Publications by authors named "Werku Etafa"

14 Publications

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Healthcare workers' compliance and its potential determinants to prevent COVID-19 in public hospitals in Western Ethiopia.

BMC Infect Dis 2021 May 19;21(1):454. Epub 2021 May 19.

College of Natural and Computational Science, Wollega University, Nekemte, Ethiopia.

Background: Globally, Coronavirus disease-19 has created unprecedented challenges to public health. Healthcare workers (HCWs) are at risk of COVID-19 because of their profession. There are limited studies conducted in Ethiopia among HCWs regarding their compliance with COVID-19 preventive measures. Therefore, this study intended to assess HCWs' compliance with measures to prevent COVID-19, and its potential determinants in public hospitals in Western Ethiopia.

Methods: A self-administered, multicenter hospital-based cross-sectional survey was proposed to 422 randomly selected HCWs working in seven public hospitals in Western Ethiopia identified as COVID-19 referral centers. Data were entered into Epi Data version 3.1 and analyzed using SPSS version 24. Binary logistic regression was used to identify potential determinants of outcome variables at p-value < 0.05.

Results: Out of 422 completed questionnaires, the overall HCWs' compliance with COVID-19 prevention is 22% (n = 404). In multivariate regression analysis, factors such as spending most of caring time at bedside (AOR = 1.94, 95%CI, 1.06-3.55), receiving training on infection prevention/COVID-19 (AOR = 1.86, 95%CI, 1.04-3.33), reading materials on COVID-19 (AOR = 2.04, 95%CI, 1.14-3.63) and having support from hospital management (AOR = 2.09, 95%CI, 1.20-3.64) were found to be significantly associated with COVID-19 preventive measures. Furthermore, inadequate supplies of appropriate personal protective equipment (83.2%), insufficient supportive medications (78.5%), and lack of provision of adequate ventilation (77.7%) were the barriers to COVID-19 prevention most frequently mentioned by participants.

Conclusion: Our findings highlight HCWs' poor compliance with COVID-19 preventive measures. Providing information and refreshing training to improve the level of healthcare workers' adherence with COVID-19 prevention is as imperative as increasing staff commitment to supply resources necessary to protect HCWs and to reduce healthcare-associated infections transmission of SARS-COV-2.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-021-06149-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8132019PMC
May 2021

Knowledge, attitude, and practice of health professionals in Ethiopia toward COVID-19 prevention at early phase.

SAGE Open Med 2021 27;9:20503121211012220. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Department of Nursing, Institutes of Health Science, Wollega University, Nekemte, Ethiopia.

Introduction: Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is a potentially lethal disease having significant public health concerns. As the disease is new, nothing has been intervened yet. Therefore, here we show the health worker's knowledge, attitude, and practice toward COVID-19.

Methods: The online cross-sectional study design was conducted from April to May 2020, among Ethiopia health workers. The data were collected online, downloaded by an Excel sheet, and transferred to IBM SPSS version 24. Using questionnaire containing four parts sociodemographic, knowledge, attitude, and practice assessing. Linear logistic regression and binary logistic regression were performed to test the association between the dependent and the independent variables. We reported the 95% confidence intervals of adjusted odds ratios with a statistical significance level at less than 0.05 -values.

Results And Conclusion: A total of 441 health workers were included in this study. The majority of participants were from urban (88.7%), nurses (53.1%), male (88.4%), and have a degree educational level (66.7%). The mean knowledge level of respondents was 10.13 ± 0.057 standard deviation. The majority of respondents had a positive attitude toward control of COVID-19, 88%, and 77% of respondents had confidence that Ethiopia will control COVID-19. Similarly, male (2.746, 95% confidence interval (1.23, 6.02)) and good knowledge level (1.98, 95% confidence interval (1.01, 3.09)) were found to be a determinant for attitude regarding control of COVID-19. Good knowledge level 1.6 (1.02, 2.6), male sex 2.2 (1.07, 4.6), masters 2.33 (1.06, 5.08), and medical doctors 5.99 (1.76, 20.4) to practice wearing a mask when going out of the home. Knowledge, attitude, and practice of the participant health workers are considerable, but may not be enough to control the disease. Sex, age, and profession of the health workers were determinant factors for knowledge about COVID-19. Therefore, training has to be considered for updating health care workers on COVID-19 prevention and controlled at the national level.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/20503121211012220DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8083007PMC
April 2021

Magnitude and predictors of poor glycemic control among patients with diabetes attending public hospitals of Western Ethiopia.

PLoS One 2021 25;16(2):e0247634. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Department of Pediatrics and Neonatal Nursing, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Institute of Health Sciences, Wollega University, Nekemte, Ethiopia.

Background: Diabetes is one of the most prevalent non-communicable diseases globally, which rapidly is increasing in developing countries. Ethiopia is also facing growing morbidity and mortality related to diabetes complications. Thus, dealing with glycemic control is essential for controlling the development of devastating acute and chronic complications related to diabetes. Therefore, this study aims to assess the magnitude and predictors of poor glycemic control among diabetic patients in western Ethiopia.

Methods: The cross-sectional study design was employed on a sample of 423 diabetic patients. A systematic random sampling method was employed. An interviewer-administered structured questionnaire was used. The data entered into Epi data version 3.1 and exported into Statistical Package for the Social Sciences window version 24 for analysis. All variables significant at p-<0.25 in bivariate were entered into multivariate analysis. The multivariable logistic regressions were used to determine predictors' poor glycemic control by considering the Adjusted Odds Ratio at CI 95% and the significance level was set at p <0.05.

Results: The magnitude of poor glycemic control was 64.1%. Being females (AOR = 1.684,95%CI = 1.066,2.662), duration of diabetes >8years (AOR = 2.552,95%CI = 1.397, 4.665), presence of diabetes complication (AOR = 2.806,95%CI = 1.594,4.941), negligence of blood glucose test at home (AOR = 1.720, 95%CI = 1.078, 2.743), poor self-care behavior (AOR = 1.787, 95%CI = 1.083,2.959) and poor self-efficacy (AOR = 1.934, 95%CI = 1.078,3.469) were significant predictors of poor glycemic control.

Conclusion: The proportion of poor glycemic control was high which was nearly comparable to that reported from many countries. This could be due to factors that were significantly associated with poor glycemic control like lack of home blood glucose test, increased duration of diabetes, presence of diabetes complications, poor self-efficacy, and poor self-care behaviors. Each were significant independent predictors of poor glycemic control. Thus, we recommend patients with diabetes and health care providers enhancing self-monitoring practices, and preventing potential complications should be a priority concern to improve blood glucose levels. Further studies are also recommended to explore important factors which were not identified by the current study.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0247634PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7906479PMC
August 2021

Postpartum modern contraception utilization and its determinants in Ethiopia: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

PLoS One 2020 14;15(12):e0243776. Epub 2020 Dec 14.

School of Nursing and Midwifery, Institutes of Health Sciences, Wollega University, Nekemte, Ethiopia.

Background: Contraceptive use is the best and most cost-effective strategy to reduce feto-maternal adverse effects of short birth intervals. More than two-thirds of women in developing countries who do not want to conceive are not using contraception methods. Although there were various primary studies in different parts of the country, there is no nationally representative evidence on postpartum modern contraception utilization and its determinants in Ethiopia.

Objective: This review was aimed to determine the best available pieces of evidence to pool the magnitude of postpartum modern contraception utilization and find out its determinants.

Methods: Published studies were extensively searched by using electronic databases and unpublished studies were identified from the digital library. All observational studies conducted on the magnitude of postpartum modern contraception utilization and its determinants in Ethiopia were included. Data were extracted on the Microsoft Excel spreadsheet and analyzed using STATA 14.1 version. A random-effects model was used to estimate the pooled magnitude of postpartum modern contraception utilization with a 95% confidence interval (CI). Inverse variance (I2) was used to identify the presence of heterogeneity and forest plot was used to estimate the pooled magnitude of postpartum contraception utilization. The presence of publication bias was assessed by funnel plots and Egger's statistical tests. Sub-group analysis was computed to minimize underlying heterogeneity.

Findings: In this review, 19 primary studies were included. The pooled magnitude of postpartum modern contraception utilization in Ethiopia was 45.79% (95%CI 36.45%, 55.13%). The review found that having more than four Antenatal care visits(ANC), having postnatal care visit (PNC), having a formal education, history of family planning use, history of counseling on family planning, and having greater than four alive children as significant determinants of postpartum modern contraception utilization.

Conclusion: The magnitude of postpartum modern contraception utilization in Ethiopia was low. ANC visit, PNC visit, maternal educational status, history of previous family planning use, counseling on family planning, and number of alive children were found to be significant determinants of postpartum modern contraception utilization. Therefore, strengthening focused ANC and PNC services to encourage women in utilizing modern contraception during the postnatal period is needed.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0243776PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7735615PMC
February 2021

The magnitude of adherence to option B plus program and associated factors among women in eastern African countries: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

BMC Public Health 2020 Nov 27;20(1):1812. Epub 2020 Nov 27.

Department of Public Health, Institute of Health Sciences, Wollega University, Nekemte, Ethiopia.

Background: Despite coverage and benefits associated with the prevention of mothers to child transmission (PMTCT) services, mothers' adherence to option B plus is still a challenge. Though few primary studies are available on the magnitude of adherence to option B plus and factors associated in Eastern African countries, they do not provide strong evidence in helping policymakers to address suboptimal adherence to option B plus. Therefore, this systematic review and meta-analysis was intended to estimate the pooled magnitude of adherence to option B plus program and associated factors among women in Eastern African countries.

Methods: PubMed, Medline, HINARI, Cochrane library, the Web of Science, and Google Scholar were searched for studies reported on the magnitude of adherence to option B plus among women in Eastern African countries. The search terms used were "option B plus", "magnitude", "prevalence", "PMTCT", "ART adherence", "associated factors", "all lists of Eastern African countries" and their combination by Boolean operators. The effect sizes of the meta-analysis were the magnitude of adherence to option B plus and the odds ratio of the associated factors. STATA/SE V14 was used for statistical analysis, and publication bias was assessed using funnel plots and Egger's test.

Results: Fourteen studies having total participants of 4883 were included in the systematic review and meta-analysis. Using the random effect model, the pooled prevalence of adherence to option B plus was 71.88% (95% CI: 58.54-85.23%). The factors associated with good adherence to option B plus PMTCT program were partner support (Adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 4.13; 95% CI: 2.78-6.15), received counseling services (AOR = 4.12, 95% CI: 2.81-6.02), disclosure of HIV status to partner (AOR = 4.38; 95% CI: 1.79-10.70), and clinical stage of HIV/AIDS I/II (AOR = 2.62; 95% CI: 1.53-4.46).

Conclusion: The level of adherence to option B plus program in Eastern African countries was generally sub-optimal. Thus, a coordinated effort is needed to raise the number of mothers to be tested, and early treatment initiation for HIV positive mothers before the disease advances. Furthermore, counseling services for couples on the importance of early treatment initiation and adherence to medications must be given due attention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-020-09903-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7693523PMC
November 2020

Knowledge and Attitude Towards Antimicrobial Resistance of Graduating Health Science Students of Wollega University.

Infect Drug Resist 2020 3;13:3937-3944. Epub 2020 Nov 3.

Department of Nursing, Institute of Health Sciences, Wollega University, Nekemte, Ethiopia.

Background: Antimicrobial resistance is a worldwide concern due to the inappropriate and irrational use of antibiotics. Thus, this study was aimed at determining the knowledge and attitude of graduating health science students of Wollega University towards antimicrobial resistance.

Methods: An institution-based cross-sectional study design was employed from June to July 2019. Epi-data version 3.1 was used to receive data and exported to SPSS version 25 for further analysis. Both bivariable and multivariable logistic regression analysis were done to find factors associated with attitudes of students towards antibiotic consumption and resistance at a 95% confidence level. The strength of association was measured with the odds ratio. Variables with a -value of <0.05 at multivariable analysis were considered to be a significant variable. Finally, texts and simple frequency tables were used to present the findings.

Results: Out of 249, 232 students were included in this survey yielding a response rate of 93.6%. Hundred fifty-eight (68.1%) of them had adequate knowledge about antibiotic identification, role, side effects, and resistance. Students with a family member who works in health and related professions had a lower probability of stopping antibiotics when they feel better (AOR = 0.50, 95% CI: 0.28-0.90) and using leftover antibiotics (AOR = 0.51, 95% CI: 0.28-0.92) compared to their counterparts.

Conclusion: Students' knowledge on antibiotic identification, role, side effects, and resistance was suboptimal, and the attitude of students towards antibiotic consumption was unfavorable. Respondents having a family member in a health-related field showed a good attitude. Respondents with three years of study also had a good attitude, female gender showed good attitude, and urban residence were independent predictors of attitude toward antibiotic consumption. Training on antimicrobial resistance should be arranged for graduating class nursing and medical students, as they are the future prescribers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IDR.S264481DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7650017PMC
November 2020

Magnitude of first line antiretroviral therapy treatment failure and associated factors among adult patients on ART in South West Shoa, Central Ethiopia.

PLoS One 2020 11;15(11):e0241768. Epub 2020 Nov 11.

Department of Nursing, College of Health Sciences, Diredawa University, Diredawa, Ethiopia.

Background: First-line antiretroviral treatment failure has become a public health concern in high, low and middle-income countries with high mortality and morbidity In Ethiopia, around 710,000 peoples were living with HIV and 420,000 of them were receiving ART in 2017. Little is known about the magnitude of first-line ART treatment failure and its associated factors in Ethiopia, particularly in the study area. Therefore, this study was aimed to find the magnitude of first-line ART treatment failure and its associated factors among adult patients attending ART clinic at Southwest shoa zone public hospitals.

Methods: Institutions based cross-sectional study was employed from February 1 to April 2, 2019. An interviewer administered questionnaire was used to collect data from 350 adult patients on ART using a systematic random sampling technique. The collected data were coded and entered into Epidata version 3 and exported to STATA SE version 14 for analysis. Bivariable and multivariable logistic regression was done to identify factors associated with first-line ART treatment failure. At 95% confidence level strength of association was measured using Odds ratio. Variables with a p-value of ≤ 0.25 in the bivariable analysis were considered as a candidate variable for multivariable analysis. To get the final variables step-wise backward selection procedure was used and those in the final model were selected at a p-value <0.05. Finally, texts, simple frequency tables, and figures were used to present the findings.

Results: In this study the magnitude of first-line ART treatment failure was 33.42%. Absence of baseline opportunistic infection AOR = 0.362 (95%CI0.178, 0.735), Staying on first-line ART for <5 years AOR = 0.47 (95%CI 0.252, 0.878), Nevirapine containing ART regimen AOR = 3.07 (95%CI 1.677, 5.63), Baseline CD4 count ≥100 cells/mm3 AOR = 0.299 (95%CI 0.152 0.591), absence of opportunistic infections after ART initiation AOR = 0.257 (95%CI 0.142, .467), time taking greater than an one-hour to reach health facility AOR 1.85 (95%CI 1.022 3.367) were significantly associated with first-line ART treatment failure.

Conclusion: The magnitude of first-line ART treatment failure was high in the study area. Base-line opportunistic infection, duration on first-line ART, NVP based ART, Baseline CD4 count level, OI after ART initiation, and time it takes to reach health facility were independent determinants of first-line ART treatment failure.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0241768PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7657481PMC
January 2021

Nurses' knowledge about palliative care and attitude towards end- of-life care in public hospitals in Wollega zones: A multicenter cross-sectional study.

PLoS One 2020 7;15(10):e0238357. Epub 2020 Oct 7.

Department of Mathematics, College of Natural and Computational Science, Wollega University, Nekemte, Ethiopia.

Background: Palliative care is nowadays essential in nursing care, due to the increasing number of patients who require attention in the final stages of their life. Lack of knowledge of and negative attitude palliative care among nurses is one of the most common barriers to quality palliative care. This study, therefore, aimed to assess nurses' knowledge about palliative care and attitude toward end-of-life care in public hospitals in Wollega zones, Ethiopia.

Methods: A multicenter institutional-based cross-sectional study design was employed to collect data from 372 nurses working in public hospitals in Wollega zones from October 02-22, 2019. A self-administered questionnaire with three different parts: Demographic characteristics of nurses, the Palliative Care Quiz for Nursing (PCQN), and the Frommelt Attitudes Towards Care of the Dying (FATCOD). SPSS version 21 was used for analysis used for data analysis. The binary logistic regression test was used for analysis at p < 0.05.

Findings: Our final sample size was 422 nurses (response rate = 88%). With the mean total PCQN scores (9.34), the majority of them showed an inadequate level of knowledge about palliative care. The mean total FATCOD scores (79.58) displayed a positive attitude toward end-of-life care, with 52% of respondents eager to care for a dying person and their family. Nurses who had PC service experience [AOR = 1.94 CI (1.10-3.42), p = 0.02] and had ever attended training/lecture on PC [AOR = 1.87 CI (1.01-3.46), p = 0.04] were independently associated with nurses' knowledge about PC. Similarly, nurses who had no PC service experience [AOR = 0.41, CI (0.21-0.79), p = 0.008], who read articles/brochures about PC [AOR = 1.94, CI (1.11-3.39), p = 0.01] and had provided care for a smaller number of terminally ill patients [AOR = 1.74, CI (1.01-2.97), p = 0.04] were significantly associated with nurses' attitude towards end-of-life care.

Conclusion: The study highlighted that nurses' knowledge about palliative care is inadequate, and showed a less favorable attitude toward end-of-life care. The findings also provide evidence for greater attentions and resources should be directed towards educating and supporting nurses caring for patients with palliative care needs in Wollega Zones.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0238357PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7540839PMC
November 2020

Postpartum depression and associated factors among postpartum women in Ethiopia: a systematic review and meta-analysis, 2020.

Public Health Rev 2020 16;41:21. Epub 2020 Sep 16.

Department of Nursing, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Wollega University, Nekemte, Ethiopia.

Introduction: The postpartum period is recognized as a high-risk period for the development of various mood disorders like postpartum depression. Globally, postnatal depression is a serious public health problem that has a negative impact on the mother's health and child development, especially in developing countries. In Ethiopia, even though there are different primary studies conducted on postpartum depression, there is no nationally representative evidence. Therefore, the aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to estimate the pooled prevalence and associated factors of postpartum depression in Ethiopia.

Methods: Published and unpublished articles from various electronic databases and digital libraries were accessed. This systematic review included studies that were conducted on the magnitude and factors associated with postpartum depression among postnatal women in Ethiopia. A random-effect model was used to estimate the pooled magnitude of postpartum depression with a 95% confidence interval (CI). Inverse variance (I) was used to visualize the presence of heterogeneity, and forest plot was used to estimate the pooled magnitude of postpartum depression. Publication bias was assessed by funnel plots and Egger's statistical tests. A meta-regression and subgroup analysis were computed to minimize underlying heterogeneity.

Result: Initially, a total of 764 studies were accessed. Twenty-eight full articles were assessed for eligibility criteria, of which twelve studies fulfilled inclusion criteria were included in the final meta-analysis. The overall pooled magnitude of postpartum depression was 22.89% (95% CI 17.75%, 28.03%) with the lowest (12.20%) and highest (33.82%) in the Southern nations region. Unplanned pregnancy, domestic violence, lack of social support, previous history of depression, infant loss, and dissatisfaction in marriage showed a statistically significant association with postpartum depression.

Conclusions: In the current analysis, the prevalence of postpartum depression was high as compared with other developing countries. Routine screening of mothers in the postpartum period and integrating mental health with maternal health care is highly recommended.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40985-020-00136-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7493842PMC
September 2020

Nursing students' knowledge on the management of peripheral venous catheters at Wollega University.

PLoS One 2020 17;15(9):e0238881. Epub 2020 Sep 17.

College of Natural and Computational Science, Wollega University, Nekemte, Ethiopia.

Background: Adherence to the best standards of nursing practice is the fundamental principle to improve patient outcome and prevent nursing procedure related-infections. A peripheral venous catheter (PVC) is the most common invasive procedure performed in nursing care. Its poor performance could expose patients to bloodstream-related infections. The present study aimed to assess post-basic nursing students' knowledge of evidence-based guidelines on the management of peripheral venous catheters.

Methods: A cross-sectional study design was conducted on May 01-03, 2019, using a convenient sample 239 among post-basic nursing students in Wollega University.

Results: The study result showed that nursing students' had a low mean (4.1±1.52) of knowledge about PVC procedure management. Only 41% of the respondents have adhered to recommendations of CDC guidelines. Among the provided options of the items, none achieved 100% correct answers. The majority of nursing students (77%) responded that antiseptic handwashing is always performed before insertion of PVCs. Meanwhile, few students (5%) correctly answered that the infusion set is recommended to be removed after 96 hours when neither lipids nor blood products are administered. In multivariable regression analysis, nursing students who had received training (AOR = 2.9, 95% CI (1.6, 5.1)) and who were younger (AOR = 2.4, 95% CI (1.3, 4.3)) significantly associated with a higher score of knowledge.

Conclusions: This study finding shows that an overall level of knowledge of post-basic nursing students is inadequate. Measurements such as an increase in the provision of adequate training by nurses educators based on evidence-based guidelines could improve the post-basic nursing students' knowledge.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0238881PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7498047PMC
October 2020

Diarrhea and associated factors among under-5 children in Ethiopia: A secondary data analysis.

SAGE Open Med 2020 31;8:2050312120944201. Epub 2020 Jul 31.

School of Nursing and Midwifery, Institute of Health Sciences, Wollega University, Nekemte, Ethiopia.

Objectives: Diarrhea is a major contributing factor for preventable childhood morbidity and death. Despite the occurrence of diarrhea is decreasing, its effect is increasing at an alarming rate among under-5 children particularly in developing countries. The survey was aimed to assess diarrhea and associated factors among children less than 5 years (0-59 months) in Ethiopia with nationally representative data.

Methods: The data were extracted from the Ethiopian National Survey of 2016. A logistic regression model was undertaken to identify the contributing factors for childhood diarrhea. Variables with p < 0.05 were considered as independent predictors of childhood diarrhea.

Results: From a total of 10,641 under-5 children, 5483(51.5%) were males and most of the children (62.3%) were above 24 months. About 10.2% had diarrhea 14 days before data collection, and the majority (93.1%) were born to married mothers. Receiving no treatment or advice for fever/cough (adjusted odd ratio (AOR) = 0.170, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.139-0.208, p = 0.001), being permanent residence (AOR = 0.583, 95% CI: 0.347-0.982, p = 0.043), initiating breastfeeding after 24 h of birth (AOR = 1.553, 95% CI: 1.197-2.015, p = 0.001), and lack of prenatal care (AOR = 2.142, 95% CI: 0.624-0.875, p = 0.001) were independent predictors of diarrhea among under-5 children's in Ethiopia.

Conclusion: The result of this survey indicated that diarrhea is a significant health challenge among under-5 children. To tackle this illness, sufficient education on child and maternal health has to be provided for mothers focusing on predictive factors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2050312120944201DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7406926PMC
July 2020

Food Insecurity among People Living with HIV/AIDS on ART Follower at Public Hospitals of Western Ethiopia.

Int J Food Sci 2020 25;2020:8825453. Epub 2020 Jul 25.

Department of Pharmacy, Institute of Health Sciences, Wollega University, Nekemte, Ethiopia.

Background: Food insecurity and HIV/AIDS are intertwined in a vicious cycle through nutritional, mental health, and behavioral pathways. Food insecurity is a potentially important barrier to the success of antiretroviral treatment, increased hospitalizations, and higher morbidity among HIV-infected individuals in resource-poor settings particularly in sub-Saharan Africa including Ethiopia. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of food insecurity among people living with HIV/AIDS on follow up at public hospitals of western Ethiopia.

Methods: An institutional-based cross-sectional study design was conducted on a sample of 428 among people living with HIV/AIDS on follow up at public hospitals of western Ethiopia. A systematic random sampling technique was used to include all participants. Data was collected using interviewer-administered structured questionnaires. The data were entered into Epi data version 3.1 and then exported into Statistical Package for the Social Sciences window version 21 for analysis. Descriptive and inferential statistics were employed. Bivariable logistic and multivariable logistic analyses were used with AOR at CI 95% and < 0.05 were used.

Result: The finding of the study revealed that the majority of the respondents 221(53.1%) were female. The mean age of the respondents was 32.92 ± 7.304 years and 197 (47.4%) of the study participants were between 30 to 39 years' age group. The level of food insecurity among PLWHA receiving ART therapy was 68.8% which was partitioned as mild (23.32%), moderate (29.09%), and severe (16.35%) food in secured. Being single [AOR = 3.507(1.377, 8.934)], illiterate [AOR = 5.234(1.747, 15.686)], cigarette smoking [AOR = 3.577(2.104, 6.081)], presence of anemia (AOR = 2.650(1.563, 4.493)], and inadequate dietary diversity [AOR = 2.870(1.088, 7.569)] were predictors of food insecurity.

Conclusion: The prevalence of food insecurity was high. Educational status, marital status, cigarette smoking, presence of anemia, opportunistic infection, and inadequate dietary diversity were the major significant factors affecting food insecurity. We recommended a national health policy maker to integrate food and nutrition interventions as part of a package of care, treatment, and support services for people living with HIV and ART follower patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/8825453DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7416256PMC
July 2020

Essential new-born care practices and associated factors among post natal mothers in Nekemte City, Western Ethiopia.

PLoS One 2020 21;15(4):e0231354. Epub 2020 Apr 21.

School of Nursing and Midwifery, Institute of Health Science, Wollega University, Nekemte, Ethiopia.

Background: New-born survival is a prominent goal on the global health agenda and an important area of focus for programs seeking to ensure child survival. Geographically, neonatal deaths are most prevalent in Sub-Saharan Africa and southern Asia, accounting for 39% and 38% of all neonatal deaths respectively while Ethiopia in particular has 28% neonatal death. Promotion of essential new-born care practice is one of a cheap approach to improve health outcomes of new-born babies. Thus, this study was aimed to assess the magnitude of essential new-born care practices and associated factors among postnatal mothers in Nekemte city, Western Ethiopia.

Methods: An institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted from February to March, 2017, in Nekemte city, East Wollega Zone. Data was collected from 417 randomly selected mothers who have less than six months infants by face to face interview in three public health institutions of Nekemte City, Ethiopia. Women who were not biological mother to the new-born were excluded from the study. The collected data were coded, cleaned and entered using Epi-Data version 3.1 and analysed using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) version 21.0. Both bivariable and multivariable logistic regression analysis were computed to identify associated factors. The strength of association was measured by odds ratios with 95% confidence interval (CI) at a p-value of < 0.05 and finally obtained results were presented by using simple frequency tables, graphs, and charts.

Results: The study revealed that the level of essential new-born care practice was 184(44.1%). The overall safe cord care practice of the respondents was 285 (68.3%) while the optimal thermal care practices and good neonatal feeding were 328 (78.7%) and 322 (77.2%) respectively. Having visit to Antenatal Care (ANC) [Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) = 4.38, 95% CI = (1.38, 13.94)], knowledge of essential new-born care [AOR = 4.58, 95% CI = (2.93, 7.16)], and counselled about essential new-born care [AOR = 2.32, 95% CI = (1.38, 3.91)] were factors significantly associated with good practices of essential new-born care.

Conclusion: This study indicated that the level of essential new-born care practice was unsatisfactory in the study area. Promotion of essential new-born care through the provision of community awareness and provision of counselling on essential new-born care and neonatal danger signs to all pregnant women should be given emphasis.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0231354PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7173873PMC
July 2020

Nurses' attitude and perceived barriers to pressure ulcer prevention.

BMC Nurs 2018 16;17:14. Epub 2018 Apr 16.

Department of Statistics, College of Natural and Computational Sciences, Arsi University, Asella, Ethiopia.

Background: The presence or absence of pressure ulcers has been generally regarded as a performance measure of quality nursing care and overall patient health. The aim of this study- wasto explorenurses' attitude about pressure ulcer prevention'and to identify staff nurses' perceived barriers to pressure ulcer prevention public hospitals in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

Methods: A self-reported multi-center institutional based cross sectional study design was employed to collect data from staff nurses ( = 222) working in six (6) selected public hospitals in Addis Ababa, from April 01-28/2015.

Results: Majority of the nurses had ( = 116, 52.2%) negative attitude towards pressure ulcer prevention. The mean scores of the test for all participants was 3.09out of 11(SD =0.92, range = 1-5). Similarly, the study revealed several barriers need to be resolved to put in to practice the strategies of pressure ulcer prevention; Heavy workload and inadequate staff (lack of tie) (83.1%), shortage of resources/equipment (67.7%) and inadequate training (63.2%) were among the major barriers identified in the study.

Conclusions: The study finding suggests that Addis Ababa nurses have negative attitude to pressure ulcer prevention. Also several barriers exist for implementing pressure ulcer prevention protocols in public hospitals in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Suggestion for improving this situation is attractive.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12912-018-0282-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5902867PMC
April 2018
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