Publications by authors named "Wenyu Yang"

162 Publications

Gravity Reduced Nitrogen Uptake the Regulation of Brace Unilateral Root Growth in Maize Intercropping.

Front Plant Sci 2021 6;12:724909. Epub 2021 Sep 6.

College of Agronomy, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu, China.

Water, nutrient, light, and interspecific facilitation regulation of soil physicochemical properties and root morphology modulate nitrogen (N) uptake in cereal and legume intercropping systems. However, maize root morphological plasticity and N uptake capability response to gravity in the intercropping system remains to be determined. In this study, maize was grown under 20 cm (I), 40 cm (I), and 60 cm (I) of narrow row spacing in an intercropping system (maize-soybean strip relay intercropping) and equal row spacing of monoculture (M) in a 2-year field experiment. As a supplementary for the field experiment, maize root barrier and plant inclination experiments were conducted. Plant inclination, brace root morphology, N uptake, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) level, IAA synthesis genes, and grain yield were assessed. The result showed that the plant inclination increased with decreasing narrow row spacing in intercropping system. Also, the brace unilateral root growth ratio (BURR) increased with increasing plant inclination in intercropping treatments. The plant inclination experiment showed the BURR achieved 94% after inclination at 45°. BURR tended to be positively correlated ( = 0.00) with plant inclination. Thus, gravity (plant inclination) causes brace unilateral root growth. The IAA concentration of stem nodes in the wide row increased with increasing plant inclination, while the IAA accumulation decreased in the narrow row. The and genes (associated with IAA biosynthesis) were highly expressed in a wide row. There was a strong correlation ( = 0.03) between the IAA concentration of wide row and the BURR. Therefore, gravity regulates the IAA level, which affects BURR. In addition, the brace root number, volume, and surface area were decreased when BURR was increased. Subsequently, the leaf N, cob N, and kernel N accumulation were reduced. These organs N and grain yield in I were not significantly different as compared to the control treatment. The excessive brace unilateral root growth was not conducive to N uptake and increased yield. Our results suggest that gravity is essential in regulating root morphology plasticity by regulating IAA levels and decreasing N uptake capacity. Furthermore, these results indicate that plant inclination can regulate root phenotype and N uptake of maize and by adjusting the spacing of narrow maize row, we can improve the N uptake and yield of the maize-soybean strip relay-intercropping system.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2021.724909DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8450519PMC
September 2021

Development of a Multiplex RT-PCR Assay for the Detection of Soybean Mosaic Virus, Bean Common Mosaic Virus and Cucumber Mosaic Virus in Field Samples of Soybean.

J Virol Methods 2021 Sep 6:114278. Epub 2021 Sep 6.

Sichuan Engineering Research Center for Crop Strip Intercropping System and Key Laboratory of Crop Eco-physiology and Farming System in Southwest China, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, China; College of Agronomy and Key Laboratory for Major Crop Diseases, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, China.

Soybean is susceptible to viral diseases which are often present as mixed infections. The individual simplex RT-PCR methods used for the identification of multiple viruses are more tedious and time-consuming than the corresponding multiplex RT-PCR. This study used soybean mosaic virus (SMV), bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) and cucumber mosaic virus (CMV)-infected leaf samples from southern China as the test materials to evaluate a multiplex RT-PCR assay developed for the simultaneous detection of these viruses. The parameters optimised included the annealing temperature, extension time, number of cycles, and primer type and concentration. The specific fragments sizes obtained by the multiplex RT-PCR were 550 bp (SMV), 288 bp (BCMV) and 99 bp (CMV). The assay was tested using infected soybean samples obtained from farmers' fields in Sichuan Province, China. The multiplex RT-PCR assay had high sensitivity, was rapid and simple, and could be used for the diagnosis of soybean infected with various combinations of these viruses in the field.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jviromet.2021.114278DOI Listing
September 2021

Application of three-dimensional reconstruction combined with dial positioning in small pulmonary nodules surgery.

J Cardiothorac Surg 2021 Sep 8;16(1):254. Epub 2021 Sep 8.

Cardiovascular Surgery Department, Hwa Mei Hospital, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo City, China.

Background: With the popularization of HRCT and VATS, the incidence of early stage lung cancer is increasing recent years. About 63% of small pulmonary nodules can not be accurately identified in VATS. We use 3-D reconstruction combined with dial positioning to analyze its accuracy and impact on patients undergoing VATS in our hospital.

Method: All patients underwent HRCT scanning and 3-D reconstruction preoperatively to determine the scope of surgery. The precise positional relationship between the nodule and the nearest rib must be recorded. Locate the plane of pulmonary nodule on CT, rotate the plane to make the affected side upwards, take the highest point of pleura as 12 o'clock on the dial, record the corresponding point of the nodule meticulously, mark the pulmonary nodule on the skin of the patient. A 18G indwelling needle was used to puncture through the marker into the visceral pleura. Electrocautery mark was made on the bleeding point of the lung surface. Then wedge resection or segmental resection was made.

Materials And Result: From September 2019 to December 2020, 74 patients underwent VATS pulmonary nodule resection in our institute, with an average age of (56.4 ± 11.7) years old. A total of 83 nodules were resected in 74 patients, 23 nodules received segmentectomy and 60 nodules received wedge resection with 16 benign nodules and 67 malignant nodules. The distance between the nodules and pleura was (0-25) mm, with an average of (8.0 ± 3.9) mm. The target nodules were found in all patients, the positioning accuracy was 97.6%. All patients were satisfied with the positioning method, and there was no scar left at the skin puncture point after operation.

Conclusion: 3-D reconstruction combined with dial positioning method can reduce patients' anxiety preoperatively, avoid various complications, reduce hospitalization expenses, and has an acceptable accuracy and short learning curve, which can be further promoted and applied in clinic.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13019-021-01642-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8424933PMC
September 2021

Paraquat but not diquat induces TGF-β expression and thus activates calcium-NFAT axis for epithelial-mesenchymal transition.

Toxicol Res (Camb) 2021 Aug 17;10(4):733-741. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

Department of Critical Care Medicine, Shanghai General Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University, School of Medicine, 650 Xingsongjiang Road, Shanghai 201620, China.

Paraquat (PQ) and diquat (DQ), two highly efficient herbicides sharing similar chemical backbone, both induce reactive oxygen species and are highly toxic to humans and livestock, however, PQ but not DQ poisoning result in pulmonary fibrosis, the leading cause of high mortality rate in patients suffering PQ toxicity. Understanding the unique mechanism of PQ different from DQ therefore would provide potential strategies to reduce PQ-induced pulmonary fibrosis. Here, we identified that PQ but not DQ continuously upregulates TGF-β expression in alveolar type II (AT II) cells. Importantly, such high expression of TGF-β increases cytosolic calcium levels and further promotes the activation of calcineurin-NFAT axis. TGF-β mainly activates NFATc1 and NFATc2, but not NFATc3 or NFATc4. Administration of the inhibitors targeting cytosolic calcium or calcineurin largely reverses PQ-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), whereas DQ has little effects on activation of NFAT and EMT. Ultimately, PQ poisoned patients exhibit significantly reduced blood calcium levels compared to DQ poisoning, possibly via the large usage of calcium by AT II cells. All in all, we found a vicious cycle that the upregulated TGF-β in PQ-induced EMT further aggravates EMT via promotion of the calcium-calcineurin axis, which could be potential drug targets for treating PQ-induced pulmonary fibrosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/toxres/tfab055DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8403590PMC
August 2021

Growth Rate, Dry Matter Accumulation, and Partitioning in Soybean ( L.) in Response to Defoliation under High-Rainfall Conditions.

Plants (Basel) 2021 Jul 21;10(8). Epub 2021 Jul 21.

College of Agronomy, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, China.

The frequency of heavy rains is increasing with climate change in regions that already have high annual rainfall (i.e., Sichuan, China). Crop response under such high-rainfall conditions is to increase dry matter investment in vegetative parts rather than reproductive parts. In the case of soybean, leaf redundancy prevails, which reduces the light transmittance and seed yield. However, moderate defoliation of soybean canopy could reduce leaf redundancy and improve soybean yield, especially under high-rainfall conditions. Therefore, the effects of three defoliation treatments (T, 15%; T, 30%; and T, 45% defoliation from the top of the soybean canopy; defoliation treatments were applied at the pod initiation stage of soybean) on the growth and yield parameters of soybean were evaluated through field experiments in the summer of 2017, 2018, and 2019. All results were compared with nondefoliated soybean plants (CK) under high-rainfall conditions. Compared with CK, treatment T significantly ( < 0. 05) improved the light transmittance and photosynthetic rate of soybean. Consequently, the leaf greenness was enhanced by 22%, which delayed the leaf senescence by 13% at physiological maturity. Besides, compared to CK, soybean plants achieved the highest values of crop growth rate in T, which increased the total dry matter accumulation (by 6%) and its translocation to vegetative parts (by 4%) and reproductive parts (by 8%) at physiological maturity. This improved soybean growth and dry matter partitioning to reproductive parts in T enhanced the pod number (by 23%, from 823.8 m in CK to 1012.7 m in T) and seed number (by 11%, from 1181.4 m in CK to 1311.7 m in T), whereas the heavy defoliation treatments considerably decreased all measured growth and yield parameters. On average, treatment T increased soybean seed yield by 9% (from 2120.2 kg ha in CK to 2318.2 kg ha in T), while T and T decreased soybean seed yield by 19% and 33%, respectively, compared to CK. Overall, these findings indicate that the optimum defoliation, i.e., T (15% defoliation), can decrease leaf redundancy and increase seed yield by reducing the adverse effects of mutual shading and increasing the dry matter translocation to reproductive parts than vegetative parts in soybean, especially under high-rainfall conditions. Future studies are needed to understand the internal signaling and the molecular mechanism controlling and regulating dry matter production and partitioning in soybean, especially from the pod initiation stage to the physiological maturity stage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/plants10081497DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8401435PMC
July 2021

Growth promotion ability of phosphate-solubilizing bacteria from the soybean rhizosphere under maize-soybean intercropping systems.

J Sci Food Agric 2021 Aug 13. Epub 2021 Aug 13.

Sichuan Engineering Research Center for Crop Strip Intercropping System, Chengdu, China.

Background: Optimum cultivation and management measures are needed to increase the phosphorus (P) absorption efficiency of crops for sustainable agricultural production. Previous studies indicated that leguminous crops can promote P absorption by neighboring gramineous crops. In this study, we isolated and screened the phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (PSB) from soybean rhizosphere under a maize-soybean intercropping system in Southwest China, and nine PSBs with high P-solubilizing ability were identified.

Results: 16S rDNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis showed that these PSBs belong mainly to Bacillus and Pseudomonas. The phosphate solubility of Bacillus aryabhattai B8W22 reached 388.62 μg mL . High-performance liquid chromatographic analysis showed that each strain could secrete a large quantity of organic acids, including oxalic acid, malonic acid, citric acid and succinic acid. In addition, all strains produced indole acetic acid (IAA) and siderophores that could promote plant growth. Seed germination experiments testified that PSBs isolated in this study have an innate ability to promote plant growth. The plant culture pot experiment further illustrated that soil acid phosphatase (ACP) activity and available P content, as well as plant P uptake, increased significantly with PSBs inoculation.

Conclusion: PSBs from the rhizosphere soil of intercropped soybean could secrete organic acids that increase the solubilization of unavailable P, improve soil ACP activity and P availability, and produce IAA and siderophores that promote maize seed germination and seedling growth. Our findings indicate the PSBs from soybean rhizosphere have significant potential to reduce the application of chemical phosphate fertilizers and to promote sustainable agricultural development. © 2021 Society of Chemical Industry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.11477DOI Listing
August 2021

Exploring the cause of the dual allosteric targeted inhibition attaching to allosteric sites enhancing SHP2 inhibition.

Mol Divers 2021 Aug 2. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Tianjin Key Laboratory on Technologies Enabling Development of Clinical Therapeutics and Diagnostics (Theranostics), School of Pharmacy, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin, 300070, China.

SHP2 is a protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) that can regulate the tyrosine phosphorylation level. Overexpression of SHP2 will promote the development of cancer diseases, so SHP2 has become one of the popular targets for the treatment of cancer. Studies have reported that both SHP099 and SHP844 are inhibitors of SHP2 and bind to different allosteric sites 1 and 2, respectively. Studies have shown that combining SHP099 with SHP844 will enhance pharmacological pathway inhibition in cells. This study uses molecular dynamic simulations to explore the dual allosteric targeted inhibition mechanism. The result shows that the residues THR108-TRP112 (allosteric site 1) move to LEU236-GLN245 (αB-αC link loop in PTP domain) , the residues of GLN79-GLN87 (allosteric site 2) get close to LEU262-GLN269 (αA-αB link loop in PTP domain) and HIS458-ARG465 (P-loop) come near to ARG501-THR507 (Q-loop) in SHP2-SHP099-SHP844 system, which makes the "inactive conformation" more stable and prevents the substrate from entering the catalytic site. Meanwhile, residue GLU110 (allosteric site 1), ARG265 (allosteric site 2), and ARG501 (Q-loop) are speculated to be the key residues that causing the SHP2 protein in auto-inhibition conformation. It is hoped that this study will provide clues for the development of the dual allosteric targeted inhibition of SHP2.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11030-021-10286-4DOI Listing
August 2021

Pulse therapy with vincristine and dexamethasone for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (CCCG-ALL-2015): an open-label, multicentre, randomised, phase 3, non-inferiority trial.

Lancet Oncol 2021 09 27;22(9):1322-1332. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Department of Hematology/Oncology, Shanghai Children's Medical Center, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, National Health Committee Key Laboratory of Pediatric Hematology & Oncology, Shanghai, China.

Background: Vincristine plus dexamethasone pulses are generally used throughout maintenance treatment for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. However, previous studies remain inconclusive about the benefit of this maintenance therapy and the absence of randomised, controlled trials in patients with low-risk or high-risk acute lymphoblastic leukaemia provides uncertainty. We therefore aimed to determine if this therapy could be safely omitted beyond 1 year of treatment without leading to an inferior outcome in any risk subgroup of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia.

Methods: This open-label, multicentre, randomised, phase 3, non-inferiority trial involved 20 major medical centres across China. We enrolled patients who were aged 0-18 years with newly diagnosed acute lymphoblastic leukaemia that was subsequently in continuous remission for 1 year after initial treatment. Patients with secondary malignancy or primary immunodeficiency were excluded. Eligible patients were classified as having low-risk, intermediate-risk, or high-risk acute lymphoblastic leukaemia based on minimal residual disease and immunophenotypic and genetic features of leukaemic cells. Randomisation and analyses were done separately for the low-risk and intermediate-to-high-risk cohorts. Randomisation was generated by the study biostatistician with a block size of six. Stratification factors included participating centre, sex, and age at diagnosis; the low-risk cohort was additionally stratified for ETV6-RUNX1 status, and the intermediate-to-high-risk cohort for cell lineage. Patients in each risk cohort were randomly assigned (1:1) to either receive (ie, the control group) or not receive (ie, the experimental group) seven pulses of intravenous vincristine (1·5 mg/m) plus oral dexamethasone (6 mg/m per day for 7 days) during the second year of treatment. The primary endpoint was difference in 5-year event-free survival between the experimental group and the control group for both the low-risk and intermediate-to-high-risk cohorts, with a non-inferiority margin of 0·05 (5%). The analysis was by intention to treat. This trial is registered with the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry, ChiCTR-IPR-14005706.

Findings: Between Jan 1, 2015, and Feb 20, 2020, 6141 paediatric patients with newly diagnosed acute lymphoblastic leukaemia were registered to this study. Approximately 1 year after diagnosis and treatment, 5054 patients in continuous remission were randomly assigned, including 2923 (1442 in the control group and 1481 in the experimental group) with low-risk acute lymphoblastic leukaemia and 2131 (1071 control, 1060 experimental) with intermediate-to-high risk acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. Median follow-up for patients who were alive at the time of analysis was 3·7 years (IQR 2·8-4·7). Among patients with low-risk acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, no difference was observed in 5-year event-free survival between the control group and the experimental group (90·3% [95% CI 88·4-92·2] vs 90·2% [88·2-92·2]; p=0·90). The one-sided 95% upper confidence bound for the difference in 5-year event-free survival probability was 0·024, establishing non-inferiority. Among patients with intermediate-to-high-risk acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, no difference was observed in 5-year event-free survival between the control group and the experimental group (82·8% [95% CI 80·0-85·7] vs 80·8% [77·7-84·0]; p=0·90), but the one-sided 95% upper confidence bound for the difference in 5-year event-free survival probability was 0·055, giving a borderline inferior result for those in the experimental group. In the low-risk cohort, we found no differences in the rates of infections, symptomatic osteonecrosis, or other complications during the second year of maintenance treatment between patients in the control and experimental groups. Patients with intermediate-to-high-risk acute lymphoblastic leukaemia in the control group were more likely to develop grade 3-4 pneumonia (26 [2·4%] of 1071 vs ten [0·9%] of 1060) and vincristine-related peripheral neuropathy (17 [1·6%] vs six [0·6%]) compared with the experimental group. Incidence of grade 5 fatal infection was similar between the control group and the experimental group in both the low-risk cohort (two [0·1%] of 1442 vs five [0·3%] of 1481) and intermediate-to-high risk cohort (six [0·6%] of 1071 vs five [0·5%] of 1060).

Interpretation: Vincristine plus dexamethasone pulses might be omitted beyond 1 year of treatment for children with low-risk acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. Additional studies are needed for intermediate-to-high-risk acute lymphoblastic leukaemia.

Funding: VIVA China Children's Cancer Foundation, the National Natural Science Foundation of China, the China fourth round of Three-Year Public Health Action Plan (2015-2017), Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences Innovation Fund for Medical Sciences, US National Cancer Institute, St Baldrick's Foundation, and the American Lebanese Syrian Associated Charities.

Translation: For the Chinese translation of the abstract see Supplementary Materials section.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1470-2045(21)00328-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8416799PMC
September 2021

Photosynthesis research under climate change.

Photosynth Res 2021 Jul 7. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

College of Agronomy, Sichuan Agricultural University, 211-Huimin Road, Wenjiang District, Chengdu, 611130, People's Republic of China.

Increasing global population and climate change uncertainties have compelled increased photosynthetic efficiency and yields to ensure food security over the coming decades. Potentially, genetic manipulation and minimization of carbon or energy losses can be ideal to boost photosynthetic efficiency or crop productivity. Despite significant efforts, limited success has been achieved. There is a need for thorough improvement in key photosynthetic limiting factors, such as stomatal conductance, mesophyll conductance, biochemical capacity combined with Rubisco, the Calvin-Benson cycle, thylakoid membrane electron transport, nonphotochemical quenching, and carbon metabolism or fixation pathways. In addition, the mechanistic basis for the enhancement in photosynthetic adaptation to environmental variables such as light intensity, temperature and elevated CO requires further investigation. This review sheds light on strategies to improve plant photosynthesis by targeting these intrinsic photosynthetic limitations and external environmental factors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11120-021-00861-zDOI Listing
July 2021

Improving maize's N uptake and N use efficiency by strengthening roots' absorption capacity when intercropped with legumes.

PeerJ 2021 23;9:e11658. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

College of Agronomy, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu, China.

Maize's nitrogen (N) uptake can be improved through maize-legume intercropping. N uptake mechanisms require further study to better understand how legumes affect root growth and to determine maize's absorptive capacity in maize-legume intercropping. We conducted a two-year field experiment with two N treatments (zero N (N0) and conventional N (N1)) and three planting patterns (monoculture maize ( L.) (MM), maize-soybean ( L. .) strip intercropping (IMS), and maize-peanut ( L.) strip intercropping (IMP)). We sought to understand maize's N uptake mechanisms by investigating root growth and distribution, root uptake capacity, antioxidant enzyme activity, and the antioxidant content in different maize-legume strip intercropping systems. Our results showed that on average, the N uptake of maize was significantly greater by 52.5% in IMS and by 62.4% in IMP than that in MM. The average agronomic efficiency (AE) of maize was increased by 110.5 % in IMS and by 163.4 % in IMP, compared to MM. The apparent recovery efficiency (RE) of maize was increased by 22.3% in IMS. The roots of intercropped maize were extended into soybean and peanut stands underneath the space and even between the inter-rows of legume, resulting in significantly increased root surface area density (RSAD) and total root biomass. The root-bleeding sap intensity of maize was significantly increased by 22.7-49.3% in IMS and 37.9-66.7% in IMP, compared with the MM. The nitrate-N content of maize bleeding sap was significantly greater in IMS and IMP than in MM during the 2018 crop season. The glutathione (GSH) content, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) activities in the root significantly increased in IMS and IMP compared to MM. Strip intercropping using legumes increases maize's aboveground N uptake by promoting root growth and spatial distribution, delaying root senescence, and strengthening root uptake capacity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7717/peerj.11658DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8234926PMC
June 2021

Changing light promotes isoflavone biosynthesis in soybean pods and enhances their resistance to mildew infection.

Plant Cell Environ 2021 Aug 21;44(8):2536-2550. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Institute of Ecological Agriculture, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu, Sichuan, China.

Mildew severely reduces soybean yield and quality, and pods are the first line of defence against pathogens. Maize-soybean intercropping (MSI) reduces mildew incidence on soybean pods; however, the mechanism remains unclear. Changing light (CL) from maize shading is the most important environmental feature in MSI. We hypothesized that CL affects isoflavone accumulation in soybean pods, affecting their disease resistance. In the present study, shading treatments were applied to soybean plants during different developmental stages according to various CL environments under MSI. Chlorophyll fluorescence imaging (CFI) and classical evaluation methods confirmed that CL, especially vegetative stage shading (VS), enhanced pod resistance to mildew. Further metabolomic analyses and exogenous jasmonic acid (JA) and biosynthesis inhibitor experiments revealed the important relationship between JA and isoflavone biosynthesis, which had a synergistic effect on the enhanced resistance of CL-treated pods to mildew. VS promoted the biosynthesis and accumulation of constitutive isoflavones upstream of the isoflavone pathway, such as aglycones and glycosides, in soybean pods. When mildew infects pods, endogenous JA signalling stimulated the biosynthesis of downstream inducible malonyl isoflavone (MIF) and glyceollin to improve pod resistance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/pce.14128DOI Listing
August 2021

Transcriptional Responses of Interacted with Soybean to Cause Root Rot.

J Fungi (Basel) 2021 May 27;7(6). Epub 2021 May 27.

College of Agronomy & Sichuan Engineering Research Center for Crop Strip Intercropping System, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, China.

is the most devastating pathogen of head blight of cereals, stalk and ear of maize, and it has recently become a potential threat for soybean as maize-soybean strip relay intercropping is widely practiced in China. To elucidate the pathogenesis mechanism of on intercropped soybean which causes root rot, transcriptional profiling of at 12, 24, and 48 h post-inoculation (hpi) on soybean hypocotyl tissues was conducted. In total, 2313 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) of were annotated by both KEGG pathway and Gene Ontology (GO) analysis. Among them, 128 DEGs were commonly expressed at three inoculation time points while the maximum DEGs were induced at 24 hpi. In addition, DEGs were also rich in carbon metabolism, ribosome and peroxisome pathways which might contribute to carbon source utilization, sexual reproduction, virulence and survival of when infected on soybean. Hence, this study will provide some basis for the deep understanding the pathogenesis mechanism of on different hosts and its effective control in maize-soybean strip relay intercropping systems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jof7060422DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8227214PMC
May 2021

Minimal residual disease monitoring via AML1-ETO breakpoint tracing in childhood acute myeloid leukemia.

Transl Oncol 2021 Aug 14;14(8):101119. Epub 2021 May 14.

State Key Laboratory of Experimental Hematology, National Clinical Research Center for Blood Diseases, Institute of Hematology & Blood Diseases Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College, Tianjin 300020, China. Electronic address:

Relapse of childhood AML1-ETO (AE) acute myeloid leukemia is the most common cause of treatment failure. Optimized minimal residual disease monitoring methods is required to prevent relapse. In this study, we used next-generation sequencing to identify the breakpoints in the fusion gene and the DNA-based droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) method was used for dynamic monitoring of AE-DNA. The ddPCR technique provides more sensitive and precise quantitation of the AE gene during disease progression and relapse. Quantification of the AE fusion gene by ddPCR further contributes to improved prognosis. Our study provides valuable methods for dynamic surveillance of AE fusion DNA and assistance in determining the prognosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tranon.2021.101119DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8138770PMC
August 2021

The genetic mechanism of heterosis utilization in maize improvement.

Genome Biol 2021 05 10;22(1):148. Epub 2021 May 10.

National Key Laboratory of Crop Genetic Improvement, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, 430070, China.

Background: In maize hybrid breeding, complementary pools of parental lines with reshuffled genetic variants are established for superior hybrid performance. To comprehensively decipher the genetics of heterosis, we present a new design of multiple linked F1 populations with 42,840 F1 maize hybrids, generated by crossing a synthetic population of 1428 maternal lines with 30 elite testers from diverse genetic backgrounds and phenotyped for agronomic traits.

Results: We show that, although yield heterosis is correlated with the widespread, minor-effect epistatic QTLs, it may be resulted from a few major-effect additive and dominant QTLs in early developmental stages. Floral transition is probably one critical stage for heterosis formation, in which epistatic QTLs are activated by paternal contributions of alleles that counteract the recessive, deleterious maternal alleles. These deleterious alleles, while rare, epistatically repress other favorable QTLs. We demonstrate this with one example, showing that Brachytic2 represses the Ubiquitin3 locus in the maternal lines; in hybrids, the paternal allele alleviates this repression, which in turn recovers the height of the plant and enhances the weight of the ear. Finally, we propose a molecular design breeding by manipulating key genes underlying the transition from vegetative-to-reproductive growth.

Conclusion: The new population design is used to dissect the genetic basis of heterosis which accelerates maize molecular design breeding by diminishing deleterious epistatic interactions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13059-021-02370-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8108465PMC
May 2021

A practical technique for subacute hemorrhagic pericarditis, a case report.

J Cardiothorac Surg 2021 May 1;16(1):119. Epub 2021 May 1.

Cardiovascular Surgery Department, Hwa Mei Hospital, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences; Ningbo Institute of Life and Health Industry, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Room 201, Oriental Venice, Haishu District, Ningbo City, Zhejiang Province, China.

Background: We used pericardioscope operation for a patient who suffered from subacute hemorrhagic pericarditis which usually have to had a sternotomy.

Case Presentation: A pericardioscope was used in the operation rather than sternotomy on a 66-year-old male who was diagnosed with subacute hemorrhagic pericarditis after PCI(Percutaneous Coronary Intervention). He was discharged 7 days after the operation with an uneventfull postoperative course.

Conclusions: We believe that this technique is a safe procedure without any major complications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13019-021-01499-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8088548PMC
May 2021

Bat Influenza Viruses: Current Status and Perspective.

Viruses 2021 03 25;13(4). Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Department of Veterinary Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211, USA.

Bats are natural reservoirs for many viruses, including several that are zoonotic. Two unusual H17N10 and H18N11 influenza viruses have been found in New World bats. Although neither of these viruses have been isolated, infectious clone technology has permitted significant progress to understand their biology, which include unique features compared to all other known influenza A viruses. In addition, an H9N2-like influenza A virus was isolated from Old World bats and it shows similar characteristics of normal influenza A viruses. In this review, current status and perspective on influenza A viruses identified in bats is reviewed and discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v13040547DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8064322PMC
March 2021

Compact maize canopy improves radiation use efficiency and grain yield of maize/soybean relay intercropping system.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Aug 29;28(30):41135-41148. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

College of Agronomy, Sichuan Agricultural University, No. 211, Huimin Road, Wenjiang District, Chengdu, 611130, Sichuan, China.

Maize/soybean relay intercropping system is a popular cultivation system to obtain high yields of both crops with reduced inputs. However, shading by maize decreases the photosynthetically active radiation, reaching the soybean canopy in maize/soybean relay intercropping system, which reduces soybean radiation use efficiency and competitiveness. Here, we reveal that compact maize in maize/soybean relay intercropping system enhances the photosynthetically active radiation transmittance, leaf area index, dry matter production, radiation use efficiency, and competitiveness of soybean and compensates the slight maize yield loss by substantially increasing soybean yield. In this experiment, soybean was relay intercropped with different maize types (SI, spreading maize; SII, semi-compact maize; and SIII, compact maize) in maize/soybean relay intercropping system, and all the relay intercropping treatments were compared with sole cropping systems of soybean and maize. Results revealed that SIII significantly enhanced the soybean radiation use efficiency (by 77%, from 0.35 g MJ in SI to 0.61 g MJ in SIII) and total radiation use efficiency (soybean radiation use efficiency + maize radiation use efficiency) of maize/soybean relay intercropping system (by 5%, from 3.53 g MJ in SI to 3.73 g MJ in SIII). Similarly, SIII improved the competitiveness (by 62%, from 0.58% in SI to 0.94% in SIII) of soybean but reduced the competitiveness (by 38%, from 1.73% in SI to 1.07% in SIII) of maize, which, in turn, considerably increased soybean yield by maintaining maize yield. On average, over the 2 years, in SIII, relay-intercropped soybean produced 89% of the sole soybean yield, and relay-intercropped maize produced 95% of the sole maize yield. Besides, treatment SIII achieved the mean highest land equivalent ratio value of 1.84 in both years. Thus, enhanced radiation use efficiency of soybean, especially during the co-growth period, was the primary factor responsible for the high productivity of the maize/soybean relay intercropping system.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-13541-1DOI Listing
August 2021

Early T-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia and other subtypes: a retrospective case report from a single pediatric center in China.

J Cancer Res Clin Oncol 2021 Sep 2;147(9):2775-2788. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

State Key Laboratory of Experimental Hematology, National Clinical Research Center for Blood Diseases, Division of Pediatric Blood Diseases Center, Institute of Hematology and Blood Diseases Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, 288 Nanjing Road, Tianjin, 300020, China.

Purpose: Early T-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ETP-ALL) is rare in China and case reports are varied. We conducted an in-depth analysis of newly diagnosed children with T-ALL from January 1999 to April 2015 in our center, to show the biological differences between Chinese ETP-ALL children and other immune types of T-ALL.

Methods: The newly diagnosed children with T-ALL were divided into four groups according to their immunophenotype: ETP-ALL, early non-ETP-ALL, cortical T-ALL and medullary T-ALL. Disease-free survival (DFS), event-free survival (EFS), and overall survival (OS) rates were estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method. The Cox regression model was used for multivariate analysis.

Results: A total of 117 newly diagnosed children with T-ALL were enrolled in this study. The 10-year EFS and OS rates for all patients were 59.0 ± 4.7% and 61.0 ± 4.7%, respectively, with a median follow-up of 64 (5-167) months. Univariate analysis showed that ETP-ALL patients had the lowest 10-year DFS rate of 32.1 ± 11.7%, while cortical T-ALL had the highest DFS rate of 81.3 ± 8.5% compared with early non-ETP-ALL (61.6 ± 7.0%) and medullary T-ALL (59.1 ± 10.6%). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that only ETP-ALL and involvement of the central nervous system were independent prognostic factors.

Conclusion: Compared with other subtypes, pediatric ETP-ALL had a poor treatment response and high recurrence rate while cortical T-ALL appeared to have much better outcome. Our observations highlight the need for an individualized treatment regime for ETP-ALL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00432-021-03551-4DOI Listing
September 2021

Influence of okara with varying particle sizes on the gelling, rheological, and microstructural properties of glucono-δ-lactone-induced tofu.

J Food Sci Technol 2021 Feb 4;58(2):520-531. Epub 2020 Jun 4.

College of Food Science, Sichuan Agricultural University, Ya'an, 625014 China.

Influence of lyophilized okara with varying particle sizes (250-380, 150-180, 120-150, and < 75 μm) on the quality of glucono-δ-lactone-induced tofu was investigated. Adding okara significantly ( < 0.05) improved the yield, water-holding capacity, cooking loss, and nutritional value of the conventional tofu. The gel strength and sensory score of the okara-added tofu (OAT) increased with the decreasing of the particle size of okara, and these quality attributes of the OAT were better than those of the conventional tofu, except for the OAT with 250-380 μm okara. The microstructural profile of the OAT with reduced okara particle size was similar to that of the conventional tofu. Theoretically, the addition of okara mainly impacted the interactions among denatured proteins via disulfide bonding and hydrophobic interactions and the sizes of insoluble solid and oil droplet in soymilk, thereby affecting the formation of the gel network and finally the edible quality of tofu. In conclusion, the addition of okara with appropriate particle sizes can remarkably improve the processing quality and nutritional value of tofu, which is beneficial to the reasonable exploration of okara for the producers of soybean products.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13197-020-04563-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7847842PMC
February 2021

Successful Treatment of a 19-Month-Old Boy with Hepatitis Associated Aplastic Anemia by Infusion of Umbilical Cord-Derived Mesenchymal Stromal Cells: A Case Report.

Cell Transplant 2021 Jan-Dec;30:963689720977144

Institute of Hematology and Blood Diseases Hospital, 12501Peking Union Medical College and Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Tianjin, China.

Here we presented a case of a 19-month-old boy who developed severe aplastic anemia postacute hepatitis. He was treated successfully with the umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (UC-MSCs) infusion and cyclosporine A (CsA). The boy achieved both hematopoietic recovery and normal lymphocyte proportion. So far, his condition still remains stable. To our knowledge, there is a rare previous report on the utility of MSCs infusion for the treatment of hepatitis-associated aplastic anemia (HAAA). Considering the efficacy, safety, and strong operability, particularly for pediatric patient, the infusion of UC-MSCs combined with CsA could be an effective alternative for the treatment of HAAA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0963689720977144DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7863554PMC
February 2021

Impact of green infrastructure on the mitigation of road-deposited sediment induced stormwater pollution.

Sci Total Environ 2021 May 22;770:145294. Epub 2021 Jan 22.

Institute of Urban and Industrial Water Management, Technische Universität Dresden, 01062 Dresden, Germany.

As a vital stormwater pollution source, the pollutants associated with road-deposited sediment (RDS) have become a growing concern in urban water management. Green infrastructure has exhibited great potential in stormwater pollution mitigation, but is not comprehensively understood yet due to the influences of complex RDS-associated pollutant migration processes (i.e., build-up, wash-off, and discharge). In this study, a city-scale hydraulic and water quality model was used to analyze the migration and removal processes of four RDS-associated pollutants (total suspended solids (TSS), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP)) under different hydrological patterns, land-cover types, and green infrastructure installation locations. Results show that the antecedent dry-weather period was the main factor influencing RDS build-up, while the precipitation pattern strongly impacted RDS wash-off, discharge, and removal. The downstream-installed green infrastructures reduced the RDS-induced stormwater pollution by up to 68% and relieved the pollution-mitigation pressure of the studied drainage networks by almost 50%. The TSS and COD removal rates were higher (62.22-68.09%) near green space, while those of TN and TP were higher around buildings and roads (40.00-62.50%). Sensitivity analysis indicated that seven parameters regarding the surface layer characteristics and soil texture class strongly impacted the pollution-mitigation performance among the 31 technical parameters of green infrastructure. The results of this study would assist urban water management by optimizing green infrastructure for stormwater pollution mitigation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.145294DOI Listing
May 2021

Low absolute neutrophil count during induction therapy is an adverse prognostic factor in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia.

Ann Hematol 2021 Sep 14;100(9):2269-2277. Epub 2021 Jan 14.

State Key Laboratory of Experimental Hematology, National Clinical Research Center for Blood Diseases, Institute of Hematology & Blood Diseases Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College, Tianjin, 300020, China.

Variation in normal blood cells during chemotherapy has not been recognised as a risk factor guiding chemotherapy in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). This study aims to explore whether variations in normal haematopoiesis determine prognosis as well as to improve risk-stratified treatment in childhood ALL. A retrospective study of 279 cases of ALL treated with the CCCG-ALL-2015 regimen in the Division of Pediatric Blood Diseases Center, Institute of Hematology & Blood Diseases Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College, from May 2015 to January 2017 was performed to analyse the prognostic impact of blood cell levels on day 19 of induction therapy by Kaplan-Meier method. Patients with childhood ALL with absolute neutrophil count (ANC) ≤ 90 cells/μl, absolute monocyte count (AMC) ≤ 10 cells/μl or absolute lymphocyte count (ALC) ≤ 1000 cells/μl on day 19 of induction therapy had a lower event-free survival (EFS) rate than those with higher values (all P < 0.05). Multivariate analysis confirmed that ANC ≤ 90 cells/μl and ALC ≤ 1000 cells/μl were independent adverse prognostic factors (HR = 1.981 and 2.162, respectively, both P < 0.05). Among patients with minimal residual disease (MRD) < 1% on day 19 of induction therapy, those with ANC ≤ 90 cells/μl had lower EFS than those with ANC > 90 cells/μl (70.8 ± 6.1% vs 86.4 ± 3.1%, P = 0.001). In the subgroup with the BCR/ABL1 fusion gene, patients with ANC ≤ 90 cells/μl on day 19 of induction therapy also had lower EFS than those with ANC > 90 cells/μl (34.4 ± 25.2% vs 25.0 ± 21.7%, P = 0.041). ANC and ALC during induction therapy are independent prognostic factors for childhood ALL. ANC contributes to guiding the prognosis of patients with low-level MRD or the BCR/ABL1 fusion gene.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00277-021-04412-3DOI Listing
September 2021

Long-term safety and efficacy of imatinib in pediatric patients with chronic myeloid leukemia: single-center experience from China.

Int J Hematol 2021 Mar 1;113(3):413-421. Epub 2021 Jan 1.

Department of Pediatric Hematology, State Key Laboratory of Experimental Hematology, National Clinical Research Center for Blood Diseases, Institute of Hematology & Blood Diseases Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College, Tianjin, 300020, China.

Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a rare disease among children. A retrospective study was conducted from November 2002 to March 2019 at a single institution in China. A total of 36 pediatric CML patients (25 male and 11 female) were enrolled. Median follow-up time was 51 months (range 8-144), and 5-year overall survival and event-free survival were 95.5 ± 4.4% and 88.9 ± 6.0%, respectively. Among the 25 patients whose response to imatinib mesylate (IM) was regularly monitored, 92.0% achieved complete hematologic response at 3 months, 80.0% achieved complete cytogenetic response at 12 months, and 64.0% achieved major molecular response at 18 months after IM therapy. A higher WBC count at diagnosis was associated with failure to achieve early molecular response (EMR). Height standard deviation score after long-term treatment was significantly and positively correlated with age at diagnosis and at the start of IM therapy. Overall, IM therapy was effective in treating pediatric CML, and WBC count at diagnosis might be an ideal predictor of EMR. Moreover, retardation of height and weight growth due to IM tended to affect patients younger than 9 years old at diagnosis, and longitudinal growth might normalize further into treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12185-020-03042-1DOI Listing
March 2021

Foliar application of silicon improves growth of soybean by enhancing carbon metabolism under shading conditions.

Plant Physiol Biochem 2021 Feb 5;159:43-52. Epub 2020 Dec 5.

College of Agronomy, Sichuan Agricultural University, 211-Huimin Road, Wenjiang District, Chengdu, 611130, PR China; Sichuan Engineering Research Center for Crop Strip Intercropping System, Key Laboratory of Crop Ecophysiology and Farming System in Southwest China (Ministry of Agriculture), Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu, PR China. Electronic address:

An experiment was set up to investigate physiological responses of soybeans to silicon (Si) under normal light and shade conditions. Two soybean varieties, Nandou 12 (shade resistant), and Nan 032-4 (shade susceptible), were tested. Our results revealed that under shading, the net assimilation rate and the plant growth were significantly reduced. However, foliar application of Si under normal light and shading significantly improved the net photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (Gs), transpiration rate (Tr), and decreased intercellular carbon dioxide concentration (Ci). The net photosynthetic rate of Nandou 12 under normal light and shading increased by 46.4% and 33.3% respectively with Si treatment (200 mg/kg) compared to controls. Si application also enhanced chlorophyll content, soluble sugars, fresh weight, root length, root surface area, root volume, root-shoot ratio, and root dry weight under both conditions. Si application significantly increased the accumulation of some carbohydrates such as soluble sugar and sucrose in stems and leaves ensuring better stem strength under both conditions. Si application significantly increased the yield by increasing the number of effective pods per plant, the number of beans per plant and the weight of beans per plant. After Si treatment, the yield increased 24.5% under mono-cropping, and 17.41% under intercropping. Thus, Si is very effective in alleviating the stress effects of shading in intercropped soybeans by increasing the photosynthetic efficiency and lodging resistance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.plaphy.2020.11.053DOI Listing
February 2021

Strip-width determines competitive strengths and grain yields of intercrop species in relay intercropping system.

Sci Rep 2020 12 14;10(1):21910. Epub 2020 Dec 14.

College of Agronomy, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu, China.

Maize/soybean relay intercropping system (MSR) is a popular cultivation method to obtain high yields of both crops with reduced inputs. However, in MSR, the effects of different strip widths on competitive strengths and grain yields of intercrop species are still unclear. Therefore, in a two-year field experiment, soybean was relay-intercropped with maize in three different strip-width arrangements (narrow-strips, 180 cm; medium-strips, 200 cm; and wide-strips, 220 cm), and all intercropping results were compared with sole maize (SM) and sole soybean (SS). Results showed that the optimum strip-width for obtaining high grain yields of maize and soybean was 200 cm (medium-strips), which improved the competitive-ability of soybean by maintaining the competitive-ability of maize in MSR. On average, maize and soybean produced 98% and 77% of SM and SS yield, respectively, in medium-strips. The improved grain yields of intercrop species in medium-strips increased the total grain yield of MSR by 15% and land equivalent ratio by 22%, which enhanced the net-income of medium-strips (by 99%, from 620 US $ ha in wide-strips to 1233 US $ ha in medium-strips). Overall, these findings imply that following the optimum strip-width in MSR, i. e., strip-width of 200 cm, grain yields, and competitive interactions of intercrop species can be improved.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-78719-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7736315PMC
December 2020

Flavonoid-rich extracts from okra flowers exert antitumor activity in colorectal cancer through induction of mitochondrial dysfunction-associated apoptosis, senescence and autophagy.

Food Funct 2020 Dec 26;11(12):10448-10466. Epub 2020 Nov 26.

West China School of Public Health and West China Fourth Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610041, Sichuan, China.

Okra flowers contain a higher content of total flavonoids than most other flowers; however little research has been conducted on their potential benefits, including antitumor activity. In this study, we extracted and purified flavonoids from okra flower (AFE), and aimed to evaluate the effect of AFE and its underlying mechanism on colorectal cancer (CRC) cell growth in vitro and in vivo. Here, we identify that AFE is a safe, natural antioxidant and exerts significant antitumor efficacy on the inhibition of CRC cell proliferation and metastasis as well as tumour growth in vivo. We further reveal that AFE inhibits CRC cell proliferation by inducing mitochondrial dysfunction, which results from the activation of p53 and induction of apoptosis and senescence, and inhibits autophagic degradation. Furthermore, AFE inhibited migration and invasion of CRC cells by regulating the balance of MMP2/TIMP2 and MMP9 expression levels. Of note, administration of AFE as a preventive agent achieves a more effective antitumor effect than the therapeutic agent in a xenograft mouse model. Our results reveal, for the first time, that AFE is a safe, natural antioxidant with significant antitumor efficacy, which has great potential in the application for CRC prevention and treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0fo02081hDOI Listing
December 2020

Agro-Techniques for Lodging Stress Management in Maize-Soybean Intercropping System-A Review.

Plants (Basel) 2020 Nov 17;9(11). Epub 2020 Nov 17.

Key Laboratory of Crop Ecophysiology and Farming System in Southwest China, Ministry of Agriculture, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, China.

Lodging is one of the most chronic restraints of the maize-soybean intercropping system, which causes a serious threat to agriculture development and sustainability. In the maize-soybean intercropping system, shade is a major causative agent that is triggered by the higher stem length of a maize plant. Many morphological and anatomical characteristics are involved in the lodging phenomenon, along with the chemical configuration of the stem. Due to maize shading, soybean stem evolves the shade avoidance response and resulting in the stem elongation that leads to severe lodging stress. However, the major agro-techniques that are required to explore the lodging stress in the maize-soybean intercropping system for sustainable agriculture have not been precisely elucidated yet. Therefore, the present review is tempted to compare the conceptual insights with preceding published researches and proposed the important techniques which could be applied to overcome the devastating effects of lodging. We further explored that, lodging stress management is dependent on multiple approaches such as agronomical, chemical and genetics which could be helpful to reduce the lodging threats in the maize-soybean intercropping system. Nonetheless, many queries needed to explicate the complex phenomenon of lodging. Henceforth, the agronomists, physiologists, molecular actors and breeders require further exploration to fix this challenging problem.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/plants9111592DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7698466PMC
November 2020

Pediatric Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Patients Exhibit Distinctive Alterations in the Gut Microbiota.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2020 16;10:558799. Epub 2020 Oct 16.

State Key Laboratory of Experimental Hematology, National Clinical Research Center for Blood Diseases, Division of Pediatric Blood Diseases Center, Institute of Hematology & Blood Diseases Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College, Tianjin, China.

Previous studies have shown that gut microbiota can affect human immune system in many ways. Our aim was to investigate quantitative differences in fecal bacterial compositions of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) patients compared to those of healthy children, so as to identify individual bacterial species that are related to the etiology of ALL. We recruited 81 subjects, including 58 patients with ALL and 23 healthy controls. Fecal samples were collected and examined by 16S rRNA quantitative arrays and bioinformatics analysis. Both Principal Coordinates Analysis (PCoA) and Non-metric Multidimensional scaling (NMDS) demonstrated that the microbial composition of ALL patients deviated from the tight cluster of healthy controls. Multiple bacterial species exhibited significant changes (e.g., , and ) in the ALL samples. Some of the differentially abundant taxa were correlated with the level of interleukin-10. The ALL cases could be efficiently distinguished from healthy controls by the random forest model based on differential species (area under ROC curve = 0.843). Taken together, the composition of gut microbiota differed from healthy controls to pediatric ALL patients. Our study identified a series of ALL-related species in the gut microbiota, providing a new direction for future studies aiming to understand the host-gut microbiota interplay in ALL pathogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcimb.2020.558799DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7596659PMC
June 2021

Early development and functional properties of tryptase/chymase double-positive mast cells from human pluripotent stem cells.

J Mol Cell Biol 2021 05;13(2):104-115

Center for Stem Cell Research and Application, Institute of Blood Transfusion, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College (CAMS & PUMC), Chengdu 610052, China.

Mast cells (MCs) play a pivotal role in the hypersensitivity reaction by regulating the innate and adaptive immune responses. Humans have two types of MCs. The first type, termed MCTC, is found in the skin and other connective tissues and expresses both tryptase and chymase, while the second, termed MCT, which only expresses tryptase, is found primarily in the mucosa. MCs induced from human adult-type CD34+ cells are reported to be of the MCT type, but the development of MCs during embryonic/fetal stages is largely unknown. Using an efficient coculture system, we identified that a CD34+c-kit+ cell population, which appeared prior to the emergence of CD34+CD45+ hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs), stimulated robust production of pure Tryptase+Chymase+ MCs (MCTCs). Single-cell analysis revealed dual development directions of CD34+c-kit+ progenitors, with one lineage developing into erythro-myeloid progenitors (EMP) and the other lineage developing into HSPC. Interestingly, MCTCs derived from early CD34+c-kit+ cells exhibited strong histamine release and immune response functions. Particularly, robust release of IL-17 suggested that these early developing tissue-type MCTCs could play a central role in tumor immunity. These findings could help elucidate the mechanisms controlling early development of MCTCs and have significant therapeutic implications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jmcb/mjaa059DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8104937PMC
May 2021

Anticancer activity of Voacangine against human oral cancer cells is due to G2/M cell cycle arrest, ROS-mediated cell death and inhibition of PI3K/AKT signalling pathway.

J BUON 2020 Jul-Aug;25(4):2023-2027

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, The second Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University, Hefei, Anhui 230601, China.

Purpose: Oral cancer is the 6th most prevalent type of cancer and is responsible for high human morbidity and mortality. The present study was designed to investigate the anticancer effects of Voacangine against human oral cancer and to decipher the underlying molecular mechanisms responsible for its anticancer properties.

Methods: CCC-1 oral cancer cell line and normal hTRET-OME cell line were used in this study. Cell viability was determined by MTT assay. Acridine orange (AO)/ ethidium bromide (EB) and annexin V/propidium iodide (PI) assay were used for assessment of apoptosis. Cell cycle analysis and reactive oxygen species (ROS) determination was done by flow cytometry. The protein expression was determined by western blot analysis.

Results: The results showed that Voacangine caused a remarkable decline in proliferation of SCC-1 human oral cancer cells with negligible toxic effects on the normal human hTRET-OME cells. The IC50 of Voacangine was 9 µM against SCC-1 cells relative to IC50 of 100 µM against normal hTRET-OME cells. The reduction of the proliferative rates was attributed to the induction of ROS triggered apoptosis which was associated with activation of Caspase-3, upregulation of Bax and suppression of Bcl-2. Voacangine induced G2/M cell cycle arrest in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, the anticancer effects of Voacangine on oral cancer cells were exerted through the inhibition of PI3K/AKT signaling cascade.

Conclusion: Taken all together, we conclude that Voacangine is a potent anticancer molecule and may be utilized for the development of systemic therapy for oral cancer.
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July 2021
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