov 16.

Kliniken Essen Mitte, Essen, Germany.

Background: Angiogenesis is a target in the treatment of ovarian cancer. Nintedanib, an oral triple angiokinase inhibitor of VEGF receptor, platelet-derived growth factor receptor, and fibroblast growth factor receptor, has shown activity in phase 2 trials in this setting. We investigated the combination of nintedanib with standard carboplatin and paclitaxel chemotherapy in patients with newly diagnosed advanced ovarian cancer.

Methods: In this double-blind phase 3 trial, chemotherapy-naive patients (aged 18 years or older) with International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) IIB-IV ovarian cancer and upfront debulking surgery were stratified by postoperative resection status, FIGO stage, and planned carboplatin dose. Patients were randomly assigned (2:1) via an interactive voice or web-based response system to receive six cycles of carboplatin (AUC 5 mg/mL per min or 6 mg/mL per min) and paclitaxel (175 mg/m(2)) in addition to either 200 mg of nintedanib (nintedanib group) or placebo (placebo group) twice daily on days 2-21 of every 3-week cycle for up to 120 weeks. Patients, investigators, and independent radiological reviewers were masked to treatment allocation. The primary endpoint was investigator-assessed progression-free survival analysed in the intention-to-treat population. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01015118.

Findings: Between Dec 9, 2009, and July 27, 2011, 1503 patients were screened and 1366 randomly assigned by nine study groups in 22 countries: 911 to the nintedanib group and 455 to the placebo group. 486 (53%) of 911 patients in the nintedanib group experienced disease progression or death compared with 266 (58%) of 455 in the placebo group. Median progression-free survival was significantly longer in the nintedanib group than in the placebo group (17·2 months [95% CI 16·6-19·9] vs 16·6 months [13·9-19·1]; hazard ratio 0·84 [95% CI 0·72-0·98]; p=0·024). The most common adverse events were gastrointestinal (diarrhoea: nintedanib group 191 [21%] of 902 grade 3 and three [<1%] grade 4 vs placebo group nine [2%] of 450 grade 3 only) and haematological (neutropenia: nintedanib group 180 [20%] grade 3 and 200 (22%) grade 4 vs placebo group 90 [20%] grade 3 and 72 [16%] grade 4; thrombocytopenia: 105 [12%] and 55 [6%] vs 21 [5%] and eight [2%]; anaemia: 108 [12%] and 13 [1%] vs 26 [6%] and five [1%]). Serious adverse events were reported in 376 (42%) of 902 patients in the nintedanib group and 155 (34%) of 450 in the placebo group. 29 (3%) of 902 patients in the nintedanib group experienced serious adverse events associated with death compared with 16 (4%) of 450 in the placebo group, including 12 (1%) in the nintedanib group and six (1%) in the placebo group with a malignant neoplasm progression classified as an adverse event by the investigator. Drug-related adverse events leading to death occurred in three patients in the nintedanib group (one without diagnosis of cause; one due to non-drug-related sepsis associated with drug-related diarrhoea and renal failure; and one due to peritonitis) and in one patient in the placebo group (cause unknown).

Interpretation: Nintedanib in combination with carboplatin and paclitaxel is an active first-line treatment that significantly increases progression-free survival for women with advanced ovarian cancer, but is associated with more gastrointestinal adverse events. Future studies should focus on improving patient selection and optimisation of tolerability.

Funding: Boehringer Ingelheim.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1470-2045(15)00366-6DOI Listing
January 2016

The FNTB promoter polymorphism rs11623866 as a potential predictive biomarker for lonafarnib treatment of ovarian cancer patients.

Br J Clin Pharmacol 2015 Nov 22;80(5):1139-48. Epub 2015 Jul 22.

Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, University of Duisburg-Essen, Essen.

Aim: Despite promising preclinical findings regarding clinical utility of farnesyltransferase inhibitors (FTI), such as lonafarnib, success of clinical trials is limited. A multicentre AGO-OVAR-15 phase II trial reported an unfavourable effect of lonafarnib on the outcome of patients with advanced ovarian cancer. This study was performed as a genetic subgroup analysis of the AGO-OVAR-15 trial, and investigated the utility of the promoter polymorphism rs11623866 of the farnesyltransferase ß-subunit gene (FNTB) in predicting the clinical effectiveness of lonafarnib.

Methods: The influence of rs11623866 (c.-609G > C) on FNTB promoter activity was investigated by electrophoretic-mobility-shift assay, luciferase-reporter assay and RT-qPCR. A total of 57 out of 105 patients from the AGO-OVAR-15 trial, treated with carboplatin and paclitaxel ± lonafarnib, was genotyped for rs11623866 by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Genotype-dependent survival analysis was performed by Kaplan-Meier analysis.

Results: The presence of the G allele was associated with increased FNTB promoter activity compared with the C allele. An unfavourable effect of lonafarnib was limited to patients carrying a GG genotype (HRPFS 6.2, 95%CI = 2.01, 19.41, P = 0.002; HROS 9.6, 95%CI = 1.89, 48.54, P = 0.006). Median progression free survival (PFS) for patients with the GG genotype in the lonafarnib treated arm was 10 months, whereas median PFS without FTI-treatment was 40 months. Median overall survival (OS) in the lonafarnib-treated group was 19 months, whereas median OS was not reached in the untreated group.

Conclusions: Discrepancies between preclinical success and clinical failure may be due to the patients' genetic variability of FNTB. Therefore, our results may encourage retrospective evaluation of FNTB polymorphisms in previous FTI studies, especially those reporting positive FTI response.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bcp.12688DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4631186PMC
November 2015

Adjuvant therapy in lymph node-positive vulvar cancer: the AGO-CaRE-1 study.

J Natl Cancer Inst 2015 Mar 24;107(3). Epub 2015 Jan 24.

Department of Gynecology and Gynecologic Oncology, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany (SM, LFG, LW); Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Hospital Munich Maistrasse, Munich, Germany (JJ); Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Medical Center Kiel, Kiel, Germany (FH); KKS Philipps University Marburg, Marburg, Germany (PN); Department of Gynecology and Gynecologic Oncology Kliniken Essen-Mitte, Essen, Germany (PH, AdB); Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Ulm Medical Center, Ulm, Germany (NdG); Department of Gynecology and Gynecologic Oncology, University Hospital Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany (AHas); Department of Gynecology, Charité University Medicine Berlin Campus Virchow, Berlin, Germany (JS); Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Hospital Magdeburg, Magdeburg, Germany (AHab); Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, Germany (PH); Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Grosshadern University Hospital, Munich, Germany (SF); Department of Gynecology, University Hospital Halle, Halle, Germany (HGS); Department of Gynecology and Gynecologic Oncology, Philipps University Marburg, Marburg, Germany (KB); Department of Gynecology, University Hospital Erlangen, Erlangen, Germany (FT); Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Hospital Greifswald, Greifswald, Germany (AM); Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Evangelical Hospital Duesseldorf, Duesseldorf, Germany (WM).

Background: Women with node-positive vulvar cancer have a high risk for disease recurrence. Indication criteria for adjuvant radiotherapy are controversial. This study was designed to further understand the role of adjuvant therapy in node-positive disease.

Methods: Patients with primary squamous-cell vulvar cancer treated at 29 gynecologic cancer centers in Germany from 1998 through 2008 were included in this retrospective exploratory multicenter cohort study. Of 1618 documented patients, 1249 had surgical groin staging and known lymph node status and were further analyzed. All statistical tests were two-sided.

Results: Four hundred forty-seven of 1249 patients (35.8%) had lymph node metastases (N+). The majority of N+ patients had one (172 [38.5%]) or two (102 [22.8%]) positive nodes. The three-year progression-free survival (PFS) rate of N+ patients was 35.2%, and the overall survival (OS) rate 56.2% compared with 75.2% and 90.2% in node-negative patients (N-). Two hundred forty-four (54.6%) N+ patients had adjuvant therapy, of which 183 (40.9%) had radiotherapy directed at the groins (+/-other fields). Three-year PFS and OS rates in these patients were better compared with N+ patients without adjuvant treatment (PFS: 39.6% vs 25.9%, hazard ratio [HR] = 0.67, 95% confidence interval [CI[= 0.51 to 0.88, P = .004; OS: 57.7% vs 51.4%, HR = 0.79, 95% CI = 0.56 to 1.11, P = .17). This effect was statistically significant in multivariable analysis adjusted for age, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group, Union internationale contre le cancer stage, grade, invasion depth, and number of positive nodes (PFS: HR = 0.58, 95% CI = 0.43 to 0.78, P < .001; OS: HR = 0.63, 95% CI = 0.43 to 0.91, P = .01).

Conclusion: This large multicenter study in vulvar cancer observed that adjuvant radiotherapy was associated with improved prognosis in node-positive patients and will hopefully help to overcome concerns regarding adjuvant treatment. However, outcome after adjuvant radiotherapy remains poor compared with node-negative patients. Adjuvant chemoradiation could be a possible strategy to improve therapy because it is superior to radiotherapy alone in other squamous cell carcinomas.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jnci/dju426DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4356703PMC
March 2015

Carboplatin and pegylated liposomal doxorubicin versus carboplatin and paclitaxel in very platinum-sensitive ovarian cancer patients: results from a subset analysis of the CALYPSO phase III trial.

Eur J Cancer 2015 Feb 17;51(3):352-8. Epub 2014 Dec 17.

Mario Negri Gynecologic Oncology Group (MANGO) and Ospedale Ordine Mauriziano di Torino, Turin, Italy.

Aim: To perform a subset analysis of patients with very platinum-sensitive recurrent ovarian cancer (ROC) enrolled in the phase III CALYPSO trial.

Patients And Methods: The international non-inferiority trial enrolled women with ROC that relapsed >6 months following first- or second-line platinum- and paclitaxel-based therapies. Patients were randomised to CD [carboplatin-pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD)] or CP (carboplatin-paclitaxel) and stratified by treatment-free interval (TFI). In this analysis, patients with a TFI>24 months were analysed separately for progression free survival (PFS), the primary endpoint of CALYPSO, overall survival (OS) and safety.

Results: A total of 259 very platinum-sensitive patients were included (n=131, CD; n=128, CP). Median PFS was 12.0 months for the CD arm and 12.3 months for CP [HR=1.05 (95% CI, 0.79-1.40); P=0.73 for superiority] and median OS was 40.2 months for CD and 43.9 for CP [HR=1.18 (95% CI 0.85-1.63); P=0.33 for superiority]. Overall response rates were 42% and 38%, respectively (P=0.46). Toxicities were more common with CP versus CD, including grade 3/4 neutropenia (40.8% versus 27.5%; P=0.025), nausea (4.8% versus 3.1%; P=0.47), allergic reaction (8% versus 3.1%; P=0.082) sensory neuropathy (4.8% versus 2.3%; P=0.27) and grade 2 alopecia (88% versus 9.2%; P<0.001). Grade 3/4 thrombocytopenia (12.2% versus 3.2%; P=0.007) and mucositis (2.3% versus 0%; P=0.089) were more common with CD. Grade 3/4 hand-foot syndrome occurred rarely with CD (3 patients versus 0 in CP arm; P=0.089).

Conclusion: CP and CD were equally effective treatment regimens for patients with very platinum-sensitive ROC. The favourable risk-benefit profile suggests carboplatin-PLD as treatment of choice for these patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejca.2014.11.017DOI Listing
February 2015

Progression-free survival by local investigator versus independent central review: comparative analysis of the AGO-OVAR16 Trial.

Gynecol Oncol 2015 Jan 28;136(1):37-42. Epub 2014 Nov 28.

Department of Gynecology and Gynecologic Oncology, Kliniken Essen Mitte, Essen, Germany. Electronic address:

Background: Analysis of progression-free survival (PFS) as the primary endpoint in advanced epithelial ovarian, fallopian tube, and primary peritoneal cancer (AEOC) trials may be confounded by the difficulty of radiologic evaluation of disease progression and the potential for discrepancy between investigator and blinded independent central assessments. PFS as assessed by local investigator (INV) was the primary endpoint of AGO-OVAR16, a randomized, double-blind trial of pazopanib maintenance therapy in AEOC. To confirm the robustness of the primary analysis, PFS was also evaluated by blinded independent central review (BICR).

Methods: Patients with histologically confirmed AEOC (N = 940) were randomized 1:1 to receive pazopanib 800 mg/day or placebo for up to 24 months. Tumor response in the intent-to-treat population was evaluated by CT/MRI every 6 months and analyzed per RECIST 1.0.

Results: Pazopanib prolonged PFS versus placebo by INV (median 17.9 vs 12.3 months; hazard ratio [HR] = 0.766, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.643-0.911; P = 0.0021). Results for PFS by BICR were similar (median 15.4 vs 11.8 months; HR = 0.802, 95% CI: 0.678-0.949; P = 0.0084). Progression events were recorded later by INV in 23% of pazopanib-treated patients and 17% of placebo-treated patients. The overall concordance between INV and BICR assessments was 84% and 86% in the pazopanib and placebo arms, respectively.

Conclusions: By INV and BICR assessments, maintenance therapy with pazopanib in AEOC provided a significantly longer PFS than placebo. The good overall concordance between INV and BICR assessments, as well as HR and P value consistency, supports the reliability of investigator-assessed PFS as the primary endpoint in AGO-OVAR16.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ygyno.2014.11.074DOI Listing
January 2015

Olaparib maintenance therapy in patients with platinum-sensitive relapsed serous ovarian cancer: a preplanned retrospective analysis of outcomes by BRCA status in a randomised phase 2 trial.

Lancet Oncol 2014 Jul 31;15(8):852-61. Epub 2014 May 31.

Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA, USA.

Background: Maintenance monotherapy with the PARP inhibitor olaparib significantly prolonged progression-free survival (PFS) versus placebo in patients with platinum-sensitive recurrent serous ovarian cancer. We aimed to explore the hypothesis that olaparib is most likely to benefit patients with a BRCA mutation.

Methods: We present data from the second interim analysis of overall survival and a retrospective, preplanned analysis of data by BRCA mutation status from our randomised, double-blind, phase 2 study that assessed maintenance treatment with olaparib 400 mg twice daily (capsules) versus placebo in patients with platinum-sensitive recurrent serous ovarian cancer who had received two or more platinum-based regimens and who had a partial or complete response to their most recent platinum-based regimen. Randomisation was by an interactive voice response system, stratified by time to progression on penultimate platinum-based regimen, response to the most recent platinum-based regimen before randomisation, and ethnic descent. The primary endpoint was PFS, analysed for the overall population and by BRCA status. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00753545.

Findings: Between Aug 28, 2008, and Feb 9, 2010, 136 patients were assigned to olaparib and 129 to placebo. BRCA status was known for 131 (96%) patients in the olaparib group versus 123 (95%) in the placebo group, of whom 74 (56%) versus 62 (50%) had a deleterious or suspected deleterious germline or tumour BRCA mutation. Of patients with a BRCA mutation, median PFS was significantly longer in the olaparib group than in the placebo group (11·2 months [95% CI 8·3-not calculable] vs 4·3 months [3·0-5·4]; HR 0·18 [0·10-0·31]; p<0·0001); similar findings were noted for patients with wild-type BRCA, although the difference between groups was lower (7·4 months [5·5-10·3] vs 5·5 months [3·7-5·6]; HR 0·54 [0·34-0·85]; p=0·0075). At the second interim analysis of overall survival (58% maturity), overall survival did not significantly differ between the groups (HR 0·88 [95% CI 0·64-1·21]; p=0·44); similar findings were noted for patients with mutated BRCA (HR 0·73 [0·45-1·17]; p=0·19) and wild-type BRCA (HR 0·99 [0·63-1·55]; p=0·96). The most common grade 3 or worse adverse events in the olaparib group were fatigue (in ten [7%] patients in the olaparib group vs four [3%] in the placebo group) and anaemia (seven [5%] vs one [<1%]). Serious adverse events were reported in 25 (18%) patients who received olaparib and 11 (9%) who received placebo. Tolerability was similar in patients with mutated BRCA and the overall population.

Interpretation: These results support the hypothesis that patients with platinum-sensitive recurrent serous ovarian cancer with a BRCA mutation have the greatest likelihood of benefiting from olaparib treatment.

Funding: AstraZeneca.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1470-2045(14)70228-1DOI Listing
July 2014
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