Publications by authors named "Wenyi Zhang"

253 Publications

Meta-Analysis: Randomized Trials of on Immune Regulation Over the Last Decades.

Front Immunol 2021 22;12:643420. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Key Laboratory of Dairy Biotechnology and Engineering, Ministry of Education, Inner Mongolia Agricultural University, Hohhot, China.

(.) strains, belong to lactic acid bacteria group, are considered indispensable probiotics. Here, we performed meta-analysis to evaluate the regulatory effects of on the immunity during clinical trials. This meta-analysis was conducted by searching across four most common literature databases, namely, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Web of Science, Embase, and PubMed. Clinical trial articles that met the inclusion and exclusion criteria were analyzed by Review Manager (version 5.3). -value < 0.05 of the total effect was considered statistically significant. Finally, total of 677 references were retrieved, among which six references and 18 randomized controlled trials were included in the meta-analysis. The mean differences observed at 95% confidence interval: interleukin (IL)-4, -0.48 pg/mL (-0.79 to -0.17; < 0.05); IL-10, 9.88 pg/mL (6.52 to 13.2; < 0.05); tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, -2.34 pg/mL (-3.5 to -1.19; < 0.05); interferon (IFN)-γ, -0.99 pg/mL (-1.56 to -0.41; < 0.05). Therefore, meta-analysis results suggested that could promote host immunity by regulating pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2021.643420DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8019694PMC
March 2021

Function analysis and molecular characterization of cyclin A in ovary development of oriental river prawn, Macrobrachium nipponense.

Gene 2021 Mar 19:145583. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Key Laboratory of Freshwater Fisheries and Germplasm Resources Utilization, Ministry of Agriculture, Freshwater Fisheries Research Center, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Wuxi, Jiangsu, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Macrobrachium nipponense has the characteristics of fast ovarian development cycle, which leads to the coexistence of multiple generations, the reduction of commodity specifications and the low economic benefit. Therefore, the study on the mechanism of ovarian development is of great significance to the development of industry. Cyclin A (CycA)is a key gene regulating ovarian development in vertebrates, but little information was available for its function in crustaceans. In this study, the full-length cDNA of Mn-CycA was obtained from the ovary. The full-length cDNA (2033 bp) with an open reading frame of 1368 bp, encoded a 456-amino acid protein. qRT-PCR revealed tissue-specific expression pattern of Mn-CycA, with abundant expression in the ovary. Results in different developmental stages of ovary indicated that Mn-CycA expression is positively correlated with ovarian maturation.qRT-PCR In different developmental stages, the expression of Mn-CycA mRNA gradually increased during the embryonic stage and decreased significantly on the first day of the hatching stage. At the 25th day of the metamorphosis stage, the expression level of Mn-CycAmRNA in female shrimp was 3.5 times higher than that in male shrimp, which may be related to the proliferation of oogonia and the formation of oocytes. In situ hybridization (ISH) of ovary showed Mn-CycA was examined in all stages and was mainly located in oogonia and oocytes. Compared with the control group, the obvious change of gonad somatic index (GSI) proved that injection of Mn-CycA dsRNA could delay the ovarian development cycle, which provided strong evidence for the involvement of Mn-CycA in ovarian maturation and oogenesis, and expanded a new perspective for studying the fast ovarian development cycle in M. nipponense.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gene.2021.145583DOI Listing
March 2021

A healing case of orofacial granulomatosis with no medication.

Int J Dermatol 2021 Mar 9. Epub 2021 Mar 9.

Department of Periodontology and Oral Mucosal Disease, Qingdao Stomatological Hospital Affiliated to Qingdao University, Qingdao, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ijd.15404DOI Listing
March 2021

Bioactive compound from the Tibetan turnip ( L.) elicited anti-hypoxia effects in OGD/R-injured HT22 cells by activating the PI3K/AKT pathway.

Food Funct 2021 Mar 12. Epub 2021 Mar 12.

Department of School of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, 214122, China.

Cerebral stroke, a common clinical problem, is the predominant cause of disability and death worldwide. Its prevalence increases and infarctions exacerbate with age. A Tibetan plant, Brassica rapa L., possesses multiple medicinal effects, such as anti-altitude sickness, anti-hyperlipidemia and anti-fatigue, as mentioned in the noted ancient Tibet pharmacopeia "The Four Medical Tantras". Our preliminary studies also showed the anti-hypoxia protection mechanism of B. rapa L., implying its possible relationship with anti-ischemic neuroprotection. However, the potential molecular mechanism of the active constituent of turnip against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion remains unclear. In our study, oxidative stress markers, including LDH, ROS, SOD, GPx and CAT were assayed. In controlled in vitro assays, we found that the turnip's active constituent had remarkable anti-hypoxia capability. We further showed the profound effects of the active constituent of turnip on the levels of apoptosis-related proteins, including Bax, Bcl-2 and caspase-3, which contributed to its anti-inflammatory activity. Western blot analysis results also implied that active-constituent pretreatment reversed the diminished expression of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway mediated by oxygen glucose deprivation/reperfusion (OGD/R); further experimental evidence showed that the protective role was limited in the PI3K inhibitor (LY294002) treatment group. Our results demonstrated that the functional monomer of B. rapa L. exerted a neuroprotective effect against OGD/R-induced HT22 cell injury, and its potential mechanism provides a scientific basis for future clinical applications and its use as a functional food.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0fo03190aDOI Listing
March 2021

Influence of periodontal treatment on blood microbiotas: a clinical trial.

PeerJ 2021 16;9:e10846. Epub 2021 Feb 16.

Department of Periodontology, School and Hospital of Stomatology, Cheeloo College of Medicine, Shandong University & Shandong Key Laboratory of Oral Tissue Regeneration & Shandong Engineering Laboratory for Dental Materials and Oral Tissue Regeneration, Jinan, Shandong, China.

Objective: To investigate the effects of periodontal treatment on the abundance and diversity of blood microbiota.

Methods And Materials: Twenty-seven periodontitis patients were randomly allocated to a control group (A) and two test groups (B1 and B2). Group A patients received full-mouth scaling and root planing (SRP), group B1 patients received subgingival glycine air polishing (GAP) right after SRP, and group B2 patients received subgingival glycine air polishing right before SRP. Peripheral blood samples were obtained at the baseline, the day after periodontal treatment, and 6 weeks after treatment and evaluated using nested polymerase chain reaction and 16SrRNA Gene Sequencing (Miseq platform).

Results: All participants exhibited significant improvements in the clinical parameters evaluated at the 6-week follow-up visit compared to the values at the baseline, but no significant differences were observed between the three groups. The total bacterial count was lowest in group B2. The bacterial species diversity (α-diversity) in group B1 was significantly higher (Chao-1 index,  = 0.03) and and were the dominant genera (linear discriminant analysis (LDA > 2)) in this group the day after treatment compared to the baseline. No significant difference was detected in the relative abundance and α-diversity of blood microbiota between the baseline and 6 weeks after treatment.

Conclusion: Local periodontal treatment merely disrupts the stability of blood microbiota in the short term. Periodontitis treatment using full-mouth SRP followed by adjunctive GAP is a promising approach to reduce the introduction of bacteria into the bloodstream during the procedure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7717/peerj.10846DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7894104PMC
February 2021

Cadmium triggers oxidative stress and mitochondrial injury mediated apoptosis in human extravillous trophoblast HTR-8/SVneo cells.

Reprod Toxicol 2021 Feb 12;101:18-27. Epub 2021 Feb 12.

College of Life Science, Shanxi University, Taiyuan, Shanxi 030006, PR China. Electronic address:

Cadmium (Cd) is a bioaccumulative heavy metal element with potential placental toxicity during pregnancy. Up to now, however, the precise toxic effects of Cd on human placentae, particularly as they pertain to trophoblast cells remain obscure. We therefore sought to investigate the cytotoxic effects of Cd on human extravillous trophoblast HTR-8/SVneo cells and the mechanisms involved in the processes. Results in this present study showed that CdCl treatment significantly suppressed cell viability and induced noticeable oxidative stress in HTR-8/SVneo cells. Further studies showed that CdCl treatment caused distortion of mitochondrial structure, reduction of mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψ), DNA damage and G0/G1 phase arrest. Under the same condition, CdCl treatment increased Bax/Bcl-2 ratios by up-regulating Bax expression and down-regulating Bcl-2 expression, and activated apoptotic executive molecule caspase-3, which irreversibly induced HTR-8/SVneo cell apoptosis. N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC), ROS scavenger, significantly attenuated CdCl-caused mitochondrial injury, DNA damage, G0/G1 phase arrest and apoptosis. In addition, in vivo assay suggested that CdCl induced trophoblast cells apoptosis but not other cells in mice placental tissue. Taken together, these data suggest that Cd selectively triggers oxidative stress and mitochondrial injury mediated apoptosis in trophoblast cells, which might contribute to placentae impairment and placental-related disorders after Cd exposure. These findings may provide new insights to understand adverse effects of Cd on placentae during pregnancy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.reprotox.2021.02.003DOI Listing
February 2021

Comparative transcriptome analysis of lethality in response to RNA interference of the oriental river prawn (Macrobrachium nipponense).

Comp Biochem Physiol Part D Genomics Proteomics 2021 Feb 6;38:100802. Epub 2021 Feb 6.

Wuxi Fisheries College, Nanjing Agricultural University, Wuxi 214081, PR China. Electronic address:

A previous study identified slow-tonic S2 tropomyosin and slow tropomyosin isoform as sex-related genes in Macrobrachium nipponense. Their functions were analyzed using RNA interference. However, more than half of the specimens died approximately 8-12 h after injection of the respective double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs), and HE staining indicated that the heart and gills were the most likely tissues responsible for the resultant deaths. In the current study, we conducted a comparative transcriptomic study of the gills and hearts of M. nipponense to identify potential target genes associated with acute death after dsRNA injection. A total of 68,772 annotated unigenes were generated. In the heart, differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were mainly enriched in glycolysis/gluconeogenesis and oxidative phosphorylation, while the most relevant pathways in the gills were lysosome, phagosome, and peroxisome. Ten DEGs were screened out and analyzed under lethal hypoxic stress. Among these, fructose 1, 6-biphosphate-aldolase (FBA), glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GDPDH), alcohol dehydrogenase class-3 (ADC3), ATP-synthase subunit 9 (ATPS9), and acid ceramidase-like (ACL) were all differentially expressed under hypoxic conditions. This study shed light on the lethal mechanism caused by interference with tropomyosin genes in M. nipponense, and identifies the related pathways and key genes that could help to improve stress resistance and tolerance in M. nipponense.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cbd.2021.100802DOI Listing
February 2021

A chromosome-level genome assembly of the oriental river prawn, Macrobrachium nipponense.

Gigascience 2021 Jan;10(1)

Key Laboratory of Freshwater Fisheries and Germplasm Resources Utilization, Ministry of Agriculture, Freshwater Fisheries Research Center, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Wuxi 214081, China.

Background: The oriental river prawn, Macrobrachium nipponense, is an economically important shrimp in China. Male prawns have higher commercial value than females because the former grow faster and reach larger sizes. It is therefore important to reveal sex-differentiation and development mechanisms of the oriental river prawn to enable genetic improvement.

Results: We sequenced 293.3 Gb of raw Illumina short reads and 405.7 Gb of Pacific Biosciences long reads. The final whole-genome assembly of the Oriental river prawn was ∼4.5 Gb in size, with predictions of 44,086 protein-coding genes. A total of 49 chromosomes were determined, with an anchor ratio of 94.7% and a scaffold N50 of 86.8 Mb. A whole-genome duplication event was deduced to have happened 109.8 million years ago. By integration of genome and transcriptome data, 21 genes were predicted as sex-related candidate genes.

Conclusion: The first high-quality chromosome-level genome assembly of the oriental river prawn was obtained. These genomic data, along with transcriptome sequences, are essential for understanding sex-differentiation and development mechanisms in the oriental river prawn, as well as providing genetic resources for in-depth studies on developmental and evolutionary biology in arthropods.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/gigascience/giaa160DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7812440PMC
January 2021

EDock: blind protein-ligand docking by replica-exchange monte carlo simulation.

J Cheminform 2020 May 27;12(1):37. Epub 2020 May 27.

Department of Computational Medicine and Bioinformatics, University of Michigan, 100 Washtenaw Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI, 48109, USA.

Protein-ligand docking is an important approach for virtual screening and protein function annotation. Although many docking methods have been developed, most require a high-resolution crystal structure of the receptor and a user-specified binding site to start. This information is, however, not available for the majority of unknown proteins, including many pharmaceutically important targets. Developing blind docking methods without predefined binding sites and working with low-resolution receptor models from protein structure prediction is thus essential. In this manuscript, we propose a novel Monte Carlo based method, EDock, for blind protein-ligand docking. For a given protein, binding sites are first predicted by sequence-profile and substructure-based comparison searches with initial ligand poses generated by graph matching. Next, replica-exchange Monte Carlo (REMC) simulations are performed for ligand conformation refinement under the guidance of a physical force field coupled with binding-site distance constraints. The method was tested on two large-scale datasets containing 535 protein-ligand pairs. Without specifying binding pockets on the experimental receptor structures, EDock achieves on average a ligand RMSD of 2.03 Å, which compares favorably with state-of-the-art docking methods including DOCK6 (2.68 Å) and AutoDock Vina (3.92 Å). When starting with predicted models from I-TASSER, EDock still generates reasonable docking models, with a success rate 159% and 67% higher than DOCK6 and AutoDock Vina, respectively. Detailed data analyses show that the major advantage of EDock lies in reliable ligand binding site predictions and extensive REMC sampling, which allows for the implementation of multiple van der Waals weightings to accommodate different levels of steric clashes and cavity distortions and therefore enhances the robustness of low-resolution docking with predicted protein structures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13321-020-00440-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7251717PMC
May 2020

Fitting Low-Resolution Protein Structures into Cryo-EM Density Maps by Multiobjective Optimization of Global and Local Correlations.

J Phys Chem B 2021 01 5;125(2):528-538. Epub 2021 Jan 5.

Institute of Image Processing and Pattern Recognition, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, and Key Laboratory of System Control and Information Processing, Ministry of Education of China, Shanghai, China.

The rigid-body fitting of predicted structural models into cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) density maps is a necessary procedure for density map-guided protein structure determination and prediction. We proposed a novel multiobjective optimization protocol, MOFIT, which performs a rigid-body density-map fitting based on particle swarm optimization (PSO). MOFIT was tested on a large set of 292 nonhomologous single-domain proteins. Starting from structural models predicted by I-TASSER, MOFIT achieved an average coordinate root-mean-square deviation of 2.46 Å, which was 1.57, 2.79, and 3.95 Å lower than three leading single-objective function-based methods, where the differences were statistically significant with -values of 1.65 × 10, 6.36 × 10, and 6.44 × 10 calculated using two-tail Student's tests. Detailed analyses showed that the major advantages of MOFIT lie in the multiobjective protocol and the extensive PSO search simulations guided by the composite objective functions, which integrates complementary correlation coefficients from the global structure, local fragments, and individual residues with the cryo-EM density maps.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jpcb.0c09903DOI Listing
January 2021

Electroacupuncture at Zusanli (ST36) Repairs Interstitial Cells of Cajal and Upregulates c-Kit Expression in Rats with SCI-Induced Neurogenic Bowel Dysfunction.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2020 27;2020:8896123. Epub 2020 Nov 27.

Department of Pain and Musculoskeletal Rehabilitation, The Fifth Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Hebei, China.

Background: Electroacupuncture (EA) could improve colonic transit activity in rats with neurogenic bowel dysfunction (NBD) caused by spinal cord injury (SCI). The function of interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs) and c-Kit expression may play essential roles in this process. . Thirty-six Sprague Dawley rats were randomized to the sham group, the SCI group, or the SCI + EA group (bilateral Zusanli, 30 min/day, 14 days). Changes in the ultrastructural morphology of ICCs were observed. The c-Kit expression on different levels was analyzed by immunohistochemistry, Western blotting, and RT-qPCR, respectively.

Results: Abnormal morphology of ICCs and downregulation of the c-Kit expression occurred after SCI. While the number of ICCs was increased, the ultrastructural morphology was improved significantly in EA rats. They also showed better improvement in c-Kit expression at both protein and gene levels.

Conclusion: Abnormal ICCs in colon tissues and the downregulated expression of c-Kit could be observed after SCI. EA at Zusanli (ST36) could improve the colon function by repairing the morphology and increasing the number of ICCs and upregulating c-Kit expression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/8896123DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7718052PMC
November 2020

Three neuroparsin genes from oriental river prawn, , involved in ovary maturation.

3 Biotech 2020 Dec 17;10(12):537. Epub 2020 Nov 17.

Key Laboratory of Freshwater Fisheries and Germplasm Resources Utilization, Ministry of Agriculture, Freshwater Fisheries Research Center, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Wuxi, Jiangsu People's Republic of China.

In this study, we identified three neuroparsin (NP) genes in : Mn-NP1, Mn-NP2, and Mn-NP3, encoding 99, 100, and 101 amino acid proteins, respectively. Multiple sequence alignments showed that these genes contained 12 cysteine residues, of which 11 were at conserved positions. The total sequence identity between the genes was 47.5%, and they showed a high degree of sequence identity (> 54% similarity) with other crustacean genes. Phylogenetic tree analysis showed that Mn-NPs were clustered at different branches, indicating that Mn-NPs may have different functions. Tissue distribution data revealed that the three genes were present in males and females during the breeding and nonbreeding season, but their expression patterns differed. Mn-NP1 was highly expressed in the breeding season, in the male testis, and highly expressed in the nonbreeding season, in the female ovary. Mn-NP3 exhibited biased female expression in the breeding and nonbreeding season, with dominant expression in the ovary. All Mn-NPs were detected during embryo development, but with different expression patterns. These data indicated that Mn-NP1 may function during embryonic development, and that Mn-NP2 may be expressed during early embryo cell division, and late larval development. Mn-NP3 expression patterns reflected maternal inheritance, and may be associated with ovarian maturation. These expression data suggested that Mn-NP1 and Mn-NP2 are negatively correlated with ovarian development, with inhibition roles during this development. Mn-NP3 may be involved in vitellogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13205-020-02531-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7672152PMC
December 2020

Fermented milk containing Lactobacillus casei Zhang and Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis V9 alleviated constipation symptoms through regulation of intestinal microbiota, inflammation, and metabolic pathways.

J Dairy Sci 2020 Dec 23;103(12):11025-11038. Epub 2020 Oct 23.

Key Laboratory of Dairy Biotechnology and Engineering, Ministry of Education, Key Laboratory of Dairy Products Processing, Ministry of Agriculture, Inner Mongolia Agricultural University, Huhhot 010018, China. Electronic address:

Studies suggest that probiotics and fermented milk can improve defecation in constipated patients. However, the mechanism of fermented milk containing probiotics on constipation remains poorly understood. Volunteers with chronic constipation symptoms were recruited and given 200 g/d of fermented milk containing Lactobacillus casei Zhang and Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis V9 (PFM) for 4 wk. Clinical symptoms, cytokines, metagenomics, and metabolomics were evaluated in constipated participants before and after PFM intervention. After PFM intervention, we observed significant improvement of constipation symptoms. In the serum samples, the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 increased and the proinflammatory cytokine C-reactive protein and lipopolysaccharides decreased. Metagenomics results showed that the increase of B. animalis was correlated with an increase in defecation frequency. Fatty acid biosynthesis and bile acid biosynthesis in stool samples as well as carnitine shuttle, vitamin E metabolism, and ascorbate and aldarate metabolism were identified as significantly altered metabolic pathways. Acylcarnitine, located on the carnitine shuttle pathway, had a significantly positive correlation with defecation frequency. It was speculated that PFM may contribute to alleviating constipation symptoms through 3 potential mechanisms: fine-tuning gastrointestinal microbiota, fighting inflammation, and regulating metabolic pathways.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.2020-18639DOI Listing
December 2020

Molecular cloning, characterization and functional analysis of two neuropeptide F genes from the oriental river prawn (Macrobrachium nipponense).

Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol 2021 03 10;253:110844. Epub 2020 Nov 10.

Key Laboratory of Freshwater Fisheries and Germplasm Resources Utilization, Ministry of Agriculture, Freshwater Fisheries Research Center, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Wuxi, Jiangsu, People's Republic of China; Wuxi Fisheries College, Nanjing Agricultural University, Wuxi, Jiangsu, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

In invertebrates, neuropeptide F (NPF) has many regulatory functions, similar to NPY, its homologous peptide. In this study, two neuropeptide F genes were identified in Macrobrachium nipponense: Mn-NPF1 and Mn-NPF2. Mn-NPF2 shared the same amino acid sequence with Mn-NPF1, except for a 37 amino acid insert in the middle of the NPF region. The quantitative-PCR (qPCR) results indicated that Mn-NPF1 expression was positively correlated with ovarian maturation, whereas Mn-NPF2 had opposing expression patterns. Both Mn-NPFs were poorly expressed at early embryonic stages, but enhanced expression levels were observed up to day 10 after hatching, when the gonads began to differentiate. Ovary in situ hybridization (ISH) analyses showed that both Mn-NPFs were present at all stages, but were differentially localized to distinct compartments. Temperature gradient studies showed that both Mn-NPFs were implicated in the seasonal regulation of reproduction. A double-stranded (ds) RNA-Mn-NPF2 injection led to a significant 38.5% increase in the vitellogenin (VG) transcript (P < 0.05). These results demonstrated that Mn-NPF2 plays an important role in inhibiting ovarian maturation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cbpa.2020.110844DOI Listing
March 2021

Clinical, inflammatory and microbiological outcomes of full-mouth scaling with adjunctive glycine powder air-polishing: A randomized trial.

J Clin Periodontol 2021 Mar 21;48(3):389-399. Epub 2021 Jan 21.

Department of Periodontology, School and Hospital of Stomatology, Cheeloo College of Medicine, Shandong University & Shandong Key Laboratory of Oral Tissue Regeneration & Shandong Engineering Laboratory for Dental Materials and Oral Tissue Regeneration, Jinan, China.

Aim: To determine the effects of glycine powder air-polishing (GPAP) as an adjunct to full-mouth scaling and root planing (SRP) on clinical, inflammatory and microbiological outcomes in patients with untreated periodontitis.

Materials And Methods: Forty-one patients were randomly assigned to the control group A (SRP) and test groups B1 (subgingival GPAP right after SRP) and B2 (subgingival GPAP right before SRP). Clinical examinations and sample collections (saliva, subgingival plaque, serum and gingival crevicular fluid) were performed at assessment visits and before therapies at clinical visits of baseline, 6-week and 3-month. C-reactive protein, IL-6 and TNF-α were assessed in serum and gingival crevicular fluid, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and Fusobacterium nucleatum were measured in saliva and subgingival plaque.

Results: Patients in control and test groups did not significantly differ by age, sex and disease severity at baseline. Participants in control and intervention groups had similar improvements in clinical parameters (PD, BOP, PLI and BI). All groups had a similar percentage of sites showing PD reduction of ≥2 mm between baseline and follow-up visits, with a few exceptions. Reduced C-reactive protein, IL-6 and TNF-α in serum were found after treatments.

Conclusion: Full-mouth SRP with and without GPAP resulted in largely similar clinical, inflammatory and microbiological outcomes in the care of untreated periodontitis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jcpe.13400DOI Listing
March 2021

COVID-19 in China: Risk Factors and R Revisited.

Acta Trop 2021 Jan 22;213:105731. Epub 2020 Oct 22.

Department of Computer Science & Engineering, Bangladesh University of Engineering & Technology, West Palasi, Dhaka 1205, Bangladesh. Electronic address:

The COVID-19 epidemic spread rapidly through China and subsequently proliferated globally leading to a pandemic situation around the globe. Human-to-human transmission, as well as asymptomatic transmission of the infection, have been confirmed. As of April 03, 2020, public health crisis in China due to COVID-19 was potentially under control. We compiled a daily dataset of case counts, mortality, recovery, temperature, population density, and demographic information for each prefecture during the period of January 11 to April 07, 2020. Understanding the characteristics of spatial clustering of the COVID-19 epidemic and R is critical in effectively preventing and controlling the ongoing global pandemic. Considering this, the prefectures were grouped based on several relevant features using unsupervised machine learning techniques. Subsequently, we performed a computational analysis utilizing the reported cases in China to estimate the revised R among different regions. Finally, our overall research indicates that the impact of temperature and demographic factors on virus transmission may be characterized using a stochastic transmission model. Such predictions will help in prevention planning in an ongoing global pandemic, prioritizing segments of a given community/region for action and providing a visual aid in designing prevention strategies for a specific geographic region. Furthermore, revised estimation and our methodology will aid in improving the human health consequences of COVID-19 elsewhere.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actatropica.2020.105731DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7581355PMC
January 2021

Overexpression of enolase 2 is associated with worsened prognosis and increased glycikolysis in papillary renal cell carcinoma.

J Cell Physiol 2021 May 1;236(5):3821-3831. Epub 2020 Nov 1.

Department of Anesthesiology, Tongren Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Papillary renal cell carcinoma (pRCC) is characterized with underlying genetic disorders and the role enolase 2 (ENO2) in ccRCC is unknown. An in silico exploratory analysis using multiple public genetic datasets was used to establish association between ENO2 expression and clinicopathological parameters. Associations of interest were validated using 49 pRCC samples using immunohistochemistry. In vitro and in vivo assays were carried out to validate findings in tissue. ENO2 was overexpressed and prognostic in pRCC. ENO2 expression was significantly higher in younger patients and in CpG island methylator phenotype subtype. ENO2-overexpressed cases showed significant enrichment in glycolysis. Overexpression of ENO2 significantly increased proliferation and silencing of ENO2 significantly inhibited growth of ACHN cells. Glycolytic genes HK1, HK 2, and lactate dehydrogenase A were decreased when ENO2 was silenced in ACHN. Glycolytic inhibitor TT-232 showed minimal inhibitory effect on ACHN cells yet showed synergistic effect in the presence of ENO2 silencing. ENO2 significantly increased and decreased extracellular glucose, respectively in ACHN cells. Xenograft mouse model showed ENO2 silencing and TT-232 combination treatment showed synergistic effect in ACHN tumors. ENO2 is associated with worsened prognosis in pRCC and is related to glycolysis. ENO2-targeted therapy can be of therapeutic potential.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcp.30130DOI Listing
May 2021

The prevalence of fimA genotypes of Porphyromonas gingivalis in patients with chronic periodontitis: A meta-analysis.

PLoS One 2020 28;15(10):e0240251. Epub 2020 Oct 28.

Department of Clinical Laboratory, Qingdao Blood Center, Qingdao, Shandong, China.

FimA is an important virulence factor of Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis). According to its DNA sequence, the fimA genotype of P. gingivalis can be divided into six categories (I, Ib, Ⅱ, III, IV, V). The fimA gene may be a key factor in the diversity of virulence found in P. gingivalis. Moreover, the role fimA plays in the pathogenesis of P. gingivalis is closely associated with periodontitis, making it an important factor of study for disease prevention and treatment. In this study, the prevalence of fimA genotypes of P. gingivalis in patients with periodontal diseases was evaluated by meta-analysis. The Embase and PubMed databases were searched for articles from 1999 to 2019 using the following search terms: Porphyromonas gingivalis or P. gingivalis; periodontitis or chronic periodontal disease; fimA or fimA genotype. The reference lists of relevant published articles were searched manually. A total of 17 studies were included in this report. A statistical software package (Stata, version 11.0/mp, StataCorp) was utilized to calculate and analyze the P. gingivalis fimA genotypes for each combined incidence estimate. The pooled rates of fimA Ⅰ, fimA Ib, fimA Ⅱ, fimA Ⅲ, fimA Ⅳ and fimA Ⅴ genotypes of P. gingivalis were 8.4% (95% CI: 5.7-11.1), 11.7% (95% CI: 7.4-16), 42.9% (95% CI: 34.2-51.7), 6.5% (95% CI: 5.1-7.9), 17.8% (95% CI: 9.0-26.5), and 3.2% (95% CI: 1.6-4.9), respectively. This study showed that the fimA Ⅱ and fimA Ⅳ genotypes of P. gingivalis are highly present in patients with periodontal disease. Therefore, these two genotypes may be related to the pathogenesis and progress of periodontal disease, one of the main risk factors of periodontitis.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0240251PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7592798PMC
December 2020

Neuroprotection against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion by dietary phytochemical extracts from Tibetan turnip (Brassica rapa L.).

J Ethnopharmacol 2021 Jan 24;265:113410. Epub 2020 Sep 24.

Department of School of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, 214122, China. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: The Tibetan turnip (Brassica rapa L.) has a wide array of medicine properties including heat-clearing, detoxifying and anti-hypoxia as listed in the famous centuries-old Tibetan medicine classic "The Four Medical Tantras". Evidence-based medicine also indicated the anti-hypoxic effect of turnips, suggesting a potential link to neuroprotective effect on ischemic stroke. This thereby enables turnips to serve as a novel nontoxic agent in related treatment.

Aim Of The Study: This study aimed to investigate the neuroprotective effect and elucidate the mechanism of aqueous extract of turnip (AET) on cerebral ischemia/reperfusion.

Materials And Methods: The experimental models of cerebral ischemia included transient middle cerebral artery occlusion/reperfusion (MCAO) in C57BL/6J mice and oxygen-glucose deprivation/reoxygenation (OGD/R) in HT-22 cells. Long-term effect of AET on infarct volume was evaluated by microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2) immunofluorescence 28 days after MCAO, and on neurofunctional outcomes determined by rotarod, grid walking, and cylinder tests in the meantime. Efficacy of AET was determined by the cell viability, the release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in neurons. The underlying mechanism of AET rescued OGD/R cells were characterized by PI3K, Akt and mTOR expressions, which were further used to validate AET's role in the pathway.

Results: AET can reduce cerebral infarct volume and ameliorate behavioral deficits of MCAO/R mice dose-dependently. In vitro experiment further demonstrated that suitable concentrations of AET inhibited ROS, LDH production and restored mitochondrial expression induced by OGD/R. AET pretreatment can reverse the OGD/R-induced decreased level of phosphorylation of PI3K, Akt, mTOR, whereas this effect was blocked in the LY294002 (PI3K inhibitor) treatment group.

Conclusions: AET improved the survival of OGD/R-injured HT-22 cells by activating the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway. Based on the results above, aqueous extract of turnip has a protective effect on focal cerebral ischemic injury.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2020.113410DOI Listing
January 2021

Modulation of gut mucosal microbiota as a mechanism of probiotics-based adjunctive therapy for ulcerative colitis.

Microb Biotechnol 2020 11 23;13(6):2032-2043. Epub 2020 Sep 23.

Key Laboratory of Dairy Biotechnology and Engineering, Ministry of Education P. R. C., Key Laboratory of Dairy Products Processing, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs P. R. C., Inner Mongolia Agricultural University, Hohhot, 010018, China.

This was a pilot study aiming to evaluate the effects of probiotics as adjunctive treatment for ulcerative colitis (UC). Twenty-five active patients with UC were assigned to the probiotic (n = 12) and placebo (n = 13) groups. The probiotic group received mesalazine (60 mg kg  day ) and oral probiotics (containing Lactobacillus casei Zhang, Lactobacillus plantarum P-8 and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis V9) twice daily for 12 weeks, while the placebo group received the same amounts of mesalazine and placebo. The clinical outcomes were assessed. The gut mucosal microbiota was profiled by PacBio single-molecule, real-time (SMRT) sequencing of the full-length 16S rRNA of biopsy samples obtained by colonoscopy. A significantly greater magnitude of reduction was observed in the UC disease activity index (UCDAI) in the probiotic group compared with the placebo group (P = 0.043), accompanying by a higher remission rate (91.67% for probiotic-receivers versus 69.23% for placebo-receivers, P = 0.034). The probiotics could protect from diminishing of the microbiota diversity and richness. Moreover, the gut mucosal microbiota of the probiotic-receivers had significantly more beneficial bacteria like Eubacterium ramulus (P < 0.05), Pediococcus pentosaceus (P < 0.05), Bacteroides fragilis (P = 0.02) and Weissella cibaria (P = 0.04). Additionally, the relative abundances of the beneficial bacteria correlated significantly but negatively with the UCDAI score, suggesting that the probiotics might alleviate UC symptoms by modulating the gut mucosal microbiota. Our research has provided new insights into the mechanism of symptom alleviation in UC by applying probiotic-based adjunctive treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1751-7915.13661DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7533322PMC
November 2020

A maxillary center incisor with three independent roots and three root canals: A case report.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2020 Aug;99(33):e21761

Department of Endodontic, Qingdao Stomatological Hospital, Qingdao, China.

Rationale: Three root canals (mesiobuccal, distobuccal and palatal) are rarely found (frequency <1%) in the maxillary central incisor even though root canal morphology in maxillary premolars is highly variable. Therefore, research papers showed that dentists can easily miss the root canals in diagnosis and inflammatory diffusion; which could cause unsuccessful root canal treatment leading to various possible infections and no change in original inflammations. In this report, the diagnose and clinical management of an unusual case of a maxillary center incisor with three independent roots and three root canals is presented, along with a demonstration of using CBCT (Cone Beam Computed Tomography) and collaborate with other departments to successfully accomplish an accurate diagnosis of the morphology and quantity of the root canal system.

Patient Concerns: The patient was referred to clinic for his repeatedly abscessed in the gums of the left upper central incisor.

Diagnoses: Based on clinical and radiographic evidences, the patient was tentatively diagnosed with a chronic periapical periodontitis for #21 tooth.

Interventions: The patient was performed with the conventional root canal treatment and then clinical observed.

Outcomes: At the second visit after 7 days, the patient was not sensitive to percussion. After operation for 3 months, and found that the sinus opening had not healed. Then, the patient was undergone with the periodontal flap surgery to remove root infection for 2 weeks.

Lessons: From this clinical case, the lesson learned is that the previous clinical experiences cannot be used to make judgments or decisions; it requires specific analysis from the information gathered through CBCT(Cone Beam Computed Tomography)and the cooperation between different departments to come up with a responsible decision. In any stomatological hospitals, due to the large number of departments and the strong specialized focuses for each department; it is very important to encourage and support the cooperation between the departments, to limit any judgment bias due to lack of knowledge and maximize each department's strengths.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000021761DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7437805PMC
August 2020

Short communication: Modulation of fatty acid metabolism improves oxygen tolerance of Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis Probio-M8.

J Dairy Sci 2020 Oct 26;103(10):8791-8795. Epub 2020 Aug 26.

Key Laboratory of Dairy Biotechnology and Engineering, Ministry of Education, Key Laboratory of Dairy Products Processing, Ministry of Agriculture, Inner Mongolia Agricultural University, Huhhot 010018, China. Electronic address:

Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis Probio-M8 is a potential probiotic strain that was isolated from human milk. Previously, we obtained an oxygen-resistant variant (Probio-M8o) of Probio-M8 by an adaptive evolution strategy. In the present study, a comparative transcriptomic analysis of Probio-M8o and Probio-M8 was carried out to reveal the cellular mechanism of the oxygen-resistant phenotype. Using RNA-seq, 210 and 217 differentially expressed genes were identified in Probio-M8o compared with Probio-M8 after oxygen exposure for 30 and 60 min, respectively. The oxygen treatment upregulated a set of genes that encoded proteins responsible for fatty acid biosynthesis. This observation was in good agreement with the composition change in fatty acids at the biochemical level. Our study showed that the oxygen-resistant phenotype could be related to adaptation of fatty acid metabolism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.2019-18049DOI Listing
October 2020

Temperature dependent reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(V) aroused by CaO during thermal treatment of solid waste containing Cr(VI).

Chemosphere 2021 Jan 11;262:127924. Epub 2020 Aug 11.

School of Environmental and Safety Engineering, Changzhou University, Changzhou, 213164, PR China.

Cr(VI) compounds at high temperature usually tend to decompose and reduce into Cr(III) due to thermodynamically instability for Cr(VI). This study found Cr(VI) could be reduced into Cr(V) instead of Cr(III) in the presence of CaO during heating solid waste containing Cr(VI). CaCrO is prepared and mixed with CaO as simulated solid waste containing Cr(VI). It was found that CaCrO reacted with CaO and formed a new product Ca(CrO)O at temperature range of 800 and 1000 °C. The valence state of Cr in Ca(CrO)O is determined to be +5 b y XPS analysis, and the color for new formed Cr(V) is observed in green, similar to Cr(III) compounds. The temperature and CaO are two keys to arouse the reduction reaction of Cr(VI) into Cr(V). In particular, the reduction of Cr(VI) into Cr(V) is strongly depended on temperature (800-1000 °C), this reaction can be balanced within 10 min, while prolonging sintering time has little help for promoting the reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(V). Additionally, it was found Cr(V) can keep stable and not be re-oxidized into Cr(VI) at 800-1000 °C. Above results offers some new understanding and knowledge about the formation of Cr(V) in presence of much CaO or CaCO during heating solid waste containing Cr(VI).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2020.127924DOI Listing
January 2021

Discovery of sandwich type COVID-19 nucleocapsid protein DNA aptamers.

Chem Commun (Camb) 2020 Sep 5;56(70):10235-10238. Epub 2020 Aug 5.

State Key Laboratory of Medicinal Chemical Biology, College of Life Science, Nankai University, Tianjin, 300350, P. R. China.

Here, we report for the first time DNA aptamers targeted toward the COVID-19 nucleocapsid protein (Np). Np is one of the most abundant structural proteins and it serves as a diagnostic marker for the accurate and sensitive detection of COVID-19. After five rounds of selection, we obtained four DNA sequences with an affinity below 5 nM. The best one displayed a superb binding performance toward Np with a K value of 0.49 nM. Interestingly, we found that the four pairs of aptamers could bind to Np successively, suggesting a sandwich-type interaction. Using these sandwiched aptamers in ELISA and colloidal gold immunochromatographic strips, we were able to detect Np at the tens of pM level. The results demonstrate that aptamers are powerful molecular tools for virus detection, diagnosis, and antiviral therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0cc03993dDOI Listing
September 2020

Effects of sacral nerve electrical stimulation on 5‑HT and 5‑HT3AR/5‑HT4R levels in the colon and sacral cord of acute spinal cord injury rat models.

Mol Med Rep 2020 Aug 15;22(2):763-773. Epub 2020 May 15.

Department of Spine Surgery, Honghui Hospital, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710054, P.R. China.

Spinal cord injury (SCI) often leads to defecation dysfunction. Sacral nerve electrical stimulation (SNS) therapy could improve defecation function. The present study aimed to assess SNS therapy, with regard to the levels of serotonin (5‑HT) and its receptors (5‑HT3AR and 5‑HT4R) in the colon and sacral cord, a rat model of acute severe SCI was used. This rat model was made using the New York University Impactor device. Model rats were randomized to the SCI and SNS (electrical stimulation on the S3 nerve) groups. After 14 days of treatment, enteric transmission function was assessed. 5‑HT and 5‑HT3AR/5‑HT4R were measured by ELISA, quantitative PCR, immunohistochemistry and western blotting. In SCI rats, SNS significantly increased the quantity of feces, shortened the time to the first fecal passage, and improved fecal texture and colon histology. SNS elevated 5‑HT contents in the colon and spinal cord, and enhanced 5‑HT3AR/5‑HT4R protein expression and distribution in the colonic myenteric plexus and mucosa, sacral intermediolateral nucleus and dorsal horn. SNS upregulated the relative expression levels of 5‑HT3AR/5‑HT4R mRNA and protein in the colon and spinal cord. SNS can improve defecation and accelerate the recovery of colonic transmission functions in rat models of acute SCI. These effects involved upregulation of the 5‑HT/5‑HT3AR/5‑HT4R axes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/mmr.2020.11148DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7339713PMC
August 2020

Attributable risks associated with hospital outpatient visits for mental disorders due to air pollution: A multi-city study in China.

Environ Int 2020 10 30;143:105906. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, School of Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

Aim: To determine the associations between outdoor air pollution and hospital outpatient visits for mental disorders in China.

Methods: We obtained data of 111,842 hospital outpatient visits for mental disorders from the largest hospitals of 13 cities, China, between January 01, 2013 and December 31, 2015. We collected air pollutant data including particulate matter ≤2.5 µm in diameter (PM), particulate matter ≤10 µm in diameter (PM), nitrogen dioxide (NO), ozone (O) and sulphur dioxide (SO) from China National Environmental Monitoring Centre during the same period. We conducted a time-stratified case-crossover design with conditional logistic regression models to determine the associations.

Results: A 10 µg/m increase in PM, PM, NO and SO was associated with a significant increase in hospital outpatient visits for mental disorders on the current day. When stratified by age, sex and season, the effects of PM and NO were robust among different subgroups at lag05 days. PM showed positive associations in males, in cold season, and in depression patients. SO showed positive associations in males, in cold season, and in anxiety patients. O showed positive associations in females, in warm season, and in depression patients. Nearly one sixth hospital outpatient visits for mental disorders can be attributable to NO.

Conclusions: Short-term increase in PM, PM, NO, SO and O concentrations was significantly associated with exacerbation of mental disorders in China as indicated by increases in hospital outpatient visits. NO had more serious health threat than other pollutants in terms of mental disorders. Our findings strongly suggest a need for more strict emission control regulations to protect mental health from air pollution.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2020.105906DOI Listing
October 2020

Geographical variation in the risk of H7N9 human infections in China: implications for risk-based surveillance.

Sci Rep 2020 06 25;10(1):10372. Epub 2020 Jun 25.

School of Veterinary Science, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia.

The influenza A (H7N9) subtype remains a public health problem in China affecting individuals in contact with live poultry, particularly at live bird markets. Despite enhanced surveillance and biosecurity at LBMs H7N9 viruses are now more widespread in China. This study aims to quantify the temporal relationship between poultry surveillance results and the onset of human H7N9 infections during 2013-2017 and to estimate risk factors associated with geographical risk of H7N9 human infections in counties in Southeast China. Our results suggest that poultry surveillance data can potentially be used as early warning indicators for human H7N9 notifications. Furthermore, we found that human H7N9 incidence at county-level was significantly associated with the presence of wholesale LBMs, the density of retail LBMs, the presence of poultry virological positives, poultry movements from high-risk areas, as well as chicken population density and human population density. The results of this study can influence the current AI H7N9 control program by supporting the integration of poultry surveillance data with human H7N9 notifications as an early warning of the timing and areas at risk for human infection. The findings also highlight areas in China where monitoring of poultry movement and poultry infections could be prioritized.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-66359-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7316858PMC
June 2020

Torularhodin from Attenuates d-galactose/AlCl-Induced Cognitive Impairment, Oxidative Stress, and Neuroinflammation via the Nrf2/NF-κB Pathway.

J Agric Food Chem 2020 Jun 8;68(24):6604-6614. Epub 2020 Jun 8.

State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, 1800 Lihu Avenue, Wuxi 214122, P.R. China.

Oxidative stress and neuroinflammation are considered as crucial culprits in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Torularhodin, a carotenoid pigment, possesses powerful antioxidant activity. This study aimed to elucidate the protective effects of torularhodin in the AD-like mouse model and investigated the underlying mechanisms. Behavioral and histopathological results suggested that torularhodin relieved cognitive impairments, attenuated Aβ accumulation, and inhibited glial overactivation in d-gal/AlCl-induced ICR mice. Simultaneously, torularhodin also markedly increased antioxidant enzyme capacities, lowered the contents of RAGE, and reduced levels of inflammatory cytokines. Western blot results showed that torularhodin ameliorated neuronal oxidative damage via activation of Nrf2 translocation, upregulation of HO-1, and inactivation of NF-κB in vivo and in vitro. Thus, torularhodin effectively ameliorated cognitive impairment, oxidative stress, and neuroinflammation, possibly through the Nrf2/NF-κB signaling pathways, suggesting torularhodin might offer a promising prevention strategy for neurodegenerative diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.0c01892DOI Listing
June 2020

Quantifying the risk of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) attributable to meteorological factors in East China: A time series modelling study.

Sci Total Environ 2020 Aug 19;728:138548. Epub 2020 Apr 19.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Fudan University, 138 Yixueyuan Rd, Xuhui District, Shanghai, China; Key Laboratory of Public Health Safety, Ministry of Education, 138 Yixueyuan Rd, Xuhui District, Shanghai, China. Electronic address:

Background: Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is a widespread infectious disease in China. Associated meteorological factors have been widely studied, but their attributable risks have not been well quantified.

Objectives: The study aimed to quantify the HFMD burden attributable to temperature and other meteorological factors.

Methods: The daily counts of HFMD and meteorological factors in all 574 counties of East China were obtained for the period from 2009 to 2015. The exposure-lag-response relationships between meteorological factors and HFMD were quantified by using a distributed lag non-linear model for each county and the estimates from all the counties were then pooled using a multivariate mete-regression model. Attributable risks were estimated for meteorological variables according to the exposure-lag-response relationships obtained before.

Results: The study included 4,058,702 HFMD cases. Non-optimal values of meteorological factors were attributable to approximately one third of all HFMD cases, and the attributable numbers of non-optimal ambient temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and sunshine hours were 815,942 (95% CI: 796,361-835,888), 291,759 (95% CI: 226,183-358,494), 92,060 (95% CI: 59,655-124,738) and 62,948 (95% CI: 20,621-105,773), respectively. The exposure-response relationship between temperature and HFMD was non-linear with an approximate "M" shape. High temperature had a greater influence on HFMD than low temperature did. There was a geographical heterogeneity related to water body, and more cases occurred in days with moderate high and low temperatures than in days with extreme temperature. The effects of meteorological factors on HFMD were generally consistent across subgroups.

Conclusions: Non-optimal temperature is the leading risk factor of HFMD in East China, and moderate hot and moderate cold days had the highest risk. Developing subgroup-targeted and region-specific programs may minimize the adverse consequences of non-optimum weather on HFMD risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.138548DOI Listing
August 2020

Spatial distribution of leptospirosis incidence in the Upper Yangtze and Pearl River Basin, China: Tools to support intervention and elimination.

Sci Total Environ 2020 Jul 1;725:138251. Epub 2020 Apr 1.

School of Veterinary Science, The University of Queensland, Gatton, Queensland 4343, Australia; Children's Health and Environment Program, Child Health Research Centre, The University of Queensland, South Brisbane, QLD 4101, Australia. Electronic address:

Background: Since 2011 human leptospirosis incidence in China has remained steadily low with persistent pockets of notifications reported in communities within the Upper Yangtze River Basin (UYRB) and Pearl River Basin (PRB). To help guide health authorities within these residual areas to identify communities where interventions should be targeted, this study quantified the local effect of socioeconomic and environmental factors on the spatial distribution of leptospirosis incidence and developed predictive maps of leptospirosis incidence for UYRB and PRB.

Methods: Data on all human leptospirosis cases reported during 2005-2016 across the UYRB and PRB regions were geolocated at the county-level and included in the analysis. Bayesian conditional autoregressive (CAR) models with zero-inflated Poisson link for leptospirosis incidence were developed after adjustment of environmental and socioeconomic factors such as precipitation, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), modified normalized difference water index (MNDWI), land surface temperature (LST), elevation, slope, land cover, crop production, livestock density, gross domestic product and population density.

Results: The relationship of environmental and socioeconomic variables with human leptospirosis incidence varied between both regions. While across UYRB incidence of human leptospirosis was associated with MNDWI and elevation, in PRB human leptospirosis incidence was significantly associated with NDVI, livestock density and land cover. Precipitation was significantly and positively associated with the spatial variation of incidence of leptospirosis in both regions. After accounting for the effect of environmental and socioeconomic factors, the predicted distribution of residual high-incidence county is potentially more widespread both in the UYRB and PRB compared to the observed distribution. In the UYRB, the highest predicted incidence was found along the border of Chongqing and Guizhou towards Sichuan basin and northwest Yunnan. The highest predicted incidence was also identified in counties in the central and lower reaches of the PRB.

Conclusions: This study demonstrated significant geographical heterogeneity in leptospirosis incidence within UYRB and PRB, providing an evidence base for prioritising targeted interventions in counties identified with the highest predicted incidence. Furthermore, environmental drivers of leptospirosis incidence were highly specific to each of the regions, emphasizing the importance of localized control measures. The findings also suggested the need to expand interventional coverage and to support surveillance and diagnostic capacity on the predicted high-risk areas.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.138251DOI Listing
July 2020