Publications by authors named "Wenyu Wang"

183 Publications

Biocompatible Ruthenium Single-Atom Catalyst for Cascade Enzyme-Mimicking Therapy.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Sep 14. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Department of Chemistry, Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at the Microscale, iChEM (Collaborative Innovation Center of Chemistry for Energy Materials), University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026, China.

Rationally constructing single-atom enzymes (SAEs) with superior activity, robust stability, and good biocompatibility is crucial for tumor therapy but still remains a substantial challenge. In this work, we adopt biocompatible carbon dots as the carrier material to load Ru single atoms, achieving Ru SAEs with superior multiple enzyme-like activity and stability. Ru SAEs behave as oxidase, peroxidase, and glutathione oxidase mimics to synchronously catalyze the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the depletion of glutathione, thus amplifying the ROS damage and finally causing the death of cancer cells. Notably, Ru SAEs exhibit excellent peroxidase-like activity with a specific activity of 7.5 U/mg, which surpasses most of the reported SAEs and is 20 times higher than that of Ru/C. Theoretical results reveal that the electrons of the Ru 4d orbital in Ru SAEs are transferred to O atoms in HO and then efficiently activate HO to produce OH. Our work may provide some inspiration for the design of SAEs for cancer therapy.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.1c12706DOI Listing
September 2021

Phytochemicals in Cancer Immune Checkpoint Inhibitor Therapy.

Biomolecules 2021 07 27;11(8). Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Cancer Research Institute, College of Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul 03080, Korea.

The interaction of immune checkpoint molecules in the tumor microenvironment reduces the anti-tumor immune response by suppressing the recognition of T cells to tumor cells. Immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) therapy is emerging as a promising therapeutic option for cancer treatment. However, modulating the immune system with ICIs still faces obstacles with severe immunogenic side effects and a lack of response against many cancer types. Plant-derived natural compounds offer regulation on various signaling cascades and have been applied for the treatment of multiple diseases, including cancer. Accumulated evidence provides the possibility of efficacy of phytochemicals in combinational with other therapeutic agents of ICIs, effectively modulating immune checkpoint-related signaling molecules. Recently, several phytochemicals have been reported to show the modulatory effects of immune checkpoints in various cancers in in vivo or in vitro models. This review summarizes druggable immune checkpoints and their regulatory factors. In addition, phytochemicals that are capable of suppressing PD-1/PD-L1 binding, the best-studied target of ICI therapy, were comprehensively summarized and classified according to chemical structure subgroups. It may help extend further research on phytochemicals as candidates of combinational adjuvants. Future clinical trials may validate the synergetic effects of preclinically investigated phytochemicals with ICI therapy.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biom11081107DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8393583PMC
July 2021

Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 2 antagonists as potent 5-FU-resistance reversal agents for the treatment of colorectal cancer.

Eur J Med Chem 2021 Aug 12;225:113775. Epub 2021 Aug 12.

Laboratory for Marine Drugs and Bioproducts of Qingdao National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology, Key Laboratory of Marine Drugs, Ministry of Education, School of Medicine and Pharmacy, Ocean University of China, Qingdao, 266003, China. Electronic address:

5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) and its prodrugs are the essential clinical drugs for colorectal cancer (CRC) treatment. However, the drug resistance of 5-FU has caused high mortality of CRC patients. Thus, it is urgent to develop reversal agents of 5-FU resistance. Sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 2 (S1PR2) was proved to be a potential target for reversing 5-FU resistance, but the activity of known S1PR2 antagonists JTE-013 were weak in 5-FU-resistant cell lines. To develop more potent S1PR2 antagonists to treat 5-FU-resistant cancer, a series of JTE-013 derivatives were designed and synthesized. The most promising compound 40 could markedly reverse the resistance in 5-FU-resistant HCT116 cells and 5-FU-resistant SW620 cells via inhibiting the expression of dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD). The key was that compound 40 with improved pharmacokinetic properties significantly increased the inhibitory rate of 5-FU in the SW620/5-FU cells xenograft model with no observable toxicity by inhibiting the expression of DPD in tumor and liver tissues. Altogether, these results suggest that compound 40 may be a promising drug candidate to reverse 5-FU resistance in the treatment of CRC.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejmech.2021.113775DOI Listing
August 2021

Network-guided identification of cancer-selective combinatorial therapies in ovarian cancer.

Brief Bioinform 2021 Aug 3. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

FIMM and OCBE/OUH, Helsinki, Finland.

Each patient's cancer consists of multiple cell subpopulations that are inherently heterogeneous and may develop differing phenotypes such as drug sensitivity or resistance. A personalized treatment regimen should therefore target multiple oncoproteins in the cancer cell populations that are driving the treatment resistance or disease progression in a given patient to provide maximal therapeutic effect, while avoiding severe co-inhibition of non-malignant cells that would lead to toxic side effects. To address the intra- and inter-tumoral heterogeneity when designing combinatorial treatment regimens for cancer patients, we have implemented a machine learning-based platform to guide identification of safe and effective combinatorial treatments that selectively inhibit cancer-related dysfunctions or resistance mechanisms in individual patients. In this case study, we show how the platform enables prediction of cancer-selective drug combinations for patients with high-grade serous ovarian cancer using single-cell imaging cytometry drug response assay, combined with genome-wide transcriptomic and genetic profiles. The platform makes use of drug-target interaction networks to prioritize those combinations that warrant further preclinical testing in scarce patient-derived primary cells. During the case study in ovarian cancer patients, we investigated (i) the relative performance of various ensemble learning algorithms for drug response prediction, (ii) the use of matched single-cell RNA-sequencing data to deconvolute cell population-specific transcriptome profiles from bulk RNA-seq data, (iii) and whether multi-patient or patient-specific predictive models lead to better predictive accuracy. The general platform and the comparison results are expected to become useful for future studies that use similar predictive approaches also in other cancer types.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bib/bbab272DOI Listing
August 2021

Risk of female-specific cancers according to obesity and menopausal status in 2•7 million Korean women: Similar trends between Korean and Western women.

Lancet Reg Health West Pac 2021 Jun 27;11:100146. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Cancer Research Institute, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Background: Studies examining the relationship between obesity and female-specific cancers have been mainly conducted in Western populations. We aimed to investigate the risk of female-specific cancers according to obesity and menopausal status using a nationwide cohort in Korea.

Methods: We identified 2,708,938 women from the National Health Insurance Service cohort, and obtained baseline body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and other healthcare data, measured and collected during a health examinations and cancer-screening survey. By setting a normal weight/WC group (BMI, 18•5-22•9 kg/m or WC, 80•0-84•9 cm) as the reference, we conducted multivariate analyses using the Cox proportional hazard model to estimate adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for each cancer.

Findings: The total follow-up duration was 22389854•63 person-years. In post-menopausal women, the risk of breast, endometrial, and ovarian cancers significantly increased as the BMI classification level increased from normal to class II obesity (aHRs [95% CIs], 1•49 [1•38-1.61], 2•11 [1•81-2•46], and 1•38 [1•20-1•58], respectively). The risk of breast and endometrial cancers also increased as the WC classification increased from < 75•0 to ≥ 95•0 cm. With a WC of 80•0-84•9 cm as the reference, the lowest risk of breast and endometrial cancers was observed in WC < 75•0 cm (aHRs [95% CIs], 0•85 [0•81-0•89] and 0•75 [0•67-0•84], respectively) while the highest risk was observed in WC ≥ 95•0 cm (aHRs [95% CIs], 1•19 [1•10-1•29] and 1•56 [1•33-1•82], respectively). In pre-menopausal women, the risk of breast cancer significantly decreased in those with class I and II obesity compared to those with normal BMI (aHRs [95% CIs], 0•96 [0•92-0•999] and 0•89 [0•81-0•97], respectively), whereas the trends of endometrial and ovarian cancer incidence in pre-menopausal women were similar to those observed in post-menopausal women. For cervical cancer, only class II obesity was significantly associated with increased risks in both post-menopausal and pre-menopausal women (aHRs [95% CIs], 1•18 [1•01-1•39] and 1•27 [1•02-1•57], respectively).

Interpretation: In this large population-based cohort study in Korean women, we observed that the impact of obesity on the development of female-specific cancers differs according to the malignancy type and menopausal status. Similar trends were observed between Korean and Western women.

Funding: The Korea Health Industry Development Institute (no. HI16C2037).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lanwpc.2021.100146DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8315398PMC
June 2021

Cancer mortality in a population-based cohort of American Indians - The strong heart study.

Cancer Epidemiol 2021 Jul 19;74:101978. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

MedStar Health Research Institute, 6525 Belcrest Road, Suite 700, Hyattsville, MD, 20782, USA; Georgetown, Howard Universities Center for Clinical and Translational Research, Washington, DC, 2000, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Cancer mortality among American Indian (AI) people varies widely, but factors associated with cancer mortality are infrequently assessed.

Methods: Cancer deaths were identified from death certificate data for 3516 participants of the Strong Heart Study, a population-based cohort study of AI adults ages 45-74 years in Arizona, Oklahoma, and North and South Dakota. Cancer mortality was calculated by age, sex and region. Cox proportional hazards model was used to assess independent associations between baseline factors in 1989 and cancer death by 2010.

Results: After a median follow-up of 15.3 years, the cancer death rate per 1000 person-years was 6.33 (95 % CI 5.67-7.04). Cancer mortality was highest among men in North/South Dakota (8.18; 95 % CI 6.46-10.23) and lowest among women in Arizona (4.57; 95 % CI 2.87-6.92). Factors independently associated with increased cancer mortality included age, current or former smoking, waist circumference, albuminuria, urinary cadmium, and prior cancer history. Factors associated with decreased cancer mortality included Oklahoma compared to Dakota residence, higher body mass index and total cholesterol. Sex was not associated with cancer mortality. Lung cancer was the leading cause of cancer mortality overall (1.56/1000 person-years), but no lung cancer deaths occurred among Arizona participants. Mortality from unspecified cancer was relatively high (0.48/100 person-years; 95 % CI 0.32-0.71).

Conclusions: Regional variation in AI cancer mortality persisted despite adjustment for individual risk factors. Mortality from unspecified cancer was high. Better understanding of regional differences in cancer mortality, and better classification of cancer deaths, will help healthcare programs address cancer in AI communities.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.canep.2021.101978DOI Listing
July 2021

Manipulating Redox Kinetics of Sulfur Species Using Mott-Schottky Electrocatalysts for Advanced Lithium-Sulfur Batteries.

Nano Lett 2021 Aug 22;21(15):6656-6663. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074, China.

Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries suffer from sluggish sulfur redox reactions under high-sulfur-loading and lean-electrolyte conditions. Herein, a typical [email protected] heterostructure composed of Co nanoparticles and a semiconductive N-doped carbon matrix is designed as a model Mott-Schottky catalyst to exert the electrocatalytic effect on sulfur electrochemistry. Theoretical and experimental results reveal the redistribution of charge and a built-in electric field at the [email protected] heterointerface, which are critical to lowering the energy barrier of polysulfide reduction and LiS oxidation in the discharge and charge process, respectively. With [email protected] Mott-Schottky catalysts, the Li-S batteries display an ultrahigh capacity retention of 92.1% and a system-level gravimetric energy density of 307.8 Wh kg under high S loading (10.73 mg cm) and lean electrolyte (E/S = 5.9 μL mg) conditions. The proposed Mott-Schottky heterostructure not only deepens the understanding of the electrocatalytic effect in Li-S chemistry but also inspires a rational catalyst design for advanced high-energy-density batteries.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.nanolett.1c02161DOI Listing
August 2021

Stromal induction of BRD4 phosphorylation Results in Chromatin Remodeling and BET inhibitor Resistance in Colorectal Cancer.

Nat Commun 2021 07 21;12(1):4441. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Cancer Precision Medicine, Genome Institute of Singapore, Agency for Science, Technology, and Research, Singapore, 138672, Singapore.

BRD4, a Bromodomain and Extraterminal (BET) protein family member, is a promising anti-cancer drug target. However, resistance to BET inhibitors targeting BRD4 is common in solid tumors. Here, we show that cancer-associated fibroblast (CAF)-activated stromal signaling, interleukin-6/8-JAK2, induces BRD4 phosphorylation at tyrosine 97/98 in colorectal cancer, resulting in BRD4 stabilization due to interaction with the deubiquitinase UCHL3. BRD4 phosphorylation at tyrosine 97/98 also displays increased binding to chromatin but reduced binding to BET inhibitors, resulting in resistance to BET inhibitors. We further show that BRD4 phosphorylation promotes interaction with STAT3 to induce chromatin remodeling through concurrent binding to enhancers and super-enhancers, supporting a tumor-promoting transcriptional program. Inhibition of IL6/IL8-JAK2 signaling abolishes BRD4 phosphorylation and sensitizes BET inhibitors in vitro and in vivo. Our study reveals a stromal mechanism for BRD4 activation and BET inhibitor resistance, which provides a rationale for developing strategies to treat CRC more effectively.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-24687-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8295257PMC
July 2021

Tailoring Unsymmetrical-Coordinated Atomic Site in Oxide-Supported Pt Catalysts for Enhanced Surface Activity and Stability.

Small 2021 07 21;17(30):e2101008. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at the Microscale, Collaborative Innovation Center of Chemistry for Energy Materials (iChEM), School of Chemistry and Materials Science, and National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, 230026, China.

The catalytic properties of supported metal heterostructures critically depend on the design of metal sites. Although it is well-known that the supports can influence the catalytic activities of metals, precisely regulating the metal-support interactions to achieve highly active and durable catalysts still remain challenging. Here, the authors develop a support effect in the oxide-supported metal monomers (involving Pt, Cu, and Ni) catalysts by means of engineering nitrogen-assisted nanopocket sites. It is found that the nitrogen-permeating process can induce the reconstitution of vacancy interface, resulting in an unsymmetrical atomic arrangement around the vacancy center. The resultant vacancy framework is more beneficial to stabilize Pt monomers and prevent diffusion, which can be further verified by the density functional theory calculations. The final Pt-N/SnO catalysts exhibit superior activity and stability for HCHO response (26.5 to 15 ppm). This higher activity allows the reaction to proceed at a lower operating temperature (100 °C). Incorporated with wireless intelligent-sensing system, the Pt-N/SnO catalysts can further achieve continuous monitoring of HCHO levels and cloud-based terminal data storage.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smll.202101008DOI Listing
July 2021

Enhanced Susceptibility to Breast Cancer in Korean Women With Elevated Serum Gamma-Glutamyltransferase Levels: A Nationwide Population-Based Cohort Study.

Front Oncol 2021 27;11:668624. Epub 2021 May 27.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea.

Background: The incidence of breast cancer has been gradually increasing in Korea. Recently, the elevated level of serum gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) has emerged to be associated with the development and progression of some malignancies. This study aimed to determine the effect of serum GGT levels on the risk of developing breast cancer in Korean women.

Methods: We used National Health Insurance Service Health Checkup data to examine the association between serum GGT levels and breast cancer development in Korean women. Women aged 40 years or older who participated in the Korean National Health Screening Examination between January 2009 and December 2009 and who did not develop any cancer within 1-year post examination were included in this analysis (n = 3,109,506). Cox proportional hazard regression analysis was conducted to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs).

Results: Overall, an elevated serum GGT level was associated with the increased risk of developing breast cancer; compared to the Q1 group, the Q4 group showed a significantly increased breast cancer risk (HR: 1.120,95% CI: 1.08-1.162). Such a relationship was stronger in post-menopausal women than pre-menopausal women (HR: 1.173, 95% CI: 1.107-1.243; HR: 1.070, 95% CI:1.019-1.124). Women with a high GGT level (Q4) were also at an increased risk of developing carcinoma (CIS) (HR: 1.114, 95% CI: 1.04-1.192). In post-menopausal women, the Q4 group also exhibited higher CIS risk (HR: 1.266, 95% CI: 1.132-1.416). However, no significant difference in the risk of developing CIS was observed between the Q1 and Q4 groups in pre-menopausal women. Further analysis revealed that obese, post-menopausal women with a high GGT level (Q4) were associated with an increased risk of developing breast cancer (HR: 1.214, 95% CI: 1.125-1.31) and CIS (HR: 1.348, 95% CI: 1.159-1.569).

Conclusions: Our study results demonstrate that increased serum GGT level is a risk factor for developing breast cancer. The post-menopausal women group with obesity and elevated serum GGT level showed the highest incidence of breast cancer. Thus, serum GGT concentration could be a novel and potential risk factor for breast cancer. Further validation in different ethnic groups would be warranted.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2021.668624DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8191736PMC
May 2021

Delayed transient obstructive hydrocephalus after cerebral aneurysm rupture: A case report.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Jun;100(22):e26228

Department of Neurosurgery, Chengdu Second People's Hospital.

Rationale: Obstructive hydrocephalus (OH) frequently occurs in patients with a ruptured cerebral aneurysm (CA), and it may lead to severe neurological deficits, including life-threatening brain herniation. OH generally occurs in the early stage of CA rupture, rather than in the late stage, and rarely resolves without therapy.

Patient Concerns: A 64-year-old woman with a ruptured anterior communicating artery aneurysm was treated with coil embolization. Nineteen days after her CA rupture, because of the delayed transient OH, she experienced a dramatic cycle in consciousness over 9 hours: wakefulness-drowsiness-coma-drowsiness-wakefulness.

Diagnosis: The patient was diagnosed with delayed transient obstructive hydrocephalus, which is a very rare condition.

Interventions: Mannitol was administered to reduce intracranial pressure.

Outcomes: The patient was discharged from the hospital 30 days after admission, with a final GCS score of 15 and without weaknesses. At follow-up 2 months after discharge, brain CT revealed non-recurrence of hydrocephalus.

Lessons: A blood clot of any size in the ventricle is likely to lead to obstructive hydrocephalus. Prolonged bed rest for IVH patients may help to reduce the incidence of delayed OH.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000026228DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8183689PMC
June 2021

Ultrafine Sodium Sulfide Clusters Confined in Carbon Nano-polyhedrons as High-Efficiency Presodiation Reagents for Sodium-Ion Batteries.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Jun 3;13(23):27057-27065. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074, China.

Sodium loss at the anode in the initial sodiation process significantly reduces the energy density of sodium-ion batteries (SIBs). Here, a high-capacity NaS/C nanocomposite featuring ultrafine NaS nanoclusters (<2 nm) confined in ZIF-8-derived microporous N-doped carbon is fabricated and employed as a cathode presodiation reagent to compensate for this sodium loss and increase the energy density of SIBs. The ultrafine size of NaS enables fast reaction kinetics for sodium extraction and the carbon matrix provides good electronic conductivity. Also, the overall particle size of the NaS/C nanocomposite (∼40 nm) is close to that of conductive additive. The above features enable it to replace a partial amount of conductive additive and compensate for the sodium loss at the anode concurrently. As a demonstration, the NaV(PO) electrode with 5 wt % NaS/C and 5 wt % carbon black was fabricated, and it displayed a 19 mAh g higher initial charge specific capacity than that of the counterpart with 10% carbon black without the addition of NaS/C, realizing an increased energy density from 178 to 263 Wh kg in the full cell configuration pairing with a hard carbon anode. Moreover, a stable cycling performance up to 200 cycles with an average capacity loss of 0.024 mAh g per cycle was achieved for the presodiated NaV(PO) electrode.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.1c05144DOI Listing
June 2021

DrugComb update: a more comprehensive drug sensitivity data repository and analysis portal.

Nucleic Acids Res 2021 07;49(W1):W174-W184

Research Program in Systems Oncology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Helsinki, Helsinki FI-00290, Finland.

Combinatorial therapies that target multiple pathways have shown great promises for treating complex diseases. DrugComb (https://drugcomb.org/) is a web-based portal for the deposition and analysis of drug combination screening datasets. Since its first release, DrugComb has received continuous updates on the coverage of data resources, as well as on the functionality of the web server to improve the analysis, visualization and interpretation of drug combination screens. Here, we report significant updates of DrugComb, including: (i) manual curation and harmonization of more comprehensive drug combination and monotherapy screening data, not only for cancers but also for other diseases such as malaria and COVID-19; (ii) enhanced algorithms for assessing the sensitivity and synergy of drug combinations; (iii) network modelling tools to visualize the mechanisms of action of drugs or drug combinations for a given cancer sample and (iv) state-of-the-art machine learning models to predict drug combination sensitivity and synergy. These improvements have been provided with more user-friendly graphical interface and faster database infrastructure, which make DrugComb the most comprehensive web-based resources for the study of drug sensitivities for multiple diseases.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/nar/gkab438DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8218202PMC
July 2021

Synergy of Porous Structure and Microstructure in Piezoresistive Material for High-Performance and Flexible Pressure Sensors.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Apr 16;13(16):19211-19220. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

School of Textile Science and Engineering, Tiangong University, Tianjin 300387, China.

A porous and microstructure piezoresistive material composed of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) was designed and prepared for a flexible and highly sensitive pressure sensor over a wide detection range. The microstructure was patterned on the surface of the partially cured PDMS/MWCNTs/NaCl mixture by imprinting a nonwoven fabric. After curing and dissolving the NaCl powders, the porous and surface microstructure PDMS/MWCNT film was obtained. Two PDMS/MWCNT films were stacked together and sandwiched between two copper foil electrodes, in which the two microstructure surfaces were in contact with the electrodes. Due to the synergistic effects of the combination of the porous structure and surface microstructure, the flexible sensor had highly sensitive response over a wide pressure range from 1 Pa to 100 kPa. Under the small pressure, the high sensitivity was achieved by the change in contact areas between the electrodes and the surface microstructures; at high pressure up to 100 kPa, the sensor retained its high sensitivity because of the porous structure of the piezoresistive PDMS/MWCNT material. Additionally, the sensor had fast response speed and good durability. The piezoresistive pressure sensors based on the porous and microstructure PDMS/MWCNTs were demonstrated in detection of sound, monitoring of human activities, and array mapping of the spatial pressure distribution.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.0c22938DOI Listing
April 2021

Analysis of Risk Factors for Thromboembolic Events in 88 Patients with COVID-19 Pneumonia in Wuhan, China: A Retrospective Descriptive Report.

Med Sci Monit 2021 Apr 11;27:e929708. Epub 2021 Apr 11.

Department of Respiratory and Critical Medicine, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin, Heilongjiang, China (mainland).

BACKGROUND Since the outbreak of COVID-19 in December 2019, there have been 96 623 laboratory-confirmed cases and 4784 deaths by December 29 in China. We aimed to analyze the risk factors and the incidence of thrombosis from patients with confirmed COVID-19 pneumonia. MATERIAL AND METHODS Eighty-eight inpatients with confirmed COVID-19 pneumonia were reported (31 critical cases, 33 severe cases, and 24 common cases). The thrombosis risk factor assessment, laboratory results, ultrasonographic findings, and prognoses of these patients were analyzed, and compared among groups with different severity. RESULTS Nineteen of the 88 cases developed DVT (12 critical cases, 7 severe cases, and no common cases). In addition, among the 18 patients who died, 5 were diagnosed with DVT. Positive correlations were observed between the increase in D-dimer level (≥5 µg/mL) and the severity of COVID-19 pneumonia (r=0.679, P<0.01), and between the high Padua score (≥4) and the severity (r=0.799, P<0.01). In addition, the CRP and LDH levels on admission had positive correlations with the severity of illness (CRP: r=0.522, P<0.01; LDH: r=0.600, P<0.01). A negative correlation was observed between the lymphocyte count on admission and the severity of illness (r=-0.523, P<0.01). There was also a negative correlation between the lymphocyte count on admission and mortality in critical patients (r=-0.499, P<0.01). Univariable logistic regression analysis showed that the occurrence of DVT was positively correlated with disease severity (crude odds ratio: 3.643, 95% CI: 1.218-10.896, P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS Our report illustrates that critically or severely ill patients have an associated high D-dimer value and high Padua score, and illustrates that a low threshold to screen for DVT may help improve detection of thromboembolism in these groups of patients, especially in asymptomatic patients. Our results suggest that early administration of prophylactic anticoagulant would benefit the prognosis of critical patients with COVID-19 pneumonia and would likely reduce thromboembolic rates.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.12659/MSM.929708DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8047776PMC
April 2021

GC-MS-based metabolomics reveals new biomarkers to assist the differentiation of prostate cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia.

Clin Chim Acta 2021 Aug 5;519:10-17. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

International Institute for Translational Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510006, PR China. Electronic address:

Lack of efficient noninvasive biomarkers for differentiating prostate cancer (PCa) and benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) is a serious concern for men's health worldwide. In this study, we aimed to improve the diagnostic capability of the existing noninvasive biomarkers for PCa. GC-MS-based untargeted metabolomics was employed to analyze plasma samples for 41 PCa patients and 38 BPH controls. Both univariate and multivariate statistical analyses were performed to screen for differential metabolites between PCa and BPH, followed by the selection of potential biomarkers through machine learning. The chosen candidate biomarkers were then verified by targeted analysis and transcriptome data. The results showed that twelve metabolites were significantly dysregulated between PCa and BPH, three metabolites including L-serine, myo-inositol, and decanoic acid could be potential biomarkers for discriminating PCa from BPH. Most importantly, ROC curve analysis demonstrated that the involvement of the three potential biomarkers has increased the area under the curve (AUC) value of cPSA and tPSA from 0.542 and 0.592 to 0.781, respectively. Therefore, it was concluded that the involvement of L-serine, myo-inositol, and decanoic acid can largely improve the diagnostic capability of the commonly used noninvasive biomarkers in the clinic for differentiating PCa from BPH.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cca.2021.03.021DOI Listing
August 2021

Cladding softened fiber for sensitivity enhancement of distributed acoustic sensing.

Opt Express 2021 Mar;29(6):8216-8222

Fiber-optic distributed acoustic sensing (DAS) technology with high spatial and strain resolutions has been widely used in many practical applications. New methods to enhance the phase sensitivity of sensing fiber are worth exploring to further improve DAS performances, although the standard single-mode fiber (SSMF) has been widely used for DAS technology. In this work, we propose and demonstrate the concept of enhancing the phase sensitivity of DAS by softening the cladding of the sensing fiber, for the first time. The theoretical analysis indicates that softening sensing fiber cladding is an effective way to improve phase sensitivity. Thus, we fabricated cladding softened fibers (CSFs) and tested their phase sensitivities experimentally. According to the results, it is found that the phase sensitivity of the CSF with 0.48 WT% phosphorus-doping concentration and 80 µm cladding diameter is 22% and 54% higher than that of the non-phosphorus-doping fiber with 80 µm cladding diameter and SSMF, respectively. The results show that by reducing fiber cladding Young's modulus with higher phosphorus-doping concentration, the DAS phase sensitivity can be enhanced effectively, verifying the theoretical analysis. Also, we found that the phase sensitivity enhancement of the sensing fiber has a linear relationship with the cladding phosphorus-doping concentration, i.e. Young's modulus. In conclusion, the reported CSF paves a way for improving the DAS phase sensitivity and would be applied to other major optical fiber sensing systems as a better sensing element over SSMF due to the enhancement in the elasto-optical effect of the sensing fiber.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.417360DOI Listing
March 2021

Increasing serum gamma-glutamyltransferase level accompanies a rapid increase in the incidence of endometrial cancer in Korea: A nationwide cohort study.

Gynecol Oncol 2021 Jun 29;161(3):864-870. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Cancer Research Institute, College of Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul 03080, Republic of Korea; WCU Biomodulation, Department of Agricultural Biotechnology, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Republic of Korea; Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 03080, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Objective: This study aimed to determine the association of serum GGT levels with the risk of developing endometrial cancer. Women's obesity and menopausal status were also taken into account in our analysis.

Methods: We used a nationwide cohort to examine the association between serum GGT levels and endometrial cancer development in Korean women. Data were retrieved from the Korean National Health Insurance Service (NHIS) healthcare system. Women aged over 19 years who participated in the Korea National Health Screening Examination in 2009 and were not diagnosed with endometrial cancer 1-year post-examination were included in our study (n = 2,736,588).

Results: Obese (BMI, ≥25 kg/m) women with increased GGT levels were at high risk of endometrial cancer (HR = 1.415, 95% CI: 1.236-1.621). Interestingly, in pre-menopausal women, high GGT level (Q4) was associated with the increased endometrial cancer risk only for obese women (HR = 1.482, 95% CI: 1.205-1.821). In post-menopausal women, only a high GGT level (Q4) was also associated with the increased cancer risk for obese women (HR = 1.313, 95% CI: 1.096-1.573). We observed a significant association between high GGT levels and increased risk of endometrial cancer in pre-menopausal women with abdominal obesity (WC, ≥85 cm) (HR = 1.647, 95% CI: 1.218-2.227).

Conclusions: Increased GGT level is an independent risk factor of endometrial cancer, especially for post-menopausal women and obese pre-menopausal women. These results may suggest that serum GGT levels might be useful in the risk stratification of endometrial cancer. Adopting a healthy lifestyle for lowering serum GGT level is warranted, especially for women with a higher risk of developing endometrial cancer.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ygyno.2021.03.024DOI Listing
June 2021

Evaluating and improving the reliability of the UV-persulfate method for the determination of TOC/DOC in surface waters.

Water Res 2021 May 10;196:116918. Epub 2021 Feb 10.

State Key Laboratory of Environmental Aquatic Chemistry, Key Laboratory of Drinking Water Science and Technology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085, China. Electronic address:

The UV-persulfate oxidation method is widely used for determining the total organic carbon concentration of aqueous samples (denoted for convenience as UVP-TOC). However, for some surface water samples, the measurement of TOC by this method can be unreliable, deviating significantly from the true carbon content. In this study, the performance of the UVP-TOC method has been investigated by comparing the results from the analysis of a variety of aqueous samples that included two kinds of surface water samples and related surface water model substances: bovine serum albumin (BSA), sodium alginate (SA), humic acid (HA), tannic acid (TA), benzoic acid (BA) and citric acid (CA), with those from a high-temperature combustion method (elemental analysis); the latter providing the true carbon content value. By comparing the above data, it was found that the UVP-TOC method significantly underestimated the TOC value of the surface water samples, and it was also found that the model components BSA (protein) and HA (humic substances, HS) had a substantial influence on the TOC underestimation, while the SA (polysaccharide), TA (complex organic molecule) and CA/BA (small molecules) had little effect. The results showed that the agglomeration within and between BSA and HA molecules was an important reason for the inaccurate UVP-TOC values of BSA and HA. A further limitation was that for BSA, surfactants (e.g. sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate, SDBS) and other surfactant-like substances, foam was formed during the CO removal purging process by N that seriously interfered with the determination of TOC. The study provides new information and insight into the causes of inaccuracies in the UVP-TOC analysis of surface waters and possible approaches to improve the accuracy.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2021.116918DOI Listing
May 2021

Development and validation of an instrument to measure beliefs in physical activity among (pre)frail older adults: An integration of the Health Belief Model and the Theory of Planned Behavior.

Patient Educ Couns 2021 Mar 9. Epub 2021 Mar 9.

School of Nursing, Peking University, Beijing 100191, China. Electronic address:

Objective: To develop and evaluate the psychometric properties of an instrument assessing beliefs in physical activity based on the integration of the Health Belief Model (HBM) and the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) among (pre)frail older adults.

Methods: A literature review and semi-structured interviews were conducted to generate the initial item pool of the instrument. A rural sample of 611 (pre)frail older adults was enrolled to examine the validity and reliability of the instrument.

Results: The exploratory factor analysis extracted eight factors for this instrument, explaining 71.3% of the variance in beliefs in physical activity. The confirmatory factor analysis confirmed the eight-factor structure. Linear regression models found that the integrated HBM-TPB constructs explained 65.9% of the variance in physical activity intention and 13.6% in physical activity. The Cronbach's alpha coefficients for the factors ranged from 0.80 to 0.98, and ICCs ranged from 0.71 to 0.85.

Conclusion: This instrument has satisfactory construct validity, predictive validity, internal consistency reliability and test-retest reliability, and it can be used in (pre)frail older adults to measure beliefs in physical activity.

Practice Implications: This instrument may help health care providers understand beliefs in physical activity and facilitate targeted interventions among (pre)frail older adults.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pec.2021.03.009DOI Listing
March 2021

Computational modeling of malignant ascites reveals CCL5-SDC4 interaction in the immune microenvironment of ovarian cancer.

Mol Carcinog 2021 05 15;60(5):297-312. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Cancer Research Institute, College of Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Fluid accumulation in the abdominal cavity is commonly found in advanced-stage ovarian cancer patients, which creates a specialized tumor microenvironment for cancer progression. Using single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) of ascites cells from five patients with ovarian cancer, we identified seven cell types, including heterogeneous macrophages and ovarian cancer cells. We resolved a distinct polarization state of macrophages by MacSpectrum analysis and observed subtype-specific enrichment of pathways associated with their functions. The communication between immune and cancer cells was predicted through a putative ligand-receptor pair analysis using NicheNet. We found that CCL5, a chemotactic ligand, is enriched in immune cells (T cells and NK cells) and mediates ovarian cancer cell survival in the ascites, possibly through SDC4. Moreover, SDC4 expression correlated with poor overall survival in ovarian cancer patients. Our study highlights the potential role of T cells and NK cells in long-term survival patients with ovarian cancer, indicating SDC4 as a potential prognostic marker in ovarian cancer patients.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mc.23289DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8080545PMC
May 2021

Fe(II) and Tannic Acid-Cloaked MOF as Carrier of Artemisinin for Supply of Ferrous Ions to Enhance Treatment of Triple-Negative Breast Cancer.

Nanoscale Res Lett 2021 Feb 23;16(1):37. Epub 2021 Feb 23.

College of Pharmacology, Weifang Medical University, Weifang, 261053, China.

Suppression of tumor development by inducing ferroptosis may provide a potential remedy for triple-negative breast cancer, which is sensitive to intracellular oxidative imbalance. Recently, artemisinin (ART) and its derivatives have been investigated as potential anticancer agents for the treatment of highly aggressive cancers via the induction of ferroptosis by iron-mediated cleavage of the endoperoxide bridge. Owing to its poor water solubility and limited intracellular iron content, it is challenging for further application in antitumor therapy. Herein, we developed ferrous-supply nano-carrier for ART based on tannic acid (TA) and ferrous ion (Fe(II)) coated on the zeolitic imidazolate framework-8 (ZIF) with ART encapsulated (TA-Fe/[email protected]) via coordination-driven self-assembly. Drug release experiments showed that ART was not nearly released in pH 7.4, while 59% ART was released in pH 5.0 after 10 h, demonstrating the excellent pH-triggered release. Meanwhile, a high level of intracellular ROS and MDA, accompanied with decreasing GSH and GPX4, displayed a newly developed nano-drug system displayed markedly enhanced ferroptosis. Compared with monotherapy, in vitro and vivo tumor inhibition experiments demonstrated higher efficiency of tumor suppression of TA-Fe/[email protected] This work provides a novel approach to enhance the potency of ferroptotic nano-medicine and new directions for TBNC therapy.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s11671-021-03497-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7902752PMC
February 2021

A Replacement Reaction Enabled Interdigitated Metal/Solid Electrolyte Architecture for Battery Cycling at 20 mA cm and 20 mAh cm.

J Am Chem Soc 2021 Mar 17;143(8):3143-3152. Epub 2021 Feb 17.

Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074, China.

Metal anodes represent as a prime choice for the coming generation rechargeable batteries with high energy density. However, daunting challenges including electrode volume variation and inevitable side reactions preclude them from becoming a viable technology. Here, a facile replacement reaction was employed to fabricate a three-dimensional (3D) interdigitated metal/solid electrolyte composite electrode, which not only provides a stable host structure for buffering the volume change within the composite but also prevents side reactions by avoiding the direct contact between active metal and liquid electrolyte. As a proof-of-concept demonstration, a 3D interdigitated zinc (Zn) metal/solid electrolyte architecture was fabricated via a galvanic replacement reaction between Zn metal foil and indium (In) chloride solution followed by electrochemical activation, featuring the interdigitation between metallic Zn and amorphous indium hydroxide sulfate (IHS) with high Zn conductivity (56.9 ± 1.8 mS cm), large Zn transference number (0.55), and high electronic resistivity [(2.08 ± 0.01) × 10 Ω cm]. The as-designed Zn/IHS electrode sustained stable electrochemical Zn plating/stripping over 700 cycles with a record-low overpotential of 8 mV at 1 mA cm and 0.5 mAh cm. More impressively, it displayed cycle-stable performance with low overpotential of 10 mV under ultrahigh current density and areal capacity (20 mA cm, 20 mAh cm), which outperformed all the reported Zn metal electrodes in mild aqueous electrolyte. The fabrication of interdigitated metal/solid electrolyte was generalized to other metal pairs, including Zn/Sn and Zn/Co, which provide inspiration for next-generation Zn metal batteries with high energy density and reversibility.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jacs.0c11753DOI Listing
March 2021

Stimuli-Responsive Manganese Single-Atom Nanozyme for Tumor Therapy via Integrated Cascade Reactions.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2021 04 11;60(17):9480-9488. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

CAS Key Laboratory of Soft Matter Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, 230026, P. R. China.

The single-atom enzyme (SAE) is a novel type of nanozyme that exhibits extraordinary catalytic activity. Here, we constructed a PEGylated manganese-based SAE (Mn/PSAE) by coordination of single-atom manganese to nitrogen atoms in hollow zeolitic imidazolate frameworks. Mn/PSAE catalyzes the conversion of cellular H O to OH through a Fenton-like reaction; it also promotes the decomposition of H O to O and continuously catalyzes the conversion of O to cytotoxic O via oxidase-like activity. The catalytic activity of Mn/PSAE is more pronounced in the weak acidic tumor environment; therefore, these cascade reactions enable the sufficient generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and effectively kill tumor cells. The prominent photothermal conversion property of the amorphous carbon can be utilized for photothermal therapy. Hence, Mn/PSAE exhibits significant therapeutic efficacy through tumor microenvironment stimulated generation of multiple ROS and photothermal activity.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/anie.202017152DOI Listing
April 2021

Downregulation of miR-3934 in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells of Asthmatic Patients and Its Potential Diagnostic Value.

Biomed Res Int 2021 9;2021:8888280. Epub 2021 Jan 9.

Department of Respiratory and Critical Medicine, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, China.

Background: The present study focused on the potential clinical significance of miR-3934 in the occurrence and development of asthma.

Methods: 80 asthma and 80 healthy controls were recruited in this study. The peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and serum samples of the asthma patients as well as the healthy controls were isolated, and the expression levels of miR-3934 in PBMCs were examined by RT-qPCR methods. Furthermore, the relationship between the level of miR-3934 in PBMCs and the disease severity has been analyzed, and the potential diagnostic value of miR-3934 was evaluated by the receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve. Finally, the expression level of IL-6, IL-8, and IL-33 have been detected using the ELISA kits, and Pearson's correlation analysis was performed to investigate the relationship between the level of miR-3934 in PBMCs and the serum expression of those inflammatory cytokines in asthma patients.

Results: miR-3934 was dramatically decreased in PBMCs of the asthma patients, and miR-3934 was markedly reduced in PBMCs of patients with severe asthma vs. mild asthma. Furthermore, ROC analysis showed that levels of miR-3934 in PBMCs can distinguish asthma patient, especially the severe asthma patients from the controls. Finally, the levels of miR-3934 in PBMCs were negatively correlated with the serum levels of IL-6, IL-8, and IL-33 in asthma patients, respectively.

Conclusions: miR-3934 was downregulated in PBMCs of asthmatic patients and may function as a potential diagnosis biomarker.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/8888280DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7811425PMC
May 2021

The Function of Multidrug Resistance-associated Protein 3 in the Transport of Bile Acids under Normal Physiological and Lithocholic Acid-induced Cholestasis Conditions.

Curr Drug Metab 2021 ;22(5):353-362

International Institute for Translational Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou, Guangdong, 510006, China.

Background: The role of multidrug resistance-associated protein 3 (Mrp3) in the transport of bile acid (BA) in drug-induced cholestasis has not been well studied.

Objective: In this study, wild type and Mrp3 knockout (Mrp3-/-) mice under normal physiological and lithocholic acid (LCA)-induced cholestatic conditions were employed to investigate the role of Mrp3 in BA transport.

Methods: The levels of BA in serum, liver, gallbladder, intestine, kidney, feces and urine were quantified in both wild type and Mrp3-/- mice via ultra-high performance liquid chromatography triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS). Quantitative real-time PCR (RT-PCR) analysis was used to measure the expression of genes related to the transport and synthesis of BA.

Results: The results showed that the liver did not suffer more serious damage as a result of cholestasis when Mrp3 was depleted. The level of some individual bile acids changed apparently in the compartments of enterohepatic circulation (EHC) between the two control and model groups, respectively, but the level of serum total bile acid was only slightly reduced for Mrp3-/- groups. In addition, the level of BA-related efflux transporters and synthases increased significantly when Mrp3 was knocked out under normal physiological conditions, but a negligible alteration appeared under cholestatic conditions.

Conclusion: Our results indicated that Mrp3 could be responsible for the transport of some specific bile acids, and part of the Mrp3 role could be compensated for by other transporters. Moreover, Mrp3 deficiency has a direct effect on the expression of BA-related synthases and efflux transporters under normal physiological conditions, but this effect could be less prominent under cholestatic conditions. This study could provide much valuable insight into the physiological function of Mrp3 in the transport of bile acids.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1389200222666210118101715DOI Listing
January 2021

Guided Assembly and Patterning of Intrinsically Fluorescent Amyloid Fibers with Long-Range Order.

Nano Lett 2021 01 15;21(2):938-945. Epub 2021 Jan 15.

Department for Chemical Engineering & Biotechnology, University of Cambridge, Philippa Fawcett Drive, Cambridge CB3 0AS, United Kingdom.

Fibrillar amyloids exhibit a fascinating range of mechanical, optical, and electronic properties originating from their characteristic β-sheet-rich structure. Harnessing these functionalities in practical applications has so far been hampered by a limited ability to control the amyloid self-assembly process at the macroscopic scale. Here, we use core-shell electrospinning with microconfinement to assemble amyloid-hybrid fibers, consisting of densely aggregated fibrillar amyloids stabilized by a polymer shell. Up to centimeter-long hybrid fibers with micrometer diameter can be arranged into aligned and ordered arrays and deposited onto substrates or produced as free-standing networks. Properties that are characteristic of amyloids, including their high elastic moduli and intrinsic fluorescence signature, are retained in the hybrid fiber cores, and we show that they fully persist through the macroscopic fiber patterns. Our findings suggest that microlevel confinement is key for the guided assembly of amyloids from monomeric proteins.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.nanolett.0c03672DOI Listing
January 2021

Guided assembly of cancer ellipsoid on suspended hydrogel microfibers estimates multi-cellular traction force.

Phys Biol 2021 03 10;18(3):036001. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, JJ Thomson Avenue, Cambridge, CB3 0HE, United Kingdom.

Three-dimensional (3D) multi-cellular aggregates hold important applications in tissue engineering and in vitro biological modeling. Probing the intrinsic forces generated during the aggregation process, could open up new possibilities in advancing the discovery of tissue mechanics-based biomarkers. We use individually suspended, and tethered gelatin hydrogel microfibers to guide multicellular aggregation of brain cancer cells (glioblastoma cell line, U87), forming characteristic cancer 'ellipsoids'. Over a culture period of up to 13 days, U87 aggregates evolve from a flexible cell string with cell coverage following the relaxed and curly fiber contour; to a distinct ellipsoid-on-string morphology, where the fiber segment connecting the ellipsoid poles become taut. Fluorescence imaging revealed the fiber segment embedded within the ellipsoidal aggregate to exhibit a morphological transition analogous to filament buckling under a compressive force. By treating the multicellular aggregate as an effective elastic medium where the microfiber is embedded, we applied a filament post-buckling theory to model the fiber morphology, deducing the apparent elasticity of the cancer ellipsoid medium, as well as the collective traction force inherent in the aggregation process.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1478-3975/abd9aaDOI Listing
March 2021

Recycling of Lignin and Si Waste for Advanced Si/C Battery Anodes.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2020 Dec 8;12(51):57055-57063. Epub 2020 Dec 8.

Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074, China.

The ever-increasing silicon photovoltaics industry produces a huge annual production of silicon waste (2.03 × 10 tons in 2019), while lignin is one of the main waste materials in the traditional paper industry (7.0 × 10 tons annually), which lead to not only enormous wastage of resources but also serious environment pollution. Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) are the dominating power sources for portable electronics and electric vehicles. Silicon (Si)-based material is the most promising anode choice for the next-generation high-energy-density LIBs due to its much higher capacity than the commercial graphite anode. Here, we proposed the use of these silicon and lignin waste as sustainable raw materials to fabricate high-capacity silicon/carbon (Si/C) anode materials for LIBs via a facile coprecipitation method utilizing electrostatic attracting force, followed by a thermal annealing process. The as-achieved Si/C composite featured an advanced material structure with micrometer-sized secondary particles and Si nanoparticles embedded in the carbon matrix, which could tackle the inherent challenges of Si materials, including low conductivity and large volume change during the lithiation/delithiation processes. As expected, the obtained Si/C composite displayed an initial charge capacity of 1016.8 mAh g, which was 3 times that of a commercial graphite anode in the state-of-the-art LIBs, as well as a high capacity retention of 74.5% at 0.2 A g after 100 cycles. In addition, this Si/C composite delivered superior rate capability with a high capacity of 575.9 mAh g at 2 A g, 63.4% of the capacity at 0.2 A g. The utilization of industrial Si and lignin waste provides a sustainable route for the fabrication of advanced high-capacity anode materials for the next-generation LIBs with high economic and environmental feasibility.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.0c16865DOI Listing
December 2020
-->